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IFRS and GAAP disclosure requirements are similar in many regards.

The IFRS
addressing various disclosure issues are IAS 24 (Related Party Disclosures),
disclosure and recognition of post-statement of financial position events in IAS 10
(Events after the Balance Sheet Date), segment reporting IFRS provisions in
IFRS 8 (Operating Segments), and interim reporting requirements in IAS 34
(Interim Financial Reporting).

RELEVANT FACTS
Following are the key similarities and differences between GAAP and IFRS related to
disclosures.

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 14
Compare the disclosure requirements
under GAAP and IFRS.

IFRS Insights 1549

Similarities
GAAP and IFRS have similar standards on post-statement of fi nancial position
(subsequent) events. That is, under both sets of standards, events that occurred after the
statement of fi nancial position date, and which provide additional evidence of conditions
that existed at the statement of fi nancial position date, are recognized in the
financial statements.
Like GAAP, IFRS requires that for transactions with related parties, companies disclose
the amounts involved in a transaction; the amount, terms, and nature of the outstanding
balances; and any doubtful amounts related to those outstanding balances for
each major category of related parties.
Following the recent issuance of IFRS 8, Operating Segments, the requirements under
IFRS and GAAP are very similar. That is, both standards use the management approach to
identify reportable segments, and similar segment disclosures are required.
Neither GAAP nor IFRS require interim reports. Rather, the SEC and securities
exchanges outside the United States establish the rules. In the United States, interim
reports generally are provided on a quarterly basis; outside the United States,
six-month interim reports are common.

Differences
Due to the broader range of judgments allowed in more principles-based IFRS, note
disclosures generally are more expansive under IFRS compared to GAAP.
Subsequent (or post-statement of fi nancial position) events under IFRS are evaluated
through the date that fi nancial instruments are authorized for issue. GAAP uses the
date when financial statements are issued. Also, for share dividends and splits in
the subsequent period, IFRS does not adjust but GAAP does.
Under IFRS, there is no specifi c requirement to disclose the name of the related party,
which is this case under GAAP.
Under IFRS, interim reports are prepared on a discrete basis; GAAP generally follows
the integral approach.

ABOUT THE NUMBERS


Differential Disclosure
A trend toward differential disclosure is occurring. The IASB has developed IFRS for
small- and medium-sized entities (SMEs). SMEs are entities that publish generalpurpose
financial statements for external users but do not issue shares or other securities in a
public market. Many believe a simplified set of standards makes sense for these
companies because they do not have the resources to implement full IFRS. Simplified
IFRS for SMEs is a single standard of fewer than 230 pages. It is designed to meet the
needs and capabilities of SMEs, which are estimated to account for over 95 percent of all
companies around the world. Compared with full IFRS (and many national accounting
standards), simplified IFRS for SMEs is less complex in a number of ways:
Topics not relevant for SMEs are omitted. Examples are earnings per share, interim
fi nancial reporting, and segment reporting.
Simplified IFRS for SMEs allows fewer accounting policy choices. Examples are no

option to revalue property, equipment, or intangibles, and no corridor approach for


actuarial gains and losses.
Many principles for recognizing and measuring assets, liabilities, revenue, and
expenses
are simplifi ed. For example, goodwill is amortized (as a result, there is no annual
impairment test), and all borrowing and R&D costs are expensed.
Significantly fewer disclosures are required (roughly 300 versus 3,000).
To further reduce standard overload, revisions to the IFRS for SMEs will be limited to
once every three years.
Thus, the option of using simplified IFRS helps SMEs meet the needs of their financial
statement users while balancing the costs and benefits from a preparer perspective. 29

Events after the Reporting Period (Subsequent Events)


