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Outcomes & Evidence
Progress Inventory*
Center for Student Leadership Development
Memorial Union
University of Rhode Island
Name: Lucinda Gonzales
Date Enrolled: 2014
Date of Graduation: 2018

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013

*The Outcomes & Evidence Progress Inventory is the intellectual property of the Center for Student Leadership Development (CSLD) at
the University of Rhode Island and cannot be reproduced in part, or in its entirety, without the written permission of the acting
Assistant Director of the CSLD.


Center for Student Leadership Development Information
Minor Information
Developmental Model
ADVISING INFORMATION (students will include own documentation)
Tracking Sheet / Advising Updates
Syllabi of Minor Classes (Core and Electives)
o Guidelines
o Syllabus
o Mid-term
o Final
Outcomes (Self-Leadership, Interpersonal and Organizational, Leadership Theories, Inclusive Leadership, Critical
Targeted Classes

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013


Office: Memorial Union Room 210

Phone: (401) 874-2726

Fax: (401) 874-5317

CSLD Mission Statement

To enhance the mission of the University of Rhode Island, The Center for Student Leadership Development aims to:
Provide developmental opportunities for all students to become informed, inclusive, effective, and ethical leaders in the global marketplace through the implementation of
learner-centered academic, experiential, and co-curricular programming.
Engage in research, assessment, and advancement in order to positively impact the expanding field of leadership studies.
CSLD Vision Statement
The URI Center for Student Leadership Development will promote dynamic strengths-based leadership development through multiple delivery methods to prepare students to be
competitive in the work place and global marketplace. The CSLD seeks to progress as innovators for experiential engagement and enriching assessment.
CSLD Values Statement
Grounded in the Social Change Model of Leadership Development (Higher Education Research Institute), Relational Leadership Model (Komivies, Lucas, & McMahon), and Servant
Leadership (Greenleaf), the URI Center for Student Leadership Development values:
Engaged and experiential learning through a constructivist approach
Inclusion, Social Justice, and Civic Engagement
Ethical and Value-based Leadership & Relationship Building
Innovative Assessment and Presentation Models


At URI, we are among only a handful of colleges and universities across the country that offers a Minor in Leadership Studies and one that is customized for each student. We utilize
a cross-disciplinary approach to leadership education designed to complement your academic studies. All courses utilize a variety of teaching methods but ultimately include some
form of experiential learning, practical application, and reflective learning. Employers, now more than ever, are seeking candidates with exceptional skills in the areas of
interpersonal and group management, problem solving, critical thinking and effective communication. We can help with all of the above.


Regardless of your major, you can minor in Leadership Studies.

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013

Requirements may be satisfied by completing 18 or more credits related to leadership and offered by more than one department.
Twelve (12) of the 18 credits must be at the 200 level of instruction or above. A course grade of C or better must be earned in each graded course. At least 12 of the credits
must be earned at URI.
No course may be used to apply to both the major and minor fields of study. Courses in General Education or for other minors may be used for the minor* (*this does not
apply to students in the College of Business). With the exception of internship credit, all courses for the minor must be taken for a grade. The Introductory class must be taken
before the internship and the capstone course.
Application for the minor must be filed in your academic deans office no later than the beginning of the final semester or term.
Approval of the minor does not guarantee that the suggested courses will be available to you on a schedule correlated with your graduation plans nor guarantee space in any
required course.


Required Element
Introductory Course
3 credits
3 credits

Class options

Only offered in spring for first-year students

HDF 290: Modern Leadership Issues

Offered Fall and Spring for sophomores & juniors

HDF 417: Leadership Internship

Requires 40 hours/credit with a min. of 80 hours & a max. of 120 hours of documented
internship experience for graded credit



Experience through Office of Experiential Learning & Community Engagement


3 credits

Internship Class in Academic Major

The only time the major and minor can overlap

HDF 412: Historical, Multi-ethnic & Alternative Leadership

Offered only in the fall with preference given to seniors

COM 402: Leadership & Motivation

Offered in the spring and summer with Dr. Leatham


BUS 441: Leadership Skills Development


HPR 411/412: Honors Senior Seminar

1 credit


HDF 492: Leadership Minor Portfolio

Offered in the fall and spring with Dr. Cooper

Must be in Honors or have GPA of 3.3
Taken last spring semester of enrollment (some exceptions)


