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Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 9(8): August.



0974-3618 (Print)
0974-360X (Online)


Review on History of Complete Denture

Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi
Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Poonamalle High Road, Chennai -600077India.
*Corresponding Author E-mail:

The history of development of complete denture base technology are outlined from the previous times till the
present moment. The denture base manufacture had been dated as early during Egyptian era. However, the
scientific evidence are based on qualified paper dated as early as 16th century till 20th century. The production of
the complete denture base through various technology are critically reviewed and tabulated in a chronological

KEYWORDS: Complete denture, materials, history, technology development, production methods.

Dentistry as a strength is accepted to have started around
3000 BC.[1] Egypt was the therapeutic focus of
antiquated world. [1] The primary dental prosthesis was
accepted to have been built in Egypt around 2500 BC.[2]
Skilfully outlined dentures were made as ahead of
schedule as 700 BC. [3] Amid medieval times, dentures
were sometimes considered as a treatment choice. They
were hand cut and tied set up with silk strings and must
be uprooted before eating.[4]
16th century- Prosthesis from femur
The most punctual case of complete upper and lower
denture seems to date from sixteenth century and was
delved up in Switzerland.[5] It comprise of two curve
molded layouts of bone, roughly cut from a bull's femur,
and entwined at their back furthest points to frame a
pivot. [6]

This prosthesis can just have been restorative as opposed

to working since it shaped a faade over standing, yet
probably rotted, common teeth. [7] There are no bases
all things considered and maintenance would have been
absolutely mechanical, gave by remaining teeth.
18th century- Wood, Ivory, gold, wax,
There is a portrayal of denture cut from wood or ivory
and found in old Egyptian tombs [8], however no
confirmation of any of these revelations seems to exist,
and positively they were not validated. Once more, the
researchers cited the Roman artist Martial to bolster the
perspective that finish dentures were given in old Rome,
and Ambler expressed that a complete arrangement of
false teeth, manufactured in gold, [9] was found in a
Roman tomb opened a couple of years before the season
of his writing in mid eighteenth century. [10]
Notwithstanding, this report is interested in uncertainty
as no subtle elements were given, nor has free ensuing
reference to Roman complete dentures, in gold or
something else, been found in the writing. [11]

Received on 31.03.2016
Accepted on 20.05.2016

Modified on 22.04.2016
RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2016; 9(8):


The manufacture of a denture was initially portrayed by

Purmann (1648-1721) in his Wundarzenei of 1684. [12]
A chunk of wax was somewhat cut and incompletely


Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 9(8): August. 2016

formed to the coveted shape and form, with the goal that
it imitated the missing teeth, fitted cozily against those
remaining, and was adjusted to the sense of taste and
leftover alveolar edge. [13]

Included authenticity was here and there looked for by

the expansion of human front teeth to an ivory base and
a few delineations of such dentures show up in the
writing, for instance, Guerini, Ash and Woodforde.
Setbacks in both the Battle of Waterloo and the
This model was then utilized by an expert for generation American Civil War gave a considerable lot of the teeth
in bone or ivory.[1, 6, 14] Be that as it may, such a utilized, thus the term 'Waterloo Teeth'. [23-25]
complete denture is unrealistic to have relied on upon its
base for maintenance, since an enormously developed Ivory was not a perfect base material since it frequently
wax example would have been required which would be decayed in the mouth, as likewise did removed human
difficult to expel from the mouth without twisting. [15, teeth. A letter of 1798 to George Washington from his
dental specialist contained nitty-gritty counsel on
countering the stains and for connecting openings to the
The example, along these lines, was kept little with President's dentures. These imperfections were assumed
negligible base expansion. Retentiveness was erratic by the dental specialist to have been brought on by
unless upheld by mechanical means, for example, presentation to port wine and 'other acids'. [26]
springs-which were presumably presented by Fauchard
(1678-1761). [6, 17]
Bermore asserted a change as "the pressure is constantly
tender whether the mouth is open or close' supporting the
Infrequently, maintenance without springs was maintenance of the ivory base, [1] itself depicted by him
accomplished: Fauchard portrayed three dentures he had as something else 'fitting uneasily on the gums'. This
given 'which required virtuoso and incredible expertise kind of spring was likely a winding, for example, those
to make and which are held without springs', [18] yet his appeared to have been consolidated in Washington's
comments infer that springs were viewed by him as the prosthesis. [6, 27] The President is, in any case,
chief, practically just, wellspring of complete denture answered to have discovered his teeth irritating to wear
maintenance. [19]
and difficult to eat with. His dentures were practically
inadequate and in addition being recolored, set, and foul
There is little uncertainty that the spring probably been from rot.
uncomfortable to the wearer, and seem liable to have
brought about delicate tissue cut. It is unverifiable Late 18th century- Porcelain
whether such dentures helped or hindered rumination. Around 1774, Alexis Duchteau created the main
[20] What was required, it was not yet refreshing, was porcelain dentures. [1, 28] Be that as it may, these were
an expansive denture base to circulate occlusal burden inclined to chip furthermore had a tendency to show up
and one which, by its augmentation, would likewise help too white to possibly be persuading. Porcelain molded
security and maintenance.[17]
teeth were put onto gold plates. These were the main
dentures that appear to be like cutting edge dentures.
Frederick the Great's dental specialist, added to a more They were extremely white in shading, however could
viable impression procedure. His technique was to take, be made in various shades. [29]
in two pieces, wax impressions of whole jaw. [6, 21] The
pieces were independently evacuated, in this manner In an interim, Dubois de Chamant culminated the
minimizing bending, and re-amassed outside the mouth porcelain procedure with the guide of the Sevres
and a mortar cast was produced using them. This porcelain manufacturing plant, and got the acclamation
strategy seems to have been obscure even to Fauchard, of the Academy of Sciences, Faculty of Medicine. He
whose strategies Pfaff generally nearly took after. With a relocated to London and was conceded a British patent
sensibly precise and dimensionally stable cast accessible, in 1971, and set up practice. He asserted that 12000 of
the carver could then adjust the denture to it without his sets were being used in 1804, which would
continuous response to the patient. [6]
demonstrate wide patient acknowledgment of his
A piece of ivory was formed with a drill and imprinting
cutting edge, utilizing a shade to identify high spots as He depicted his strategy for making dentures in one
the base was made to fit the cast. Tomes portrayed a piece from a glue which was formed to models of the
procedure utilizing his very own licensed machine mouth. It was then gradually dried and the diagram types
development which, he guaranteed, hindered the of the teeth were cut, and the entire pieces was heated.
utilization of shade. [22]
[30] At long last the white piece was enameled to a
shading relating to the gums and teeth.


Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 9(8): August. 2016

Early 19th century- Accurate hand carving ivory,

vulcanite, xyloidine
Couple of dental specialists could rehash Dubois de
Chemant results, given the erratic shrinkage of porcelain
amid terminating. This was not a weakness however
when singular teeth were produced using porcelain. [31]
This was soon perceived and completely misused. As a
base material, in any case, it had fallen into
offensiveness by the year 1814.

In1947, substance activators were utilized to instigate

denture base polymerization at room temperature.[31]
These were additionally alluded to as icy curing, selfcuring or auto polymerizing tars. [38] Compound
enactment is proficient through the expansion of a
tertiary amine, for example, dimethyl-para-toluidine [38,
39], to the monomer, which after blending causes decay
of benzoyl peroxide.[40] This discharges free radicals to
start polymerization. [39]

More prominent accuracy could be accomplished by

hand cutting ivory. Vulcanite had numerous points of
interest over every single other material then accessible.
[1, 32] It was shoddy and could be effortlessly adjusted
to a cast of the mouth, the measurements and surface
point of interest of which it could precisely recreate
when cured. [33]

Advantage: Greater dimensional precision because of

diminished polymerization shrinkage. [41] Disservices:
Incomplete polymerization prompts more prominent
measure of unreacted monomer in the denture base
creating diminished transverse quality and is a potential
tissue aggravation. [42] Water stockpiling decreases the
level of remaining monomer. The shading dependability
is for the most part mediocre.

Endeavors were made to cut modest dentures from

wood, which effortlessly worked however unaesthetic
and subject to fast fouling in the mouth. Tortoisehell was
utilized with some accomplishment around 1850, [34]
being formed as later would be celluloid. Its shading was
superior to anything vulcanite, however the need to
utilize camphor as a plasticizer gave it a repulsive taste
and scent. It is denoted the presentation of the plastics
whose history dates from 1832, since Braccanot's
advancement of Xyloidine from starch cotton and wood
filaments. [6, 34]
Late 19th century and early 20th century - Tin and
aluminium, introduction to Bakelite
Every option material had real inadequacies, either in
physical properties of due to the relentless strategies of
manufacture required. Thrown tin was generally utilized
until the appearance of aluminum, which slowly
superseded it being much more grounded, all the more
neatly, and strong. Endeavors were made to swage
aluminum bases rather than gold, however once more, as
with gold, connection of teeth and gum work to it was
hard to accomplish. [15]

In any case, the complete denture base material that has

most focal points and which is widely, solely, utilized
today, and in reality which speaks to a decent way to
deal with the perfect material, is PMMA.






Bakelite, a phenol-formaldehyde pitch, had been found

in 1909. [35] By 1924, such tar were being created
industrially and, in the middle of then and 1939, upwards 11.
of fifteen results of this kind were acquainted with
dentistry. [1, 6, 13, 17]
Late 20th- Ideal material: PMMA.
Rohm and Hass (1936) presented PMMA in sheet
structure and Nemours (1937) in powder structure. [36]
[13] Dr. Walter Wright (1937) presented Polymethyl
methacrylate as a denture base material which turned
into the significant polymer to be utilized as a part of the
following ten years. [37] This material has been isolated
into two sorts in light of the strategy for initiation




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