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MI 020-328

Instruction September 1988

Bubble Tube Installations


For Liquid Level, Density, and Interface Level Measurements
MI 020-328 September 1988
Contents
Figures............................................................................................................................... v
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1
Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 1
Principle of Operation .................................................................................................... 1
Alternative to Bubble Tubes ........................................................................................... 2
Reference Instructions .................................................................................................... 2
Formulas for Specific Gravity Conversions ..................................................................... 3
For Liquids LIGHTER than Water ........................................................................... 3
For Liquids HEAVIER than Water ............................................................................ 3
For All Liquids ........................................................................................................... 3
Calibration ..................................................................................................................... 3
Calculations ........................................................................................................................ 4
Liquid Level Calculations (Figure 2) ............................................................................... 4
Interface Calculations (Figure 3 and Figure 4) ................................................................ 5
With Constant Tank Level (One Bubble Tube) ......................................................... 5
With Varying Tank Level (Two Bubble Tubes) ......................................................... 5
Density Calculations (Figure 5 and Figure 6) ................................................................. 6
With Constant Tank Level (One Bubble Tube) ......................................................... 6
With Varying Tank Level (Two Bubble Tubes) ......................................................... 7
Installation .......................................................................................................................... 8
Typical Piping Arrangements ......................................................................................... 8
Determination of Length Difference (Dimension H) With a Pair of Tubes ................. 8
Piping Parts List ............................................................................................................. 8
Installation Notes ........................................................................................................... 9
Typical Bubble Tube Installations (Figure 8 and Figure 9) ........................................... 10
Tank With One Bubble Tube .................................................................................. 10
Tank With Two Bubble Tubes ................................................................................ 11
Typical Side-Connection Installations .......................................................................... 11
Tank With One Bubble Connection At Side Of Tank ............................................. 11
Tank With Two Bubble Connections At Side Of Tank ........................................... 12
Use of a Differential Pressure Regulator ........................................................................ 12
B0107XY Differential Pressure Regulator (Figure 12) .............................................. 14
B0107XX Differential Pressure Regulator (Figure 13) .............................................. 15
Pressure Drop in Air Lines ............................................................................................ 15
Operation ......................................................................................................................... 16
Operating Notes ........................................................................................................... 16
Putting into Operation ................................................................................................. 16
Formulas to Calculate Output and Pressure Loss .............................................................. 17
Calculating Output for Any Input ................................................................................ 17
Liquid Level Formula ............................................................................................... 18

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Contents

Density Formula ...................................................................................................... 18


Interface Level Formula (Figure 14) ......................................................................... 19
Calculating Pressure Loss in Air Line ............................................................................ 20
Calibration ........................................................................................................................ 21
Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 21

iv
Figures
1 Bubble Tube Functional Diagram ................................................................................ 2
2 Liquid Level Calculation .............................................................................................. 4
3 Interface Calculation - One Tube ................................................................................. 6
4 Interface Calculation - Two Tubes ............................................................................... 6
5 Density Calculation - One Tube .................................................................................. 7
6 Density Calculation - Two Tubes ................................................................................ 7
7 Bubble Tube Notch Details ......................................................................................... 9
8 Bubble Tube Installation - One Tube .......................................................................... 10
9 Bubble Tube Installation - Two Tubes ......................................................................... 11
10 Bubble Tube Installation - One Tube at Side of Tank ................................................. 11
11 Bubble Tube Installation - Two Tubes at Side of Tank ................................................ 12
12 B0107XY Differential Pressure Regulator and Bubble Tube Piping ............................. 14
13 B0107XX Differential Pressure Regulator and Bubble Tube Piping ............................. 15
14 Interface Level Calculation Calculating Output for any Input ...................................... 19
15 Bubble Tube Maintenance ........................................................................................... 21

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Figures

vi
Introduction
The bubble tube principle of hydrostatic measurement is a convenient, low-cost method of
measuring liquid level, density, or interface level in an open tank. It is particularly applicable
for those installations where:
Process liquid could crystallize in transmitter lines.
Process temperature exceeds temperature limit of flange-mounted transmitter.
Process tank does not have side connections for flange-mounted transmitter.
Process liquid is corrosive and cannot have direct contact with transmitter.

