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Mawahib Obaid Alsuwayhiri

EDL 7730
Thu 29, Sep 2016
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Blooms Taxonomy:

Blooms taxonomy is a method to help teachers categorize


learning objectives and goals in the educational setting. It named
after Dr. Benjamin Bloom who found this method with the support
of a team of educators in 1956. Dr. Benjamin Bloom was a great
American educational psychologist who impacts the way of
learning and teaching not only in the United States of America but
all around the world.
Bloom Taxonomy divides the learning objectives into three
main area or domains, which are according to Bloom's Taxonomy
of Learning Domains 1- Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge),2Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self),
3- Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills). Dr. Bloom goal
was to encourage educators to focus on all three area when
teaching.
However, Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, and David
Krathwohl revisited the cognitive domain in the mid-nineties and

made some changes. This is the changes in the Bloom's Revised


Taxonomy:

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs:

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is named after Abraham Harold


Maslow, A leader of the humanistic school of psychology. Maslows
Hierarchy of Needs is an approach to understanding human
motivation and need, and it shapes like a pyramid. For a human
being to be able to fulfill his need and motivation according to
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, he or she has to start from the
bottom of the pyramid, in which they have to fulfill their
physiological need first such as the need for food, water, sleep,
and breath. Second, after they fulfill their physiological need,
now they can focus on fulfilling their safety need such as the
need to be sheltered and out of danger. These two level are called
the basic level, in which we all need to satisfy its demand to go up
in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs and fulfill the other needs. The
third level in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is the need of love and

belonging, such as the love of family and friends. Forth, is the


need of self-esteem, and to feel a sense of achievement of what
we do and accomplish. Finally, the last level of Maslows Hierarchy
of Needs is the need of Self-actualization, which means to find
self-fulfillment and realize one's potential.
According to the article Applying Maslow's Hierarchy of
Needs In Our Classrooms , By Tony Kline, Ph.D, he states,
However, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs can provide teachers a
reminder and framework that our students are less likely to
perform at their full potential if their basic needs are unmet.
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Piaget:

According to Wikipedia, Jean Piaget was a Swiss clinical


psychologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
One of the most known theory on the children development
process is Piaget four stages theory. The first stage in Piaget
theory is the sensorimotor stage, which is from birth until two
years. In this stage, the main way for a child to learn is
throughout his or her senses. They touch things, see them with
their eyes, tastes them and hear them. The second stage is the
preoperational stage, which occurs from two years up to seven

years. In this stage children like pretend playing and they


understand symbols, and they are very ego-centric. After the
preoperational stage comes the Concrete operational stage,
which is usually from seven years to eleven years old. In this
stage, kids are no longer ego-centric, they are more logical and
more aware of the world around them. Finally, the last stage in
Piaget theory is the Formal operational stage, which occurs from
age twelve and up. Kids in this age are thinking more and more
logically and developing necessary skills to solve problems.
By understanding the different stages kids go through from
the age of birth up until theyre adult, we could teach kids in
better ways, and help them to learn about the world around them
and achieve their goals.

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Constructivism/Constructivist Theory:

What is Constructivism? Constructivism is a learning theory


that is based on the idea that learner constructs knowledge and
meaning of the information teachers present by themselves
individually. According to this theory, the teacher has to focus on

the learner the student, which means not focusing on the


subject or the lesson theyre teaching. Each student can construct
the same information thought in the classroom based on their
personal experience and their attributing of information.
According to the article, Constructivist Learning Theory by Prof.
George E. Hein, he states If we accept constructivist theory
(which means we are willing to follow in the path of Dewey, Piaget
and Vigotsky among others), then we have to give up Platonic and
all subsequent realistic views of epistemology. We have to
recognize that there is no such thing as knowledge "out there"
independent of the knower, but only knowledge we construct for
ourselves as we learn.
In the article Prof. George E. Hein explains nine principles of
learning that educators need to keep in mind if they choose to
follow Constructivism /Constructivist Theory. All of those principles
emphasize the role of focusing on giving the learners the
opportunity to learn and grow and give them the chance to
develop their skills to improve their learning experience.

