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I n t e r n at I o n a l n u m I s m at I c c o m m I s s I o n

SURVEY OF
NUMISMATIC RESEARCH
2008-2013
General Editors
Carmen Arnold-Biucchi Maria Caccamo Caltabiano
Sub-editors
Roger Bland, Hubert Emmerig, Stefan Heidemann, Miguel Ibez Artica,
Hortensia von Roten, Marguerite Spoerri, Tuukka Talvio, Franois Thierry, Julio
Torres, Lucia Travaini, David Wigg-Wolf, Bernward Ziegaus

International Association of Professional Numismatists


Special Publication 16
Taormina, 2015

All rights reserved by


The International Numismatic Council
and
The International Association of Professional Numismatists

___________________________________________
2015 - Arbor Sapientiae Editore S.r.l.
Via Bernardo Barbiellini Amidei, 80
00168 Roma (Italia) - tel. 06 83798683
www.arborsapientiae.com
info@arborsapientiae.com
redazione@arborsapientiae.com
ISBN: 978-88-97805-42-7

TA B LE OF C ON TE N TS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface
Arne Kirsch, Eric McFadden
IntroduzIone generale / general IntroductIon
Maria Caccamo Caltabiano and Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

IX
XI

ANTIQUITY
IntroductIon / eInleItung
Marguerite Spoerri Butcher and Bernward Ziegaus
Monetary InstruMents In antIquIty before coInage
John H. Kroll
la Pennsula IbrIca
Manuel Gozalbes
MassalIa, PenIsola ItalIca, Magna grecIa
Renata Cantilena
sIcIlIa
Lavinia Sole
balkanrauM und nrdlIches schwarzMeergebIet
Ulrike Peter und Vladimir F. Stolba
greece froM the archaIc through the hellenIstIc PerIod
Selene E. Psoma
asIa MInor In the archaIc and classIcal PerIods
Koray Konuk
lasIe MIneure hellnIstIque
Marie-Christine Marcellesi
cyPrus
Evangeline Markou
the levant
Danny Syon
les sleucIdes
Frdrique Duyrat
the coInage of arabIa before IslaM
Peter G. van Alfen
battrIana e PartIa
Fabrizio Sinisi
the PtoleMIes
Catharine Lorber
carthage et lafrIque du nord
Laurent Callegarin
the roMan rePublIc
Bernhard E. Woytek and Richard B. Witschonke ()
froM augustus to coMModus
Richard Abdy
de PertInaX la reforMe de dIocltIen (193-294)
Vincent Drost
late antIquIty (294-491)
David Wigg-Wolf
les Monnayages ProvIncIauX : les ProvInces occIdentales
Laurent Callegarin, Suzanne Frey-Kupper et Vincent Genevive
ProvIncIal coInages: eastern ProvInces
Dario Calomino and Marguerite Spoerri Butcher
kelten
Stefan Krmniceck, Virgil Mihailescu-Brliba, Jir Militk, Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier
und Bernward Ziegaus

2
5
8
17
28
39
59
83
93
107
111
126
132
135
142
152
161
180
195
210
220
228
244

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN WESTERN COINAGES


IntroductIon
Hubert Emmerig and Lucia Travaini
byzantIuM
Pagona Papadopoulou
ItalIa, v-X secolo, 2000 - 2013 (vandalI InclusI)
Alessia Rovelli
vIsIgotos
Ruth Pliego-Vzquez
the MerovIngIan sectIon of the early MedIeval coInages
Arent Pol
the carolIngIans
Simon Coupland
deutschland
Hendrik Mkeler und Michael Matzke
sterreIch
Hubert Emmerig
Schweiz Suisse Svizzera
Benedikt Zch
france Xe-XXe s.
Marc Bompaire
ItalIa: XI-XXI secolo
Lorenzo Passera e Andrea Saccocci
Pennsula IbrIca
Albert Estrada-Rius
the low countrIes
Arent Pol
england, wales and scotland: MedIeval
Martin Allen
england, wales and scotland: Modern
Robert Thompson
denMark and Iceland
Jens Christian Moesgaard
norway
Terje Masterud Hellan
sweden
Frdric Elfver
fInland
Tuukka Talvio
Poland
Borys Paszkiewicz
the baltIc regIon
Ivar Leimus
russIa: the MedIaeval and early Modern tIMes (9th17th cent.)
Peter G. Gaidukov and Ivan V. Volkov
russIa: the IMPerIal PerIod (18thearly 20th cent.)
Alexander V. Khramenkov and Ivan V. Volkov
czech rePublIc slovak rePublIc
Roman Zaoral
hungary
Csaba Tth
greece
Panagiotis G. Kokkas
Modern coIns of cyPrus (18782008)
Eleni Zapiti
crusader coInage 2002-2013
Julian Baker

280
281
298
303
305
310
313
328
333
341
359
380
397
402
414
419
421
424
426
428
436
442
453
460
469
472
476
478

ISLAMIC, ASIAN AND AFRICAN COINAGES


La Numismatique de LOrieNt NON-musuLmaN
IntroductIon
Franois Thierry
sasanIan nuMIsMatIcs
Nikolaus Schindel
nuMIsMatIque kouchane
Osmund Bopearachchi
vorIslaMIsche nuMIsMatIk In MIttelasIen
Larisa Baratova
nuMIsMatIque de lInde du sud et du srI lanka
Osmund Bopearachchi
nuMIsMatIque chInoIse
Franois Thierry
nuMIsMatIque du vIetnaM et de lIndochIne
Franois Thierry, Nguyn Thy H et Emmanuel Poisson
recent research In the fIeld of JaPanese nuMIsMatIc hIstory
Sakuraki Shinichi
aksuMIte coIns
Vincent West
isLamic sectiON: the mediterraNeaN, WesterN eurasia, ceNtraL asia aNd Later sOuth asia
IntroductIon, MaPPIng the fIeld
Stefan Heidemann
Pre-reforM coInage
Stefan Heidemann
the uMayyad and abbasId calIPhate, and Its regIonal successors untIl the buwayhIds
Stefan Heidemann
al-andalus
Alberto Canto
north afrIca and MuslIM sIcIly
Stefan Heidemann
Egypt and Bild al-Shm (from thE fimidS/SEljqS to thE mamlkS)
Stefan Heidemann
arabIan PenInsula, yeMen and east afrIca (Post-classIcal PerIod)
Stefan Heidemann
Pre-ottoMan anatolIa
Stefan Heidemann
the ottoMan eMPIre
Stefan Heidemann
iraq, iran and afghaniStan (from thE SEljqS to thE 19th century)
Stefan Heidemann
EaStErn EuropE and thE CauCaSuS (from thE SEljqS to thE 19th century)
Vladimir Nastich
golden horde and Its successors
Vladimir Nastich
central asIa
Vladimir Nastich

