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STAKEHOLDERS INPUTS ON A SCHOOL-BASED INITIATIVE


FOR A GUIDANCE PROGRAM REDESIGN:
A FOCUS GROUP APPROACH

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the
Faculty of Graduate School
St. Paul University Philippines

In Partial fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Guidance and Counseling

by:
MARIA ROSANNA A. DAUIGOY
July, 2012

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction
The new century dawns with colossal changes in all
facets

of

human

existence.

In

these

contemporary

times,

change has become synonymous to challenges and opportunities


for global competence.

Social, occupational and educational

structures, among others, continue to undergo modifications


making the society even more complex with each passing day.
This

reality

positions

young

people

in

stormy

and

stressful path as they journey toward creating their niche


in

the

society.

development

now

Traditional
stand

at

practices
re-defining

concerning
moment.

youth
School

leadership has been encouraged to adapt a paradigm shift to


be facilitative by building networks, creating teams and
governing

from

restructuring

the

center

exists,

(Lashway,

through

2010).

innovative

and

Current
creative

endeavors, to weave a strong human fiber among young people


and

brace

them

in

traversing

through

the

21st

century.

Contemporary leaders in education are engaged in out-ofthe-box thinking and creating a vision which translates to
action.

Along this line, the role of school stakeholders,

acting as a collegial body, cannot be overemphasized as an


innovative method for educational reforms. Apart from school
administrators, teachers and students, sights must be set
outside the walls of the school. Gathering of perceptions
among people from its external environment who hold interest
in the success and failure of education must equally be
considered.

Stakeholders

as

one

body

collaborate

to

structure and reform educational institutions. Gone are the


days

when

only

the

institution

head

decides

on

matters

concerning school development. Participatory planning and


decision-making is becoming increasingly popular in managing
schools.
Guidance and Counseling in schools continue to undergo
transformation, evolving from a position-service model to a
comprehensive program firmly grounded on principles of human
growth and development. Current trends in this discipline
cover

fresh

methods

and

techniques,

new

standards,

21st

century counselor competencies and a program-focused work


setting. With these transformations, Guidance and Counseling
metamorphosed as an integral part of education and an equal
partner with the overall instruction program focusing on
students academic, career and personal/social development
as echoed by Gysbers (2012). From the words of this most
influential personality in global counseling, there is a

loud

call

to

remodel

rather

outdated

school

guidance

program for it to become an integral part of education and


meet the complex needs of the individual and the society.
The

efforts

in

installing

comprehensive

guidance

and

counseling program may seem overwhelming but the rewards are


substantial,

states

Gysbers.

School

counseling

professionals are called to see the world anew, to build the


models

and

programs

of

the

future

and

to

start

today

(Johnson and Johnson, 2008).


In the home front, the K-12 program model for
educational reform is at our doorstep. The school counseling
community

in

the

Philippines

can

seize

this

moment

and

position itself at the forefront of educational change and


school improvement (Dahir, 2010).

Republic Act No. 9258

otherwise known as The Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004


has stirred the counseling profession in the Philippines
into

action

researcher

(Clemena,

included,

2010).

started

Guidance
to

Counselors,

invest

time,

this

effort

and

capital resources to qualify for licensure and be labeled as


professional
development
practitioners
developments

counselors.
trainings
to
in

are

translate
the

Academic

field

and

inspirations
visions
of

into

school

professional
that

moved

actions.

Recent

counseling

sparked

fervor

for

the

21st

century

counselor

to

take

on

leadership role in effecting system change in the school.


As the country stands in the threshold of a major
educational

restructuring

with

the

K-12

curriculum,

secondary schools have hit the ground running, so to speak,


shifting paradigms starting from grade seven to grade 10 and
the additional two years of senior high school. The Guidance
and Counseling Program Model which is adapted in this study
is basically designed for the K-12 Program. As such, this
program model is expected to further bolster the mandate of
secondary schools in preparing graduates to live productive
lives and become contributing members of the community after
high school. Students who are in pursuit of higher academic
training

will

dispositions

be

equipped

needed

for

with

better

knowledge,
adjustments

skills
in

and

higher

education.
The current Guidance Program of the Isabela National
High School, the largest public secondary school in the
Province of Isabela is forty years old and evidently, its
responsiveness
generated

much

to

the

demands

concern.

of

Steep

the

present

times

in

tradition,

has

public

expectations run high for the institution to run programs


that will enable students to survive the intricacies of
modern-day

living. The traditional program which has been

operational

for

so

long

may

have

been

adequate

in

the

distant past but needs, techniques, methods and resources


and increased expectations indicate that the model holds a
slowly diminishing value.

The 3,567 students that toil

daily through its corridors deserve to reap the benefits of


a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program where all
students will be served by a program-focused model.

The

standard of this model program is global but customizing it


to fit the indigenous needs of Isabela National High School
students will equally produced desirable results. Rich human
and material resources abound within the school and in the
local community and these can be readily tapped to develop a
new guidance program aligned to the academic, career and
personal-social

development

of

its

learners.

guidance

curriculum infused in the general school curriculum will


highlight

the

integral

role

of

Guidance

in

the

Isabela

National High School.


With its focus on planning and designing, this
initiative seeks to lay the groundwork for developing and
managing a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program in
the Isabela National High School.
The journey en route to building a program for the
future is not the work of tomorrow, it has begun today.

Review of Related Literature

Traditional Organizational Patterns


The evolution of Guidance in schools reached its peak
in the 1960s in the USA where number of school counselors in
the elementary and secondary increased rapidly. While in the
Philippines, Guidance in schools was just starting.

There

were three organizational patterns which were prevalent at


that time namely the Services Model, the Process Model and
the Duties Model.

Combination of these three approaches was

implemented in many schools. The Services Model had its


origins

in

activities

the
of

1920s

and

counselors

consists
around

of

six

organizing
major

the

services:

Orientation, Assessment, Information, Counseling Placement


and Follow-up. While the activities that fall under these
six services are important and useful, it is limited because
it is primarily oriented to secondary schools, it does not
lend itself easily to student outcomes and does not specify
how counselor time should be distributed. The Process Model
also had its origins in the 1920s and it emphasized the
clinical and therapeutic aspects of counseling particularly
counseling, consulting and coordinating. It has its appeal
as a model fitted for the elementary and secondary schools
but it has the same limitations as the Services Model. The

Duties

Model

simply

lists

the

duties

that

counselors

perform. It contains as many as 20-30 tasks and the last


which is usually mentioned is often perform other duties as
assigned from time to time. While equally applicable to
elementary and secondary counselors, student outcome are
difficult to identify and counselor time is not assigned.
The result of these organizational patterns is to emphasize
the position of the counselor not the program of Guidance.
Because

of

this,

guidance

was

seen

as

an

ancillary-

supportive service and placed counselors in a remedial and


reactive role which is not seen as a mainstream role in
Education. It further reinforced the practice of counselors
doing

administrative

clerical

duties.