Notes to the financial statements should explain any significant financial events that
took place after the formal statement of financial position date, but before the
statements are authorized for issuance (hereafter referred to as the authorization date).
These
events are referred to as events after the reporting date, or subsequent events.
Illustration IFRS24-1 shows a time diagram of the subsequent events period.
A period of several weeks, and sometimes months, may elapse after the end of the
fiscal year but before the management or the board of directors authorizes issuance of
the financial statements. Various activities involved in closing the books for the period
and issuing the statements all take time: taking and pricing the inventory, reconciling
subsidiary ledgers with controlling accounts, preparing necessary adjusting entries,
ensuring that all transactions for the period have been entered, obtaining an audit of
the financial statements by independent certified public accountants, and printing the
annual report. During the period between the statement of financial position date and
its authorization date, important transactions or other events may occur that materially
affect the companys financial position or operating situation.
Many who read a statement of financial position believe the financial condition is
constant, and they project it into the future. However, readers must be told if the
company has experienced a significant changee.g., sold one of its plants, acquired a
subsidiary, suffered unusual losses, settled significant litigation, or experienced any other
important event in the post-statement of financial position period. Without an
explanation in a note, the reader might be misled and draw inappropriate conclusions.
Two types of events or transactions occurring after the statement of financial position
date may have a material effect on the financial statements or may need disclosure
so that readers interpret these statements accurately:
29In

the United States, there has been a preference for one set of GAAP except in unusual
situations. With the advent of simplified IFRS for SMEs, this position is under review. Both the
FASB and the AICPA are studying the big GAAP/little GAAP issue to ensure that any kind of
differential reporting is conceptually sound and meets the needs of users. As discussed in the
chapter, the FASB has formed a Private Company Financial Reporting Committee, whose
primary objectives are to provide recommendations on FASB standard-setting for privately held
enterprises (see http://www.pcfr.org/).
Jan. 1,
2014
Statement of
Financial Position
Date
Financial
Statements
Authorization Date
Dec. 31,
2014
Mar. 3,
2015
Financial Statement Period Subsequent Events Period

ILLUSTRATION

IFRS24-1
Time Periods for
Subsequent Events
IFRS Insights 1551
30The

effects from natural disasters, like the recent eruption of the Icelandic volcano, which
occurred after the year-end for companies with March fiscal years, require disclosure in order to
keep the statements from being misleading. Some companies may have to consider whether
these disasters affect their ability to continue as going concerns.

1. Events that provide additional evidence about conditions that existed at the
statement of financial position date, including the estimates inherent in the process of
preparing fi nancial statements. These events are referred to as adjusted subsequent
events and require adjustments to the fi nancial statements. All information available
prior to the authorization date of the financial statements helps investors and
creditors evaluate estimates previously made. To ignore these subsequent events
is to pass up an opportunity to improve the accuracy of the financial statements.
This fi rst type of event encompasses information that an accountant would
have recorded in the accounts had the information been known at the statement of
fi nancial position date.
For example, if a loss on an account receivable results from a customers bankruptcy
subsequent to the statement of fi nancial position date, the company
adjusts the fi nancial statements before their issuance. The bankruptcy stems
from the customers poor fi nancial health existing at the statement of financial
position date.
The same criterion applies to settlements of litigation. The company must
adjust the financial statements if the events that gave rise to the litigation, such as
personal injury or patent infringement, took place prior to the statement of financial
position date.
2. Events that provide evidence about conditions that did not exist at the statement
of financial position date but arise subsequent to that date. These events are
referred to as non-adjusted subsequent events and do not require adjustment of
the fi nancial statements. To illustrate, a loss resulting from a customers fi re or flood
after the statement of fi nancial position date does not refl ect conditions existing at
that date.
Thus, adjustment of the fi nancial statements is not necessary. A company should
not recognize subsequent events that provide evidence about conditions that did
not exist at the date of the statement of financial position but that arose after the
statement of fi nancial position date.
The following are examples of non-adjusted subsequent events:
A major business combination after the reporting period or disposing of a major
subsidiary.
Announcing a plan to discontinue an operation or commencing the implementation of a
major restructuring.
Major purchases of assets, other disposals of assets, or expropriation of major assets by
government.
The destruction of a major production plant or inventories by a fi re or natural
disaster after the reporting period.
Major ordinary share transactions and potential ordinary share transactions after
the reporting period.
Abnormally large changes after the reporting period in asset prices, foreign
exchange rates, or taxes.
Entering into signifi cant commitments or contingent liabilities, for example, by
issuing signifi cant guarantees after the statement date.30
Many subsequent events or developments do not require adjustment of or disclosure
in the financial statements. Typically, these are non-accounting events or conditions
that management normally communicates by other means. These events include

legislation, product changes, management changes, strikes, unionization, marketing


agreements, and loss of important customers.