*Additional classes may be appropriate and therefore added to the list; see CSLD for the most updated list or bring a class that you think should be an elective
AAF 300: Civil Rights Movement in the US
BUS 341: Organizational Behavior
BUS 342: Human Resource Management
BUS 441: Leadership & Motivation (capstone option)
BUS 443: Organizational Design & Change
BUS 448: International Dimensions of Business
BUS 449: Entrepreneurship
COM 100: Communication Fundamentals
COM 202: Public Speaking

COM 402: Leadership and Motivation (capstone option)

COM 407: Political Communication
COM 415: The Ethics of Persuasion
COM 421: Advanced Interpersonal Communication
COM 422: Communication and Conflict
COM 441: Race, Politics and the Media
COM 450: Organizational Communication
COM 461/462: Managing Cultural Differences in Organizations
CSV 302: URI Community Service

HDF 416: Leadership in Organizations

HDF 417: Leadership Minor Internship
HDF 437: Law & Families in the U.S.
HDF 450: Introduction to Counseling
HPR 118: Honors Course in Speech Communications
HPR 203: The Prepared Mind
HPR 412: Honors Seminar (capstone option)
MSL 101: Introduction to Military Leadership
MSL 201: Leadership & Military History
Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013

COM 208: Argumentation and Debate

COM 210: Persuasion: The Rhetoric of Influence
COM 221: Interpersonal Communication
COM 250: Small Group Communication
COM 302: Advanced Public Speaking
COM 308: Advanced Argumentation
COM 322: Gender & Communication
COM 351: Oral Comm. in Business & the Professions
COM 361: Intercultural Communication
COM 383: Rhetorical Theory
COM 385: Communication and Social Influence

GWS 150: Introduction to Womens Studies

GWS 310: Race, Class, Sexuality in Womens Lives
GWS 350: International Womens Issues
HDF 190: FirstYear Leaders Inspired to Excellence (FLITE)
(introductory course option)
HDF 290: Modern Leadership Issues (introductory course option)
HDF 291: Rose Butler Browne Program Peer Mentoring Program
HDF 412: Historical, MultiEthnic, & Alternative Leadership
(capstone option)
HDF 413: Student Organization Leadership Consulting
HDF 414: Leadership for Activism and Social Change
HDF 415: FLITE Peer Leadership

MSL 201: Military Skills and History of Warfare

MSL 202: Leadership & Team Building
MSL 301: Leadership & Management
PEX 375: Women in Sport Contemporary Perspectives
PHL 212: Ethics
PSC 304: Introduction to Public Administration
PSC 369: Legislative Process and Public Policy
PSC 504: Ethics in Public Administration
SOC300/WMS350: Women and Work
THE 221: Stage Management
THE 341: Theater Management

Leadership Inventory Revised 8/30/2013


Wilson, 1998 (URI Memorial Union / Center for Student Leadership Development)
Revised after the publication of Exploring Leadership: for College Students Who Want to Make a Difference by Komives, McMahon and Lucas, 1998.

You need to have your own act together before you can lead others:
2. Lead Yourself

1. Know Yourself
Lead Others




Time management
Self care
Self discipline
Develop and maintain family,
interpersonal, and intimate relationships
Academic, social, personal goals and


former stages as you

4. Develop and Refine


Leadership theory and

Group Development
Citizen Activist Skills
Critical Thinking
Teaching and Programming

3. Broaden Your Perspectives

Understand others

Hierarchy of needs
Racial, cultural, gender, sexual orientation,
religious, class, ability, etc. diversity and
Power, privilege, oppression, liberation;
individual and institutional discrimination

