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THE EFFECTS OF GAMING IN FACILITATING FAVOURBALE LEARNING

OUTCOMES IN MATHEMATICS
(A CASE STUDY OF ABEOKUTA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT)

BY

OJETOLA OLUWATOSIN A.
FCE/ABK/13/1754
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS,
SCHOOL OF SCIENCES, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ABEOKUTA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF


NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION (N.C.E)

PROJECT SUPERVISOR:
MRS O.V. ADEAGA

NOVEMBER, 2016.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to ascertain The Effects of Gaming in Facilitating Favorable
learning outcomes in Mathematics in two selected primary schools (public and private) in
Abeokuta South Local Government. Sample and Sampling techniques was used in selecting four
primary school. Five (5) research question were raised and answered 5 Null hypothesis were
formulated and tested with the Chi square statistics at 0.005 level of significance. The result of
the findings showed that there is significant difference between the mathematics performance of
pupils taught mathematics using games and those taught using the traditional paper and pencils
drills. The descriptive survey design was utilized in this study, the research instrument used was
questionnaire and were used for data collection.
Based on this finding, it was recommended among others that teachers should be empowered to
use games and stimulation in teaching mathematics in our primary schools.

CERTIFICATION
This research project was carried out by OJETOLA OLUWATOSIN AYINKE
FCE/AB/13/1754 of the Department of Mathematics Federal College of Education Osiele,
Abeokuta, Ogun State. It has been read and approved for meeting the requirement of the award
of the Nigeria Certification in Education (NCE).
Signed and Approved by

_____________________
Project Supervisor

_____________________
Head of Department

_______________________
Date

_______________________
Date

DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to the glory of Almighty God, the giver of wisdom, knowledge
and understanding without Him, I would have not been able to go unto this research project and
who in this infinity mercy gave me the grace to complete my NCE programme successfully.
It is as well dedicated to my Mother Mrs A. OJETOLA who preserved to finance my
NCE education. May you live long and reap the fruit of your labour on me. Amen.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I appreciate Yahweh for his kindness and provisions for my financial needs and infinite
mercy throughout my course of study, I say blessed be your holy name.
Appreciation also goes to my supervisor Mrs. V.O. Adeaga for her assistance and advice
during my project work, and all the lecturer in the mathematics department. I pray that you shall
all live long to eat the fruit your labour.
My appreciation also goes to my mother for her effort over me through the success of my
NCE financially, and her advice and also my brothers I pray that God will reward you and
provide for all your needs in Jesus Christ name Amen.
I owe a lot of gratitude and appreciation for Rev. Dr. Olayiwola Mercy for his financial,
physical and spiritual support in the course of NCE education, I pray that the spirit of the lord
and his infinite mercy will not depart from you and your family Amen.
Also to be quickly remember the entire Sowunmis Family and all Trustees, Overseers,
Deacon and Deaconess in Divine universal churches of Christ Int for their fatherly and motherly
support both financially and spiritually, I pray that Yahweh in his infinity mercy will reward you
and take you to higher place in Jesus Christ name Amen.
Mension should also be made to my mentor Eng. Pastor Ayobami Adeago and Engr.
Kolawole Adenekan who has also contributed to the success of my NCE, I pray Yahweh will
bless you Amen.
I will not also forget all my friend, a friend like Sister Soneye Christanah, Adesoga
Joshua who work hand in hand with me to write this project. Famuyiwa Micheal, Yusuf
Adewale, Oluyomi Jacob, Mawunyan Iyanu, Damilare and others, and also my roommate
Moshood Rukayat, I pray the lord will be with you all in all your endeavor in life.
Finally, before I drop my pen I also owe a gratitude to my amiable, mutual friend a
person of Olabode Temitope Seun for his financial support I pray that the Lord Almighty will
supply for all your needs according to his glorious riches in Christ. Amen.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Page
Title page

Abstract

ii

Certification

iii

Dedication

iv

Acknowledgement

Table of content

vi

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of the Study

1.2

Statement of The Problem

1.3

Research Question

1.4

Research Hypotheses Ho

1.5

Scope of the Study

1.6

Limitation of the Study

1.7

Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1

Conceptual Review

2.2

Theoretical Review

2.3

Empirical Review

CHAPTER THREE
3.0

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

Research Design

3.2

Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.3

Research Instrument

3.4

Method of Data Collection

3.5

Reliability and Validity of Instrument

3.6

Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1

Presentation of Data

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1

Summary

5.2

Conclusion

5.3

Recommendations

REFERENCES
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of the Study


Mathematics as a subject affects all aspect of human life at different levels. The social

economics, political, geographical, scientific and technological aspects of man is centered on