Due

to

lack

of

appropriate organization and program focus, it has become an


undefined

program.

As

result,

guidance

and

Counseling

entitled,

emerged as an add-on profession.


Yasto

(2010)

conducted

study

The

Guidance Program of Isabela National High School, Ilagan,


Isabela: A Basis for Enhancement. The study looked into the
effectiveness of the Guidance Program of Isabela National
High

School

and

sought

to

determine

the

extent

of

implementation of the Guidance Program of the school. The


subjects of the study were randomly selected from students,
teachers-advisers, administrators and alumni. The study was

descriptive

questionnaire

survey
based

on

which

made

the

Villar

use

of

Guidance

revised

Evaluation

Questionnaire (2007). Results revealed that the Guidance


Program

was

implemented

to

great

extent.

Furthermore,

findings show that the respondents level of awareness on


the

Guidance

Program

was

high.

The

extent

of

the

implementation of the Guidance Program in five services is


to great extent while two services were implemented to a
moderate extent.

The guidance counselors as implementers of

the program effectively delivered the services to students.


However, there was a need to strengthen the program based on
the recommendations of the respondents and the result of the
study.
needs

An enhancement program was introduced to address the


of

the

students

based

on

the

recommendations

and

result of the study.


Sumeg-ang (2004) in his study, The Guidance and
Counseling Program of St. Ferdinand College, assessed the
current program using descriptive survey. The respondents
are the students, faculty and administration of the school.
The researcher determined the respondents perception on the
implementation of the guidance services that are actively
implemented and those that need to be improved. The study
made use of a questionnaire based on the PACU-COA instrument
for assessing Guidance programs. Findings reveal that the

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program

was

implemented

to

great

extent

except

for

Placement and Career services. The study concludes that the


Guidance and Counseling Program of St. Ferdinand College,
Ilagan campus was implemented to a great extent and was able
to

cater

to

the

needs

of

the

clients

to

some

degree.

However, there is still a need to enhance and strengthen its


implementation

for

Recommendations

were

regularly,

improve

it
as

to

be

follows:

the

Career,

fully

functional.

Program
Research

be

evaluated

and

Placement

services and conduct research to evaluate effectiveness of


the program and the students problems and needs.
These studies involved assessment and evaluation of
current Guidance Programs using descriptive surveys while
the

present

study

endeavored

in

redesigning

the

current

Guidance Program using a qualitative approach. Similarities


lie on taking the Services Guidance Models as points of
reference.

Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program Development


Villar
Comprehensive

(2009)

Guidance

in

and

her

book,

Counseling

Implementing
Program

in

a
the

Philippines, enumerated eight steps essential for setting


up a Guidance Program. The following steps were suggested:
Environmental Assessment from which the schools mission and

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vision shall serve to direct the goals of the program,


Needs

Assessment

of

the

target

population

to

make

the

program relevant, Priority Setting established from varied


needs,

Goals

should

be

and

Objectives

specific,

emanating

pertinent,

from

attainable

needs

which

measurable,

observable and time-bounded, Resources Determination which


includes

financial,

human

material

and

time,

Strategies

Identification incorporated plans and means to attain goals


and

Program

Program

Implementation

Evaluation

to

to

carry

determine

the

out

the

benefits

plan

of

and

program

delivery.
Realizing
organizational
oriented
rather

pattern

rather
than

the

than

weak

for

guidance

program

proactive,

points

the

of

the

which

focused,
reasons

traditional

was

position-

remedial-reactive
why

guidance

was

perceived as ancillary service in Education, Norman Gysbers


(1978)

found

need

to

address

this

concern

when

he

described seven steps to plan, implement and evaluate a


comprehensive
Guidance

guidance

Program

seven steps:
groups,

assess

compare

current

While

program
Living

in
In

his
It.

book,
He

Remodel

described

the

decide what you want to change, form work


current
program

program,
with

select

program

transition table and the last is

program
model,

model,

establish

evaluate the program.

12

Gysbers

asserts

different

sense

that
of

doing

so

fulfillment

gives
since

the
she

counselor
can

see

a
the

changes unfolding right before her eyes. In 1990, together


with his associates, they published a seminal work known as
the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model which contained
refinements of the original model. It has since become the
standard pattern of implementing Guidance programs in the
United States. As the new century dawned, select schools in
the US started to restructure their guidance programs based
on this model.
Gysbers and Hendersons (1994) book, Developing and
Managing

your

published

by

School
American

Guidance
Counseling

refinements and expansion

Program,

Second

Association,

ed.

contained

of a previously designed model.

From this remodeled form, a comprehensive Guidance program


model

was

founded.

Its

structural

Components

cover

the

definition, rationale, and assumption for the program. It


includes the mission statement central to the schools total
educational program. Rationale includes the importance of
guidance as an equal partner in the educational system and
the goals of the school. Principles or assumptions that
guide the program are also included. The Program Components
include guidance curriculum which exists on the assumption
that all students should learn in an organized sequential

13

curriculum consists of student competencies organized by


domains and structured activities presented systematically
through classroom and group activities. Individual planning
assists students to understand and monitor their development
through

individual

placement.

appraisal,

Responsive

individual

services

are

advisement

delivered

and

through

individual and group counseling, consultation and referral.


System

support

includes

professional

development,

outreach

program

and

research,

community

relations,

council,

community

advisory

management

and

operations.

Program

time deals with how time should be spread across the total
program. Resources which are crucial to the success of the
program included human, financial and political components.
This program model leads to guidance activities and
structured group experiences for all students. Counselors
are

kept

busy

because

they

have

guidance

program

to

implement thus, de-emphasizing administrative and clerical


tasks.

It

is

proactive

rather

than

reactive

and

is

understood as a student-development oriented and operated as


100% program-focused within an education-based setting.
School counseling as a profession was threatened in
the 80s and 90s and was not seen as a player in educational
reforms

because

of

standards-based

educational

movement

which saw school counselors irrelevant as their systematic

14

effectiveness

was

very

little.