Abbreviations
The abbreviations below are used in this instruction.
ABBREVIATION MEANING
LRV Lower-range value (measurement that produces a 4 mA output)
URV Upper-range value (measurement that produces a 20 mA output)
Sp.G. Specific gravity (relative density) of a liquid. Specific gravity of
water in both customary and SI systems is 1.00.

Principle of Operation
Air is passed through a restrictor to a tube partly immersed in a liquid. The lower end of the
tube is at a fixed distance above the bottom of the tank (see Figure 1).
The pressure of the air supply is high enough to overcome the hydrostatic head on the tube,
and the excess pressure appears as small bubbles coming out of the bottom of the tube. Thus,
the back pressure in the tube is a measure of the pressure on the bottom of the tube due to the
level of liquid. Since the position of the tube is fixed, any change in this back pressure is due
to a change in the level of the liquid.
The back pressure is connected to the high-pressure side of the transmitter, and the low- pres-
sure side is vented. Thus, the differential pressure measured by the transmitter is a measure of
the level of the liquid.
If the level of the liquid is constant (continuous overflow), any change in the transmitter dif-
ferential pressure must be due to a change in liquid density or interface level. Thus, density
and interface level can also be measured. If the tank level varies, these measurements can still
be made by using two different-length tubes connected to opposite sides of the transmitter;
see Figure 4 and Figure 6.

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Introduction

Figure 1. Bubble Tube Functional Diagram

Alternative to Bubble Tubes


If it is impractical to immerse bubble tubes in the tank (because the tank has a mixer and/or
baffles, or because the liquid is corrosive, etc.), the bubbles can be introduced through con-
nections at the side of the tank. See Figure 10 and Figure 11 for details.

Reference Instructions

DOCUMENT
DESCRIPTION NUMBER
Purge Rotameter MI 005-529
Purge Rotameter(Liq.Lev.) MI 010-153
Diff. Press. Regulator MI 011-170
13A,13H,15A Transmitters MI 022-345
823DP-I,-H, Transmitters MI 020-330
823DP-D Transmitter MI 020-345
843DP Transmitter MI 020-437
E13DH/DL/DM Transmitter MI 020-140
Density Measurements TI 1-50a
Liquid Interface Level Measurement TI 001-051
Liquid Level Measurements TI 001-052

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Introduction MI 020-328 September 1988

Formulas for Specific Gravity Conversions

For Liquids LIGHTER than Water


140
Baum: Sp.G. = --------------------------
Be + 130

141.5
API: Sp.G. = ---------------------------------
API + 131.5

For Liquids HEAVIER than Water


145
Baum: Sp.G. = --------------------------
145 Be

Tw
Twaddell: Sp.G. = ----------- + 1
200

For All Liquids


Density [lb/ft3] / 62.4 = Sp.G.
Density [kg/m3] / 1.00 = Sp.G.

Calibration
If measurement range was specified in the sales order, the transmitter was calibrated in the fac-
tory to these values, and these same values are stamped on the transmitter data plate.
If measurement range was not specified, transmitter was calibrated in the factory to maximum
span for the particular sensor installed in the transmitter. In this case, the measurement range
area of the data plate is left blank so that the user can mark the desired calibrated range (in
terms of head of water) himself.
The transmitter must be calibrated to the desired range before putting it into operation. (If
the transmitter was calibrated in factory, the calibration should be checked.) Use the applica-
ble formula to determine the input pressures (in terms of head of water) corresponding to the
desired measurement limits. Mark these input pressure limits in the applicable area on the
transmitter data plate, and use these values as the calibrating input signals.