496
496
497
502
508
512
514
521
525
529
531
531
533
533
534
535
535
535
535
536
536
536
537
538

OCEANIA AND THE NEW WORLD. EL NUEVO MUNDO: AMRICA Y OCEANA


IntroduccIon
Julio Torres y Miguel Ibaez
oceanIa
Walter R. Bloom
unIted states and canada
Alan M. Stahl
MXIco, centroaMrIca y sudaMrIca
Julio Torres y Miguel Ibaez

594
595
607
611

MEDALS
IntroductIon
Tuukka Talvio
denMark
Else Rasmussen
sweden
Marie-Astrid Voisin-Pelsdonk
fInland
Outi Jrvinen
norway
Anette Sttem
great brItaIn and Ireland
Henry Flynn
belgIuM, the netherlands and luXeMbourg
Jan Pelsdonk
france
Ins Villela-Petit
Portugal
Maria Rosa Figueiredo
esPaa
Javier Gimeno
ItalIa
Valentina Casarotto & Valeria Vettorato
deutschland
Martin Hirsch
swItzerland suIsse
Gilles Perret
sterreIch
Elmar Frschl
Poland
Witold Garbaczewski
czech rePublIc
Tomas Kleisner
hungary
Lajos Pallos
croatIa
Ivan Mirnik
serbIa
Marija Mari Jerini
russIa and the cIs countrIes
Lidia Dobrovolskaya
unIted states and canada
Alan M. Stahl
oceanIa
Walter R. Bloom

622
623
624
626
628
630
634
646
650
653
660
678
686
690
696
701
704
709
713
716
725
728

GENERAL
the hIstory of nuMIsMatIcs and collectIons
Christian Edmond Dekesel
analyses lMentaIres, MtallograPhIques et IsotoPIques
Maryse Blet-Lemarquand & Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier
Museen und saMMlungen
Hortensia von Roten
nuMIsMatIc lIterature and the Internet
Thijs Verspagen
nuMIsMatIcs, coMPuters and the Internet
Daniel E.J. Pett

734
743
751
757
761

PREFACE

The International Association of Professional Numismatists (IAPN) is once again pleased to


sponsor the publication of the Survey of Numismatic Research, and to support the INCs longstanding
efforts to encourage scholarship and foster cooperation among numismatists.
Since the Renaissance, numismatists have taken great care in the preservation, study, and display
of coins. The fascination of coins as historical and artistic objects has captivated generations from all
walks of life: academia and commerce; royal and common; men, women, and children.
In recent years, as coins have come to be more widely perceived as national cultural patrimony, and
as more nations have claimed them as part of their heritage, this age-old pursuit has been changing.
We would like to take this opportunity to say a few words about these developments and about the
role of the trade.
Nations have an indisputable right and duty to protect their heritage, and the IAPN fully supports
that. But the increasingly widespread practice of declaring coins as national patrimony, precluding
their export and seeking their repatriation, threatens to undermine the traditional international trade
and the ability of individuals and institutions to assemble systematic collections of the sort that have
long provided the basis for numismatic study. Even common and well-known coins are now classiied
as national treasures. Many such coins have been traded unencumbered for centuries, although they
were almost never published in auction catalogues or price lists so pedigrees can rarely be established.
The new restrictions are disrupting the legitimate trade, sometimes resulting in the coniscation of
items without evidence that they were illegally excavated or illegally exported. Disagreement over the
propriety of these restrictions has polarized the positions and exacerbated the relationships amongst
scholars, dealers and collectors. The IAPN supports the legitimate international trade as a fundamental
tradition of numismatics, while striving to create an atmosphere of collaboration that will beneit all
involved.
The IAPN is a non-proit organization of the leading international numismatic irms founded
in 1951. It was formed in the aftermath of World War II to help reestablish relationships amongst
professional numismatists that had been badly frayed during years of conlict. The objectives of the
IAPN are the development of a healthy and prosperous numismatic trade conducted according to
the highest standards of business ethics and commercial practice, the encouragement of scientiic
research and the propagation of numismatics, and the creation of lasting and friendly relations amongst
professional numismatists around the world.
The IAPN has 105 member irms in twenty-three (23) countries. Each of these members has
subscribed to the associations code of ethics, which stipulates that members agree To guarantee that
good title accompanies all items sold, and never knowingly deal in any numismatic items stolen from
private or public collections or reasonably suspected to be the direct products of illicit excavations
in contravention of national cultural heritage legislation. Members who have been found in
contravention of this requirement have been given the choice of either resigning voluntarily or being
suspended and the IAPN takes this obligation seriously.
Recently introduced trade restraints trade restraints and acquisition guidelines not only result in
questionable impediments to private commerce, but also have a direct impact on museums, limiting
their acquisition of coins. The IAPN recognizes the crucial role that museums play as repositories of
our numismatic heritage, and as centers of research and education, and it is our view that museums
should be able to continue to build their numismatic collections with appropriate acquisitions. The
great museum collections of today were the great private collections of past eras.
IAPN members fully recognize the value of recording the context of inds. IAPN members have
traditionally worked with scholars and museum curators to record the content of hoards. The success of
the system in the United Kingdom, along with the Portable Antiquities Scheme in England and Wales,

IX

could serve as models for other countries where much valuable information is being lost unnecessarily
through the lack of appropriate incentives to inders.
No fewer than ten IAPN member irms act as publishers of numismatic books as an adjunct to their
primary business as numismatic auction houses. Without their continued support, much numismatic
scholarship would never be published. The IAPN directly supports numismatic research through its
publications program, annual book prize, and funding of the Survey of Numismatic Research since
1979. The IAPN also seeks to suppress the trade in forgeries and reports stolen coins to its members
so they can be recovered. Its forgery research has worked best when done in close collaboration with
institutional numismatics. It is our hope that the cooperation shown in this area can be extended to
the area of cultural patrimony and that all parties will work together to create acceptable standards
advancing the study and appreciation of historical coins and the preservation of archaeological context.
More about the IAPN may be found on the internet at http://www.iapn-coins.org.

