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Review of Crude Oil Properties

Specific gravity
Solution gas-oil ratio
Density of oil
Bubble point pressure
Formation volume factor
Isothermal compressibility
Viscosity
Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, RSO
Definition: volume of gas per unit volume of
crude oil produced under standard conditions

Volume of gas produced at surface at standard condition

Rso
Volume of oil entering stock tank at standard condition

Units: Standard Cu Ft (SCF) / Stock Tank

Barrel (STB)
Black Oil

Pressure path
in reservoir

Separator
Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, RSO
Solubility ~ f(T,P,composition of gas and
oil)
-T
-P
- Similarity between oil and gas
- infinitely soluble

Gas solubility (isothermal condition):

increase in volume of gas per unit volume of
crude oil per unit increase in pressure
(SCF/STB/psia, or dRso/dp)
Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, RSO
Saturated oil: with a slight reduction in pressure
gas is released from solution.
Unsaturated oil (no gas cap):
Bubble point pressure: the pressure at which free
gas starts to appear.
Black Oil
B C

A
Density of Oil Under Reservoir Conditions
(o)
Importance: Often required in various reservoir
related calculations.
Calculation of o:
- From composition, with only C3+ compounds
- From composition, with C1, C2, C3+ compounds
- If composition is unknow (from porperties
measured under surface conditions)
Ideal Solution Principles
Ideal liquid solution: A hypothetical mixture of
liquids in which there is no special force of attraction
between the components of the solution and for
which no change in internal energy occurs on
mixing.
Assumption: nothing happens during mixing except
dilution (no shrinkage, no expansion, no heat
generation, no reaction etc.)
Vt = V1+V2
Mt= M1+M2
= Mt / Vt
Ex. 2.7: Use ideal-solution principles to calculate
the density at 14.7 psia and 60 deg F of a
hydrocarbon liquid of the following composition.
Comp xi MWi xiMWi SC,i Liq V at sc
C3 0.2 44.09 8.82 31.66 0.2786
C4 0.3 58.12 17.43 35.78 0.4871
C5 0.5 72.15 36.1 38.51 0.9374
62.35 1.703

1. Calculate mass
2. Calculate V
3. sc= 62.35/1.703=36.61
Correction at high P (Compression)

d d= -sc

lb / cu ft =d + sc

sc (lb / cu ft)
Correction at high T (Thermal Expansion)

d d= sc-

lb / cu ft = sc- d

sc (lb / cu ft)
Ex. 2.8: what are the density of the oil in Ex. 2.7
under reservoir condition of 2000 psia and
180F.
Comp MF MW xiMWi SC Liq V at sc
C3 0.2 44.09 8.82 31.66 0.2786
C4 0.3 58.12 17.43 35.78 0.4871
C5 0.5 72.15 36.1 38.51 0.9374
62.35 1.703
1. sc= 62.35/1.703=36.61

2. Correct for pressure, chart #15

sc= 36.61, d = 1.2, sc, p = 36.61+1.2 = 37.83 lb/ft

3. Correct for temperature, chart #16

d = 5.3 lb/ft3, = 37.81-5.3 = 32.5 lb/cu ft
Review of Crude Oil Properties
Specific gravity
Solution gas-oil ratio
Density of oil
- Calculation from composition (C3+)
- Calculation from composition (C1~ C3+)
- Calculation if composition is not known
Formation volume factor
Bubble point pressure
Isothermal compressibility
Viscosity
What if We Have Methane and Ethane?
Apparent liquid density: A fictitious density that
represents the contribution of methane and ethane
to the overall density of the liquid.
How is it obtained?
Ex. 2.9
Chart #14
Correction at high P (Compression)

d d= -sc

lb / cu ft =d + sc

Chart #15
sc (lb / cu ft)
Correction at high T (Thermal Expansion)

d d= sc-

lb / cu ft = sc- d

Chart #16 sc (lb / cu ft)

Ex. 2.9 solution
Steps:
1. Calculate mass and volume contribution of each component.
n

xM i
(122.1748 7.3897) lb/mole
i
2. Density of C
+
3
i 3
n
52.34 lb/cu ft
xi M i

2.193 cu ft/mole
i 3 i
x2 M 2 (1.9425) lb/mole(100)
3. wt% of C2 in C +
2 n
1.66%
xM
(122.1748-5.4472) lb/mole
i i
i 2

x1M 1 (5.4472) lb/mole (100)