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Calculations

Calculations
The sections that follow show typical calculations for liquid level measurement, interface mea-
surement, and density measurement. Interface and density measurements are shown with
both a constant tank level and a varying tank level.
Note that the upper-range and lower-range values (URV and LRV) refer to the desired maxi-
mum and minimum measurements, respectively. The Calibrated Span = URV - LRV. The
value of the suppression is the output at LRV above 0%.

Liquid Level Calculations (Figure 2)

Span = (A)(GL)
HW at LRV = (B)(GL) = Suppression
HW at URV = (A + B)(GL)
Calibrated Range = LRV to URV

where:
GL = Sp.G. of Tank Liquid
HW = Equivalent Head of Water

EXAMPLE: A = 2.0 m, B = 0.2 m, GL = 0.8

Span = (2.0)(0.8) = 1.60 mH2O


HW at LRV = (0.2)(0.8) = 0.16 mH2O = Suppression
HW at URV = (2.0 + 0.2)(0.8) = 1.76 mH2O
Calibrated Range = 0.16 to 1.76 mH2O

Figure 2. Liquid Level Calculation

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Calculations MI 020-328 September 1988

Interface Calculations (Figure 3 and Figure 4)

With Constant Tank Level (One Bubble Tube)


Span = (A)(G2 - G1)
HW at LRV = (A)(G1) + (B)(G2) = Suppression
HW at URV = (A + B)(G2)
Calibrated Range = LRV to URV

where:
G1 = Sp.G. of Upper Liquid
G2 = Sp.G. of Lower Liquid
HW = Equivalent Head of Water

EXAMPLE: Liquid Sp.G. varies between 0.9 and 1.8; A = 50 inches and B = 10 inches
Span = (50)(1.8 - 0.9) = 45 inH2O
Hw at LRV = (50)(0.9) + (10)(1.8) = 63 inH2O
Hw at URV = (50 + 10)(1.8) = 108 inH2O
Calibrated Range = 63 to 108 inH2O

With Varying Tank Level (Two Bubble Tubes)


Span = (H)(G2 - G1)
HW at LRV = (H)(G1) = Suppression
HW at URV = (H)(G2)
Calibrated Range = LRV to URV

where:
G1 = Sp.G. of upper liquid
G2 = Sp.G. of lower liquid
HW = equivalent head of water

EXAMPLE: Interface liquid Sp.G. varies between 1.0 and 1.7; and H = 40 inches.
Span = (40)(1.7 - 1.0) = 28 inH2O
HW at LRV = (40)(1.0) = 40 inH2O = Suppression
HW at URV = (40)(1.7) = 68 inH2O
Calibrated Range = 40 to 68 inH2O

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Calculations

Figure 3. Interface Calculation - One Tube Figure 4. Interface Calculation - Two Tubes

Density Calculations (Figure 5 and Figure 6)

With Constant Tank Level (One Bubble Tube)


Span = (A)(G2 - G1)
HW at LRV = (A)(G1) = Suppression
HW at URV = (A)(G2)
Calibrated Range = LRV to URV

where:
G1 = Minimum Sp.G.
G2 = Maximum Sp.G.
HW = Equivalent Head of Water

EXAMPLE: Liquid Sp.G. varies between 1.0 and 1.8; and A = 40 inches.
Span = (40)(1.8 - 1.0) = 32 inH2O
HW at LRV = (40)(1.0) = 40 inH2O = Suppression
HW at URV = (40)(1.8) = 72 inH2O
Calibrated Range = 40 to 72 inH2O

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Calculations MI 020-328 September 1988

With Varying Tank Level (Two Bubble Tubes)


Span = (H)(G2 - G1)
HW at LRV = (H)(G1) = Suppression
HW at URV = (H)(G2)
Calibrated Range = LRV to URV

where:
G1 = Minimum Sp.G.
G2 = Maximum Sp.G.
HW = Equivalent Head of Water

EXAMPLE: Liquid Sp.G. varies between 1.2 and 2.0; and H = 40 inches.
Span = (40)(2.0 - 1.2) = 32 inH2O
HW at LRV = (40)(1.2) = 48 inH2O = Suppression
HW at URV = (40)(2.0) = 80 inH2O
Calibrated Range = 48 to 80 inH2O

Figure 5. Density Calculation - One Tube Figure 6. Density Calculation - Two Tubes

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Installation

Installation
Typical Piping Arrangements
With bubble tube installations, refer to either Figure 8 or Figure 9, as applicable. With side-
connection installations, refer to either Figure 10 or Figure 11, as applicable.