Interim Reports
Another source of information for the investor is interim reports. As noted earlier,
interim
reports cover periods of less than one year. The securities exchanges, market
regulators,
and the accounting profession have an active interest in the presentation of interim
information.
Because of the short-term nature of the information in these reports, there is
considerable controversy as to the general approach companies should employ. One
group,
which favors the discrete approach, believes that companies should treat each interim
period as a separate accounting period. Using that treatment, companies would follow
the principles for deferrals and accruals used for annual reports. In this view, companies
should report accounting transactions as they occur, and expense recognition should
not change with the period of time covered.
Another group, which favors the integral approach, believes that the interim
report is an integral part of the annual report and that deferrals and accruals should
take into consideration what will happen for the entire year. In this approach, companies
should assign estimated expenses to parts of a year on the basis of sales volume or
some other activity base. In general, IFRS requires companies to follow the discrete
approach.
Interim Reporting Requirements
Under IFRS, companies should use the same accounting policies for interim
reports
and for annual reports. They should recognize revenues in interim periods on the
same
basis as they are for annual periods. For example, if Cedars Corp. uses the percentageofcompletion method as the basis for recognizing revenue on an annual basis, it should
use the percentage-of-completion method for interim reports as well. Also, Cedars
should treat costs directly associated with revenues (product costs, such as materials,
1552 Chapter 24 Full Disclosure in Financial Reporting

Magyar Telecom plc


Note 37. Events After the Reporting Period (in part)
On March 1, 2011 the Hungarian Government announced that as part of its long-term effort to reduce the
Hungarian budget deficit it intends to amend existing law that provides for a reduction in corporate tax
rates from the current 19% to 10% starting in 2013. When the law reducing future corporate tax rates was
enacted in 2010, the Group recalculated its deferred tax balances, resulting in the reversal of net deferred
tax liabilities of HUF 14.5 billion (see Note 9.3) in the 2010 income statement of comprehensive income.
The recent announcement of the intended cancellation of the scheduled reduction of the tax rate from
2013 is expected to cause the recognition of a substantially higher amount of net deferred tax liabilities
in 2011 and result in a negative impact on deferred tax expense in 2011 equivalent in magnitude to the
positive impact on net deferred tax expense in 2010.

ILLUSTRATION
IFRS24-2
Disclosure of Subsequent
Events
Some non-adjusted subsequent events may have to be disclosed to keep the financial
statements from being misleading. For such events, a company discloses the nature of
the event and an estimate of its financial effect. Illustration IFRS24-2 presents an
example of subsequent events disclosure, excerpted from the annual report of Magyar
Telecom plc.
IFRS Insights 1553
labor and related fringe benefits, and manufacturing overhead) in the same manner for
interim reports as for annual reports.
Companies should use the same inventory pricing methods (FIFO, average-cost,