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Multiple Intelligences:

Dr. Howard Gardner developed the theory of Multiple


Intelligences in 1983. Dr. Howard Gardner developed this theory
because he believed that judging others intelligent based only on
IQ test is not fair and limited. The professor of education at
Harvard University, Dr. Howard Gardner suggested eight different
intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in
children and adults. According to Multiple Intelligences article,
the author states, These intelligences are: Linguistic intelligence
("word smart") Logical-mathematical intelligence
("number/reasoning smart") Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical intelligence
("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")
Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")
Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart").
Dr. Gardner believed that the educational setting in
American schools often focuses only on two kinds of intelligent
which are linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. For
that, many students are often misunderstood as stupid or not so
smart in the regular classroom. One way to use the Multiple

Intelligences theory effectively in the classroom is to provide eight


different pathways to teaching the class materials. For example,
Multiple Intelligences article suggest, Whatever you are
teaching or learning, see how you might connect it with:
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words (linguistic intelligence)

numbers or logic (logical-mathematical intelligence)

pictures (spatial intelligence)

music (musical intelligence)

self-reflection (intrapersonal intelligence)

a physical experience (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence)

a social experience (interpersonal intelligence), and/or

an experience in the natural world. (naturalist intelligence)

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Brain-Based Learning:

Brain-Based Learning is a teaching method that is based on the


changes in the cognitive development that students go
throughout different grades. According to BRAIN-BASED LEARNING
article, the author states, Brain-based learning is motivated by
the general belief that learning can be accelerated and improved
if educators base how and what they teach on the science of
learning, rather than on past educational practices, established
conventions, or assumptions about the learning process. For
example, it was commonly believed that intelligence is a fixed
characteristic that remains largely unchanged throughout a
persons life.
Following this brain-based learning theory may increase the
chances of delivering the information to students in easier, faster,
and in more efficient forms. It also may result in a more
successful learning experience. Also, by knowing which part of the
brain are responsible for storing long-term memory, and which

part is in charge of storing short-term memory, we could increase


the amount of information we memorize quickly.

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Webbs depth of knowledge:

The Webbs depth of knowledge or as it called DoK is


designed to indicate complexity of the task. According to Webbs
Depth of
Knowledge Guide Career and Technical Education Definitions
states, DOK level are assigned to each course objective the
following served as general guidelines for developers:
The DOK level assigned should reflect the level of work
students are most commonly required to perform in order for the
response to be deemed acceptable.
The DOK level should reflect the complexity of the cognitive
processes demanded by the task outlined by the objective, rather
than its difficulty. Ultimately the DOK level describes the kind of

thinking required by a task, not whether or not the task is


difficult.
If there is a question regarding which of two levels a
statement addresses, such as Level 1 or Level 2, or Level 2 or
Level 3, it is appropriate to select the higher of the two levels.
The DOK level should be assigned based upon the cognitive
demands required by the central performance described in the
objective.
There are four levels of Webbs Depth of knowledge, which
are:
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Recall and Reproduction 2- Skills and Concepts

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Short-term Strategic Thinking 4- Extended Thinking


Reference:

- Bloom's Taxonomy, michelleholmes111


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__YdXxwBZ7Q
- Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains,
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html
- Citation: Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta
State University. Retrieved [date] from,
http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html

- Applying Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs In Our Classrooms,


Tony Kline http://www.changekidslives.org/actions-4/
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, khanacademymedicine,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6PEf9WtEvs
- Piaget's stages of cognitive development,
khanacademymedicine, https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Jt3-PIC2nCs
- Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget
- Piaget's stages of cognitive development,
khanacademymedicine https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Jt3-PIC2nCs
- Constructivist Learning Theory, Prof. George E. Hein,
http://www.exploratorium.edu/education/ifi/constructivistlearning
- Multiple Intelligences,
http://www.institute4learning.com/multiple_intelligences.php
- Webbs Depth of Knowledge Guide, Career and Technical
Education Definitions,
http://www.aps.edu/re/documents/resources/Webbs_DOK_Gui
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de.pdf
Identifying Webb's Depth of Knowledge Levels, CLAS
Network, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5u7hchcdTDo