numbers. Disciplines where numbers are predominate and form integral part of mathematics
include statistics, accounts, arithmetics, engineering and others. For example the contest
civilization of mankind came through mathematical manipulations.
The word Mathematics is a Greek Word meaning things that are learn Madu C.I (2003)
According to Majasa (2005) further defined it as science of county, measuring and describing of
shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculation. Mathematics as a
school subject is recognized as the foundation of science and technology without which a nation
will never become prosperous and economically independent. This under scores the importance
of mathematics competence of all the learner at all level of education and a reason for making
mathematics competence of all the learner at all level of education and a reason for making
mathematics compulsory and one of the leading important subject in primary schools curriculum.
This important ascended he recognition of the vital role it plays in contemporary society despite
the effort put in by the government, and various stake holders of education, mathematics still
remained one of the most dreaded subject in schools Awokoya (1975)
According to Ashwerth (2000) it is very necessary for a person to have knowledge of
arithmetic in order to live as a useful and affection member of the society for instance, he equally
submitted that it is necessary for a farmer to have knowledge of mathematics in the area of
measuring. Scaling length, breath and pricing of goods in the marketing this require simple
mathematics.
Mathematics is seen as the language used to described the problem arising in most
branches of science and technology. It is a subject increase like number and numeration,
variation, graphs, fraction, logarithm and indices, algebraic processes, solution of equation and
also in area and volume inspite of its importance. According to Enemalo (1986) in Nwogu (1990)

articulated the fact the inherent newton had by many Africans that mathematics is a very
difficult subject which is capable of making one (Mad) is at the centre of the phobia which pupils
exhibits for mathematics and which had claimed consalities over the years.
One man reason for pupils negative attitude towards mathematics gaming is that they
usually find mathematics game in traditional school settings to be boring. This is a challenge
because research has indicated that pupils attitudes towards learning, especially in subjects such
as science, mathematics and technology is related to factors that include teachers instructional
strategies in the classroom. (Adesoji: 2008 popoola 2002, Udousoro 2000). Mathematics gaming
at school is often perceived by pupils to be disconnected from their daily life experience and
such information is often abstract and difficult for there to understand (Foster 2008). As a result,
pupils often lack the motivation to learn mathematics and do not see the value and importance of
mathematics games. In this conext, affective and innovative instructional approaches to
mathematics game learning have been called for in order to develop positive attitudes towards
mathematics in pupils, in hopes that thus will lead to enhanced academic achievement in
mathematics.
Research in game-based learning has been conduction extensively to examine how
mathematics game may exchange pupils motivation, engagement and learning. There has also
been increasing interest among researches in examining pupils game-based learning experience
from a game theory perspective (Sikszentmihalys). The strength of game theory is especially
valuable considering that mathematics game design and testing is still in its infancy and there
remains a lack of empirical literature on how to create game environments that are both engaging
and effective for pupils. As a result, examing pupils playing experience and perceptions using
game theory will contribute to the design and evaluation process of mathematics game.
Nevertheless, empirical studies on pupils game theory are still limited and the results are
not always positive, thus, mere empirical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of
mathematics games in facilitating pupils learning experience and outcomes motivated by this
rationale, the aim of thus study is to provide insight into pupils learning experience and how it
impacts mathematics teaching and learning.

1.2

Statement of the Problem


The primary intent of this study was to investigate on the effect of Gaming in Facilitating

favourable learning outcomes in maths, which is comprised of flow antecedents, flow state and
flow consequences i.e mathematics game. In the game, pupils interact with different in game
character such as the dice, captain and the cartographic, each of whom give them a series of
quests and tasks to finish e.g. chart. The researcher also find that pupils find it difficult in the
school, likewise pupils find it difficult to understood the game oven their teachers because they
cannot provide instructional materials that goes along mathematics game.

1.3

Research Questions
The following research question are put forward for investigation
i)
ii)

What extent do you like or prefer mathematics game?


What help do mathematics game render to you in the aspect of study/learning

iii)
iv)
v)

mathematics?
Does mathematics game discourage you from learning mathematics?
How can you relate mathematics games with your mode of study of mathematics?
Does mathematics game have impact in technology and learning of mathematics?

1.4

Research Hypotheses Ho

i)

There is no significant difference between higher cognitive gains using gaming compared
with the traditional teaching methods without using games.

ii)

There is no significant difference between the mathematics performance of pupils taught


mathematics using games and those taught using the traditional paper and pencils drills.

iii)

There is no significant difference in the achievement of pupils exposed to social

interaction
iv)
attitude

in technological environment e.g. digital game and the traditional setting

There is no significant difference in the performance of pupils with respect to their


to technology between pupils taught with games and these taught with traditional

v)

There is significant difference between positive change expected in pupils learning


achievement when taught with games and non games playing groups.

1.5

Scope of the study


This research was carried out using two private primary schools and tow public primary
schools within Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State.

1.6

Limitation of the study


The study was limited to primary school level (Private and government schools) in

Abeokuta South Local Government.