etc.) for interim reports and for annual reports. However, companies may use the gross
profit method for interim inventory pricing. But, they must disclose the method and
adjustments to reconcile with annual inventory.
Discrete Approach. Following the discrete approach, companies record in interim
reports revenues and expenses according to the revenue and expense recognition
principles. This includes costs and expenses other than product costs (often referred to
as
period costs). No accruals or deferrals in anticipation of future events during the year
should be reported. For example, the cost of a planned major periodic maintenance or
overhaul for a company like Airbus or other seasonal expenditure that is expected to
occur late in the year is not anticipated for interim reporting purposes. The mere
intention or necessity to incur expenditure related to the future is not sufficient to give
rise to
an obligation.
Or, a company like Carrefour may budget certain costs expected to be incurred
irregularly during the financial year, such as advertising and employee training costs.
Those costs generally are discretionary even though they are planned and tend to recur
from year to year. However, recognizing an obligation at the end of an interim financial
reporting period for such costs that have not yet been incurred generally is not
consistent with the definition of a liability.
While year-to-date measurements may involve changes in estimates of amounts
reported in prior interim periods of the current financial year, the principles for
recognizing assets, liabilities, income, and expenses for interim periods are the same as
in
annual financial statements. For example, Wm Morrison Supermarkets plc records
losses from inventory write-downs, restructurings, or impairments in an interim
period similar to how it would treat these items in the annual financial statements
(when incurred). However, if an estimate from a prior interim period changes in a
subsequent interim period of that year, the original estimate is adjusted in the
subsequent interim period.
Interim Disclosures. IFRS does not require a complete set of financial statements at
the
interim reporting date. Rather, companies may comply with the requirements by
providing condensed financial statements and selected explanatory notes. Because users
of
interim financial reports also have access to the most recent annual financial report,
companies only need provide explanation of significant events and transactions since
the end of the last annual reporting period. Companies should report the following
interim data at a minimum.
1. Statement that the same accounting policies and methods of computation are
followed in the interim fi nancial statements as compared with the most recent
annual financial statements or, if those policies or methods have been changed, a
description of the nature and effect of the change.
2. Explanatory comments about the seasonality or cyclicality of interim operations.
3. The nature and amount of items affecting assets, liabilities, equity, net income, or
cash fl ows that are unusual because of their nature, size, or incidence.
4. The nature and amount of changes in accounting policies and estimates of amounts
previously reported.
5. Issuances, repurchases, and repayments of debt and equity securities.
6. Dividends paid (aggregate or per share) separately for ordinary shares and other
shares.
7. Segment information, as required by IFRS 8, Operating Segments.
8. Changes in contingent liabilities or contingent assets since the end of the last
annual reporting period.
9. Effect of changes in the composition of the company during the interim period,

such as business combinations, obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries and longterm


investments, restructurings, and discontinued operations.
10. Other material events subsequent to the end of the interim period that have not
been refl ected in the fi nancial statements for the interim period.
If a complete set of financial statements is provided in the interim report, companies
comply with the provisions of IAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements.

ON THE HORIZON
Hans Hoogervorst, chairperson of the IASB, recently noted: High quality financial
information is the lifeblood of market-based economies. If the blood is of poor quality,
then the body shuts down and the patient dies. It is the same with financial reporting. If
investors cannot trust the numbers, then financial markets stop working. For
marketbased economies, that is really bad news. It is an essential public good for marketbased
economies. . . . And in the past 10 years, most of the worlds economiesdeveloped and
emerginghave embraced IFRSs. While the United States has yet to adopt IFRS, there
is no question that IFRS and GAAP are converging quickly. We have provided expanded
discussion in the International Perspectives and IFRS Insights to help you understand the
issues surrounding convergence as they relate to intermediate accounting. After reading
these discussions, you should realize that IFRS and GAAP are very similar in many
areas, with differences in those areas revolving around some minor technical points. In
other situations, the differences are major; for example, IFRS does not permit LIFO
inventory accounting. Our hope is that the FASB and IASB can quickly complete their
convergence efforts, resulting in a single set of high-quality accounting standards for
use by companies around the world.