Determination of Length Difference (Dimension H)


With a Pair of Tubes
With density measurement, the larger the length difference (dimension H) between tubes,
the more accurate the measurement will be. With interface measurement, dimension H is
the desired level measurement range.
Physical limitations are set by both the height of the tank and the amount of sludge in the
bottom of the tank. The lower tube should have a minimum of 75 mm (3 in) of clear liquid
below it.

Piping Parts List


Transmitter Piping:
Pipe: DN 8 or 1/4 in; or DN 10 or 3/8 in
Tubing: 10x1 mm or 0.25 in OD; or 10x1 mm or 0.375 in OD
Bubble Tubes:
Pipe: DN 8 or 1/4 in; or DN 10 or 3/8 in
Rotameter:
For control of purge rate and visual indication in a purge or bubble tube system. For
additional details, refer to MI 005-529.
Suitable for gas or liquid purges up to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) at 70C (160F). See list
below.
Foxboro Part Description
D0105NX 0.2 to 30 scfh (Gas), or 0.1 to 5 gph (Liquid)
D0105PF 5 to 60 scfh (Gas)
D0105PB 4 to 40 gph (Liquid)
M0153YM 5 to 200 mL/s (Gas) or 0.1 to 5 mL/s (Liquid)
M0153YN 20 to 500 mL/s (Gas)
M0153YP 5 to 40 mL/s (Liquid)

Suitable for gas or liquid purges up to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) 90C (200F). See list below.
D0127MF 0.2 to 30 scfh (Gas), or 0.1 to 5 gph (Liquid)
D0127ML 5 to 60 scfh (Gas)
D0127MK 4 to 40 gph (Liquid)

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Installation MI 020-328 September 1988

Snubbers:
For installation in the process line to reduce or eliminate any unwanted pressure pulsa-
tions, 1/4 NPT at both ends.
For gases and thin liquids, see list below.
0045162 Brass, 1500 psi (100 bar)
0045163 303 ss, 5000 psi (340 bar)

For oils and thick liquids, see list below.


0044596 Brass 1500 psi (100 bar)
0044597 303 ss, 5000 psi (340 bar)

Differential Pressure Regulator


Foxboro Type 62V (Part B0107XY), or
Foxboro Type 63BD (Part B0107XX).

Installation Notes
1. Bubble tube and transmitter piping is supplied by user.
2. There should be a minimum of 75 mm (3 inches) of clear liquid (no sediment)
below the bottom of the tube. With two-tube installations, there should also be
a minimum of 75 mm (3 inches) of liquid above the upper tube).
3. Bubble tube assembly should be located in area of representative liquid, and where
liquid agitation is at a minimum.
4. Bubble tube assembly must be rigidly fixed in position.
5. Bottom of bubble tubes to be notched so that air comes out in a steady stream of
small bubbles (rather than an intermittent stream of large bubbles, which could
introduce errors). See Figure 7 for details of this notching. (Not applicable for
side-connection installations.)

Figure 7. Bubble Tube Notch Details

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Installation

6. Condition of air (temperature, moisture content, etc.) must be compatible with


process liquid.
7. If air reacts with process liquid, an inert gas (such as nitrogen) can be used.
8. A differential pressure regulator may be desirable to limit use of air.
9. The rotameter needle valve should not be used for tight shut off. A hand valve
should be installed upstream to permit servicing or for complete shut-off of purge
medium when desired.
10. If purge supply is higher than the maximum rating of the rotameter or differential
regulator, or the purge supply pressure varies greatly, install a pressure regulator
downstream from the shut off valve.