In

response

to

this

impending risk, Campbell and Dahir in 1997 consulted widely


with

elementary,

America

and

Association

middle

crafted
National

and

the

high

school

American

Standards

counselors

School

for

School

in

Counselors
Counseling.

Included are the three main domains namely Academic, SocialPersonal

and

Career,

nine

Standards

and

specific

competencies for all K-12 students. The publication of the


ASCA

Standards

in

2003

ushered

in

unique

period

of

professionalization and strengthening of school counseling


identity, roles and programs.
The Canadian Journal of Counseling published a
manuscript

by

Graham-Migel

(2002),

The

Comprehensive

Guidance and Counseling Programs: The Beechville-LakesideTimberlea Experience. BLT Schools in Nova Scotia, Canada
with a population of 1200 from primary grade nine was
chosen by the Education Department to pilot a CGCP starting
in the school year 1996-1997. This manuscript presents an
overview of the program and its development after a fiveyear implementation and represents a guidance counselors
perspective, outlining the various components of the program
that

were

initiated

to

meet

the

students

needs.

It

focuses on program development including needs assessment


and description of programs designed to meet specific needs

15

of

students,

community

program

evaluation,

involvement.

The

staff

training

and

Comprehensive

Guidance

and

Counseling Advisory Committee a BLT School composed of the


guidance

consultant,

guidance

counselor,

administrators,

teachers, students, parents and community members continued


to provide input regarding what is needed in a Guidance and
Counseling Program to make it comprehensive. The four main
components continue to be important parts of the program.
The

CGCP

at

the

BLT

Schools

was

evaluated

to

be

very

successful during its initial years. As the implementation


phase continues, it carries on its mandate to operate on the
three domains of student development thereby effectively
addressing the needs of the students.
Imonikhe et.al.(2010)studied the Awareness of the
Comprehensive

Guidance

and

Counseling

Programs

Among

Secondary School Counselors in Midwestern Nigeria which


sought to determine whether counselors are aware of the
objectives

as

well

as

the

various

components

of

school

comprehensive guidance and counseling program. Participants


consisted

of

128

practicing

counselors

in

Midwestern

Nigeria. The data was collected through a questionnaire that


was administered to counselors in 82 secondary schools. Data
were

analyzed

using

descriptive

analysis.

The

School

16

Counselors

Awareness

of

Secondary

School

Comprehensive

Guidance and counseling Program Questionnaire


(SCASSCGCPQ) which consisted of three parts was used to
gather data. Results of the study indicated that counselors
were

highly

components

aware

of

the

of

the

objectives

comprehensive

and

guidance

the
and

different
counseling

program. The study concluded that guidance counselors must


publicized the Comprehensive Guidance and counseling program
by way of educating stakeholders on the need of adapting the
CGCP in Nigerian schools. Counselors should make sure that
the

vision,

clearly

goals

explained

communication

and

and

objectives

and

of

CGCP

opportunities

collaboration

are

are
of

fostered

specific,
extensive
among

all

relevant parties as CGCP approach to school counseling is


associated with gains in academic achievement.
The

Research

Journal

of

International

Studies

published a study entitled Assessment of the Quality of


Guidance and Counseling Services to Students Adjustment in
Secondary Schools in Edo, State of Nigeria in 2008. The
paper focused on the realities and assessment of the quality
of guidance and counseling services on students adjustment
in

Nigeria.

personnel,
services

Qualification
availability

were

of

hypothesized

of

guidance

facilities
not

to

and
and

counseling
quality

significantly

of

predict

17

student

adjustment.

practicing

guidance

Sixteen

secondary

counselors

were

schools

tested

with

with

420

respondents. The Secondary School Counselors Questionnaire


(SSCQ) and the Secondary School Student Questionnaire (SSSQ)
with .0.69 and .0.80 reliabilities, respectively, were used
using the Cronbach Alpha internal Consistency Reliability.
Two four-Point Likert-type scales were used to obtain data
for the study. Findings showed insufficient counselors in
schools,

inadequate

counseling

facilities

and

guidance

counselor qualification had an impact on the quality of


guidance

services

they

provide

to

secondary

students

in

Nigeria. These findings suggest that such variables will


significantly predict and promote students adjustment in
school. Absence of these variables could precipitate student
maladjustment. Recommendations were made to conduct a study
on

how

to

improve

guidance

and

counseling

services

to

promote student adjustment.


Brown and Trusty (2005) shared their belief that
school counselors can increase academic achievement by the
use of carefully crafted, targeted and implemented strategic
interventions

within

developed

comprehensive

school

counseling program. They defined strategic intervention as


one

in

which

students,

the

there

is

outcomes

a
and

match
the

among

the

needs

intervention

of

the

selected.

18

review of related studies establishing a correlation between


academic

success

and

comprehensive

school

counseling

programs, they suggested that school counselors continue to


use carefully designed strategic approaches such as study
skills

groups

classes

and

and

classes,

motivational

time

management

approaches

such

as

groups

and

behavioral

contracts and then evaluate the outcomes of these efforts.


McCoy and Mitchells (2005) A Descriptive Study of
Urban School Counseling Programs is a descriptive study
aimed to determine how urban school counselors adhere to the
Gysbers

and

counseling

Henderson

programs.

and

Myrick

sample

of

models

269

school

for

school

counseling

professionals was drawn from the ASCA membership roster of


members.

The

questionnaire,

cover

letter

for

their

participation and a postage-paid return envelops were sent


and

within

two

months,

102

were

retrieved.

The

results

indicated that those urban school counselors participate in


typical school counseling activities. The participants in
this study perceived low family functioning and academic
achievement among the most prevalent issues in urban schools
Beale (2004)came up with a series of questions to
assess whether a school is currently using a traditional or
contemporary guidance program based on the four components
of a comprehensive 21st century school counseling delivery

19

system

school

planning,

guidance

responsive

curriculum,

services

and

individual
system

student

support.