1.7

Operational Definition of Terms


Mathematics: It is defined as the science of counting, measuring and describing of the

shape of objects. Its deals with logical reasoning and quantitative Calculation. Mathematics as a
school subject is recongnized as the foundation of science and technology without which a nation
will never because prosperous and economically independent.
Effect: A particular look, sound, or impression that somebody, such as a writer want to create.
Garve: An activity or a sport with rule in which people a terms compete against each other. The
in which somebody plays a game.
Facilitate: To make an action or process possible or easier.
Favorable: Making people have a good opinions of something.
Learning: Knownledge that you get from reading and studying or the process of learning
something
Outcomes: The result or effect of an action or even.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

This Chapter will discuss the review of related literature under the following heading:Conceptual Review
Theoretical Review
Empirical Review
2.1

CONCEPTUAL REVIEW
Game is used to describe the action, reaction and strategy of players in a closed

environment e.g. a bolding for a telecom environment or market competition. It also used to
described interactions between agents who want to optimize their utilization or profit etc.
anything that is required to achieve their goals. As such a lot of (Mathematical) theory has been
developed (Especially over the last decades) in order to explain economic behavior.
Games are also used as models for reality in order to simulate/verify strategic decisions.
War games are as old as civilization, whereas real-life generals have fought wars on a table tops
in order to analyse their strong and weak point in order to sharpen real life strategy (I dont want
to state that real life wars is gave but according to the definition, it actually with the remark
that games are just models / representation of really). Games are also used more and more in
assessment trainings as part of applications in order to gain insight in the behavior of people in
simulated ( but controlled) situation. As such games can also be seen as an escape from real life
(e.g role playing). A given is a (safe) was to experience facts of reality and to learn from it. The
educational aspect of a game is not to be underestimated same game are actually designed to
sharpen your brain.
2.1.1

Characteristics of a Game

Closed environment with formal and unambiguous rules and goals.

In general a model of a sub-set of reality

In general interaction between players

As a rule, a safe and no one get hurt (neither physical or mentally or financial)

A game sets goals for player to achieve

The basic principle of a game is that is a Closed environment, everything that can
happen most be captured by the rules and the game has clearly its boundaries. The rules are clear
and unambiguous one other thing, the game should be available, otherwise it would be more like
puzzle
Mathematics is the science that deals with the logical of shape, quantity and arrangement.
Mathematics in seen as the language used to describe the problems arising in most branches of
science and technology. Mathematics is all around us, in everything we don. It is the building
block for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, architecture (Ancient and
Modern), art, money, engineering and even sport. Mathematics discovery has been at the
forefront of every civilizsed society and in use in even the most primitive of cultures. The needs
of mathematics arose based on the wants of society. The more complex a society, the more
complex the mathematical needs.
2.1.2

Mathematical Concept
A mathematical concept is a general idea behind an equation, problem or formular in

math. In contrast to mathematics fact, which must be committed to memory, a mathematics


concept explains why math works in a certain way. Pupils who understand mathematical
concepts advances to a higher level of learning involving abstract thinking. Understanding
mathematics concepts after negates the need to memorize answers to problems. Mathematics use
abstract thinking to formulate new theories, which they test by mathematical proof.
Mathematical practices such as counting and measurement developed from initial abstraction and
logical thinking. Mathematics arises from thinking abstract, about many kinds of practical
problems in disciplines such as architecture astronomy and business.
2.2

THEORETICAL REVIEW
Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on

mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment
of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior.
Mathematical psychological theory often uses statistical optimality as a guiding principle,
assuring that the human brain has evolved to solve problems in an optimized way.

2.2.1

Advantages of Using Gaming in Mathematics


The author B. Davice, says that game

Create meaningful situation for the application of mathematical skills

Create positive motivation for children and on atmosphere in which they want to
participate sometimes unknown in mathematics skills and position themselves positively
towards mathematics skills.

Provide a positive attitude through the opportunity, for building self-concept and
developing positive attitude towards mathematics

Increase learning ability

Offer different level at which children can operate and function, triggereny different level
of thinking which will cause a greater effect of learning from each other.

Provide heres and trusty interactive tasks for both school and home activities

Create at atmosphere of independence as children work independently of the teacher. The


rules of the game and the children motivation usually keep them on task and require with
supervision.