Typical Bubble Tube Installations (Figure 8 and Figure 9)

Tank With One Bubble Tube


(Liquid Level; Density or Interface with Constant Level)

Figure 8. Bubble Tube Installation - One Tube

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Installation MI 020-328 September 1988

Tank With Two Bubble Tubes


(Density or Interface with Varying Level)

Figure 9. Bubble Tube Installation - Two Tubes

Typical Side-Connection Installations

Tank With One Bubble Connection At Side Of Tank


(Liquid Level; Density or Interface with Constant Level)

Figure 10. Bubble Tube Installation - One Tube at Side of Tank

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Installation

Tank With Two Bubble Connections At Side Of Tank


(Density or Interface with Varying Level)

Figure 11. Bubble Tube Installation - Two Tubes at Side of Tank

Use of a Differential Pressure Regulator


It may be desirable to use one or two differential pressure regulators in the piping to limit the
use of air. The regulator maintains a fixed difference between the output pressure of the regu-
lator and a varying lower pressure.
In a bubble tube measuring system, if the tank level is high, or if the ends of the bubble tubes
tend to clog, the pressure delivered to the bubble tube may not be high enough to generate
bubbles. Or, if the tank level falls, the pressure may be so high that large bubbles are produced
and air is wasted. Thus, with both situations incorrect measurements can result.
However, if a differential pressure regulator is used, the bubble system supply pressure will
automatically vary to adjust for changing tank conditions. Thus, desirable small bubbles
are produced (with more accurate measurement readings), and purge air is minimized.
If two bubble tubes (or two side tank connections) are used, either one regulator can be used
as a common regulated air supply, or a regulator can be used in each line for better bubble
control and highest economy of air usage. See Figure 12 and Figure 13 for piping details.

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Installation MI 020-328 September 1988

The two regulators in the table below are available from Foxboro.
Type And Part Number
Type 62V Type 63BD
Parameter BO107XY BO107XX
Differential Pressure (fixed) 10.3 kPa 20.7 kPa
1.5 psi 3.0 psi
Maximum Input Pressure 690 kPa 1720 kPa
100 psi 250 psi
Exhaust Flow Rate 0.03 m3/h None
(at standard conditions) 0.9 ft3/h None
Maximum Temperature 65C 80C
150F 180F
Liquid Purge No Yes

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Installation

B0107XY Differential Pressure Regulator (Figure 12)

Figure 12. B0107XY Differential Pressure Regulator and Bubble Tube Piping

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Installation MI 020-328 September 1988

B0107XX Differential Pressure Regulator (Figure 13)

Figure 13. B0107XX Differential Pressure Regulator and Bubble Tube Piping

Pressure Drop in Air Lines


If the air must flow through a considerable length of pipe or tubing to the transmitter, or if
the flow of air is excessive, there will be some pressure loss. Any pressure loss will cause incor-
rect readings.

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Operation

One method to determine if a pressure loss exists is to install test gauges at each end of the line
going to the transmitter, and compare readings. To calculate the loss in pressure, see To Cal-
culate Pressure Loss in Air Line section that follows.
(With one-tube installations, a quick check for pressure loss is to momentarily turn off the air
supply and note if there is any change in transmitter output.)
If a significant pressure loss exists, reduce the air flow, and/or use a larger size line, and/or
move the transmitter nearer the bubble tube.

Operation
Operating Notes
1. Function of restrictor is to control flow of air. This is accomplished with needle
valve on bottom of rotameter (except if Type 62V differential pressure regulator
[B0107XY] is used). Use this needle valve to adjust air flow for optimum small
bubble size.
If Type 62V regulator (B0107XY) is used, needle valve on regulator is used to
adjust flow of air.
2. To prevent measurement errors, open ends of the tubes should always be covered
with tank liquid.
3. With interface measurement, maximum level must be below open end of upper
tube; minimum level must be above open end of lower tube.
4. If range is to be changed, transmitter must be recalibrated to new range. Dimen-
sion H may require changing for new range.
5. Needle valve on rotameter should not be used as a system air shutoff; instead use
upstream valve at air supply to system.
6. Do not allow level of liquid to fall below bottom of bubble tube (or tank connec-
tion).
7. Check all connections for leaks.