Arne Kirsch
President

Eric McFadden
Immediate Past President

INTRODUZIONE GENERALE /GENERAL INTRODUCTION


Maria Caccamo Caltabiano and Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

Following the trend of previous years, this


new volume of the Survey attests to a considerable
increase in the output of scholarly publications
in the ield of numismatics. In particular we can
see a welcome growth of contributions from
our colleagues in Eastern Europe, in Turkey and
also in the New World. We can observe a more
focused effort compared to the past, in publishing
and cataloguing coins from private and public
collections, as well as exhibition catalogues.
There is a renewed interest in coins mentioned in
the literary and epigraphical sources, and for the
medieval period for those registered in archives
and oficial documents. As in other ields, the
history of collecting has attracted attention, jointly
with the history of numismatics and numismatists.
There are many works of synthesis, contributions
on speciic aspects of a single coinage or mint,
notices of new types or specimens that came to
light in excavations or appeared on the market
and in auction catalogues. Metal analyses using
different methods are becoming the norm not only
to determine the composition of coins but also to
help establishing their chronology.
While on one hand there seems to be a
dearth of comprehensive mint studies based on
die comparison, on the other, coin circulation
has become one of the most frequent topics
of numismatic conferences and research,
documenting new hoards and excavation inds,
and generating an interest in the economic
and political history of the regions under
examination. These quick publications of new
discoveries, however, often result in very short
analyses of one or two pages that can fragment
our knowledge and hinder the historical
interpretation of the various contexts of the
documents under consideration.
In general we can note a new shift to put
traditional technical studies into the broader
historical framework of political, sociological
and economic disciplines. Some studies tried
to place coin inds from a single site within
economic regions in order to determine speciic

Confermando il trend evidenziato negli anni


precedenti, anche il nuovo volume del Survey
registra un considerevole incremento della produzione scientiica nellambito degli studi numismatici. Cresce, in particolare, il contributo alla
Numismatica dei colleghi dei paesi dellEuropa
dellest e della Turchia, ma anche del cosiddetto
Nuovo Mondo. Maggiore impegno, rispetto al
passato, stato dedicato alla pubblicazione dei
materiali, di Cataloghi di collezioni pubbliche e
private, di Mostre. Ma maggiore considerazione
hanno anche avuto le monete citate nelle fonti
letterarie ed epigraiche, e - per let medievale quelle registrate nei documenti di archivio.
Linteresse si rivolto alla storia del collezionismo, ma contemporaneamente anche alla storia
della numismatica e dei numismatici. Numerosi
sono stati i lavori di sintesi, i contributi su aspetti
peculiari di una singola monetazione, le segnalazioni di nuovi tipi e di varianti provenienti da
scavi o comparsi in cataloghi di vendita. Si sono
intensiicati gli esami della composizione metallica delle monete, anche ai ini di una loro possibile determinazione cronologica.
Mentre si registra la carenza di studi fondati
sulla raccolta e la ricostruzione della sequenza
dei conii, prevale in assoluto nella ricerca e nei
convegni - lattenzione alla circolazione monetale, con esame di tesoretti e di rinvenimenti
nel contesto archeologico, e il contemporaneo
interesse per la storia economica e politica delle
aree esaminate. In diversi casi, tuttavia, la rapida
pubblicazione dei rinvenimenti si esprime in articoli di breve respiro (anche una o due pagine)
che frammentano le conoscenze e non sempre
concorrono alla storicizzazione dei documenti
pubblicati.
In generale, si nota come sia stata avvertita
la necessit di inserire i tradizionali studi tecnici allinterno di cornici storiche sviluppate nel
campo delle scienze politiche, sociologiche ed
economiche. In alcuni casi si anche tentato di
inserire i rinvenimenti del singolo sito allinterno
di aree economiche, in cui possibile osservare

XI

speciici modelli di circolazione della moneta.


Particolare considerazione stata riservata alla
distribuzione geograica e temporale dei rinvenimenti monetali, con interessanti ricadute sul piano storico, che hanno evidenziato, ad esempio,
limportanza delle monetazioni non-romane
per leconomia monetaria di Roma nellAsia
Minore tardo-ellenistica.
Matura la curiosit e lo spirito dosservazione
per tutti gli elementi che connotano la moneta,
dal metallo alla tecnica per coniarla, ai tipi, agli
epiteti regali o imperiali, ai segni di controllo e
allindicazione delle date. Migliora in generale,
sul piano metodologico, lapertura ad altre discipline. Si fa strada la Cognitive Numismatics che,
con metodo multidisciplinare, integra le diverse
fonti abbandonando la Narrative Numismatics
fatta di ricostruzioni tradizionali.
Si nota lemergere di gruppi di giovani storici
delleconomia interessati ad esaminare la funzione
economica e sociale della moneta. Ampio spazio si
comincia a dare al dato monetario nella ricostruzione dei processi storico-economici, soprattutto per
let medievale, dimostrando la sostanziale unitariet della triade formata dal contesto economico,
dalla politica monetaria e dalla produzione della
moneta. Lapprofondimento delle analisi concorre
a recuperare realt inora poco attenzionate come
- ad esempio - il ruolo dei santuari nelleconomia
monetaria inglese di et medievale. Oppure, per le
et antiche, il ruolo del bronzo dalle fasi premonetali ad et pi tarde. In particolare, la nostra attenzione stata attirata dalla problematica testimonianza
epigraica di stateres chalkou (stateri di bronzo),
che se da un lato possono testimoniare levoluzione economica ed istituzionale che si accompagna
alla diffusione della moneta, dallaltro ci appaiono
frutto di processi svalutativi ed inlazionistici che
ben conosciamo nellet moderna. Processi che
rivelano situazioni debitorie e di impoverimento
conseguenti allaffermarsi di domini imperialistici
e a stati di guerra.
Da segnalare, in generale, ci sembra anche limportanza dei lavori di equipes, comunicati in contesti o Atti congressuali, o realizzati quali parte di
opere pi ampie. Ne sono pregevole esempio i due
volumi su Le zecche Italiane ino allUnit (Roma,
2011) coordinati ed editi da Lucia Travaini.
Oltre a quello economico il secondo dominio particolarmente riconsiderato stato quello delliconograia monetale. Nellambito della
monetazione greca i tipi monetali sono stati let-