2.2.2

Supporting Mathematics Learning


It is important as teacher that we justify the instructional choice that we make in the

classroom to that end, I offer you my rational for using games to help teach mathematics, not
only to convince you of the worth of games but also to help you communicate with your pupils
and their families about how game support mathematics teaching is beneficial for
-

Providing pupils practice with skills

Giving pupils ways to apply mathematical idea to problem-solving. Situation and develop
strategies thinking, important aspects of mathematics thinking

Building pupils interest in and appreciation for mathematics by engaging them in


enjoyable activities and challenges

Supporting the idea that learning can be as fun as possible

Creating a class menu of choice activities that are educationally variable and provide
options for those pupils who complete assignment more quickly that others.
Game we play can be categorized into game as chance, game of strategy and game that

rely on both chance and strategy. While I have used game in all three categories, I have had most
success with game that both involves element of luck and also call for strategies thinking.
Maryann Wickette introduce the game to her class by playing with one for her pupils,
Ben. After Maryann fourth turn score was 240. Ben was now ready for his foruth turn, after three
rool he had a score of 100.
2.2.3

Game play and General learning Outcomes


Vanskicle reported that pupils demonstrated a slight improvement in learning and

increasing a slight improvement in learning and increasing positive attitude towards learning
certain subjects, as a result of using instructional games in the classroom in comparison to
learning via traditional teaching , method. Similarly, in a literature review based on 32 empirical
studies vogel et al (2012) reported that interactive game were more effective than traditional
method classroom instruction on learners academic learning games and cognitive skill
development. Hays et al (2011) found no evidence to support the claim that instructional game
were a more effective method of teaching than traditional method of instructional in terms of
positive outcomes on pupils learning
Through (Inflicting findings have been reported regarding the effectiveness of game play
on enhancing learning in educational contexts, it is important to note that several, individual
studies have in fact reported the gameplay can result in improved academic learning achievement
in pupils e.g between 6-11 years. The reported that parent of the pupils who played the games not
only reported improvement in school work, but also in other area such as increased interest in
literature and an increased patience with daily task in comparison to pupils in a control group.
Spires and Colleague also reported game based learning gains, specifically, that middle
school pupils who selected a higher proportion of appropriate hypothesis demonstrated greater
learning gain.

2.2.4

Theory of Learning Mathematics

Zoltan Dienes
-

Most people, when confronted with a situation which they are not sure has to handle, will
engage in what is usually described as trial and error activity what they are doing is to
freely interact with the situation presented to them. In trying to solve a puzzle, most
people will randomly try this and that the other until same from or regularity in the
situation begin to emerge, after which a more systematic problem.

After some free experimenting, it usually happens that regularities appear in the situation,
which can be formulated as Rules of a Game Once it is realized that interesting
activities can be bought into play by means of rules, it is a small step towards inventing
the rules in order to creak a Garve Every game has serve rules, which need to be
observed in order to pass from a starting state of things to the end of the game, which is
determined by certain conditions being satisfied.

Once we have get children to play a number of mathematical games there comes a
moment when each other. It is good to teach several games with very similar rule
structure, but using different materials, so that it showed become apparent that there is a
common core to a number of different looking games, which can later be identified as the
mathematical content of those games that are similar to each other in structure.

2.3

EMPIRICAL REVIEW
According to De-bell and Chapman (2006) pupil of nursery and primary school ages in

Nigeria and abroad 56% of pupils played mathematics or compute game. Along with the
popularity among pupils, computer game have received a lot of attention from education as a
potential way to provide learners with effective and fun learning environment (Oblinger 2006).
Gee 2005) agreed that a game is built to incorporate learning principle. Some researches have
also supported the potential of game for affective domains of learning and fostering a positive
attitude towards learning (Ke, 2007)

2.3.1

Positive effect of Educational Game on the motivation of pupils


Despite the overall support for the idea that game have a positive, affect on affective

results regarding the role of game in promoting cognitive gains and academics achievement. In
the meta-analysis, Nagel et al (2006) examined 32 empirical studies and concluded that the
inclusion of games for pupils learning resulted in significant, higher cognitive game compared
with the traditional teaching method without games. Similarity, Anaetta et al (2009) tested the
effects of educational mathematics game by incorporating them into primary schools
mathematics class and found significantly positive result in the pupils of cooperative game
playing and non-game playing groups. The researchers observed significantly higher
improvement in mathematics performance in mathematics game playing group and compared
with non-game playing group.
However, other studies have not shown the same positive effects of games. By
controlling important contextual variable such as socio economics status (SES), gender and prior
mathematics achievement (KE 2007) tested the effect of educational mathematics game
compared with traditional paper and pencil driller. He did not find a significant effect on game in
the mathematics achievements of 487.5th graders.
In another study (Ke 2007) recruited primary school pupils to play educational
mathematics computer games during the similar mathematics camp and measured their
mathematics ability at the onset of the program. At the post-test, the author found no significant
effect of computer game on mathematics achievement.
Past literature also indicated that game play are same of the best approaches for learning
Harel and Papert 2004) Kafal 2001). However, contemporary social, and educational discourse
regard human learning only to be achieved through non playful process as the public has
associated gaming knowledge with hand labour. In contract to the dominate belief the learning is
done through great effort and persistence play of a learning process.
In a recent study (Parts et al 2011) created a teachable agent arithmetic game that aims in
training basic arithmetic skills. The game was evaluated in a study with 153 participants,
consisting of primary school pupils. The result indicated that the game helped pupils to improve
in their mathematics performance and self-efficiency belief.