Putting into Operation


If transmitter is not calibrated to the desired range, it must be calibrated before starting this
procedure.
After system is installed, adjust the process liquid (level or density) so that the measurement is
at some point on scale. Then complete this procedure before operating the system.
1. If transmitter is not equipped with the optional output indicator, connect an
indicator in transmitter output loop to read output.
2. Turn on air supply and adjust flow of air as follows. (If system does not have a
differential pressure regulator, tank liquid must be at URV.)

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Formulas to Calculate Output and Pressure Loss MI 020-328 September 1988

System With Type 62V Differential Pressure Regulator (Part B0107XY)


Fully open rotameter needle valve (at bottom of rotameter). Adjust regulator
needle valve (at bottom of body) so that small bubbles come out of tube in a
slow, steady stream.
All Other Systems
Adjust rotameter needle valve (at bottom of rotameter) so that small bubbles
come out of tube in a slow, steady stream.
3. If, in Step 2, the bubbles are not visible (because of tank location, type of liq-
uid, etc.), using the applicable air adjustments specified in Step 2, gradually
increase flow of air while noting output of transmitter. Keep increasing air flow
as long as output increases. At point where output stops increasing, increase air
flow slightly.
4. With a one-tube installation, make the pressure drop test described in previ-
ous section. If significant error exists, make necessary corrections.
If transmitter has been calibrated correctly, this completes the procedure; oth-
erwise proceed to Steps 5, 6, and 7 (reference adjustment). Note that the accu-
racy of the measuring device in Step 5, will probably be less than that of the
transmitter; this may degrade the accuracy of the transmitter.
5. Using a suitable measuring device (such as a dipstick with level application or a
hydrometer with density application), determine actual measurement of liq-
uid.
6. Using applicable formula listed in the section that follows, calculate transmit-
ter output corresponding to tank measurement.
7. Adjust transmitter zero to get correct output. If necessary, also adjust zero read-
ing of receiver.

Formulas to Calculate Output and Pressure Loss


Calculating Output for Any Input
The formulas that follow are for various types of transmitters as listed in the table below.
TRANSMITTER
OUTPUT VALUE OF X VALUE OF Y
4 to 20 mA 16 mA 4 mA
10 to 50 mA 40 mA 10 mA
3 to15 psi 12 psi 3 psi
20 to 100 kPa 80 kPa 20 kPa

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Formulas to Calculate Output and Pressure Loss

In using these formulas, the transmitter must already be calibrated to the desired range. If the
transmitter has not been calibrated (or if the calibration is to be changed), complete the cali-
bration first. Use the applicable formula to determine the input pressures (in terms of head of
water) corresponding to the desired measurement limits. Mark these input pressure limits in
the applicable areas on the transmitter data plate.

Liquid Level Formula

Actual Level Min. Level


Output = (X) -------------------------------------------------------------- + Y
Max. Level Min. Level

EXAMPLE: Transmitter with 4 to 20 mA Output and:

Actual Level = 30 linear inches above bubble tube


Min. Level = 10 linear inches above bubble tube
Max. Level = 90 linear inches above bubble tube

Therefore,
30 10
Output = (16) ------------------ + 4 = 8.0 mA
90 10

Density Formula

Actual Sp.G. Min. Sp.G.