In this section, you will track your progress toward the outcomes. Each class in the minor targets different outcomes; all of the classes list these
outcomes on the syllabi (the words goals or curriculum areas may be used instead). In many of our classes, the assignments can serve as your
evidence. Periodically, and not less than at the end of each semester, you should update your outcomes progress. In the additional experiences
column, name additional classes or experiences that contributed to you becoming proficient in that outcome. As the semesters pass, you will think of
things from recent semesters and semesters further in the past, or people or jobs, etc. in your past that also influenced your progress on that outcome.
Do not let that ambiguity upset you. Reflecting on development is not a linear process, but it does help to reflect often. In the descriptive notes
column, share insights about your growth, lack of progress, successes, stumbling blocks, etc. At the end of each section, you need to include evidence
that supports your development toward the outcomes. Copies of papers, grading sheets, evaluation lettersanything that shows that someone has
determined that you have demonstrated proficiency (or not, or are making progress). Make sure to keep electronic copies of all of your evidence to
include in your Portfolio.

Outcome Category: Self-Leadership



Student will demonstrate autonomy and a

minimized need for approval


Student will demonstrate personal,

organizational, and academic examples
of self-discipline



EvidenceGoogle Folder
Google Calendar
White board
Student will demonstrate the ability to
manage emotions

Evidence- learning contract

Evidence- Musically Inclined Picture
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
stress management methods

Target class

Additional Experiences

HDF 190

HDF 190

-URI 101 Mentor Team

HDF 190


Evidence- program
Student will demonstrate the ability to
manage stress

HDF 190


Evidence- day of discovery packet

Student will express a personal code of
leadership / membership ethics

HDF 190

-Leadership Institute

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

Though by nature, Im not a very organized person, there are several places I do make a conscious
effort to stay organized. The first I organized was my Google Drive. I actually organized my personal
Drive first, because I needed a way to keep all my writings in track, but when I moved to college and
got another Gmail account, I organized my account by year, then semester, then class. I also
purchased a small white board calendar so that I could write down not only my work schedule, but the
major assignments due as well. I also connected the Gmail calendar to both my phone and my tablet
that also had my school schedule, so I could easily schedule any appointments or work shifts at a
moments notice.
While I was working to complete my learning contract, I was also helping my mother and Aunts and
Uncles care for my grandfather as he began to transition into death. I had to sell a product to many
visitors who were just as emotional as I was. In order to make a sale, I couldnt be crying or depressed.
Instead I focused on helping my grandfather when I could, and helping to make sales through
conversation and relating, but not to the point where my emotions turned off the sale. Even through this
hard time, I was able to make close to $800 dollars in sales.
When in a leadership role, especially in leading peers whom are close to myself, sometime I have to
choose being fair to promoting my friends, especially if they are not ready. One example was one my
friends applied to be a URI 101 Mentor for the fall of 2016. I first of all did my best to ensure that I didnt
interview her, and that I tried to keep away from her application, so that my friendship wouldnt cause
me to overlook any problems she might have in her application. I also made sure that she didnt book
an individual interview that was with myself. When it came time to make decisions about Mentors, we
decided on our criteria for accepting mentors, and when the final decisions were made, my friend didnt
make the cut. I was asked to send out the NO emails during practice when we were both there, and I
had to watch as she was sad that she didnt get the job. Though I did feel bad, I was confident in mine
and my teams decisions, and though it was tough to the see the rejection first-hand, it allowed to me
work on controlling my emotions and become a better leader.
There are several techniques I used while in California. The first was tuning into my body. Despite all
the stress that was going on, I knew I needed to take care of myself. That meant taking showers,
eating three meals a say, sleeping eight hours and taking naps when I needed. I knew that if I didnt
take care of my body, I wouldnt be able to handle the stress helping to take care of my grandfather
caused. The second technique I used was taking care of my mind. I took time to myself if I was feeling
anxious or stressed. I did activities that I found relaxing, like writing, reading, or going to a movie and
made sure to it every single day to keep my stress managed as well as my emotions.
During the day of discovery for HDF 190, we did an activity called Inclusion Town. In this activity I was
placed in the third group, the one who had the most disadvantages and the least supplies. After a few
minutes of being ignored by the policemen and mayors, many of my fellow members became frustrated
with the treatment. I also was frustrated, but instead of getting angry at those running the game, I
chose to continue to work through the rules, even though I got almost nothing accomplished. I chose to
play by the rules and continue to be polite and courteous instead of getting frustrated like some of my
members did.
During Leadership Institute, we worked on what Leadership meant us as individual leaders. My
personal code of ethics when it comes to leadership is to lead is to serve. I firmly believe that in order
to lead someone you have to know them, and the best way to know them is to serve them. I believe