Ahmad and Lecth (2010) describes the development of an educational mathematics game
on fractions for primary schools pupils. Similarly (Lee 2009) report on the creation and
evaluation of an educational game on fractions and mention that it improve pupils understanding
and performance.
According to Prerisky (2001), learning require extra effort, to do this pupils learn
something when they are motivating, they give their time as well as their effort. They have the
desire to use what their have learned in future (Malona 2008). Therefore, teachers should
motivate and encourage want their students/pupils to learn. This could be achieved through the
use of mathematics game since they encompass many characteristics that makes them valuable
find for the educational process. More specifically, mathematics games promote actors learning
(Oblinger 2006) and the development of various skills MC Forlane; Sparrowhouck and Herald
2002) while they retain their entertainment and appealing qualities (Kafai 2001).
2.3.2

Pupils Motivation or Engagement


One of the most important effects of using game in learning is that game serve as

motivation for the pupils, especially in terms of content areas such as science and mathematics
the many pupils found to be difficult (Faster 2008). In a study that looked at educational game
and the impact on middle school pupils motivation to learn science and mathematics, Foster
(2008) found that mathematics game could arouse pupils interest and motivation in learning
mathematics by connecting the learning process with pupils personal life experience. Foster used
the concept hard fun to explain why mathematics game can motivates learner. Foster (2008)
explained that game playing provides learner with a challenging but meaningful learning
experience that is both frustrating and life enhancing and this kind of enjoyment (hard fun)
derived from game play help to improve learner intrinc motivation in learning. This conclusion
has been supported by others researchers findings, as well (e.g Inal and Cagilaty 2007). Besides
motivating learners to play and learn researchers have also found that mathematics game are on
effective tool for engage learners in learning (Foko and Amony 2008). However even though
there is consensus that mathematics game are capable of creating a motivating learning
environment, met all researchers completely agree on the source of this motivations. Other
motivation is closely linked to goals and reward within the game itself or nitric to playing itself
Denis and Jeureliet 2008).

2.3.3

Pupils Academic Performance


While most existing pupils demonstrating how mathematics games provide a motivating

and engaging learning environment for learner, result have not always demonstrated significant
learning achievement as a result of having used mathematics game.
Researcher has reported mixed affects of game based learning on pupils content area
learning outcomes (Hays 2005), for example, in a interactive review based on 32 empirical
studies, Vesgel et al (2006) reported that interactive game were effective than traditional
classroom instruction on learner academic learning gains and cognitive skill development. Also,
Van Sickle (2006) Conducted in review of 2.6 empirical studies and result showed that pupils
made a slight improvement in learning and attitude of learners towards the subject as a result of
suing instructional game in the classroom instead of traditional teaching methods. Empirical
studies also have provided evidence to support the positive findings reported in the above
mentioned. There studies revealed that game playing resulted in improved academic learning
achievement in pupils (Meluso 2011).
In another study by Cullipce et al (2009) the researchers used a pre and post test
experimental design with pupils in a rural middle school in North Nigeria to examine how 3-d
digital game impacted pupils mathematics (pre-Algebra and Algebra) learning attitude and
achievement . Result also revealed that there was a positive change in pupils learning attitude
and outcomes for both boys and girls Meluso (2012) conducted on empirical study to examine
the effect of game play on primary school mathematics content learning outcome. Similarly, the
funds revealed that pupils who played the online mathematics learning game not only made
significant content learning gains but also showed improvement in their science-related selfefficiency.
However, some other conceptual i.e (review) and empirical studies have reported
otherwise ejective result. For example, in their study about digital

game based science

(Microbiology) learning in the gains play environment with primary school, Spire et al (2010)
used a control group of non-game player who received a power point presentation of the same
content that was presented in the game environment.
2.3.4. Collaborative Game Play

Beside studies that examine important outcomes variables such as pupils motivation,
engagement and content learning in the game environment as discussed above, other
examination have been undertaken to explore other equally important variables in digital game
based learning. One of such variable that have received considerable attention from the game
based learning research community is player peer interaction in the game environment. Research
of pupils interaction and collaboration in the game environment is important for at least two
reasons.
Firstly, interactively is one of the most important features of high quality game (Katre
2009). A well designed game should provide opportunities for players to interact with not only
the game environment but also with their peers. As a result, examining how pupils peer
interaction in the game environment impacts their play experience and effectiveness will readily
inform game design.
Secondly, social interaction is one of the most important construct of any learning in
technology mediated environment such as digital game is equally if not more, important than
traditional setting.
One advantages of paper interaction during game play is that pupils cannot only enjoy the
game in the process of collaborating or competing with their peers, but they can also acquire
strategies that other players employ during gameplay (Sweeter and Wyeth 2005) claimed that the
peer interaction processes and the competition or collaboration involved in such game play as
function that motivate pupils to learn.
In view of the important of peer interaction in the game environment, some researcher
have begun examined important issues, such as how collaborate game play affect pupils learning.
Some of there pupils have provided initial pupils content area learning gains. Among (2008)
found that playing in four was more effective than playing individually. Specially they found that
pupils overcome mere misconception about the content when they played in pairs. Playing in
pairs was also found to contribute more to pupils visualization, logic and numeric skills.
Moreover, Howard (2006) found that pupils highly valued the usefulness of discussion with their
peers with playing games.