The

document asserts that school counselors are reluctant to


undergo change since they are stuck with the antiquated view
that

guidance

is

an

ancillary

service

rather

than

an

integral part of the total educational program. Transition


from a traditional program to a contemporary program is
difficult but not impossible. The first step in this change
process is to determine where your school counseling program
is and where it ought to be.
Rowley et.al (2004) studied Comprehensive Guidance
and

Counseling

Materials:
investigate

Programs

survey
national

of

Use

of

National

trends

in

Guidance

Trends.
the

use

Curricula

It
of

aimed

to

curriculum

materials within the context of CGCP and to offer preservice

and

in-service

school

counselors

summary

of

available curricula and resources which can be readily used


in their guidance classes. It cited the Missouri model as
the most innovative guidance curriculum as it focuses on
transforming and focusing school counseling programs from a
collection

of

practices

to

an

educational

program

integrating the CGCP into the academic mission of the school


district. The authors surveyed 102 school districts in 12
States that were identified as having implemented the CGCP.

20

A survey instrument requested the participants to list the


curricular

materials

used

in

their

CGCP

including

the

publisher, the year of publication and the grade level to


which the material is used. Counselors participating in the
study identified the developmental domain(s) being addressed
by the use of a particular material. Finally, participants
noted

the

district

objective(s)

guidance

addressed

by

and

the

counseling

curriculum

program

materials.

In

brief, the study shows that school counselors believed the


guidance

component

as

teaching-learning

process

aids

in

meeting programmatic goals as well as helps students attain


developmental competencies. Further, there were multiplicity
of

guidance

related

resources

being

used

counselors, and in only a few locations (e.g.


there

any

differences
included

real

implementation

emerged

the

across

following:

develop

levels.

school

Missouri) was

consistency.

grade

by

Curricular

Recommendations

district-wide

guidance

curriculum materials by grade level, set aside financial


resources purchase research-based materials and hire human
resources to implement the guidance curriculum component,
collaborate with schools to research and design curriculum
that meets particular students needs, develop curricular
materials to teach study skills
and

develop

and

implement

through
guidance

classroom guidance
curriculum

that

21

positively affects student learning to align counselors


role to the academic mission of schools.
Sink and Stroh (2003) conducted a study on the impact
of comprehensive school counseling program on students in
Washington

State.

They

randomly

selected

150

elementary

schools and classified them as having no counseling program,


a

moderately

implemented

implemented
reported

counseling

for

Initially,

programs

the

counseling
program.

and

students

or

Comparative

those

in

program

that

schools

had

with

highly

data
no

no

were

programs.
counseling

programs had higher scores on the tests but if they remained


continually

in

implementation,

both
high

schools,
usage

those

schools

students

did

better

in

high

on

both

measures that did students in schools without a counseling


program.

The

researchers

suggest

that

their

findings

be

added to the growing empirical support for comprehensive


school counseling programs.
A study was conducted among school counselors in the
State of Missouri in 2003 to determine the extent to which
the

Missouri

Comprehensive

Guidance

Program

had

been

implemented. Researches took steps to eliminate the impact


of

socio-economic

status

of

the

students

because

of

its

documented effect on achievement. The researchers reported


the

following

findings

based

on

hierarchical

linear

22

modeling analysis: students who attended schools with more


fully implemented comprehensive school counseling programs
reported earning higher grades, their school were better
preparing them for the future and they perceive their school
climate more favorably and felt safer in school. A follow-up
study by state leaders in counseling (Lapan, Gysbers and
Petroski)

used

the

same

set

of

data

and

research

methodology. The focus of their research was on the seventh


graders.

The

follows:

students

implemented

findings
who

reported

in

attended

schools

comprehensive

school

their

study

with

were

more

counseling

as

fully

programs

reported that they earned higher grades than those in other


schools, had better relationship with their teachers, got
more relevant education and had more positive view of the
school environment.
All these studies and the present one are related in
that

all

Counseling
theoretical

of

them

dwelt

Program.
framework

The
of

on

Comprehensive

present
the

study

CGCP.

The

is

Guidance
based

studies

on

and
the

reviewed

assessed the present program while the present is yet to


adapt the Model Framework.

23

Local

Efforts

to

Adopt

the

American

School

Counselors

Association (ASCA) National Model: A Framework for School


Counseling Programs
The time is now for Filipino school counselors in K
through 16 schools to seize this opportunity to take hold of
their

future

thus

asserts

Dr,

Carol

Dahir,

Counselor

Educator of the New York Institute of Technology, Project


Director of ASCAs National Standard for School Counseling
Programs

and

practitioners.

one

of

Americas

top

school

counseling

Dr. Dahirs influential works in Guidance

and Counseling, particularly the ASCA National Standards


(2003), have inspired school counselors worldwide. She was
invited as a keynote speaker in the Guidance Counselors
Circle Convention in Manila on December 2011 with the theme
Taking the vision into Action She stayed on to conduct
lectures and workshops on Developing a National Framework
for

the

Counselor
guidance

Philippines
Skills
and

and

conducted

Development

counseling

which

another
was

practitioners

workshop

designed
develop

on

to

help

and

hone

transformed skills and competencies. Dahir challenged the


school counseling community in the Philippines to position
itself at the forefront of educational change and school
improvement.

24

To
benchmarks

lay
for

the

groundwork

school

for

the

counseling

development

programs

in

of
the

Philippines, Rose Marie Clemena published a research-based


book, Developing National Standards for School Counseling
Programs

in

the

Philippines.

She

based

her

suggested

standards from the American School Counselors Association


(ASCA) National Standards as the starting point for the
development of its counterpart for the Philippine setting
considering the heavy US influence in the development of the
guidance movement in the Philippines. The ASCA standards
used covered the three domain areas of academic, career and
personal-social

development.

ASCA

defines

Standards

as

statements of what should be done in each area. Domains


are defined as broad areas of knowledge based on academic,
career

and

personal-social

development

that

promote

and

enhance the learning process. She used this as a first step


towards developing a national model for school counseling
programs

in

the

Philippines.

program,

performance

or

The

ethical

book

did

standards

not

include

but

instead

focused on content standards for students (knowledge and


behavior that school counseling programs are expected to
develop in their students. Licensure of Guidance Counselors
and

professionalization

are

not

enough

assurance

that

students are getting expert help, Salazar-Clemenas studies

25

show. She noted that school counselors were often given


functions that are not suitable to the profession. Roles and
varied perceptions of the job resulted in inconsistencies in
the practice and in conclusion, in the design and delivery
of programs. The author expressed hope that the book would
help

guidance

counselors

develop

more

responsive

counseling program that would support the other components


of

the

educational

system

in

trying

to

improve

student

achievement.
During
Association

of

the
the

Integrated

Professional

Philippines

(IPCAP)

Counselors
3rd

annual

conference in Baguio City in 2010, Urrea and Ramos discussed


Quality Indicators and Upgraded Competencies. They talked
about

how

professional

counselors

everywhere

would

customarily utilize the same components in designing their


guidance programs and services every year in response to the
needs

of

the

students.