pattern of coin circulation. Particular attention


was given to the geographical and temporal
distribution of coin inds that resulted in
interesting repercussion at the historical level,
for instance the importance of non-Roman
coins for the monetary economy of Rome in
Hellenistic Asia Minor.
There is a growing interest and keener
spirit of observation of all the elements that
deine coins, from the metal to the technique
of striking, the types, the royal and imperial
epithets, the control marks and the indication of
dates. A broader awareness of other disciplines
is leading towards better methodologies. The
introduction of Cognitive Numismatics based
on interdisciplinary approaches combines the
different sources, replacing the traditional
reconstructions of Narrative Numismatics.
Groups of young economic historians
interested in the economic and social function
of money are emerging. Especially in the ield
of medieval numismatics, more room is given
to the monetary factor in the reconstruction
of economic developments, which shows the
fundamental equivalence of the triad established
by the economic context, the monetary policy
and the production of money. The in-depth
examination of this kind of analyses brings
out realities previously unnoticed such as, for
instance, the role of sanctuaries in the English
monetary economy of the middle ages, or for
antiquity, the importance of bronze from the premonetary phases of coinage until the later periods.
Speciically, attention is drawn to the problematic
epigraphic evidence for stateres chalkou (bronze
staters) that on one hand can attest to economic
development following the spread of coinage, but
on the other seems to be the result of devaluations
and inlationist methods well-known in modern
times. These practices reveal states of debt and
impoverishment caused by the establishment of
imperialistic dominions and wars.
Worth noting in general is the importance
of team publications resulting from meetings
and symposia or achieved within broader work
projects. Exemplary of what can be accomplished
in this way for instance are the two volumes Le
zecche Italiane ino allUnit (Rome, 2011)
coordinated and edited by Lucia Travaini.
Besides the focus on coin circulation and the
economy, there has been a signiicant resurgence
of interest for monetary iconography. In Greek

XII

ti soprattutto quali simboli dellidentit statale,


alla luce delle pratiche cultuali e dei miti che
compongono il mondo del sacro.
Liconograia, relativamente poco indagata
ino a qualche decennio fa, divenuta oggetto di
numerosi articoli che esaminano il rapporto fra
potere centrale e utenti della moneta. Alliconograia molti autori del presente Survey hanno dedicato paragrai speciici, coerenti con lassunto
che lunico elemento che distingue un quantitativo
di metallo a peso dalla moneta esclusivamente
limmagine che la connota, segno visibile dellautorit emittente e garante del suo potere dacquisto, ma anche eficace veicolo di comunicazione.
Linteresse per lesame e la storicizzazione delle
iconograie monetali cresciuto soprattutto in relazione all ambito orientale (monetazione seleucide, persiana, tolemaica correlate a regni e personaggi storici che consentono di esaltare il legame
intercorrente fra scelte iconograiche e processi
di autolegittimazione e autorappresentazione).
Ma anche in relazione alla monetazione romanoimperiale liconograia stata esaminata notando
come luso delle tradizioni iconograiche sia stato
applicato ad intenzioni politiche e personali, con
messaggi speciici rivolti spesso sia alle regioni
che alle legioni. Continua linteresse per i tipi architettonici, sicuramente fra i soggetti pi antichi
ad essere esaminati nellambito degli studi iconograici. Si insiste non soltanto sul simbolismo di
legittimazione ma anche sul rapporto fra moneta
e identit civica o statuale, con la distinzione di
quanto si registra nelle zone centrali del potere sia regale che imperiale - rispetto alle periferie. Si
evidenzia, in particolare, lattenzione non soltanto
al tipo monetario singolo ma al programma iconograico adottato dalla singola citt o dallautorit al potere; si delinea anche la valorizzazione del
signiicato politico (e non solo economico) che
riveste luso di iconograie di altre citt, di stati
o di regni stranieri. Ad esempio, diversi lavori si
sono interessati alla fusione ellenistica tra gli
elementi tipologici greci e quelli orientali, testimoniata dalle monetazioni puniche. Un fenomeno
particolarmente evidente al tempo della seconda
guerra punica nella monetazione dei Barcidi e in
quella dellItalia e della Sicilia sotto il controllo
cartaginese, in evidente contrapposizione con lesperienza italo-romana. Anche lampia ripresa e
limitazione dei tipi monetali tolemaici in diverse citt del Mediterraneo, ha orientato un cono di
luce sulla politica espansionistica dei Tolemei e

numismatics, coin types have generally been


interpreted as symbols of civic identity in the
light of cult practices and of the myths that form
the realm of the sacred.
Iconography, which had not received
particular attention in numismatics until some
decades ago, has now become the topic of
numerous articles that examine the relation
between the central authority and those who
used coins. Many authors cited in the present
Survey offer detailed studies, derived from
the premise that what distinguishes a piece
of metal from a coin is solely the image that
characterizes it as visible mark of the issuing
authority guaranteeing its legal tender, and is
also a powerful means of communication. The
interest for the examination and historization
of coin iconography grew in particular for the
Eastern coinages, those of the Seleucids, the
Persians and the Ptolemies that relate to the
reigns of historical rulers, and best reveal the
link between the choice of coin types and selflegitimation and self-representation. Studies
of Roman imperial coin types as well have
shown how the use of certain iconographic
traditions served personal political purposes,
with speciic messages to the regions and the
legions. Architectural types have fascinated
scholars since the beginnings of numismatics
and continue to attract interest. Other
research focuses not only on the symbolism
of legitimation but also on the relation
between coinage and civic and state identity,
differentiating the centers of power regal or
imperial from peripheral areas. We note in
particular not only interest in the individual
single coin type but in the whole iconographic
program adopted by a speciic city or ruler,
and there is a deeper understanding of the
political reasons (besides the economic ones)
for using coin types from other cities or states
and from foreign rulers. Several works, for
instance, explored the Hellenistic fusion
of Greek and Oriental iconographies in Punic
coinages. This phenomenon manifests itself
particularly during the second Punic War in
the coinage of the Barcids and in those of Italy
and of Sicily under Carthaginian authority,
in strong contrast with the Italo-Roman
developments. The wide-ranging use and
imitation of Ptolemaic coin types in several
cities around the Mediterranean shed light on