However, have been more conscrvedure in making their conclusion. Shih et al (2010)
pointed at that the effectiveness of collaboration is highly dependent on the specific model and
strategies that are used. Based on their cases study of a group of primary school in a digital
problem. Solving game environment, the researchers also found that positive. Favourbale
collaborative relationship could facilitate pupils learning coutcemes in the game environment,
while less pleasant collaboration playing experience could not.
2.3.5

Effects of Handheld Game on pupils learning in Mathematics


Handheld devices in education have a great potential to improve teaching and learning.

The essential value of a handheld learning environment is that every pupils has immediate excess
to a learning tool in a small and mobile package (Norris and Saleway 2003). The high mobility
of handheld devices enables pupils to be helping learners with no limit of time and place
(Elamtord 2002). Educational program have been developed to attain maximum benefit from
handheld device in learning activities such as based instructional game program. Games have
been incorporated in the classroom for learning and understanding complex in the classroom for
learning and understanding complex subjects. A game is a set of rule-guided, goal directed
activities that have no real-world consequences (Casey 2002)
Essential features in a game environment authentic fantasy contexts, rules goals and
enhance dynamic cognitive process for meaningful learning (Roasas et al 2002) . However there
are very few studies about the use of handheld games in classroom setting. Empirical evidence
regarding educational handheld games in classroom is insufficient to support favourable effect of
handheld game on learning (Dempsey et al 2002). Hence, comprehensive empirical studies are
needed to support the idea that handheld gaming can potentially have a substain impact in
teaching and learning mathematics. The primary purpose of this study is to fold. First is to
explore what aspect of learners characteristics influence pupil learning in a handheld gaming
environment. Second is to investigate whether educational handheld games could promote pupils
learning.
2.3.6

Mathematics learning for pre-service primary school teachers


It has been shown that educational game attract and gain pupils attentions, contributing to

their increased motivation and engagement with mathematics (Squire 2005, Ke 2008) Although

much of the research of the effectiveness of gaming on learning is inconclusive at this point
(Fletcher 2006), there is strong evidence that appropriately designed educational game do have
the potential to evidence childrens learning of mathematics (Bragg, 2007). Through the
introduction of challenging tasks that are meaningful for children of facilities their interest in
exploration. Mathematics game can help focus mathematics instruction on conceptual
understanding and problem solving and not on recipes and formal derivation which become
secondly to importance. Through use of educational game children can builds valuable skill such
as strategies thinking, planning, communication, the application of numbers, negotiating skill
group decision making and data handling (Pratt et al 2009).
One of the most important factor in any educational change is the change in teaching
produce. The direct relationship between informing the quality of teaching and improving pupils
learning in mathematics is a common thread emergency from educational research (Stiger 1999).
Educational games successful deployment in mathematics classroom is highly
dependent upon the knowledge, attitude and experience of teachers with respect to games. Thus,
to provision of high quality teacher professional development on the educational application of
games is of paramount importance to their effective integration in classroom settings.

CHAPTER THREE
3.0

Research Methodology
This chapter deal with methods and procedure used in the collection of data. It also gives

explanation on the research design, the sample and sampling techniques.


3.1

Research Design

3.2

Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.3

Research Instrument

3.4

Method of Data Collection

3.5

Reliability and Validity of Instrument

3.6

Method of Data Analysis

3.1

Research Design
This is a survey designed to access the Effect of Gaming in Facilitating Favourable

Learning outcomes in Mathematics, a case study of Abeokuta South Local Government of some
selected schools.
3.2

Sample and Sampling Techniques


The target population is comprised of four primary schools (both private and public) In

Abeokuta South Local Government area by stratified random sampling techniques.


3.3

Research Instrument
The research instrument used was questionnaire. This instrument was used for the data

collection because it helps to gauge the response of the respondent about how the Effect of
Gaming in Facilitating Favourable Learning Outcomes in Mathematics. Therefore the
instrument adopted in the questionnaire involved.
YES
NO

3.4

Method of Data Collection


The research personally disseminated it questionnaire to each respondent and collected it

back as soon as it has been filled completed.