Their

competencies

are

thereby

demonstrated in the implementation of these programs and


services. They further noted that similarities in the school
counselors program designs and services would only imply a
difference when they can competently show that they are able
to

make

difference

in

the

lives

of

the

students

in

quantifiable terms. Employing the American School Counselor


Association (ASCA) National Model as a benchmark in creating

26

our indigenous national model will focus on facilitating


student competencies in enhancing their academic personalpersonal and career development as well as produce the call
to constantly upgrade counselor competencies in addressing
these goals in their clientele. This Model will likewise
identify quality indicators in monitoring their performance
and progress towards the set goals and objectives. Quality
here is discussed in the light of an acceptable standard as
a

minimum

indicator,

and

its

application

is

then

demonstrated in the design and delivery of the guidance


program and services so that the target improvements in
students lives can be measured and appreciated.
Clemena in March 2009 explored The Practices and
Problems

of

Guidance

Counselors

in

Counseling Programs in the Country.

Implementing

School

Fifty participants in

the Guidance Counselor Circle (GCC) workshop on Designing


Data-Driven Guidance and Counseling Programs in Baguio City
served as the subjects of the study. The Questionnaire on
School Counselors Tasks by Campbell and Dahir (1997) which
contained tasks based on activities endorsed by the American
School Counselors Association (ASCA) was accomplished prior
to

the

focus

group

discussion

(FGD).

Appropriate

and

inappropriate counselor activities were identified by the


respondents and were asked to add to the list any other

27

tasks

they

perform

appropriate or not.

and

indicate

whether

these

are

The five FGDs consisting of about 10

members each tackled three questions with reference to the


questionnaire answered earlier during the data gathering
procedure. The participants enumerated and discussed the
roles they play in their employment setting, indicators of
their

successes

problems

of

Quantitative

and

school
and

failures
counselors

as

qualitative

counselors

and
data

and

counseling
were

common

programs.

collected

using

Johnson and Onwuegbuzies mixed-model design. Categorical


data from the questionnaire were summarized with frequency
counts and FGD data was subjected to qualitative analysis.
This study is the second stage of the multi-stage datagathering

process

needed

to

come

up

with

book

on

Developing National Standards for School Counseling Programs


in the Philippines.
In the same year (2009), as a concluding step of her
project, Clemena ventured on the fourth and final stage by
Determining

General

Agreement

About

Components

National Model for School Counseling Programs

Of

where the

results of the final survey were presented to three groups


of samples: participants in the 2009 Guidance Counselors
Circle

(GCC)

professional

Convention

Workshop

organizations

of

in

Manila,

counselors

officers
and

of

graduate

28

students in the course Current Trends in School Counseling


handled by the researcher. Focus group discussions (FGDs)
were held to gather feedbacks, determine a general agreement
among

practitioners

development

of

Programs.

The

and

find

National
convention

out

Model

implications
for

School

participants

who

to

the

Counseling
came

from

different parts of the country were chosen as discussants to


provide a national perspective from practitioners. The input
of

officers

important

from

professional

because

advancement

of

of

the

their

profession.

organizations
leadership
Given

was

role

their

deemed
in

the

exposure

to

contemporary issues in the field, the graduate students were


likewise
responses.

tapped
Four

to
guide

provide

relevant

questions

for

research-based
discussion

were

distributed. The findings under the four discussion topics


were as follows:
(1) A need for a fourth domain tied with spirituality
or values development within the personal-social strand or
as a fourth domain. The professional leaders saw a need to
add the aspect of family in one or more of the domains.
(2) A need for a Filipino model/framework for school
counseling which will involve shared responsibility with
school stakeholders and coordination with policy makers in
the department of Education for the re-alignment of the

29

curriculum. This national model will be modified according


to

the

needs

of

the

students

in

specific

learning

institution.
(3) A need for the ASCA National Standards to be
adopted with innovations to suit multicultural diversity of
Filipinos although additional components and features were
proposed to make it culture-sensitive.

One group suggested

that the model be institutionalized before the Philippine


framework is developed
(4) The need to engage other people in the school
counseling

program.

information
different

All

campaigns

stakeholders

groups

saw

the

and

orientation

for

them

to

need

to

programs

know

the

conduct
for

the

nature

and

function of counseling work and become appreciative of the


program.

Another

popular

suggestion

was

to

involve

stakeholders in program planning and development through


advisory

councils.

Professional

leaders

emphasized

the

importance of professional development for the success of


the counseling program.
Clemena and Saldivar (2008) at
of

the

Philippine

Association

for

the Regional Workshop


Counselor

Education,

Research and Supervision (PACERS) in Cebu City gathered the


attitudes
national

of

counseling

standards

in

practitioners

Guidance

and

towards

Counseling

developing
and

their

30

opinions on the purposes such standards would serve. Nine


focus groups of approximately eight members each answered
five

questions.

Individual

and

group

responses

were

collected at the end of the sessions. Each group reported on


the consensus arrived at by members and were given the
opportunity to make corrections when necessary.

All the

groups showed positive attitude to the change in focus. The


most common opinion shared by six groups is: The shift
allows

counseling

efficiency

and

effectiveness

to

be

measured through changes in different aspects of students


life. Shared by five groups were the views that the shift
would lead to: (1) student-centered programs and activities
that would empower the students and our groups agreed that
the shift would make the counselors show accountability.
Other popular reactions, shared by two groups each, were
that the changes are badly needed and would lead to more
integrated, responsive, comprehensive and effective guidance
programs.

With

reference

to

counselors,

three

groups

conveyed their idea that the change would make counselors


more assertive and proactive that would give breath and
meaning to their profession.
These studies deal with local Guidance practices and
prevailing perceptions on adapting and developing national
standards

for

Guidance

and

Counseling

Programs

on

the

31

national

level

while

the

present

study

has

similar

objective of redesigning a Guidance and Counseling Program


based on needs in the local school setting.

Focus Group Discussion as a Research Approach for Guidance


Counselors
Focus group as a qualitative research methodology has
gained popularity in this postmodern era. It can be used to
obtain

information

about

the

opinions,

perceptions,

attitudes, beliefs and insights of a small group of people


(Kitzinger

and

Barbour,1999).