Evidence- My house of Values

Student will demonstrate practice of the
personal code of ethics

Evidence- My house of values

Evidence- VIA Strengths
Student will express a personal values

Evidence- My house of Values

Evidence- VIA Strengths Profile
Student will demonstrate practice of the
personal values statement

Evidence- URI 101 Mentor training

Evidence- SOLC Photo
Student will demonstrate the ability to
lead a project from start to finish (follow-

HDF 190

HDF 190

HDF 291

HDF 291

-URI 101 Mentor

-HDF 413
-SOLC Consulting

ENG 243

-HDF 190
-COM 100H

that when you lead someone you are serving them and their best interest as well as everyone you are
leading. If you dont consider them, then you arent a leader.
In class, we participated in the Four Corners assignment, and we were asked various questions, not
only about Leadership, but what agreed or didnt agree on for certain ideas about Leadership. We were
asked to decide on what we believed about the statement, or what our ethics were. In this exercise we
had to practice our ethics by decided whether or not we agreed with that statement. Then we were
required to talk about why chose to disagree or agree and speaking our ethical code.
I chose my foundation as Love of Learning, because I believe that in very opportunity is a learning
experience, and we are never, at any point finished learning. There is always more to learn, and ways
to better ourselves as Leaders. For the strengths that I chose to support my foundation, I put
Appreciation of Excellence and Beauty and Social Intelligence. I put these because I believe that the
best way to learn from the environment around me is appreciate the beauty in everything I see, and to
always look for something special and excellent about people. In order to learn from people, I need
Social Intelligence, not only to communicate effectively, but to also to persuade others and build my
social capital to have opportunities to learn. When I looked out the window, I see Kindness, because I
believe that in order to help people, it is always best to be kind. I also believe in changing the world, in
providing equal opportunity for all, which is why I believe that Fairness is also important, to provide
equity and fight for Diversity.
HDF 190- I have a love of learning, and I always love to appreciate the beauty and excellence in life. I
always try to adapt to any situation, and individualize each person and their life. My priority is to serve. I
always try to serve people. It is also my priority to serve the community and help change it for the
better. As a professional I believe I will always be learning about new skills and trades, but that I should
always work and try my hardest. I believe firmly in integrity and work let my actions speak for the
values I hold, and the impact I wish to make.
HDF 291- As a woman color, I believe I have a responsibility to learn all that I can about society and
work to make it better for those that will come after me. As privileged women of color, I believe it is also
my responsibility to use my social intelligence to expand my social network and influence others in
order to help give fellow women of color chances to advance themselves further in our society. As a
human, I believe it is a gift to be able to appreciate the beauty and excellence of an individual, and
work to help them thrive in life. And as a leader, I believe it is my duty to be to kind to those who look to
me for guidance, but also to be fair first and foremost, and not let my personal feelings affect my ability
to lead.
HDF 291- Being a URI 101 Mentor is a powerful position. As a URI 101 Mentor, you receive a unique
opportunity to meet and help first year students through their first semester at URI. In many cases, a
URI 101 Mentor is the first student leader they experience outside of their RAs and Orientation
Leaders. I was very privileged to have the chance to be on the URI 101 Mentor Team, whose job is to
recruit, interview, and train the URI 101 Mentors for Fall 2016. When I was interviewing for the position,
I spoke a lot about the need for more diversity within the URI 101 program, that it was paramount that
we show diversity in this important group. When I was hired as part of the URI 101 Team, I advocated
heavily for focusing on diversity in the URI 101 Mentors and in URI 101 Mentor Training, so that more
minorities could have the chance to be in a position of leadership, and we could help make other URI
101 Mentors aware of the need for tolerance and openness in their classrooms. This related to my VIA
value of fairness. Not only did I believe that every should have an opportunity in leadership and being a
URI 101 Mentor, but that that fairness, equity, and commitment to diversity should be one of our main
priorities. This recognition of one of values also interested me in the HDF 291, which specifically talked
about women of color in leadership, and teaching us about the past to better prepare for our future. My
other VIA strength, Loving of Learning is also why Ive been able to grow so much as facilitator through
SOLC Consulting and through HDF 413
In my ENG 243 Short Story class, early on we were split into groups and over the course of the
semester, each group was to pick two short stories and lead a class discussion for each story. In my




