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Tire behavior Force accelerating the race car- horizontally originate at the tires.

Tires support vehicles weight, and other vertical forces.

Used to control, stabilize, and resist external disturbances.
Tire generates steering torque, which gives rise to centering effects in the drag direction
Can be felt by the stress on the wheel by the driver.
Print and tire grip
Are of the tires that is in contact with the ground at any given moment- p
The force generated form the rubber print sliding on the road depends on the
sliding velocity, the road, rubber, and surface techniques.
Acceleration performance of the vehicle is limited by the tire print forces.
Tires as a whole can develop motions relative to the ground without gross sliding of the
The carcass and tread distort, and new rubber constantly enters the print as the
tire rotates.
Aerodynamic- the downforce(or negative life)- acts through the tires, changing the
effective load on them.
Lateral and longitudinal tire forces are functions of the entire tire load.
Lateral force Lateral force originates at the center of the tire contact with the road.
Side force and lateral force have the same meaning
A vehicle turns because of the applied lateral tire forces.
First experiment- static lateral stiffness and sliding (pg-16)
The model tire is pressed in the table with a constant vertical force - when it is pushed
sideways, the rubber deflects and the wheel moves a small amount laterally.
If the force increased, the deflection decreases.
First the tire acted like a spring, the sidewalls bent elastically, and the lateral distortion
increased almost proportionally to the lateral force, once the tire began sliding the lateral
force remained close to constant.
If a tire with a smaller diameter of metal disks was used, then the lateral displacement
would have been greater.
The lateral stiffness is given as a lateral spring rate
Ex- lbs per inch of deflection.
The force required to slide the tire is a function of friction coefficient, ,
Which is a ratio of 2 forces, the lateral force/the vertical force (load on the tire).
Second experiment (pg 18)
If the model tire is deflected/bent laterally and then rolled along, it would move in a
direction at an angle of the wheel plane/ heading. - called the slip angle
As the wheel is rolled forward w/o steering, the path of the wheel will be at an angle to
the wheel plane. (fig 2.2)
High slip angles
As the lateral force increases, so does the slip angle.

The tire will be distorted further and the onset of the sliding at the rear point will
move forward. - progressive process.
When the tire has enough applied lateral force that most of the print is sliding, it will have
broken away and the lateral force is determined by the coefficient of friction.
Slip angle clarified
There is no sliding in the print except near the trailing edge, where the vertical forces are
The ability of the tire to travel out of its plane w/o appreciable slippage is the result of
laying down successive prints, each laterally displaced because of the sideways tire
Foot lateral ex (pg 19)
Relationship between lateral forces and slip angle
Lateral force = result of the slip angle (or the other way around)
Ex- if the front wheels of a vehicle are steered, a slip angle is created which gives
rise to a lateral force, this lateral force turns/yaws the vehicle.
The tire steady- state lateral force comes from the elastic distortion of the tire.
If the applied force were doubled- expected that the print and slip angle would increase
almost proportionally.
Look at diagram on pages 21-23
Goughs tests observations
The centroid of the lateral force is aft of the center print. The distance aft is called the
pneumatic trail. This times the lateral force is the tire aligning torque.
Lateral slippage of rubber across the road occurs in the back of the print. The amount of
lateral movement depends on the sliding velocity and the slip angle.
Tire lateral characteristics in the elastic range are a function of lateral displacements in
the print associated with the rolling process and are largely independent of speed.n
Measurement of tire lateral force data
One problem with vehicle dynamics is obtaining reliable data on tire designs.
Diagram on pg 25
Tire load sensitivity
Concept of a friction coefficient is defined as
= frictional force between 2 bodies/normal force between 2 bodies
This suggest normalizing the lateral force vs. slip angle curve by dividing by the load to
give a dimensionless measure of amount of lateral force obtained by the load:
Lateral force/load on tire = lateral force coefficient, Fy/Fz
Graphs on page 26-27 can be re-written based on formulas above.
The peak lateral force coefficient is usually higher for lighter loads.
This effect is called t ire load sensitivity.
As the tires vertical load changes so is the tire performance.
The transitional zone of a tire operation varies with tire design parameters.
Tires that reach higher coefficients may let go faster as more of the print has been
utilized for elastic distortion.

Radials have a bet that inhibits sliding in the print, this means there are more
known for sudden transition and higher peaks.
Aligning torque and pneumatic trail
Aligning torque describes a tires tendency to steer about a vertical axis through the
center of the print- origin of the tire axis system.
At low and medium slip angles the tire tends to align its heading with its path.
Aka- tires like to point the way they are moving
The elastic distortion increases from front to back and give an uneven distribution of
lateral force along the length of the print- this give a rise to the torque
Usually measured in lbs-ft.
The pneumatic trail is the distance from the force-aft center of the print to the center of
action of the lateral force.
Tire aligning = (lateral force)(pneumatic trail).
Linear range- low slip angles
Graph on pg- 17- the higher stresses in the aft part of the print work to reduce the slip
Center of tire lateral force can be found by measuring the contribution of each part of the
print to the torque around the center of the print.
Nonlinear range- high slip angles
At high slip angles, the rear of the print is sliding laterally along the ground.
Reduces the amount of stabilizing aligning torque.
At the friction limit (breakaway) the aligning torque is reduced to about 0
Means that when the tire is sliding there is almost no tendency for it to stay
aligned with its path.
Mechanical trail, pneumatic trail, and steering torques
Trial is illustrated by a swiveling caster.
Tire print trails behind its steering pivot.
Graph pg- 31
If all tire lateral force at the print was concentrated directly below the axle- the steering
torque = (the mechanical trail)(lateral force).
The pneumatic trail is always present and changes with tire operating conditions
Sum of mechanical trail + (pneumatic trail)(lateral force) = the steer torque about the
When the mechanical trail is small, the tire aligning will dominate the steering torque.
Pneumatic: trail and skid warning
Graph on pg 33
Read over results
Longitudinal force
In order to accelerate or break a longitudinal force needs to be developed between the
ground and the tires.
Tractive force
Graph on page 34
Through the use of shear force, dry friction