They

are

use

to

draw

out

unique understanding of experiences and events. Loesch and


Vacc

(1997)

methodology

stated
with

that

the

in

order

philosophical

to

align

research

underpinnings

of

the

helping professions, research must evolve from reliance on


traditional,
encompass

primarily,

greater

quantitative

recognition

and

perspectives

acceptance

of

to

newer,

primarily, qualitative research.


The growing popularity of focus group as a research
approach is useful for counselors because of its efficiency,
practicality
information
research

and
to

better

design,

assessment,

applicability

focus

program

serve

as

methods

clients.

groups

can

development

be
and

of

gathering

Depending
used

on

for

evaluation

the

needs
by

32

counselors. In many ways, focus groups are a natural fit


with counselors skills and philosophies and can be more
efficient

and

useful

than

traditional

research

methods

(Kress and Shoffner, 2007). Paraphrasing and probing skills


of

counselor

can

be

used

to

encourage

focus

group

participants to talk about the questions presented by the


moderator/facilitator.

This

explains

why

many

counseling

practitioners have adapted the strategy in doing research.


Focus group has been used with children and parents in the
school settings to evaluate the perceived the effectiveness
of a school districts counseling program (Scruggs, 1999).
Because

human

development,

empowerment

and

cultural

sensitivity are valuable foundations of counseling, focus


group methodology and counseling philosophy have a natural
affinity (Sweeney, 2001). Counselors have a responsibility
to continually seek out effective and innovative ways to
efficiently meet clients needs and to improve services.
Focus

groups

gathering
contribute

are

one

information
to

practical
and

improved

and

effective

conducting

counselor

research

practice

means

of

that

can

(Kress

and

Shoffner, 2007).
Pabiton C.P.,(2003) a former counselor educator from
De

La

Salle

University

and

presently

Professional Regulatory Board for

member

of

the

Guidance and Counseling

33

conducted a study to determine Counselors Reactions


Concerns.

The

main

purpose

of

which

is

to

and

determine

counselors reactions to and concerns about some of the


aspects of Senate Bill 1260 (an Act to Professionalize the
Practice of Guidance and Counseling in the country). Actions
related to licensure that counselors perceived as necessary
to be done by professional counselor organizations and/or
counselor

education

heads

were

also

looked

into.

Data

gathered from the study will form the baseline data for a
nationwide survey on counselor licensure. The focus group
discussion (FGD) was used as a research method since no
documented information on this topic was available locally.
Qualitative data was collected from four FGDs composed of
guidance counselors who were grouped homogenously to enhance
the quality of the data gathered thru FGD. The researcher
organized

the

FGDs

using

the

developmental

level

of

competency proposed by Bradley and Boyd (1993) in counselor


supervision. The participants were 38 practicing counselors
from DLSU, College of
College,

UP

Manila,

St. Benilde, St. Scholasticas


UP

Diliman

and

Centro

Escolar

University. The researcher followed a structured procedure


in the conduct of the FGD and was documented through audio
and video by a research assistant.

34

There were seven findings derived from the analyses of the


FGD:

prohibition

qualification
exemptions

against

for

from

the

practice

examination,

taking

of

Scope

examination,

of

counseling,
examination,

renewal

of

license,

creation of the Board and powers of the Board.


Data gathered from the study indicate an overwhelming
support

for

the

licensure.

Moreover,

the

participants

strongly express the need for more information related to


licensure and more cooperative alliance among professional
organizations,
officials
support

to

for

counselor
study

the

and

education

heads

implement

specific

professional

standards

and

of

government

measures
Guidance

in
and

Counseling in the country.


Morada

(2007),

also

present

member

of

the

Professional Regulatory Board for Guidance and Counseling


with a doctoral degree in Guidance from UP and a consultant
in HR ventured into a study on
Entrants to the Workforce.

The Work Values of New

The study took off with the

following objectives: What are the workforce values of our


Filipino

workers

specifically

the

new

entrants

to

the

workforce? Do older employees have different work values


from those of the younger, new entrant employees? The method
used

for

collecting

the

desired

data

was

focus

group

discussion (FGD). Four FGD groups were conducted with 10

35

employees per batch with age range from 20-30 years old.

In

addition to these 40 newly hired employees, two FGD sessions


were conducted among 20 employees from the same company
whose age ranges from 35-45. Five process questions were
formulated

as

interview

guides.

Findings

from

reveal seven work values from the new entrants


success,

personal

professionalism/work
operating

growth
ethics,

procedures,

relationships,
opportunities

structured
good

challenging
to

engage

and

in

the

study

(financial
development,

and

objective

working/interpersonal

work/work
leisurely

variety

and

pursuits)

while

additional two more (loyalty and gratitude and financial


security) were found among the older employees.
These results served as useful inputs to companies
continuous

search

for

excellence

through

their

human

resources management. These empirical data give signal to


both

local

and

multinational

companies

operating

in

the

country to review and adjust their human resource functions


and programs based on the needs and expectations of the
different generations.
These two studies and the present one share a
commonality in that the researchers are in the Guidance and
Counseling profession and used the focus group discussion

36

approach as a research method in their studies. They differ


in the variables under study.

Conceptual

Framework of Reference
Norman Gysbers, PhD. and Patricia Henderson, EdD

(2012) in the fifth edition of their book Developing and


Managing

Your

expanded

and

School

Guidance

extended

the

Program

implementation

substantially
steps

of

Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program model which


came

out

in

70s

in

another

book

with

Gysbers

as

the

co-author. The process which commences with the Planning


Stage provides the framework for this study
Gysbers and Henderson emphasized key points under the
planning stage in developing and managing a comprehensive
school guidance program.
I.

Getting Organized To Get There From Where You Are


Focus on the issues and concerns that are expected in

planning and organizing. Appreciate the challenges involved.


As an idea for change surfaces, the decision to identify
what is to be changed follows. Recognition of the necessary
conditions for effective change is vital.
dynamics

of

the

change

process

is

Awareness of the

helpful

since

this

endeavor is considered as a complex change. The necessary


components of change must be in place otherwise the whole

37

attempt

will

lead

to

confusion,

anxiety,

anger

and

frustration as the change will move so slowly, bogs down and


will

struggle

to

survive.

Along

the

way,

resistance

to

change is expected as it will be imperative for people to


start moving out of their comfort zones in order to embrace
something that is new.

Protecting the status quo will be a

thing of the past as people transform to become agents of


change.