3.5

Reliability and Validity of Instrument


The instrument reliability and Validity was tested by the researchers supervisor who is

vastly knowledgeable in the field.


She made the necessary correction and proclaimed the instrument valid. The researches
validated the instrument using test retest method.
3.6

Method of Data Analysis


The data collected from the respondent in the study area was analyzed and interpreted

using chi-square tested statistics.


x

( O )

CHAPTER FOUR
Analysis and interpretation of Results
Table 1
YES

NO OijEij

DF Calculated Value

(OijEij)

Critical Value

Remark

7.815

Rejected

27
20
21
18

3
25
625
10 10
100
9
12
144
12 6
36
34
905
P>0.05 level of significant

26.6

The table above indicated that the calculated value is greater than critical value.
Therefore we hereby rejected that there is significant difference between highed cognitive games
using gaming compared with the traditional teaching methods without using games.
Table 2
YES

NO OijEij

(OijEij)

DF Calculated Value

9
24
19
16

21 12
144
6
18
324
11 8
64
14 2
4
52
536
P>0.05 level of Significant

10.31

Critical Value

Remark

7.815

Rejected

The table above indicated that the calculated value is greater than the critical value.
Therefore the research hypothesis is rejected and there is no significant difference between the
mathematics performance of pupils taught mathematics using games and those taught using the
traditional paper and pencil drills.
Table 3
YES

NO OijEij

DF Calculated Value

(OijEij)

Critical Value

Remark

7.815

Rejected

18
22
19

12
8
11

6
14
8

36
196
64

9.658

20

10 10
100
41
396
P>0.05 level of significant
The table above indicated that the calculated value is greater than critical value, which
shows that the research hypothesis is rejected. Therefore there is significant difference in the
achievement of pupils exposed to social interaction in the technological environment e.g digital
games and the traditional setting.
Table 4
YES

NO OijEij

DF Calculated Value

(OijEij)

Critical Value

Remark

7.815

Rejected

20
21
10
22

10 10
100
9
12
144
20 10
100
8
14
196
47
540
P>0.05 level of significant

11.489

The table above indicated that the calculated value is greater than critical value, which
shows that the research hypothesis is reject. Therefore there is significant difference in the
performance of pupils taught with games and those taught with traditional methods.

Table 5
YES

NO OijEij

DF Calculated Value

(OijEij)

Critical Value

Remark

7.815

Accepted

15
20
7
17

15 0
0
10 10
100
23 16
256
13 4
16
16
372
P>0.05 level of significant

6.098

The table above indicated that the calculated value is less than critical value, which
shows that the research hypothesis is Accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference

between positive change expected in pupils learning achievement when taught with games and
non games playing groups.
Pre-test and Post-test
x

11
13
10
10
8

20
16
17
16
17

DF

Calculated Value

Critical Value

2.6

2.78

Discussions
Finding of the study shows that significant difference in all the hypothesis which means that the
critical value is less than calculated value. The main reason for this research is to find out
behavior and attitude of pupils and how they can perform in using mathematics game to improve
their learning in mathematics
Likewise the method is new to the learner who didnt have enough instructional materials
laboratory it makes it difficult to learn it effectively.

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0

Summary. Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1

Summary
Mathematics has been acknowledged as a core subject in the whole Africa. Thus, much

attention has given to its teaching and learning process. Mathematics as a subject involved
arithmetic and logical calculation and also marks use of sign such as addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division etc.
On motivation, it was found that pupils who receured encouragement and motivation
perform better in mathematics than their counterparts who did not recoured encouragement and
motivation. However, it is likely that most of people would agree that mathematics is used in
finding, answers to question and problems which arise in everybody life in trade and professions.
5.2

Conclusion
It was concluded that teaching of mathematics still forces a lot of problem both in

primary schools, secondary schools and higher institution due to some of the ill on our education.
For example back of adequate instructional materials and public image of the pupils towards
mathematics.
The study employed a mixed method research design to examine the Effects of Gaming
in Facilitating favourable learning outcomes in Mathematics. In Abeokuta South local
Government. The game design features that impacted mathematics games experience and how
mathematics game in turn impacted the math content learning outcomes. However, mathematics
game experience theory provide a new lends for mathematics game researchers to examine the
issue of pupils emotion and playful mathematics learning experience in the game environment.
5.3

Recommendations
Education is an important instrument of Change in modern societies. Provision of

adequate and relevant education is the best thing a nation can do for its citizens. This is more so
because education is a virile weapon again ignorance, disease, and poverty as a means of
producing enlightened, responsible and industrious citizen and prosperous nation.

Based on thus background, the researcher makes the following recommendation.


-

Teachers should be empowered to use games and simulations in teaching mathematics in

our primary schools.


The degree of autonomy and control that we want to offer to pupils. Should be take into

account, so that a good balance may be achieved.