4.wt% of C1 in total = n
4.46%
xM
122.1748 lb/mole
i i
i 1

5. look up density value in chart #14, 49.4 lb/cu ft

6. Pressure correction (Chart #15). d =1.0, 49.4+1.0=50.4 lb/cu ft
7. Temperature correction (Chart #16). d =3.78, 50.4 3.78=36.62
46.62 lb/cu ft
What If Gas Composition is Unknown
Calculation from gas gravity, stock tank oil gravity,
and gas-oil solution ratio.
Ex. 2.10:
The producing gas-oil ratio of a well is 768 scf/STB, and
the specific gravities of the gas and stock-tank oil
are 0.786 and 40.7API, respectively. The liquid in
the reservoir is at its bubble point at reservoir
conditions of 2635 psia and 220F. Calculate the
density of this liquid at reservoir conditions.
Chart #17
Let's say we have one barrel of stock-tank oil.
Ex. 2.10 solution: 1. Calculate the mass of gas and oil
MWg (surface condition) = MWair g =28.95 0.786 22.8 lb/lb mole
scf lb mole lb
m g = (768 )( )(22.8 ) 46.0 lb gas/STB
STB 379.4 scf lb mole
141.5 lb oil /cu ft oil
STO 0.822
131.5 API lb water/cu ft water
lb water lb oil /cu ft oil
o (surface condition) = w o =62.37 0.822
cu ft water lb water/cu ft water
51.27 lb oil /cu ft oil
cu ft
m o 51.27 lb oil /cu ft oil 5.615( ) 287.9 lb oil/STB
STB
2. calculate the total volume
look up in chart #17, liquid density of gas is 24.2 lb/cu ft
Vg 46.0lb/STB / (24.2 lb/cu ft)=1.901 cu ft/STB
Vo 5.615cu ft/STB
Vtot 7.516 cu ft/STB
3. Calculate pseudoliquid density under standard condition
(46.0 287.9) lb/STB
sc 44.43 lb/cu ft
7.516 cu ft/STB
p 44.43 0.93 45.36 lb/ft at 60F and 2635 psia
5. Thermal expansion adjustment, chart #16
Tp 45.36 4.83 40.53lb/ft at 220F and 2635 psia
Good Numbers to Remember
Molecular weight of air: 28.95 lb/lb mole
Under standard conditions, 1 lb mole of
gas occupies 379.4 SCF.
Under standard conditions, water density
is 62.37 lb water/cu ft water
1 STB = 5.615 SCF
Oil Density Above Bubble Point
Two steps:
1. Calculate oil density at bubble point.
2. Adjust compression effect using isothermal
coefficient.

o ob exp[co ( p pb )]
o : oil density at desired pressure
ob : oil density at bubble pressure
co : a constant determined at the average
pressure of p and p b (bubble pressure)
Bubble Point Pressure
You need:
Gas-oil ratio
Gas gravity
Tank oil gravity
Temperature

Chart #21
Formation Volume Factor BO
Definition (FVF, BO):
Vr: Volume of oil at reservoir T and P
Vr Vsc: Volume of oil at standard condition
Bo (14.7 psia and 60F)
Vsc Units: barrels of oil at reservoir conditions
per barrel of stock-tank oil (res bbl/STB),
always at 60F
BO > 1
- temperature high in reservoir
- Gas is dissolved in oil under reservoir conditions.
Shrinkage factor: 1/Bo
Formation Volume Factor, Bo

Above bubble point pressure,

Below bubble point pressure,
Ex. 2.10
A sample of reservoir liquid with volume of 450 cc
under reservoir conditions was passed through
a separator and into a stock tank at one
atmospheric pressure and 60 deg F. The liquid
volume in the stock tank was 327 cc. A total of
1.41 scf of gas was released. Calculate the oil
formation volume factor.

Solution:
450 res cc
Bo 1.38
327 ST cc
Estimation of Bo Using Correlation

for p pb : where,
g .5
F Rso ( ) 1.25T
Bo 0.972 0.000147 F 1.175 o
141.5
o oil specific gravity =
131.5 o , API
T temperature, F
for p pb :
Bo Bob exp[co ( pb p )]

Bob oil formation volume factor at the bubble-point pressure

co oil compressibility, psi-1