IFRS 7:

menambahkan pengungkapan baru tertentu tentang instrumen keuangan


dengan yang sebelumnya diperlukan oleh IAS 32 Instrumen Keuangan: Penyajian
dan Pengungkapan (seperti yang kemudian disebut) menggantikan
pengungkapan sebelumnya diperlukan oleh IAS 30 Pengungkapan dalam
Laporan Keuangan Bank dan Lembaga Keuangan Mirip puts semua orang
instrumen keuangan Pengungkapan bersama dalam sebuah standar baru
tentang Instrumen keuangan: Pengungkapan. Sisa bagian IAS 32 kesepakatan
hanya dengan instrumen keuangan hal presentasi.
Persyaratan pengungkapan IFRS 7
IFRS membutuhkan pengungkapan tertentu yang akan disajikan berdasarkan
kategori instrumen berdasarkan kategori pengukuran IAS 39. Tertentu
pengungkapan lainnya yang diperlukan oleh kelompok instrumen keuangan. Bagi
mereka pengungkapan suatu keharusan kelompok entitas instrumen keuangan
ke dalam kelas instrumen serupa yang sesuai dengan sifat informasi yang
disajikan. [IFRS 7.6]

Dua kategori utama dari pengungkapan yang disyaratkan oleh IFRS 7 adalah:

informasi tentang pentingnya instrumen keuangan. informasi tentang sifat dan


tingkat risiko yang timbul dari instrumen keuangan
Informasi tentang pentingnya instrumen keuangan
Laporan posisi keuangan
Mengungkapkan pentingnya instrumen keuangan untuk posisi keuangan suatu
entitas dan kinerja. [IFRS 7.7] Ini termasuk pengungkapan untuk setiap kategori
berikut: [IFRS 7.8]
aset keuangan yang diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi,
menunjukkan secara terpisah yang dimiliki untuk diperdagangkan dan orangorang yang ditunjuk pada pengakuan awal investasi dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo
pinjaman dan piutang yang tersedia untuk dijual aset kewajiban keuangan pada
nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi, menunjukkan secara terpisah yang dimiliki
untuk perdagangan dan mereka yang ditunjuk di kewajiban keuangan pengakuan
awal diukur pada biaya perolehan diamortisasi
Lainnya keseimbangan terkait sheet-pengungkapan:
pengungkapan khusus tentang aset keuangan dan kewajiban keuangan yang
ditetapkan untuk diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi, termasuk
pengungkapan tentang risiko kredit dan risiko pasar, perubahan nilai wajar yang
timbul dari risiko-risiko ini dan metode pengukuran. [IFRS 7,9-11] reklasifikasi
instrumen keuangan dari satu kategori ke kategori lain (misalnya dari nilai wajar
untuk biaya diamortisasi atau sebaliknya) [IFRS 7.12-12A] informasi tentang aset
keuangan digunakan sebagai jaminan dan sekitar aset keuangan atau non-