There should be appropriate monitoring or guiding mechanism as educators and
mathematics game designers.

REFERENCES
Abakpa B.O and Iji C.O (2011) Effect of Mastery learning on primary school pupils
achievement in mathematics.
Ahmed and Latil (2010) Development of an educational mathematics game on Fractions.
Ali A. (1998) and Nkwo (2003) Strategies issues and trends in science education in Africa
Aremu A. (1998) Strategies for improving the performance of female pupils in mathematics.
African Journal of Education Research 5 (1)77-88
Bragg (2007). Educational game to enhance Childrens learning of mathematics
Casey (2002). Goal directed activities that have no real-world consequences.
Clawtord (2002) Long-life learner with no limit of time and place
Dempsey et al (2002) Empirical evidence regarding educational handheld games in classroom
Denis G and Jeouvelet P. (2003) Motivation driven educational game design. Applying best
practices to music education in N Lee (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference
on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology. New York, NY: ACM Press.
Fletcher (2006). Effectiveness of gaming on learning.
Foko T and Amory A. (2008) Social Constructivism in games based learning in the South Africa
context. Paper presented at the Proceedings of World Conference on Educaitonal
Multimedia. Hypermedia and Telecommunication 2008, 5757-5764. Retrieved from
http://www.editlib.org/p/29180
Foster T. (2008). Games and Motivation to learn science: Personal identity, applicability,
relevance and meaningfulness. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 19(A), 597-614
Gere (2005) Incoporate learning principle.
Gillispie L. (2009) Effects of the dimension M.B.D videos gaming experience on middle school
pupils achievement and attitude in mathematics

Harel and Pasport (2004), Kafai (2001). Game play are some of the best approaches for learning
Hays. R.T (2005) The effectiveness of instructional games. A literature review and discussion.
Retrieved September 10,2011 from http://stinet.dtiemil/oai/?
&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=htm1&ide.
Howard. C (2006) Games and Learning: Does this compute? In
Ke. F (2007) Game playing for mathematics learning: cooperative or not? British Journal of
Educational Technology, 38(2), 249-259.
Lee (2009) Creation and evaluation of education game, improvement and performance in a
computer based simulation game. Proceeding of ED-MEDIA. Montreal, 986-992.
MC Farlana, Sparrowhawk and Herald (2002) Development of Various Skills
Meluso A. (2001) Self-Efficacy through games base learning
Norris and Soloway, (2003) Handled Derives in Education
Oblinger (2006) Education as a potential way to provide learners with effective and fun learning
environment.
Odili G.A. (2006) Analysis of Pupils performance in mathematics from 1991-2002. Journal of
research in curriculum and teaching 1 (1) 64-68.
Parto et al (2011) Teachable agent arithmetic game.
Picciano A.G (2002). Beyond pupils perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence and
performance in an online course.
Prensky A. (2001) Learning required extra effort
Prett et al (2009) Use of educational game children.
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Shih et al (2010). The Influence of collaboration styles to childrens cognitive performance in


digital problem solving game William Adventure. A comparative case study.
Computers & Education, 55, 982-993.
Spires H. (2010) Effects of game based performance on science learning
Squire (2005), Ke (2008). Educational game attract and gain pupils attentions. A transaction
theoretical perspective.

Paper presented at the American Educational Research

Association annual conference.


Striger (1999). Improving the quality of teaching and pupils learning in mathematics
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Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34(3), 229-243.

APPENDIX

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OSIELE ABEOKUTA


OGUN STATE
MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT
This questionnaire focuses on the topic Effect of Gaming in Facilitating favourable
learning outcomes in Mathematics. (A Case Study of Abeokuta South Local Government area of
Ogun State).
Name:.
School:
Gender:

Male

Female

Class:

Please answer the following question below by placing


S/N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

in the column provided

QUESTIONS
YES
Have you ever played mathematics game that you think was fun before?
Did you feel excited or sad when you played the game?
Did you pay all your attention to the game?
When you are playing a mathematics game, did you feel that time went
very fast?
Do you feel you are able to control your own playing action?
Did you worry about your competent in playing the game?
Do you enjoy playing mathematics game?
Do you like the background playing of the game i.e Topic, title, and
heading?
Do you know the important of mathematics gaming?
Do you think they were too easy/difficult for you?
Were you able to play the game in different ways?
Do you think you enjoyed playing mathematics game so much that you
like it in future?
Do you think playing the game help you forget unhappy thing?
Did mathematics game have impact in your academic performance?
Playing mathematics game, can it help you in solving mathematics
problem?
Did mathematics game improve your learning in mathematics

NO

17
18
19
20

Do you enjoy playing the game with your friend?


Do you think playing with your friends helped you to do better in the
game?
Do you think playing the game make you feel good?
Was it easy for you to learn how to play the game?