Used to generate motion between a body and tangential surface

Breaking force
Graphs on pgs 34-36
As more elements enter the print and move aft under increasing load, the longitudinal
shear for will build up linearly.
As the print unloads towards the rear, sliding occurs between the tread elements and the
Slip ratio
Longitudinal slip velocity- difference between the angular velocity of the driven wheel
and the angular velocity of the free-rolling wheel.
s= -0
The slip ratio is defined as
SR= -0/0= (/0)-1
Look at pg 37 for more formulas
Tractive force and breaking force are a function of slip ratio
As the slip ratio increases from zero, the forces rise rapidly to a max- range of .10
- .15 slip ratio.
Definitions of slip ratio
Look at page 39- 41 to see all formulas and extra detail
Combination operation
Braking is initiated in the straight prior to a corner and is generally carried into the turn.
Tractive effort may begin after the turn apex and continue into the straight.

Tires (from his notes)

What do they do?
Isolate vehicle from the road.
Supports the vertical load of the vehicle
Generates longitudinal and lateral forces (allows the vehicle to accelerate and
Force and momentum terminology
SAE axis system
X-axis oriented in direction of tire heading on grounded plane.
Y- axis perpendicular to inter section of the tire with the ground plane. (+ is to the
Z- axis perpendicular to ground plane, + is down.
Wheel plane
Central plane of the tire normal to its axis of rotation
Spin axis The axis about which the tire rotates.
Inclination angle (camber)

Angle between the tire center plane/ wheel plane. Determined by the right- bound
rule and x-axis
Tractive force (+ Fx)
Force generated by the tire in the x direction. Accelerates the vehicle in x- acts in
ground plane
Braking force (- Fx)
Force in the x- direction in grounded plane- decelerates the vehicle.
Lateral force (Fy)
Force generated by the tire in the y direction in the ground plane (allows the
vehicle to turn).
Normal force (Fz)
Force between the tire and the road that is perpendicular of normal to the road
Contact Center
Intersection of the wheel plane and the projection of the wheel spin avison of the
ground. (not the contact patch- center of pressure)
Loaded radius
Distance between the wheel canter and the contact center
Overturning moment (Mx)
Moment acting by the road on the tire about the x-axis. Results due to the tire
normal load distribution being offset from the contact center.
Aligning moment (Mz)
Moment acting by the road on the tire about the z axis. Created by asymmetric
lateral force distribution of the contact center.
Rolling resistance moment (Mg)
Moment acting on the tire by the road perpendicular to the intersection of the
wheel plane with the ground in the plane of the road.
Camber Angle
Same as the inclination angle in magnitude, but the sign is positive if the top of
the tire tilts away from the vehicle centerline.
Slip angle Angle between the projection of the wheel center-plane and the ground and the
direction of the wheel heading (velocity vector).
Longitudinal slip (slip ratio) (1 rw/v) * 100 (in %)
r= radius
w= Wheel angle velocity
v= tire forward velocity
Front tires saturate laterally before the rears/
When the car does not turn enough
Turns on a minimum radius and no tighter (goes outside the intended path)

Would have to slow down to achieve tighter corner, might hit the wall head on
plowing, tight.
Neutral steer
Front and rear saturate at the same time.
No real control as all tire at limit
Driver has no real control over vehicle. Loose, No grip
Rear tires saturate.
Can cause a spin out- car goes too far inside desired track line
Loose, Tail out
1. Need to estimate slip angles and tire normal loads
a. Simulation model
2. Need to evaluate Fx, Fy with pressure
a. Maximize
3. Once pressure, slip angles and normal loads are known..
a. Optimize cambers
b. Optimize ackerman (L and R steering)
Book notesChapter 17 - focus on front suspension
It provides a stable platform from which to control the vehicle
It provides a way to isolate the c hassis and driver from the shocking jolts that the tires
experience going over anything but a glass-smooth surface.
It provides a way to keep all the vehicles tires in contact with an uneven surface.
It provides damping of oscillations that rubber tires, springs and uneven surfaces
naturally create.
Contact path is where the car created the friction needed to move and accelerate.
All suspensions seek to control the tire in 3 main ways.
Laterally- controlling side-to-side movement
Longitudinally- controlling forward/backward movement
vertically - controlling up and down movement.
Use links and structures that locate the wheels/tires in a specific geometry relative to
the vehicle. The geometry dictates the behavior of the tires/wheels and chassis exhibit
when accelerating, braking, and turning.
For an independent suspension- control arms are intended to control the wheel motion
relative to the car body in a single path.
toe - Negative toe, or toe out, is the front of the wheel pointing away from the centerline
of the vehicle. Positive toe, or toe in, is the front of the wheel pointing towards the
centerline of the vehicle.
When 2 wheels are toes together they have motions relative to the body
Up and down together = parallel bump motion
Opposite directions on up and one down - roll motion