keuangan yang dimiliki sebagai jaminan [IFRS 7,14-15] rekonsiliasi akun


penyisihan kerugian kredit (kredit macet) oleh kelas aset keuangan [IFRS 7.16]
informasi tentang instrumen keuangan majemuk dengan beberapa derivatif
melekat [IFRS 7.17] pelanggaran persyaratan perjanjian pinjaman [IFRS 7,18-19]
Laporan laba rugi komprehensif
Item pendapatan, beban, keuntungan, dan kerugian, dengan pengungkapan
terpisah dari keuntungan dan kerugian dari: [IFRS 7.20 (a)]
aset keuangan yang diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi,
menunjukkan secara terpisah yang dimiliki untuk diperdagangkan dan orangorang yang ditunjuk pada pengakuan awal. dimiliki hingga jatuh tempo.
pinjaman dan piutang. tersedia untuk dijual aset. kewajiban keuangan yang
diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi, menunjukkan secara terpisah
yang dimiliki untuk diperdagangkan dan orang-orang yang ditunjuk pada
pengakuan awal. kewajiban keuangan yang diukur dengan biaya perolehan
diamortisasi.
Penghasilan terkait pernyataan pengungkapan:
total pendapatan bunga dan beban bunga total untuk instrumen keuangan yang
tidak diukur pada nilai wajar melalui laporan laba rugi [IFRS 7.20 (b)] pendapatan
fee dan biaya [IFRS 7.20 (c)] jumlah kerugian penurunan nilai oleh kelas aset
keuangan [ IFRS 7.20 (e)] pendapatan bunga atas aset keuangan mengalami
penurunan nilai [IFRS 7.20 (d)]
pengungkapan lainnya
kebijakan akuntansi untuk instrumen keuangan [IFRS 7.21] Informasi tentang
akuntansi lindung nilai, termasuk: [IFRS 7.22]
deskripsi dari setiap hedge, instrumen lindung nilai, dan nilai wajar instrumen
tersebut, dan sifat risiko yang dilindung nilai untuk lindung nilai arus kas, periode
di mana arus kas diharapkan terjadi, ketika mereka diharapkan untuk masuk ke
dalam penentuan laba atau kerugian, dan deskripsi dari prakiraan transaksi yang
akuntansi lindung nilai sebelumnya telah digunakan tetapi yang tidak lagi
diharapkan akan terjadi jika keuntungan atau kerugian atas instrumen lindung
nilai dalam lindung nilai arus kas telah diakui dalam pendapatan komprehensif
lain, suatu entitas harus mengungkapkan hal berikut: [IAS 7.23] jumlah yang
begitu diakui sebagai pendapatan komprehensif lain selama periode jumlah yang
telah dikeluarkan dari ekuitas dan dimasukkan dalam laporan laba rugi untuk
periode jumlah yang telah dikeluarkan dari ekuitas selama periode dan termasuk
dalam pengukuran awal biaya perolehan atau nilai tercatat lain dari aset nonkeuangan atau kewajiban keuangan non dalam lindung nilai prakiraan transaksi
yang sangat mungkin
Catatan: Dimana IFRS 9 Instrumen Keuangan (2013) diterapkan, persyaratan
pengungkapan direvisi berlaku. lindung nilai yang diperlukan pengungkapan
akuntansi berlaku di mana entitas memilih untuk mengadopsi akuntansi lindung
nilai dan memerlukan informasi yang akan diberikan dalam tiga kategori besar:
(1) strategi manajemen risiko entitas dan bagaimana itu diterapkan untuk
mengelola risiko (2) bagaimana aktivitas lindung nilai entitas mungkin
mempengaruhi jumlah, waktu dan ketidakpastian arus kas masa depan, dan (3)

yang menyatakan bahwa akuntansi lindung telah memiliki pernyataan entitas


posisi keuangan, laporan laba rugi dan laporan perubahan ekuitas yang
komprehensif. Pengungkapan ini harus disajikan dalam catatan tunggal atau
bagian terpisah dalam laporan keuangan, meskipun beberapa informasi dapat
digabungkan dengan referensi.
Untuk lindung nilai wajar, informasi tentang perubahan nilai wajar instrumen
lindung nilai dan item yang dilindung nilai [IFRS 7.24 (a)] Hedge ketidakefektifan
diakui dalam laporan laba rugi (secara terpisah untuk lindung nilai arus kas dan
lindung nilai atas investasi bersih dalam kegiatan operasi luar negeri) [IFRS 7.24
(bc)] Informasi tentang nilai wajar setiap kelas aset keuangan dan kewajiban
keuangan, bersama dengan: [IFRS 7,25-30]
tercatat sebanding berjumlah deskripsi tentang bagaimana nilai wajar ditentukan
tingkat input yang digunakan dalam menentukan rekonsiliasi nilai wajar gerakan
antara tingkat nilai wajar hierarki pengukuran pengungkapan tambahan untuk
instrumen keuangan yang nilai wajarnya ditentukan dengan tingkat 3 input
termasuk dampak pada laba rugi, informasi pendapatan dan analisis sensitivitas
komprehensif lain jika nilai wajar tidak dapat diukur secara handal
Hirarki nilai wajar memperkenalkan 3 tingkat input berdasarkan tingkat terendah
dari masukan yang signifikan terhadap keseluruhan nilai wajar (IFRS 7.27A-27B):

