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# HangerSizing

DavidDiehl

CAESAR II
Hanger Sizing Algorithm in
CAESAR II

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Variable Supports
Why are they required?
through some vertical travel.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Selection Procedure
1: Collect Data

## Calculate the balancing load at the specified

locations
This load will remove all pipe sag due to weight
This will be the design load for the operating position

location

## Determine the vertical travel to the operating position

but excluding weight sag
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Selection Procedure
1: How the Data is Collected

## Calculate the balancing load at the specified

locations
Run a weight analysis with a rigid +Y restraint at each
hanger design location. [Assume up is +Y.]

## Calculate the required (vertical) travel at each

location
Replace the added +Y support with vertical (up) force
equal to the balancing load. Run an operating
analysis.
Collect the vertical travel. Remove the added forces.

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DavidDiehl

Selection Procedure
2: Find the Right Hanger
What hanger can
carry 600 lbf after
traveling up 1/3
inch?
Locate operating
Find relative spring
position
Move back to
installed position

Selection Procedure
as a percentage of the operating load.
Oftentimes limited to 25%
Here:

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Selection Procedure
4: Identify the Hanger

## What hanger can

carry 600 lbf after
traveling up 1/3 inch?
Size 8
Short range spring
Spring rate =
300 lbf/in
600 lbf
Change = 300*1/3
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Post Selection
5: Include Selection in the Model
The program may select a rigid restraint, a
spring support or a constant effort support.
Selected supports are added to the model
for all piping system analyses

## Rigid restraints are represented as a rigid vertical

restraint
Springs are represented as a flexible vertical
restraint (k=selected spring stiffness) AND a
Constant effort supports are represented as an
upward force and are listed in Restraint Reports.

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DavidDiehl

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## There are four locations where different portions

of hanger selection data can be specified

## Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

job

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## There are four locations where different portions

of hanger selection data can be specified

## Controls the current data folder in setting initial values

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (1/3)

## 1E12 by default; just like rigid stiffness

We currently reference 33 tables

(plot colors)

## Suggest using different color for hangers

with CNodes (to identify different boundary
conditions)

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (2/3)

## Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness

Used to match simpler, hand calculations (ignore
stiffness and apply only hot load)
NOT RECOMMENDED

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (3/3)

## Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in Hanger OPE

Travel Cases

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Data Folder
Configuration Settings (3/3)

## Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in Hanger OPE

Travel Cases
This can reduce the travel demand on the hanger
Sets Hanger Stiffness for Operating for Hanger
Travel to As Designed (instead of Ignore)

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Data Folder
Configuration Settings (3/3)

## Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in Hanger OPE

Travel Cases
Renames Theoretical Cold Load as Field Installed
Be careful. Confirm.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## There are four locations where different portions

of hanger selection data can be specified

## Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

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## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Number of Hanger
Design Operating
Design Options
Calculate Actual

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

## Number of Hanger Design Operating Load

Cases
Specifies the number of load cases to be considered
when designing spring hangers. This value may be
between 1 and 9 and corresponds to the number of
thermal load cases to be used in hanger design. If
more than one operating case is to be considered in
the hanger design then you must also select the
Multiple Load Case Design Option to use.
This entry will control the number of analyses
required to select the hangers.

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## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

## Multiple Load Case Design Options

Whenever more than one thermal load case is used
in the hanger sizing algorithm, CAESAR II must know
how you want to weigh the results from the different
cases.
As thermal strain can affect support loads, both the
hangers operating load and deflection can change.
A two-pump installation where only one pump
operates at a time is a good application for multiple
This option can be (re)set as part of the individual
hanger specification

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## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

## Multiple Load Case Design Options (13 in all)

Design based on a single Load Case (#1 - #9)
Design for the maximum operating load
Design for maximum travel
Design for the average load and the average travel
Design for the maximum load and the maximum
travel

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## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

For example:
Operating Case 1 (LC1)

Design
for LC1
Design
for LC2

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## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

## Here, set the Hanger

Design Control Data:
Number of Hanger Design
Design Options =
Operating Case 1
In model input, reset the
right spring:
Design Option =
Operating Case 2

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## Piping Input Specific

Hanger Design Control Data (1/2)

Indicates that CAESAR II makes one additional
analysis after hanger selection is complete and the
supports are included in the model. This analysis will
determine the actual installed loads that should be
used when the hangers are first activated (unblocked).
This calculation tends to be important in the following
situations:

## The stiffness of the piping system is small.

The stiffness of the hanger selected is high.
The hanger travel is large. This is usually more important in
smaller diameter piping systems that are spring supported
away from equipment nozzles.

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## Piping Input General

Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

## Default settings for new entries AND unspecified

settings for existing hanger locations. Entries
here do not replace existing data.