XIII

the expansionistic policy of the Ptolemies and


on the extensive circulation of their currency
despite the absence of Ptolemaic coin inds in
these regions.
In addition we note with a certain satisfaction
how other colleagues are beginning to use the
term monetary language and to consider coins
as an indispensable primary historical source
when put into their economic and political context
and interpreted with the appropriate iconological
code. This of course without underestimating
the importance of the numerous contributions
in the ield of medals that pertain to art history
and the transmission of images: such studies
revealed unexpected historical implications like
the reconstruction of the history of medicine in
Peru through medals.
Finally, there has been no lack of interest,
especially in New World numismatics, in what
can be deined as exonumia: trade tokens,
merchant tokens, i.e. tokens of cooperatives,
public service companies, city halls, and public
and private companies. Though on one hand
such objects might be more relevant for the
history of collecting, in the modern world they
raise important economic issues pertaining
both to the conventional aspects of money and
coins, as to the question of what the measure of
wealth in the modern world is or ought to be.
If todays monetized economy allows money to
generate money, using both labor and material
goods, the old problem of what the measure of
value is or ought to be, recaptures our attention,
not in an abstract sense but in concrete relation
to local products. Hence the existence of bread
and mild tokens on Australia, and perhaps not
coincidentally an interest in the study of premonetary objects in Mexico, Central and South
America.
The scholarly numismatic output reviewed
in the present volume of the Survey attests to
the breath of innumerable possibilities in which
the study of coins and coin-like objects can
contribute to our knowledge of the history and
cultures of the world. Numismatists have always
been aware of the value of their investigations
and methodology. The challenging task in front
of us, however, remains our ability to convey the
results and discoveries of numismatic research
to our colleagues in related ields. Some still
consider numismatics a subsidiary, fringe
discipline. Our aim must be to disseminate

sullampiezza della diffusione della loro moneta


anche in assenza di speciici rinvenimenti in loco.
Inoltre registriamo con piacere come anche
altri colleghi comincino a parlare di linguaggio
monetale e che considerino la moneta una fonte
storica di primo ordine, solo che la si restituisca al suo contesto economico e politico, e se
ne interpreti il codice di comunicazione iconica.
Tutto ci senza sottovalutare limportante contributo che, sia in campo politico che in quello
della storia dellarte e della comunicazione per
immagini, viene assicurato dai numerosi studi di
medaglistica, che documentano risvolti storici in
ambiti non immaginabili, quale quello della ricostruzione della storia della medicina peruviana
attraverso le medaglie.
Non mancata inine, principalmente nel
Nuovo Mondo, lattenzione ad elementi che possono deinirsi exonumia: trade tokens, merchant
tokens, cio tokens di cooperative, aziende, municipi, differenti servizi pubblici e privati. Anche
se certamente questi oggetti interessano di pi
lambito collezionistico che quello delle istituzioni accademiche tradizionali, essi pongono nel
mondo contemporaneo importanti problemi di
tipo economico che investono sia la cosiddetta
moneta convenzionale, sia linterrogativo su
quale sia o debba essere oggi lunit di misura
della ricchezza. Se lodierna economia monetaria ha consentito che il denaro potesse generare denaro, a prescindere sia dal lavoro che
dallesistenza di beni materiali, si riaffaccia alla
nostra attenzione il grosso problema dellunit
di misura del valore, intesa non in senso astratto
ma con riferimento a quanto viene prodotto localmente. Da qui lesistenza dei bread and milk
tokens australiani e forse, non a caso, anche linteresse che in Messico, Centro America e Sud
America si registra per lo studio degli oggetti
premonetali.
La produzione scientiica censita nel presente
Survey dimostra le innumerevoli potenzialit conoscitive - della storia e della cultura dei popoli insite nella moneta e negli oggetti paramonetali.
Tutti i numismatici ne sono convinti e lo stanno
sperimentando in molteplici campi. Tuttavia,
limpegnativo compito che ancora ci attende
quello di comunicare questo ruolo ai colleghi di
altri settori scientiici che ancora considerano la
numismatica disciplina sussidiaria e di nicchia. Il
nostro obiettivo deve essere quello di allargarne
la conoscenza alle nuove generazioni e al grande

XIV

pubblico. Alla sua comunicazione contribuiscono oggi in misura notevole le crescenti presenze
in rete delle Collezioni di importanti istituzioni
Museali, sia pubbliche che private, che offrono
ricchezza di documentazione ed immagini di
alta qualit. Il ine ultimo sar quello di porre
in connessione i dati numismatici con documenti
di natura diversa, per facilitarne il confronto e
consentirne lo studio globale. Il futuro della Numismatica passa oggi dallapplicazione di metodi conoscitivi a carattere multidisciplinare, ma
anche dallutilizzo dei pi aggiornati strumenti
tecnologici, esso ci appare quindi soprattutto in
mano ai pi giovani. Laccresciuta pubblicazione di dissertazioni dottorali nel nostro campo di
ricerca ci consente di bene sperare anche sulla
loro adeguata preparazione scientiica.

the knowledge of coins both to the next


generation of scholars and to the general public.
Nowadays information communication is made
increasingly easier by the number of public and
private collections available online with full
documentation and high quality images. The
ultimate purpose is to be able to link all the data
together, facilitate comparisons of different
types of documents and allow global studies. The
future of numismatics relies on the application
of multidisciplinary approaches and on the
advances of technological communication in
which the next generation will be well versed.
The increasing number of doctoral dissertation
in our ield is the best omen for the soundness
of the scientiic training.

* * *
Gli Editori Generali desiderano esprimere la
loro gratitudine a tutti i Coeditori e agli Autori
per aver reso possibile la pubblicazione del presente volume, grazie al loro faticoso lavoro e alla
loro puntualit. Ringraziamo anche la IAPN per
il suo costante sostegno al Survey of Numismatic
Research e gli editori di Arbor Sapientiae.