Development

of

trust

and

confidence

among

counselors, teachers and administrators is encouraged as


these are the most needed people in developing and managing
a new program. A degree of dependence and reliance on them
will

contribute

to

the

establishment

of

leadership

for

change and make a serious commitment for action. Getting


organized

also

includes

forming

and

convening

school-

community advisory committee to serve as a link between the


school and the community to

be headed by a community

leader. A steering committee led by a school administrator


or guidance counselor to oversee the progress of the program
will likewise be formed. Work groups composed of lower level
school

personnel

shall

directly

assist

in

the

planning

efforts. With all the preceding steps in place, meet with


administrator to gain support and secure authorization to
install a comprehensive guidance program. Keep the passion
for

change

going

and

guard

oneself

from

wavering

and

38

faltering during this initial step.

Provide a leadership

for change by being active and always on the go.

II.

Conceptualizing the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model


Establish a theoretical perspective for the program

and describe the comprehensive guidance program elements.


The model program organized around the four basic elements
namely guidance curriculum, responsive services, individual
planning and system support.

The conceptual framework and

organizational structure of the program clearly define the


components and illustrate how the program works. Educating
the stakeholders about the model will drive them to support
it

from

language

planning
enables

through

the

students,

next

four

parents,

phases.

Common

teachers

and

administrators, school boards and school counselors to speak


in a common voice when they describe the program. They all
see the same thing and speak the same language to describe
the program framework.

Without the common language for the

program elements, Guidance and Counseling and the work of


school counselors will be lost in the total educational
system.

As a result, it will continue to be marginalized

and seen as a supplemental activity that is nice to have,


but not necessary (Gysbers and Henderson, 2012).

This is

the power of common language that must be understood as

39

planning

takes

place.

Within

the

basic

framework,

the

guidance (competencies) knowledge and skills students to be


learned,
school

services

counselor

to

be

time

provided

must

be

and

the

tailored

allocation

of

specifically

to

student, school and community needs and local resources.


This provides flexibility and opportunity for creativity for
personnel in every school to develop and manage a CGCP that
makes sense for the school.
III. Conduct a Thorough Assessment of The Current Program
Before moving on to the next phase of designing the
program, a careful review of the current program must be
done.

The

need

to

gather

information

of

students

and

community status in relation to the services provided by the


present

program

relevance

of

must

be

considered.

services

is

ascertained.

With

this

Current

data,

resources

available and how they are used must be identified and


program delivery should be studied.

Towards the end of the

planning phase, an important action should be taken which is


the gathering of perceptions about the program.

Perceptions

about student needs and what they should know and be able to
do

and

opinions

about

the

current

program

provide

comprehensive appraisal of the current program.

Interviews

and other techniques to draw together differing views may be


applied.

From

this

point

under

the

third

phase

of

the

40

planning process was born this study. The authors suggested


concluding the planning by discussing ways of synthesizing
the information into a cohesive, powerful report that can be
used

to

educate

school

administrators

and

other

people

involved who may be critical in the change process.

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study


The paradigm illustrates the different stages in the
conduct of this study. It begins with the gathering of
stakeholders inputs which includes student needs, current
Guidance Program and other relevant contributions needed for
a

more

responsive

discussion

inputs

Guidance
will

serve

Program.
as

bases

These
for

focus
a

redesigned

Guidance Program of the Isabela National High School.

Statement of the Problem

group

41

This study gathered school stakeholders inputs on a


school-based initiative to redesign the current Guidance
Program of Isabela National High School. It was carried out
by

organizing

and

conducting

seven

(7)

focus

group

discussions to generate a qualitative data needed to achieve


the objectives of this study.
Specifically,

this

research

study

will

answer

the

following questions:
1.What are the inputs of the stakeholders of Isabela National
High School towards:
1.1

The needs of students that can be addressed by the


Isabela National High School Guidance Program?

1.2

The

current

Guidance

Program

of

Isabela

National

High School.
1.3

The initiative of a Guidance Program Redesign for


Isabela national High School

2.What

are

the

common

concerns

coming

from

the

different

groups of stakeholders?
3.What is the Redesigned Guidance Program based on the result
of the study?

42

Significance of the Study


The researcher believes that knowledge, findings and
conclusions from this study will serve the interest of the
following stakeholders:
School Administrators. The findings from the study will
provide support for program development efforts that will
transform and support the philosophy and mission of the
school in response to the demands of 21st century teaching
and

learning.

school

Research-based

stakeholders

redesigning

administrators

which

will

traditional
in

setting

perceptions
serve

program
policies

as

will
for

from
valid

different
bases

motivate
an

in

school

effective

and

sustainable guidance Program.


Guidance Counselors. Views and opinions shall serve as
valid bases for future course of action. As the direct
implementers of the program, they will be equipped with
baseline

data

to

bolster

their

confidence

in

planning,

developing and implementing a contemporary Guidance program


relevant to the needs of all students. Working within a
contemporary

guidance

program

will

enhance

their

capabilities and skills to take on a leadership role in


positioning the counseling program at the center of the
education process.

43

Teachers.

Taking into consideration their opinions as

potential users of the program will give them a sense of


ownership thus, support

from

their

end can

surely be

counted on. Their increased understanding of the schools


guidance

program

will

motivate

them

to

work

collaboratively with guidance counselors.


Parents. Having shared their views and insights with
other parents regarding
their

understanding,

childrens

relevant issues will increase

involvement

academic,

and

vocational

support

and

for

their

personal/social

development.
Students.

comprehensive

become a part of students


as a motivating force

guidance

program

made

to

daily school environment serves

in the attainment of

academic,

personal-social and vocational areas of student development.


They will acquire attitudes, knowledge, skills in the three
domains of the program: academic, personal-social and career
development as a result of participating in the program.
Future Researchers.

As

Guidance

evolved

into

an integral part of Education, researchers in the future


may consider other

variables

program development as
indigenous model that
learners in the

that

they come

influence Guidance

up

will address

local school setting.

with

their

own

the distinct needs of

44

Scope and Limitation


This study was conducted essentially to present school
stakeholders

inputs

on

school-based

initiative

to

redesign the Guidance Program of the Isabela National High


School.

Purposive

sampling

was

used

to

identify

the

respondents of the study.


The focus group discussion (FGD) methodology was
applied

to

gather

the

data.