Level 1 - dikutip harga instrumen serupa Level 2 - input pasar langsung diamati
selain tingkat 1 input Level 3 - input tidak berdasarkan data pasar yang dapat
diobservasi
Perhatikan bahwa pengungkapan nilai wajar tidak diperlukan saat nilai tercatat
adalah mendekati nilai wajarnya, seperti piutang usaha jangka pendek dan
hutang, atau untuk instrumen yang nilai wajarnya tidak dapat diukur secara
andal. [IFRS 7.29 (a)]

Sifat dan tingkat eksposur risiko yang timbul dari instrumen keuangan
pengungkapan kualitatif [IFRS 7.33]
Pengungkapan kualitatif menjelaskan:
eksposur risiko untuk setiap jenis instrumen pengelolaan keuangan ini sasaran,
kebijakan, dan proses untuk mengelola risiko-risiko tersebut berubah dari
periode sebelumnya
pengungkapan kuantitatif
Pengungkapan kuantitatif memberikan informasi tentang sejauh mana entitas
terekspos risiko, berdasarkan informasi yang diberikan secara internal kepada
karyawan kunci entitas. pengungkapan ini meliputi: [IFRS 7.34]
Ringkasan data kuantitatif tentang paparan risiko masing-masing pada
pengungkapan tanggal pelaporan tentang risiko kredit, risiko likuiditas, dan risiko
pasar dan bagaimana risiko tersebut dikelola sebagai lanjut dijelaskan di bawah
konsentrasi risiko

Resiko kredit
Risiko kredit adalah risiko bahwa salah satu pihak atas instrumen keuangan akan
menyebabkan kerugian bagi pihak lain dengan tidak membayar kewajibannya.
[IFRS 7. Lampiran A] Pengungkapan tentang risiko kredit meliputi: [IFRS 7,36-38]
jumlah maksimum eksposur (sebelum dikurangi nilai agunan), deskripsi agunan,
informasi tentang kualitas kredit aset keuangan yang tidak jatuh tempo atau
mengalami penurunan nilai, dan informasi tentang kualitas kredit aset keuangan
yang masa telah dinegosiasi ulang [IFRS 7.36] untuk aset keuangan yang jatuh
tempo atau mengalami penurunan nilai, pengungkapan analitis diperlukan [IFRS
7.37] informasi tentang perangkat tambahan agunan atau kredit lainnya yang
diperoleh atau disebut [IFRS 7.38]
risiko likuiditas
Risiko likuiditas adalah risiko bahwa suatu entitas akan mengalami kesulitan
dalam membayar kewajiban keuangannya. [IFRS 7. Lampiran A] Pengungkapan
tentang risiko likuiditas meliputi: [IFRS 7.39]
analisis jatuh tempo deskripsi kewajiban keuangan pendekatan manajemen risiko
risiko pasar [IFRS 7,40-42]
Risiko pasar adalah risiko bahwa nilai wajar atau arus kas dari instrumen
keuangan akan berfluktuasi karena perubahan harga pasar. Risiko pasar
mencerminkan risiko suku bunga, risiko mata uang dan risiko harga lainnya.
[IFRS 7. Lampiran A] Pengungkapan tentang risiko pasar meliputi:
analisis sensitivitas setiap jenis risiko pasar yang entitas terekspos informasi
tambahan jika analisis sensitivitas tidak mewakili eksposur risiko entitas
(misalnya karena eksposur selama tahun yang berbeda untuk eksposur pada
akhir tahun). IFRS 7 mengatur bahwa jika entitas menyiapkan analisis
sensitivitas seperti nilai-at-risk untuk keperluan manajemen yang mencerminkan
saling ketergantungan dari lebih dari satu komponen risiko pasar (misalnya,
risiko suku bunga dan risiko mata uang asing gabungan), mungkin
mengungkapkan analisis yang bukannya analisis sensitivitas terpisah untuk
setiap jenis risiko pasar
Perpindahan aset keuangan [IFRS 7.42A-H]
Entitas mengungkapkan informasi yang memungkinkan pengguna laporan
keuangan:

