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Brandon Wilkins

Integumentary System Lab Report


The Integumentary System is an organ system that consists of the skin, hair, nails, and
exocrine glands. The skin is a few millimeters thick, but compared to the other organs in
the body, it is by far the largest in the body. On average, a person's skin can weigh
about 10 pounds, and cover approximately 20 feet. The skins forms the bodys outer
covering, and protects the body from chemicals, disease, UV light, and also physical
damage. Hair and nails extend from the skin to add more protection. The exocrine
glands are a huge factor in the Integumentary system, as they produce sweat, oil, and
wax, to cool the body down and protect it. Refer to Figure 1 (Histology Slides) to see
the integumentary system structure. The terms shown in the picture are the stratum
lucidum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, hair follicle, dermis, basement
membrane, stratum basale, dermal papilla, epidermis, and the stratum corneum.
Thermoregulation is a process that allows your body to maintain its internal core
temperature. All thermoregulation functions are designed to return your body to
homeostasis, the state of equilibrium. There is a very small window that is considered to
be a healthy internal body temperature. The average baseline temperature is between
98 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Your body is able to withstand extreme temperatures
to a certain extent, though the extreme temperatures will affect your bodys ability to
function. If your temperature falls to 95 degrees Fahrenheit or lower, you can have
hypothermia, which can lead to cardiac arrest, brain damage, or even possibly death. If
your body temperature rises higher than 107.6 degrees Fahrenheit, you can also suffer
brain damage or death. Refer to Figure 2 (Eccrine Sweat Gland Density) & Figure 3
(Skin Temperature Recovery Data) to see our recorded data.
Sensory Receptors in the dermis include the Meissners Corpuscle, the Pacinian
Corpuscle, and the Ruffini Corpuscle, the hair root plexus, and a number of free nerve
ending types. Free nerve endings are connected with sensations that include pain, heat,
cold, and touch. Meissner's Corpuscles are a spiral of nerve endings that swirl within the
Schwann cells. These Corpuscles are touch receptors located in the dermal papillae of
the skin surface. Pacinian Corpuscles consist of nerve endings surrounded by Schwann
layer cells. These receptors are located in the deep dermis or hypodermis and are
sensitive to pressure and vibration. Ruffini Corpuscles are highly branches nerve
endings within a fluid filled capsule in the connective tissue. These fibers are thought to
sense stress or distension in the deeper dermis. Refer to Figure 4 (Two point
discrimination data) & Figure 5 (Homunculus drawing) to see the data we collected
about my touch receptors.

Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, and these cancerous growths
develop when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells caused by UV radiation from the
sun triggers mutations that lead to skin cells multiplying rapidly and forming tumors.
These tumors produce melanocytes in the epidermis. Melanoma can be shown in a
variety of different colors. Melanoma is caused by extreme or occasional UV exposure.
Melanoma kills approximately 10,130 people in the U.S. yearly. More information is
presented in Figure 6 (Case Study).
Figure 1 - Skin Histology Picture & Labels

Figure 2
The graph presented below is the Eccrine Sweat Gland Density on different parts of my
body.

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

APA Citations
Autier, P., for Epimel, D., & Eortc Melanoma Cooperative Group, J. (1998). Influence of
sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk. International
Journal of Cancer, 77(4), 533-537.
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2016, from
https://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookINTEGUSYS.html
What is Melanoma? (2016). Retrieved October 19, 2016, from
https://www.melanoma.org/understand-melanoma/what-is-melanoma
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2016, from
http://depts.gpc.edu/~decms/ibim/integument.htm