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are positioned to be slightly wider apart than the depth of

Girder B2 and a shim has been provided to fill the gap.

Both connections are attached to the web of the column.
The plates are shaped such that they fill the entire space
between the flanges. The corners of the plates have been
clipped to accommodate the rolling fillets of the supporting
column and separate the welds. Although the shear connection (shear tab) has not been extended (bolting of this element takes place inside the flanges of the column), in
practice this might prove to be a difficult connection to
make in the field. It is advised to extend the shear tab. Both
girders would normally be specified short and the connection elements extended so that all welds and bolts were
located outside the column flanges for easier erectability.
Directly welded moment connections are typically made
with complete-joint-penetration groove welds that directly
connect the top and bottom flanges of the supported beam
to a supporting column. Fillet welds, or partial-joint-penetration groove welds may be used if suitable for the required
force transfer.
Groove welds for directly welded flange connections
require significant joint preparation. Weld access holes are
cut in the web at the intersection of the flanges of the supported beam. Backing bars and weld runoff tabs are added
to the flanges. The groove welds connecting the beam to the
column flanges can then be made in the flat welding position. Once the joint is completed, the runoff tabs are
removed; however it is sometimes permissible to leave the
backing bars in place.
The shear force may be transferred by either the addition
of a standard shear connection (i.e. shear tab, single-angle,
etc.) or by directly welding the supported beam web to the
column flange. Direct welding of the web requires very

Figure 5-7. Moment Connection: Directly welded flanges.

Column C1 / Girder B1

close accommodation of mill, fabrication, and erection tolerances and is not often used.
On the steel sculpture, Girder B1 is directly welded to the
flange of Column C1. The runoff tabs have been removed,
but the backing bars have been left in place after welding.
Also note that the end of the beam was left unpainted to
accommodate the welding of the joint. A shear tab transfers
the shear load to the column.
Extended end-plates are similar in appearance and orientation to shear end-plates. The primary physical difference is
that the plate is longer than the depth of the supported beam
as it must be attached to both the web and the flanges of the
supported beam. The plate is usually fillet welded to the
flanges and web of the supported beam, however completeor partial-joint-penetration welds may be used if the fillet
size is excessively large. The plate is then bolted with highstrength bolts to the supporting member.
End-plate connections are classified based on the number
of bolts used at the tension flange, such as four-bolt unstiffened and eight-bolt stiffened. The bolts in tension should be
arranged in a symmetrical pattern with half above and half
below the tension flange. At least two bolts should be used
at the compression flange; these bolts serve primarily to
carry shear forces. Furthermore, the bolts at the compression flange should be placed between the flanges of the supported beam whenever possible to reduce the required plate
length. Extra bolts may be placed in the plate, near the neutral axis of the beam to ensure proper fit-up with the column
and assist the compression flange bolts in shear transfer.
Like their shear counterparts, extended end-plate connections require close accommodation of mill, fabrication, and
erection tolerances. The beam may be fabricated short to

Figure 5-8. Moment Connection: Directly welded flanges.

Column C1 / Girder B1

Connections Teaching Toolkit 5-5