untuk memahami hubungan antara aset keuangan yang ditransfer yang tidak
lagi diakui secara utuh dan kewajiban terkait; dan untuk mengevaluasi sifat, dan
risiko yang terkait dengan, keterlibatan entitas yang berkelanjutan di aset
keuangan dihentikan pengakuannya. [IFRS 7 42B]
aset keuangan yang ditransfer yang tidak lagi diakui secara utuh
pengungkapan diperlukan termasuk deskripsi sifat aset yang dialihkan, sifat dari
risiko dan manfaat serta deskripsi alam dan pengungkapan kuantitatif yang

menggambarkan hubungan antara aset keuangan yang ditransfer dan kewajiban


terkait. [IFRS 7.42D]
aset keuangan yang ditransfer yang dihentikan pengakuannya secara
keseluruhan
pengungkapan diperlukan termasuk jumlah tercatat aset dan kewajiban yang
diakui, nilai wajar aset dan kewajiban yang mewakili keterlibatan berkelanjutan,
paparan maksimum untuk kerugian dari keterlibatan berkelanjutan serta analisis
jatuh tempo dari arus kas terdiskonto untuk membeli kembali aset keuangan
dihentikan pengakuannya. [IFRS 7.42E] pengungkapan tambahan diperlukan
untuk setiap keuntungan atau kerugian diakui pada tanggal pengalihan aset,
pendapatan atau beban mengenali dari keterlibatan berkelanjutan entitas di aset
keuangan dihentikan pengakuannya serta rincian distribusi yang tidak merata
melanjutkan dari kegiatan transfer selama periode pelaporan. [IFRS 7.42G]

Full disclosure, pengungkapan penuh adalah pengungkapan data perusahaan


secara lengkap dan menyeluruh menyangkut data keuangan, pengurus dan
sebagainya dengan tujuan agar diketahui secara luas oleh masyarakat umum;
tindakan ini diperlukan sebagai upaya memberikan informasi kepada masyarakat
untuk menilai sekuritas yang diterbitkan dan dijual oleh perusahaan yang
bersangkutan.
Tujuan yang positif dari Disclosure adalah untuk memberikan informasi yang
penting dan relevan kepada para pemakai laporan keuangan, sehingga dapat
membantu mereka dalam membuat keputusan dengan cara yang terbaik.
Sejalan dengan tujuan dasar akuntansi, salah satu tujuan yang dicapainya
adalah penyajian informasi yang cukup sehingga perbandingan dari hasil yang
diharapkan dapat dilakukan.
Laporan keuangan perusahaan disajikan dalam Neraca, Laporan Laba Rugi,
Laporan Arus Kas, dan Laporan Perubahan Modal ditujukan kepada pemegang
saham, investor, dan kreditur. Disamping ketiga pihak tersebut, pengungkapan
juga diberikan kepada pegawai, konsumen, pemerintah dan masyarakat umum,
tetapi pihak-pihak ini dipandang sebagai penerima kedua dari laporan keuangan
dan bentuk-bentuk lain pengungkapan.
Kriteria untuk mengakui teransaksi atau peristiwa tertentu dalam laporan
keuangan adalah sebagai berikut :
1.

Definisi (Definition)

Suatu pos akan masuk dalam struktur akuntansi apabila memenuhi definisi
elemen laporan keuangan.
2.

Keterukuran (Measurability)

Suatu pos harus memiliki makna tertentu yang relevan dan dapat diukur
jumlahnya dengan reliabilitas yang tinggi.

3.

Relevansi (Relevance)

Informasi yang terdapat dalam pos tersebut memiliki kemampuan untuk


membuat suatu perbedaan dalam keputusan yang diambil pemakai laporan
keuangan.
4.

Reliabilitas (Reliability)

Informasi yang dihasilkan harus sesuai dengan keadaan yang digambarkan atau
direpresentasikan serta dapat diuji kebenarannya (verifiable) dan netral.