group we had a range of different talents, but no one to really set down any outlines and checkpoints to
make sure everything was done on time. I stepped up and filled that role. I gathered emails from
everyone in the group and set up a Google Drive folder. I really didnt appoint myself leader, but others
in my group began to ask questions during the course of planning for both the group discussions.
Because everyone was in agreement, I took on that role, and also led both group discussions, but I
also made sure everyones ideas were heard, and that everyone earned their grade and did their part.

Evidence- screen shots of assesment

Student will describe goals and objective
statements regarding personal issues,
career issues, and community issues
Student will show evidence of goals and
objectives that were planned and
Student will show knowledge of the
Hierarchy of Needs theory by Maslow
Student will show application of Maslows
theory to own life
Student will describe personal leadership
style and/or personality style including
strengths and weaknesses and examples
of application (Sources = Leadership style
inventories, the L.P.I., StrengthsQuest,
Type Focus (MBTI), LAMP, and other
career inventories, etc.)

HDF 190

Type Focus

In HDF 190, I took the Strengthquest test. My top five strengths are Input, Context, Ideation,
Adaptability and Individualization. One example is when I was co-director of a play for the Madrigal
Dinners at my old high school. The day after we cast our roles, my lead backed out of the play. I had to
ask my friend Phoebe to do the part. I had to use my strengths in order to help Phoebe learn her part,
which was not only the opposite of her character, but very engaging with the audience as well. I to ue
my adaptability in order to adapt the play to my new lead. I also had to use context and
individualization to help Phoebe really get into the role. It helped that I knew her, and I knew what she
could do, and I really was able to look at her as an individual and relate this role to her strengths.

Evidence- StrengthQuest
Student will show knowledge of the theory
of Superleadership by Manz & Sims
Student will show application of Manz &
Sims theory to own life

Outcome Category: Leadership Theories



Student will show knowledge of the

Authority and Bureaucracy theory of
leadership Weber
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Weber)
Student will show knowledge of the
Scientific Management theory of
leadership by Taylor
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Taylor)
Student will show knowledge of the
Management by Objectives theory of

Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice




leadership by Drucker
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Drucker)
Student will show knowledge of Theory
X and Theory Y theory of leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (MacGregor)
Student will show knowledge of the
Servant Leadership theory of leadership
by Greenleaf

Evidence- Servant Leadership

Evidence- URI 101 Mentor Application
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Greenleaf)

Evidence- URI Catering photo

Evidence- NUFP Application
Student will show knowledge of the
Principle Centered Leadership theory
by Covey

HDF 190

HDF 190

Out of the ten characteristics Greenleaf coined, I think the ones that are the closest to my strengths
and values are Commitment to the Growth of People and Building Community. My strengths, Input,
Ideation and Individualization are designed to help people, find their strengths, to help them grow not
just as individuals but also with the community as a whole. I believe that it is my goal as a servant
leader to nurture those whom I lead and serve. I also believe in teaching people to return these ideals
in their personal community, so that change my start with one person, but it doesnt end there.
I believe the characteristics that I most need to work on are Conceptualization and Foresight. I think
that for Conceptualization, I can image things super far in the future, or day-to-day, but its harder to
see the near future or how that might relate to my current project. I think this is because Im working on
the discipline and practice necessary to think in this particular way. While I think that Foresight relates
to my strength as Context, I also think it is a very hard skill to learn and requires a lot of cultivation.
Two characteristics that I believe Ive grown and sustained well over my years in the Leadership Minor
are Building Community and Commitment to the Growth of People. I believe that in order to build a
community of Servant Leaders, I must be committed to continuing to to grow and empower others to
succeed, that my ultimate goal is to create a community that works to empower others to grow in their
strengths and improve their weaknesses. My goal is always to turn around what Ive learned about
myself, as offer my advice and experience so that others can learn from me and grow on their own
path to be a Servant Leader.