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## Piping Input General

Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

## Turn this switch off if you do not wish to select short

range springs

Load Variation is defined as the change in hanger
Load Variation should not exceed 25% by
specification (B31.1 & MSS SP-69)
Reduce load variation near sensitive equipment (e.g.
constant effort hangers have a load variation of less
than 6%)

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## Piping Input General

Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

## If the vertical growth at the hanger location is less

than this value, CAESAR II will select a rigid rod (a Y
restraint)

## If operating deflection exceeds this value, CAESAR II

will select a constant effort support

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## Piping Input General

Hanger Design Control Data (2/2)

Hanger Table

## Check boxes (more later)

Extended Range go beyond the recommended
range
useful in aligning equipment
Hot Load Centered try to select a better spring

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## There are four locations where different portions

of hanger selection data can be specified

## Controls the current data folder in setting initial values

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

## Sets selection parameters / specifies existing spring for the

job

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Piping Input
Hanger Data
Locating a hanger

Selecting a hanger

Specifying a hanger

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Piping Input
Node Data (1/3)

Node / CNode
Node: You define where the support should be
located.
CNode: Think of the CNode as the other end of the
hanger (which may have vertical growth to be
included in the selection).

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Hanger Table
CAESAR II provides 33 hanger manufacturer catalogues
All have 3 spring sizes (e.g. short, mid & long range)
Some have a fourth (extra long) size

Anvil

Bergen
Power

Power Piping

NPS Industries

Lisega

Fronek

Piping
Technology

Capitol

Piping Services

Basic Engineers

Inoflex

E. Myatt

SINOPEC

BHEL

Flexider

Carpenter &
Paterson

Witzenmann

Sarathi

Myricks

China Power

## Pipe Supports USA

Quality Pipe
Supports

PiHASA

PSSI GmbH

Seonghwa

Mitsubishi

Binder

NHK

Yamashita

Sanwa Tekki

Techno
Industrie

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

## Three check boxes can be used in combination

Extended Range
Historically, manufacturers assume the calculated
weights are incorrect. Accordingly, they design away
from the top and bottom of travel to allow proper field
adjustment. CAESAR II will permit design based on total
available hanger travel.
This switch will select a spring which balances the dead
load in the installed (rather than operating) position.
Useful in aligning equipment.
If the next size larger spring operates closer to the center
of total travel, it a more dependable spring will be
selected .

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DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

Available Space
Specifies the amount of room above or below the pipe where
you can install the hanger or can. If the value is negative,
then CAESAR II assumes that a can is to be installed.
CAESAR II will select the spring only if its basic hanger/can
length is below the entered value.
No space provided for hardware.

CAESAR II
CAESAR II
value for
cans

CAESAR II
value for
hangers

true

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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

## The general default value (specified in general Hanger

Control Data) can be modified here; as near pumps
Often used on flexible, horizontal runs away from risers, this
setting will select a rigid rod if the vertical growth at the
hanger node is less than the entered value

## CAESAR II will select a constant effort support if no spring

can be properly sized. This switch will force a constant
support selection if the vertical growth at the hanger node
exceeds the entered value

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DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

## No. Hangers at Location

Specify where a single hanger is not practical, e.g. on risers
where two or more hangers would be required
Note that CAESAR II will divide the total design load to be
carried between this count

## A local switch for controlling use of (more expensive or less

available) short range springs

## Usually specified after reviewing initial results, this entry

overrides the calculated design (typically, operating) load for
the hanger. Useful in fine tuning supports around sensitive
equipment
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Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

## Hanger Hardware Weight

Hardware weight between the pipe and spring (e.g. long rods
on light springs) may alter the installed and operating spring
The entered value will be added to the design load but it will
not appear in the programs restraint listings

## Multiple Load Case Design Option

Discussed earlier, use this option when the piping must
operate at more than one operating condition.
Specify a specific operating case (e.g. Operating Case #1),
or use average/maximum values for travel/load based on the
number of hanger design operating load cases.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Design Data (2/3)

## Free Restraint at Node (2 entries allowed)

The initial weight analysis will distribute load to each boundary
condition based on system stiffness
The purpose of selecting a spring may be to unload a system
boundary. For example, a support at the top of a riser off a
pump should carry most of the riser weight with little load on
the pump below.
Restraints for this initial weight analysis can be excluded for
Displacement sets are treated as restraints here.

## Free Code (used with Free Restraint at Node, above)

Indicate the direction of freedom (up, up & X, up & other
horizontal, all translation, all 6 DOF).
Up is suggested and only when hanger is above this restraint.

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Piping Input
Predefined Hanger Data (3/3)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Piping Input
Predefined Hanger Data (3/3)

## A calculated value, Theoretical Cold Load =

operating load + (pipe growth times)*(spring stiffness)

## Unlike an applied load (e.g. F1), this support load is treated

as a sustained load component and included in the restraint
table output.