The General Editors wish to express their


gratitude to the all the Sub-Editors and Contributors for making the publication of the present
volume possible by their hard work and punctuality. We also thank the IAPN for its continuous
support of the Survey of Numismatic Research
and the publishers of Arbor Sapientiae.

XV

ASIA MINOR IN THE ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL PERIODS


Koray Konuk

SNG and collections


An important addition to the SNG OxfordseressasecondvolumeonpreRomanAsanor
covering areas rich in early coins from Caria to Commagene; 2026 coins are catalogued of which
747 are from Caria alone (ashton and Ireland [8]). This region is again honoured in the SNG series
wttepublcatonofaranconsfromteulaarcaeologcalmuseum(tekIn and erolzdIzbay [95]). The same authors (94) publish a further SNG volume presenting a selection of 541
coins from Mysia, the Troad and Aeolis from a private collection in Turkey; the mint of Pergamon
being the most represented with 245 coins. Mention should also be made of SNG Greece 7 which
contains an interesting group of bronze coins from Asia Minor (Penna and stoyas [79]).
Caria takes pride of place again with the presentation by de callata and delrIeuX (17) of the Carian
coins collected by Louis Robert during his numerous trips in south-western Asia Minor. A large volume
publishes all the coins kept in the fonds Louis Robert which are put into context through a number of
informative maps that also allow one to follow the eminent scholar in his footsteps (delrIeuX [31]).
The Greek, Roman and Byzantine coin collection of Sinop museum is published by casey (21) who
also provides an introduction to the coins of that area of the Black Sea. A little-known coin collection
assemblednTurkeybyaBelganteacerandpreservedtodaynteSunaandnanKraoundatons
published handsomely by tekIn (92) who, with the help of other specialists, gives introductory chapters
to these various coin groups. The same author publishes a lavish catalogue featuring a selection of 107
coins from the beginning of coinage to the foundation of the Turkish republic which are commented and
used to illustrate the social and cultural history of Anatolia (tekIn [93]). The small collection of ancient
coins of the Izmir Museum of Commercial History is published by travaglInI, aydeMIr and seluk (99).
Also worth mentioning is an antipodean collection from Australia which includes a number of archaic
and classical coins from western Asia Minor (wrIght [111]).
Survey articles and handbooks
sheedy (84) presents the main numismatic publications on archaic and classical Asia Minor in
the previous survey of numismatic research (2002-2007). A general survey of coinage in Asia Minor
from the origins to the Ionian Revolt is published by konuk (56) as a chapter of the Oxford Handbook
of Greek and Roman Coinage. van alfen (102) takes a look at the processes that led to coin minting
in the archaic period and calls for the need to integrate technical numismatic die studies with recent
teoretcal frameworks developed n te ields of poltcal scence, socology, and economcs A
metrologcalstudyofAegeanmntsnteiftcenturyBsprovdedbyzIesMann (114). In a popular
article in Turkish, konuk (59) highlights the importance of coin evidence to advance our knowledge
of some of the little understood ancient languages of western Asia Minor. MarcellesI (68) surveys the
adoption and spread of bronze coinage in the Aegean world. lenger (64) presents a brief account of
tegrfinconograpyonconsofAsanorhoover (42) adds a further volume to the Handbook
of Greek Coinage series, covering the regions of northern and central Anatolia: Pontos, Paphlagonia,
Bithynia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lykaonia, and Kappadokia (with Kolchis and the Kimmerian Bosporus).
Origins of coinage, early electrum issues and the coinage of Kroisos
The electrum coins discovered in the foundations of the Artemision of Ephesos are still the
foundation stone of any study on the beginning of coinage. An exhibition catalogue on the Artemision
includes a presentation of 11 coins discovered during the more recent excavations conducted by the
Austrians in the 1980s and 1990s (karwIese [45, 46]). The Turkish version (47) of this catalogue

83

features an addtonal ntroductory capterA collectve volume on teArtemson inds gves te


opportunity to karwIese(45)totreatteconindsAnexbtononelectrumconageorgansedn
2012 at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem was accompanied by a richly illustrated catalogue written by
konuk and lorber (60) and edited by Haim Gitler. de callata (18) comes back to the papers and
discussions held at the international symposium on electrum coinage organised on the occasion of
the exhibition in Jerusalem by offering a synthetic presentation of the problems associated with the
beginning of coinage in the light of recent scholarship. An interesting collection of early electrum
cons, mostly recent inds, s catalogued n colour by lInzalone (67). The Pitchfork exhibition
catalogue includes a brief chapter on early coins illustrated by examples from the Australian collection
(davIs [29]). furtwngler (35) takes a look at the possible reasons which have led to the invention
of coinage. bresson (16) adopts an economic viewpoint with an emphasis on exchange and costs to
explanteuseofelectrumforteirstconsandtesubsequentevolutontoabmetallcand,inally,
to a trimetallic system. beden(1)looksatteelectrumconindsexcavatedllctlyonalltopste
nortofTeoswcteautordentiesastesteofOroannaAnexbtoncatalogueonSards
ncludesasurveyofteroyalydanmntstrkngteirstelectrumandteirstslverandgoldcons
(kroll [62]). Coin evidence is used by roosevelt (83) in his synthetic monograph on the archaeology
of Lydia, from Gyges to Alexander.
Persian Empire
kroll (61) and roosevelt (83), mentioned above, also discuss Achaemenid coins struck in Sardis.
alraM (2) provides a useful survey of the coinage of the Persian Empire in his chapter for the Oxford
Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. nIMchuk (73) takes a fresh look at the Persepolis Apadana
foundation deposits which include some of the earliest coins of the Persian Empire. An important and
much needed general study of the coinage of the Achaemenid Empire is due to bodzek (12) which
we hope will be soon translated from Polish to a more accessible language. corf, in a series of three
artcles,addressestesgnicanceandspecictyofteroyalconagewtanewteory()ealso
provides a synthetic approach to darics and sigloi (26) and gives an updated study of the subdivisions
of the daric and the siglos which are better known thanks to a number of new specimens discovered
overtepastfewyearsTeconograpyandsgnicanceoftearcerasacontypesstudedby
garrIson (37) and lIntz () Our understandng of te bronze conage of Tssapernes s muc
improved thanks to three studies by bodzek (11, 13 and 14). The coinage of another important Persian
ofical,Autopradates,ssurveyedbyMauerMann (70) who also gives a general account of Persian
coinages in western Asia Minor (71). The circulation of Persian coins is studied by garIboldI (36).
Petac, nIculescu and georgescu (81) publish their XRF analyses of a two sigloi in the collection of
the Romanian Academy. A third plated siglos in trade is also examined.
Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Mysia
staMcoMb (87) studies the autonomous bronze coinage of Heraclea Pontica which begins in the
fourth century BC. gkyIldIrIM (38) gives a general account of the coinage of Tios (modern Filyos)
in Paphlagonia. noll (75) is interested in the representation of the eponymous hero of Kyzikos
womteautordentiesonteobverseofanelectrumstaterdepctngapetasoswearngorseman. zakharov (113) publishes a number of plated Cyzicene hekte from the collection of the State
Historical Museum in Moscow. The little-known city of Harpagion in Mysia and its rare bronze
coinage of the second half of the fourth century BC have attracted the attention of delrIeuX (30).
MarcellesI (69) has penned an important book on the history and coinage of Pergamon from the
endofteiftcenturyBtoteendofteellenstcperodIntelgtofarecentoard, de
callata (17) studies the gold staters of Pergamon which are dated to the 330s BC. vavlIakIs and
lyrou (104) examine the formation of the Lesbians into a Koinon during the sixth century BC,
which is attested by the issue of a common billon coinage. The same billon coinage of Lesbos is
studied more in depth by lazzarInI (63).