-URI Catering Services

-NUFP Program

What is Servant Leadership? - Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership. (n.d.). Retrieved December
05, 2016, from
For my Catering job, I am serving people everyday, literally and figuratively. In my job, I have to listen
and be aware first and foremost. I have to listen when my supervisor gives me direction, or when a
client or when a guest asks for a specific request on their meal because if I dont get it right, people
could get sick. I also have to be aware of those around, my and the other jobs my co-worker has been
given. When were all setting up for a banquet, if my job of setting up the tables has to come before
they can place the water and plates, I have to be aware of that and to get my job done quickly. Also
when were serving two hundred people, it has to be as seamless as possible, and often its up to us to
get it done quickly. Sometimes I have to lead, to tell others what to do in the interest of getting the
plates down quicker, but doing it in a way that doesnt seem like Im trying to over-exert my authority.
This requires me to be not only aware of them, but to be empathetic as well.
What I want to continue to work on most is the idea of empowering others to become servants as well.
I believe firmly that the final step in the cycle is using my abilities and a servant and my influence as a
leader to help others , especially those with historically disenfranchised identities. This why I chose to
apply to the NUFP program for NASPA, because I wanted to learn more about Student Affairs and
being to empower others on my campus. It also has connected me to other students of color across the
country so I can learn more about how leadership looks on other campuses and that when I do go to
graduate school, I can learn how best to serve my graduate school and continue my growth as a
Servant Leader.



Student will describe personal application

of the above theory (Covey)
Student will show knowledge of the 14
Points / TQM theory of leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Deming)
Student will show knowledge of the
Visionary Leadership (now often cited
as Transformational Leadership) theory
by Sashkin
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Sashkin)
Student will show knowledge of the
Individuals in Organizations leadership
theory by Argyris
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Argyris)
Students will demonstrate knowledge of
the 4 Vs theory of leadership by Grace
(Center for Ethical Leadership)

HDF 190

One of the many theories we learned in HDF 190 is this 4-V Model of Ethical Leadership. The model is
based on the idea that people who want to become leaders making a commitment of inner integrity and
outer to the common good. This model focuses on the two parts, the inner integrity first, and the
commitment of living and behaving second. The endgame of this theory is to shape a leader as
someone who is visionary, inclusive, and someone that enables everyone to be the best they can be.
The 4-Vs stand for Values, Vision, Voice and Virtue. Values ties into the ethics idea of this model, and
vision is the big picture thinking that needs to happen for a true commitment of serving the community.
Voice is training ones voice to help other understand what their visions are, and Virtue is a
commitment to stick to ethics of Leadership.
Three additional elements to this theory are Service, which connects Vision and Values, Polis, which
helps one give voice to ones vision in light of a public act, and Renewal, which also connects Voice to
Values which helps one take a step back and consider if ones actions are the same as their values and

HDF 190

During HDF 190, another model we learned about was this Relational Leadership model. This model
emphasizes the importance of relationships in a group for the process of purposeful change. In order to
do that according to this model, developing and maintaining healthy and honest relationships is key,
and it starts with knowledge of self and an openness to appreciate and respect others. Leaders are
encouraged and expected to be inclusive, empowering, purposeful, ethical, and process-oriented. The
three basic principles of this model is knowing about yourself, how change occurs, and that other
people view things differently. The second thing is being ethical, principled, open, caring, and inclusive.
The third thing is doing and leading in such a way that is socially responsible ways, consistently and
congruently, not only as a participate in a community, but also on ones commitment and passions.