## Note that if a Theoretical Cold Load is not entered,

CAESAR II will select a new spring but first attempt to
use the existing spring with recalculated loads
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Hanger Display
Whether entered explicitly or specified for
design, CAESAR II shows these hangers in the
plot.
If Available Space is negative, a different
symbol will be displayed.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Required Analyses
for Hanger Sizing

## With hanger selection indicated, CAESAR II will

display a note during error check stating the load
cases required for Hanger Selection:

are requested
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## There are four locations where different portions

of hanger selection data can be specified

## Piping Input Hanger Design Control Data

Sets general control and initial setting values for the current
job

job

## Establishes how hangers are treated in each load case

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DavidDiehl

Note
StressType

Estimate hanger travel L2
Select supports and preloads from a catalog
Calculate actual installed loads (if requested) L3
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Output Status
General results for Load Cases with Stress Type of
HGR are suppressed
As these results do not include the selected hangers,
it is unwise to activate their display (i.e. Keep)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## Hanger Stiffness (Rigid, Ignore, As Designed)

The initial weight case includes rigid +Y restraints.
The operating travel for the spring (L2) has no
stiffness for the hangers. Deadweight sag is
eliminated by including the calculated (up) force from
L1.

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Multiple Hanger Design Cases

## Similar action when there are multiple operating

cases for hanger sizing. Here, two operating
cases are defined:
Error Check:

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DavidDiehl

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Hanger Table:

Hanger Table
with Text:

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Output (1/3)

## Hanger Table or Hanger Table W/ Text

4. Back-calculated
+ (k*vertical move.)

1. Calculated in initial
weight analysis
5. A single Anvil
Figure 82 (short)
size 7 spring
selected at node 68.

## 3. Heres the spring

rate that works

2. Calculated in initial
operating analysis

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Output (1/3)

## Hanger Table or Hanger Table W/ Text

8. Check horizontal
displacement for rod
swing

## 7. The actual installed

Variation shows the
percentage of the

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Output (3/3)

9. Spring size

## 10. Minimum &

are used to check
spring position

11. Clearance
required for
hanger/can body
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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Hanger Report:

## Restraint (Summary) Report:

Is the spring carrying a proper load near equipment?
What is the overall maximum & minimum load? (CAESAR II
does not bottom out or lift off, automatically.)

Displacement Report:

## Perhaps you can do better.

Dont say CAESAR II told me to buy that spring

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## Is the spring doing its job? Results:

No, a bigger spring would pull more load off the pump!

Spring:
Anvil Fig. 82
Size 6
k=168

Hanger

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Much better!

Spring:
Anvil Fig. 82
Size 7
k=224

Hanger

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## Is the spring doing its job? Fine Tuning:

ranges from
+41 (cold) to
-124 (hot)
If spring carries
42, pump is
+83 (cold) to

-82 (hot)
New hot spring

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DavidDiehl

Specified

Balanced

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Review hanger
locations when
CAESAR II notes
that hangers are
not carrying
weight.

During Solution

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Review hanger
locations when
CAESAR II notes
that hangers are
not carrying
weight.
In the Solver
In the Hanger
Table

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## Investigate by replicating the weight case

10/11

20

30

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Many designers prefer that the hot load be as
close as possible to the middle of the spring
table. This provides as much variability as
possible in both directions.
The CAESAR II design algorithm will move to a
higher size spring if the design load is closer to
the middle of the larger spring's range.
CAESAR II attempts to move the hot load to the
next higher spring (of the same type) when it is
within 10% of the maximum travel range for the
spring.

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

within 10%

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548

653

574

10%

653

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

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Two springs

## If a single, large spring is too big to fit in the

available space, CAESAR II may select two
smaller springs.
(Also a hanger selection specification.)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## Why calculate Actual Cold Load?

A hanger designed to balance the operating load is
out of balance in the installed position. Using the
Theoretical Cold Load as the installed spring set
point may prevent easy removal of blocks to place the
hanger in service.
Field adjustments to set hanger cold position to this
Theoretical Cold Load may move the pipe rather
than compress the spring so operating load will be
off.
when ordering the spring.

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## Variation between Theoretical Cold Load &

Actual Cold Load is caused by:
Relative stiffness between piping system and the
spring
Large load variation with a flexible line
adjusting a spring to carry fluid weight while the pipe
is empty)

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## At times, accounting for this difference (between

actual and theoretical) cold load may reduce the
required spring travel.
Perhaps allowing the use of a shorter range spring
Try using the Include Spring Hanger Stiffness in
Hanger OPE Travel Cases switch or set the Load
Case Option.

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Default
selection

Include spring
stiffness in
initial
operating
analysis

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

## Here there many hangers selected for a flexible

run. The combined load differential (installed v.
operating) along with the added spring stiffness
pulls the line more than necessary. And the
selected hangers show this.
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Default Selection

Include Stiffness

Different Springs!

Different Travels
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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

Moves Vertically

## One balance position with springs

Default is operating (hot) but can be set to installed

## Other positions are out of balance

Limited by Load Variation (default limit is 25%)
Usually this is acceptable

## You will see this out of balance by (minor) spring

deflection in the installed (SUS) analysis

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in CAESAR II

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HangerSizing
DavidDiehl

CAESAR II
Thank You

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