84

Troad and Aeolis


AsortnotceonOprynonnteTroadandtsconagespublsedbyaltInoluk (3). lenger
(65) looks at the various possible mints in the Troad and Mysia for a series of bronze coins of the
fourth BC traditionally attributed to Thymbria. noll (74) offers a study of the history and coinage of
the city of Boione in Aeolis whose coinage is now better known thanks to a number of new specimens
which have appeared over the past few years.
Ionia and Lydia
One of te earlest oards of slver fractons, almost certanly from te mnt of olopon,
is fully published by kIM and kroll (48). The question of the electrum staters traditionally
connected with the events and the cities taking part in the Ionian Revolt is examined by hanke
(39). The early coinage of Phocaea in its economic and historical background is presented in a
general article by van alfen and bransbourg(1)TeirstbronzessuesofIonaaredscussed
in the light of the Phygela hoard by konuk (53) who entertains the possibility that these small
bronzes weighing just over half a gram may have been used as tokens in lieu of silver fractions.
The coinage of Leukai in northern Ionia is studied by kInns (49) who also discusses the Persian
type silver fractions which have recently appeared on the market. furtwngler (34) puts into
perspective Herodotos account of the tyrant of Samos Polykrates minting gold-plated lead coins
with the few lead coins attributed to Samos that have been known to exist for over a century
togeterwtrecentindsofleadconsnteexcavatonsofSamosAcollectonoflatercons
from Samos kept in the Numismatic Museum in Athens is discussed by evgenIdou (33). Another
collectonofSamanconsnAtenssbrelypresentedbyoeconoMIds (76). hardwIck (40, 41)
gives an update on his earlier studies based on his doctoral thesis on the coinage of Chios. From
Lydia comes an unexpected silver fraction carrying a legend in the Lydian script (egetMeyer
[32]). If we are to follow the authors transcription the legend reads ifelim (I am of [belong to]
Ifes), probably the name of the issuer.
Caria
An early stater of Aeginetan weight carrying a turtle and its mint place is discussed by chevIllon
and fournIals (22). konuk (49) suggests that a unique stater at the British Museum carrying a
legend in the Lycian script may have been minted by the Lycian dynast Erbbina at Telmessos
durngsmltarycampagnaganstKaunosAprolicseresofslverfractonscarryngtree
or two Carian letters is tentatively ascribed to Kasolaba not far from the Halikarnassos peninsula
by konuk (51). Staying in the same area, konuk (57) attributes some unpublished bronze coins
to Karyanda and re-locates a bronze issue from the Pidasa on mount Grion to the Pedasa near
Halikarnassos. The cultural background of the Hekatomnids of Caria has received a synthetic
treatment by carstens (20) who also discusses the various features of their coinage. The dynast
of Mylasa Hyssaldomos, father of the founder of the Hekatomnid dynasty, is credited with a
fractional coinage bearing letters in the Carian script (konuk [51]). A general survey of the
coinage of the Hekatomnids is given by konuk (58) who also provides a brief description of
the monumental tomb of the Hekatomnid period recently discovered in Mylasa. The payment
of the ekklesiastikon at Iasos and the coinage associated with it is reassessed by konuk (53).
Te nluence of te Rodan mnt on te conages of te Aegean slands from te classcal
period onwards is examined by stefanakI (89). Coin circulation in the Dodecannese from the
archaic period onwards is appraised through the examples of Kos and Kalymna by stefanakI and
gIannIkourI (90). The coinage of the small island of Telos in the late classical period is studied
stefanakI (88).