Evidence- 4 Vs worksheet
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Grace)
Student will show knowledge of the
Situational Leadership theory by Hersey
& Blanchard
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Hersey & Blanchard)
Student will show knowledge of the
Relational Leadership model by
Komives, McMahon & Lucas

Evidence- Relational Leadership



Student will describe personal application

of the above theory (Komives et al)
Student will show knowledge of the
concept of constructivism

HDF 190

HDF 291

HDF 190- Also in HDF 190 we learned about this concept of constructivism. This is a theory based on
observation and scientific study that is about how people learn. Through this method, it is thought that
people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through both experiencing and
reflecting on those experiences. The main idea is that when one has the opportunity to learn something
new, they process it through the context of what one already knows. This means that as one learns
new things, it changes the way one thinks about those things. Therefore, learning requires us to ask
questions, explore, research, and continually re-assess what one knows.
HDF 291- The concept of constructivism is a theory that as a person learns new things, they filter them
through lenses and information they already know. Therefore, we construct our world understanding by
what we already understand, so truly learning new things and changing our perspective requires
conscious work within ourselves. I believe that this is a great way understanding how societal racism
continues to occur, even in people who have been educated in why racism exists in the first place. Like
in constructivism, when a person who is already been subconsciously indoctrinated by society and
other parental-like figures to believe the idea that other races are inferior to them, simply learning about
racism in school without challenging their pre-convinced notions about race, then they cant truly learn
and subscribe to constructivism.



Evidence- constructivism sheet (white)

Evidence- constructivism sheet (purple)
Students will describe personal examples
of implementing constructivism

Evidence- Rose Butler Brown Program

Evidence- Rose Bulter Brown Program
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
experiential learning in leadership
development (Kolb)

HDF 291

HDF 413

-HDF 190

Constructivism - Learning Theories. (2016). Retrieved December 04, 2016, from
HDF 291- A personal example of construct is actually how I originally defined constructivism in my first
Leadership class, HDF 190. When I first read about constructivism, to me it was simply a model about
how about someone learns. It had always made sense to me, because how could you truly learn
something new, if you couldnt relate to something you had already learned. Considering its how we
learn as children, it would be logical to assume its how we learn as adults. I also objectively
understood that there could be problems with this way of thinking, because if we always related what
was new to what wed already learned, then wed never truly expand our perspective. However, I never
really thought of how constructivism might apply to societal problems like rape culture, gender
stereotypes and racism. I was thinking of constructivism in an academic mindset, instead of applying to
society as well. The case of racism, especially whats considered modern racism, tis often hard for
those not of marginalized identities to learn and accept that racism happens to others. Its hard for us
as humans to understand something weve never experienced. This is why its so easy to fall into
Cognitive Dissonance and a bubble of information. By only listening to one point of view and discarding
all others, it makes it hard for someone to reflect on new information and not automatically reject the
new ideas. That is why constructivism is so important, because it allows students to frame the
information within their own experience, while still valuing the information as important, regardless of
agreement. It allows for dialogue and conversations within the classroom, and the ability to work
through the information in a variety of different ways.
In Kolbs Model of Experiential Learning, as conceptualized by the diagram (Kolbs Learning Styles,
adaptation and design Alan Chapman 2005-06), separates Kolbs learning styles into four separate
parts which are Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and Active
Experimentation. The first step, Concrete Experience, is the initial accomplishment of the task, only the
physical act of completing whatever goal or experience they intend to learn from. The second step,
Reflective Observation, is about consciously looking back on the physical, prior activity. This is the step
where someone reflects on the actions that were taking during the activity. The third step, Abstract
Conceptualization, is when one attempts to conceptualize the lessons learned during the second step
and relate them to ones life, or experiences outside of the activity previously completed. This step is
designed to help one take lessons learned in the activity and give them context in our daily lives. The
fourth step, Active Experimentation, is the plan and testing of how to apply said lessons and theories