Qualitative

method

using

thematic approach was employed in presenting the findings of


the study.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationally defined to
provide clarity of their use in the course of the study:
Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program. A 21st
century Model program that leads to guidance activities and
structured

group

experiences

emphasized

administrative

and

for

all

clerical

students.
tasks,

It

de-

one-to-one

counseling only and limited accountability. It positions the


school counselor in a proactive rather than a reactive role.
It is program-focused and is an integral part of education
with a content base and organizational structure of its own
(Gysbers, 2000).

45

Focus

Group.

It

is

carefully

planned

series

of

discussions designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area


of interest in a permissive and non-threatening environment
(Krueger and Casey, 2000).
Guidance

and

Counseling.

It

is

profession

that

involves the use of integrated approach to the development


of

well-

functioning

him/her develop

individual

primarily

by

helping

potentials to the fullest and plan his/her

future in accordance with his/her abilities, interests and


needs. It includes functions such as counseling and other
human development services (RA 9258, 2004).
Guidance Counselor/School Counselor. A counselor and an
educator who works in elementary, middle and high school who
advocates academic, career and personal-social success of
every child (ASCA, 2003).
Stakeholders.
legitimate

interest

Are

all

in

the

those

people

continuing

who

have

effectiveness

success of an institution (Bush and Heystek, 2003).

a
and

School

stakeholders are identified as parents, students, alumni,


administrators,
Godwin).

employers

and

communities

(Gross

and

46

Chapter 2
METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter deals with the processes and measures


adopted in the course of the study.

Research Design
The

descriptive-qualitative

research

design

was

applied in this study. Qualitative data were derived from


focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics was used in
the analysis of data.

47

Participants of the Study


A total of 53 respondents participated in the study.
Purposive

sampling

was

utilized

to

determine

the

sample

which will provide a rich data for the study.


Seven (7) groups of school stakeholders were organized
by the researcher. Thirteen students (13) students composed
the student group. For purposes of homogeneity, they were
divided

into

two

groups:

the

first

group

composed

of

students from the science curriculum and students from the


regular curriculum composed the second group. The teacher
group consisted of six (6) members from different subject
areas. Six (6) members composed the school administrators.
Nine (9) full time and working parents made up the parents
group. They came in two groups: the first group consists of
working parents and the second was made up of four full-time
parents. Ten (10) former students taken from the past four
years

comprised

the

Alumni

group.

Six

(5)

people

representing different sectors of the society represented


the community group. A mini focus group was organized with
the four (4) Guidance Counselors of the Isabela National
High School.

Data Gathering Procedure

48

The focus group methodology used is naturally


appealing for the researcher due to its likeness to group
counseling process. The skills required of a focus group
moderator are akin to counselor skills needed in individual
and group counseling.
The researcher made an official request to the school
head for the conduct of the focus group discussions within
the school premises. Possible respondents from the different
school stakeholders group were personally invited by the
researcher

and

after

signifying

their

participate, focus groups were organized.

intention

to

Five (5) focus

group discussions were held in the school and two (2) were
held outside due to conflicting schedules of the invited
participants.
The researcher functioned as moderator and facilitated
the focus group discussions.

A Psychology major graduate

was tasked as assistant moderator and was briefed earlier on


her role. The whole process was audio-video recorded by a
third

team

member.

Furthermore,

observations

of

group

dynamics and participants behavior was noted as these may


hold significance during the data-analysis stage. Ground
rules

in

the

disseminated

conduct
before

of

the

focus
start

group
of

the

discussion
discussion

were
and

logistics such as time, venue, seating arrangements, name

49

tags and serving of refreshments were equally taken into


consideration.

Debriefing

with

the

assistant

moderator

followed as soon as the focus group discussion adjourned.


Each focus group discussion was transcribed verbatim in
its entirety. Transcription of the data was done right after
each

group

discussion

to

ensure

accuracy.

The

Framework

Analysis method was used to analyze the data.

Instrumentation
Six (6) process questions based on the objectives of
the

study

were

formulated

by

the

researcher

with

the

assistance of experts in the field of counseling. Noteworthy


is

the

assistance

of

Dr.

Norman

Gysbers,

considered

by

global counseling experts as the Father of modern Guidance


and Counseling. He is the proponent of the Comprehensive
Guidance and Counseling (CGCP) Model, the 21st century model
program designed for the K-12 curriculum.
communicated

with

him

through

the

The researcher

electronic

mail

and

solicited his support in the formulation of questions.


The following were the process questions used in this
study:
1.

What are the needs of Isabela National High School


students
program?

that

can

be

addressed

by

the

Guidance

50

2.

What

are

the

current

Guidance

services

and

activities of Isabela National High School that you


are aware of?
3.

What services have you availed of?

4.

Which services are relevant to you/Which are not?

5.

Any comments or inputs if we redesign the Guidance


Program of the Isabela National High School?

Data Analysis
The Framework Analysis Method by Krueger (1994) and
Ritchie and Spencer (1994) was used for the qualitative
analysis of the focus group interviews.
process

using

thematic

approach

It is an analytical

that

allows

themes

to

develop from both the research questions and the narratives


of

research

participants.

This

analysis

is

systematic,

sequential, verifiable and continuous. The method minimizes


the potential bias in analyzing and interpreting focus group
data.

Furthermore,

increases

the

it

extent

provides
of

trail

dependability,

of

evidence

and

consistency

and

conformability of the data (Lincoln and Guba, 1989).


The steps involved are as follows:

51

1. Facilitation of discussion and generation of rich data


from the discussions which includes familiarization with
the data.
2. Identifying a thematic framework by writing memos, ideas
and concepts arising from the text.
3. Indexing by sifting the data, highlighting and sorting
out quotes.
4. Charting

by

lifting

the

quotes

from

their

original

context and re-arranging them under the newly developed


appropriate thematic content.
5. Analysis by mapping and interpreting to make sense of the
individual quotes and see the relationships between the
quotes and links between the data as a whole.

52

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American

School

Counselors

Association

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(2005).

The

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School Counseling

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Duffy, F.M. (2003). Courage, Passion and Vision: A Guide To
Leading

Systematic

School

Improvement.

Lanham.MD:

Scarecrow Education and American Association of School


Administrators.
Gysbers and Henderson (2012). Developing and Managing Your
School

Guidance

and

Counseling

Program

(5th

American Counseling Association. Alexandria, VA.

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53

Salazar-Clemena R.M. (2010). Developing National Standards


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the

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Boston, MA.

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