Output = (X) ----------------------------------------------------------------- + Y
Max. Sp.G. Min. Sp.G

EXAMPLE: Transmitter with 10 to 50 mA Output and:


Actual Sp.G. = 1.0
Min. Sp.G. = 0.6
Max. Sp.G. = 1.4

Therefore,

1.0 0.6
Output = (40) ----------------------- + 10 = 30 mA
1.4 0.6

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Formulas to Calculate Output and Pressure Loss MI 020-328 September 1988

Interface Level Formula (Figure 14)

Actual Interface Level


Output = (X) -------------------------------------------------------------- + Y
Maximum Interface Level
EXAMPLE: Transmitter with 3 to 15 psi Output and:

A = 5 linear inches above lower tube


H = 20 linear inches


5
Output = (12) ------ + 3 = 6 psi
20

Figure 14. Interface Level Calculation Calculating Output for any Input

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Formulas to Calculate Output and Pressure Loss

Calculating Pressure Loss in Air Line


The pressure loss in a line varies with the flow, the ID of the line, and the length of the line.
The equation to determine the pressure loss is:
P = (K)(F)(L)
where:
P = Pressure drop, inH2O (or mmH2O)
F = Flow, ft3/h (or m3h)
L = Length of Line/1000, feet (or m)
K = Constant
The following table combines the line ID and other factors into one overall constant, K.
Line Value
Type of Line Size Line ID of K
ANSI Pipe 1/8 in 0.269 in 3.0
1/4 in 0.364 in 0.9
3/8 in 0.493 in 0.27
1/2 in 0.622 in 0.105
3/4 in 0.824 in 0.035
ANSI Tubing 1/8 in 0.125 in 70.0
3/16in 0.188 in 12.5
1/4 in 0.25 in 4.0
1/2 in 0.50 in 0.245
3/4 in 0.75 in 0.050
1 in 1.0 in 0.016

If the ID of the actual pipe used is not listed in the table above, use the formula below to cal-
culate the approximate value of K.
K = 1/(62)(ID)4 [with line ID in inches]
If the measurements are in the SI system (line ID in mm, line length in metres, and flow in
m3/h), then use the following formula to calculate K.
KSI units = (65.9/ID)4
EXAMPLE 1: Determine pressure loss in a 20 foot length of 1/8 pipe due to an air flow of
4 scfh.
K = 3.0 for 1/8 in pipe (from the table)
P = (K)(F)(L) = (3.0)(4)(20/1000)
P = 0.24 inH2O

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Calibration MI 020-328 September 1988

EXAMPLE 2: Determine pressure loss in a 10 metre length of 5 mm ID pipe due to an air


flow of 0.1 m3/h.
KSI units = (65.9/ID)4 = (65.9/5)4 = 30176
P = (K)(F)(L) = (30176)(0.1)(10/1000)
P = 30 mmH2O

Calibration
In general, follow the calibrating procedures outlined in the appropriate transmitter instruc-
tions.
If desired, instead of using air pressures as calibrating signals, these signals can be generated by
varying the level (or density) of the tank liquid to values at or near each end of the range. Use
the calibrating values stamped on the data plate; or if the range is to be changed, calculate the
new values. In this way, the transmitter can be calibrated without removing it from the pro-
cess.

Maintenance
Use applicable reference instructions listed on page 2 when servicing the transmitter, rota-
meter, or differential pressure regulator.
If there is any tendency for solids to crystallize in the bubble tubes, or if dirt tends to collect
there, remove the cleanout plugs and push a rod down through the tubes and/or flush with a
suitable liquid. Perform as often as required.

Figure 15. Bubble Tube Maintenance

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MI 020-328 September 1988 Maintenance

.
ISSUE DATES
JUN 1984
JAN 1988
SEP 1988

The Foxboro Company Foxboro is a registered trademark of The Foxboro Company.


33 Commercial Street Siebe is a registered trademark of Siebe, plc.
Foxboro, MA 02035-2099
United States of America
http://www.foxboro.com
Inside U.S.: 1-888-FOXBORO
(1-888-369-2676)
Outside U.S.: Contact your
local Foxboro Representative. Copyright 1984-1988 by The Foxboro Company
Facsimile: (508) 549-4992 All rights reserved

A Siebe Group Company MB 100 Printed in U.S.A 0988