85

Cilicia
van Alfen (101) argues that a unique coin from a late fourth century Near Eastern hoard (Anderson
and van Alfen [4]) is from one of the last series of coins produced in Issos before the Macedonian
take-over in 333 BC.
Lycia
b orchhardt and b leIbtreu (15) publish a detailed monograph on Lycian cities in which
they make urbanistic comparisons with early cities of the Near East; coin evidence from Lycia
is used throughout the book. v IsMara (108) presents a new silver plated denomination of the
dynast Kuprlli and addresses the question of ancient forgeries and how they were produced
in Lycia. An anepigraphic issue, depicting a lion attacking a bull / a bull walking right or left
wt a trskeles, prevously attrbuted to eter Kuprll or Ker, s dscussed by v IsMara
(107) who challenges these attributions and explores the possible reasons behind issues of
this kind. The question of mint organisation is examined by v IsMara (106) through the study
of 57 coins which allow die modifications and re-engravings to be followed. The coinage of
tedynastdenwelesexamnedbyv iSmara (105). zdoru (77) uses a new stater which
has appeared on the German marked to re-asses the coinage of the dynast Wekhssere II at
Pttara (Patara), but his attribution of this new coin to Wekhssere falls short of convincing. Five
unpublished Lycian coins are presented by s trhMann (91). Through examples in the Pitchfork
collection, s heedy (85) examines the portrait coinages of Lycian dynasts. Domestic animals in
Lycian sources including their representations on coins are reviewed by raIMond and v IsMara
(82). v oukelatos (109) offers a general study of the triskeles device on ancient Greek coins
including of course examples from Lycia.
Hoards
General
hoover, Meadows and wartenberg-kagan (43) publish the tenth volume of Coin Hoards which
mainly focuses on coinages that circulated in the Seleucid Empire. The main inventory section,
however, includes a number of notices of hoards from pre-Hellenistic Asia Minor. Meadows (72),
using hoard evidence, establishes a changing pattern of coin circulation in fourth century BC western
Asia Minor which appears closely correlated to changing patterns of coin production. Hoards of that
period and region tend to contain higher number of mints, a phenomenon that the authors links to
the increasing use of the Chian weight standard. konuk (55) looks at hoards and the circulation of
Athenian owls in Asia Minor and arguestatveryfewoardsandsngleindsarereportedfromwtn
the Arche in Asia Minor; whereas Athenian owls were hoarded in far greater number outside that area.
The paper attempts to understand the mechanisms that might explain this paradox and proposes to
reassess the role and place of Athenian currency in the cities and communities of Asia Minor subjected
to Athens. sheedy (86) examines a number of archaic hoards from the Cyclades which may have
included coins from north-western Asia Minor.
Sinop
arslan (5,)presentsaoarddscoverednconsstngofdracmsofSnop(ncludngive
struck under the Persian general Datames) and a Persian siglos which is the earliest coin in the hoard
whose burial date is placed in the middle of the fourth century BC.
Kyzikos
zakharov (112) publishes a small hoard of fractional Cyzicenes found by treasure-hunters in 1998
in the Settlement of Patraeus (Taman Peninsula). It includes three electrum hektai or hemihekta of
Kyzikos and one hemidrachm of Pantikapeion and is dated to the late archaic period.
Persian Empire

86

Aydemir (9) publishes a pot-hoard consisting of 1183 sigloi, now preserved in the Izmir
archaeological museum. Many of these sigloi bear punch marks, and they fall into the following
three types: Type II: 1; Type IIIb: 412; Type IV: 770. The proposed burial date is the end of the fourth
centuryBPetac,TamaltcandIont()publsafragmentaryoardof1latedarcsfound
bytreasureuntersatArgamumOrgamnRoumanaTeproposedburaldatesaround4B
Izdmrsk(44)examnessngleindsandoardsofPersanconsfoundnnorteasternTrace
Miletos
weIsser (110) publishes a hoard of nine silver coins found during the excavation of a house
in Miletos. The coins are from the early fourth century BC and come from the following mints:
Samos, Ephesos, Rhodes, as well as two satrapal tetradrachms which, in the light of the present
hoard, must now be updated and can no longer be associated with the Rhodian-born Persian general Memnon. travaglInI (98) publishes four lots of coins presented to the Izmir archaeological
museum in 1991, 1992 and 1993 which total 118 coins. It is likely, but not certain, that these
fourlots,reportedlyfoundfortutlyontesteofletos,comefromasngleoardTeirst
three groups consist of archaic obols of Miletos. The fourth lot contains, in addition to 16 obols
ofletos,1emobolsoftelonscalpscorpontypeandonelaterconofteendofteift
centurywcsprobablyntrusveOnedoesnotcompreend,owever,wyteoardasbeen
labelled Milas.
Samos
Touratsoglou (97) publishes a hoard found in the Gymnasium area at the ancient city of Samos, which
consists of 27 silver coins, for the most part from the last decades of the fourth century BC, including
nine didrachms of Samos, two didrachms of Magnesia on the Maeander, one didrachm of Ephesos, two
drachms of Miletos, two didrachms and seven drachms of Priene, and four drachms of Maussollos.
Phygela
konuk (54) discusses a hoard of more than 1000 very small bronze coins struck by various
mints of western Asia Minor, mostly situated in Ionia. The hoard was reportedly found in 1997 by
treasure-hunters near the site of Phygela. A summary list of its content is also given in Coin Hoards
X, 217 (43).
Aspendos
arslan (6) publishes a hoard of 270 silver staters of Aspendos with representations of wrestlers,
foundnnteprovnceofersn,dstrctofut,townofapazar,testeofteancentcty
of Koropissos in Rough Cilicia. The hoard is kept in the Mersin Museum.
Near East
anderson and van alfen (4) publish a hoard of 475 large silver coins, mostly Athenian owls, found
in the Near East that was buried between 334 and 330 BC. As far as our section is concerned, coins of
Sinop, Amisos, Maussollos, Aspendos, Tarsos and Issos are worth mentioning as well as a number of
imitative owls which may have been produced in Asia Minor.
Excavation coins
A general survey of coins found in the excavations of various sites of western Asia Minor is presented
by IzMelI-n and MarcellesI(5)woattempttoindeconomcareasnwcspeciccon
circulation patterns may be observed. Particular attention is paid to geographical distribution, while
chronological evidence is not fully exploited.
Allianoi
In this second delivery of coins found at Allianoi (campaign of 1999), tekIn and erol-zdIzbay
(96) publish this time three pre-Hellenistic bronze coins from Eleia, Mytilene and Gambrion.

87

Lesbos
kourtzellIs (61) presents the coins excavated from the ancient harbour installations in the north
port of Mytilene in Lesbos. A number of coins date from the fourth century BC and come from the
foundation level of these harbour installations. acheIlara (1) publishes the coins found during the
recent rehabilitation and enhancement works in the archaeological site of the Messon sanctuary on
Lesbos. Coins date from the fourth century BC onwards.
Kyme
nal (100) publishes the coins found in the 1950s excavation conducted by the late Ekrem Akurgal.
Most of these coins date to the Hellenistic and Roman periods but some, like several bronzes of Kyme
a well as a bronze of Larisa (?), may belong to the fourth century BC.
Klaros
IzMelI-n(,4)dscussesteconsfoundntesanctuaryofApolloatKlarosTeirst
article (23) is a commentary on an earlier article published in the RN in 2007 presenting the 344 coins
discovered during the 1988-1997 excavations led by Juliette de La Genire. Coins obtained during
earlier and current excavations are also integrated into the discussion. The second article (24) is a
slgtlymodiedTurksversonofteprevousartcle

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