learned from the activity, reflection, and the conceptualization of the previous steps. This model is
designed as a circle because learning itself will always come back to the completion of a physical task,
the reflection of that task, the relation to outside life, the experimentation of lessons learned, and then
subsequent completion of activity at the end of experimentation.
In the model, there also is several types of learning styles.within the steps. They are Diverging,
Assimilating, Converging, Accommodating. The Diverging learning style learns best by observing
others alone, and they often connect with the Reflection Observation step the most. The Assimilating
learning style learns best through theory and relation of that theory, and they often connect best with
the Abstract Conceptualization. The Converging learning style learn best through applying the
knowledge practically, and they connect best with the Active Experimentation step. The final learning
style, Accommodating, are hands on learners who learn best through visual means, and they connect
best with the Concrete Experience step. This model is helpful because it breaks down the learning
process into manageable sections that allow facilitators to follow the learning processes of others. This
is especially important in my HDF 413 class because it helps me to be an effective facilitator.


Evidence- Kolbs Learning Styles

Student will describe personal application
of experiential learning in leadership
development (Kolb)


Evidence- URI 101 blog posts

Student will show knowledge of the
Social Change Model of Leadership
Development by Astin et al


Evidence- Social Change Worksheet

Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Astin et al)

Evidence- protest photo

Experiential Learning (Kolb) - Learning Theories. (2016). Retrieved December 04, 2016, from
HDF 413

HDF 190

HDF 190

-URI 101 Mentor

-SOLC Consulting

During my first year as a URI 101 Mentor, I was asked and expected to do a lot of thing I had never
done before, not only as a mentor, but also as a teacher as well. Throughout my semester as a URI
101 Mentor, I was often the hardball, making sure students got their assignments in on time, trying to
prepare them for the often unforgiving landscape of the university. It was judgement that they needed a
bit of tough love. For myself, getting them through the semester was a concrete task, and I felt I would
be able to reflect once it was over. It wasnt until after the semester was over, I did begin to reflect on
my experience as a URI 101 Mentor, that I asked myself what I could do better. When I heard about
how many of my fellow mentors were still in contact with their former students, and none of mine had a
close relationship with me, especially in such a small group of nine students. I started to reflect on
experiences outside being a mentor, how I had connected to people outside my normal peer group, it
was using a friendlier disposition, and I came to the realization that I could be more friendly and open
to my students while still maintaining the proper mentoring relationship. I experimented with that idea
while I was speaking to first-year students during Orientation about the Leadership Minor, and had
mostly perfected it by the time came for my first class with my new students. During the first class, I
was concerned that my different approach to being a mentor might not quite work, but now I am happy
and excited to say that this class is much closer than it had been before, and I am confident that I am
continuing to create a community on campus and guiding my students to the resources they need to
succeed at URI. I was able to continue to refine these skills while working as SOLC Consultant and
reflecting on it in HDF 413.
Another Model we learned in HDF 190 is this Social Change Model, which examines leadership
development from three levels: the individual, the group, and the community/society. There are 7 cs of
Social change: Consciousness of Self, Congruence, Commitment, Collaboration, Common Purpose,
Controversy with Civility, and Citizenship. One of the 7 Cs I identify most with is a common purpose. I
think that I find is most important because it has the ability to unite so many people, and oftentimes that
is necessary for social change. Another part of this model was being a change agent, or a person or
persons who have the understanding, motivation, and skills to create positive change.
Because of my age, Ive had few opportunities to be a part of social change, but one opportunity I had
was this past November, after a grand jury decided not to indict the officer who shot Michael brown the
previous August. The day after the decision was announced, several minority groups staged a protest
in front of the Memorial Union. I participated in this protest. I used the social change model not
because I helped organize the event, but because an individual I chose to participate, and then some
of my other friends (group) chose to protest with me because of my choice. And while the URI protest
was relatively small, hundreds of other protests when on the same day, and the days to follow.



Students will demonstrate knowledge of

the Leadership Identity Development
Model by Komives et al

Evidence- Leadership model

Students will describe personal
application of the above theory. (Komives
et al)
Students will demonstrate knowledge of
the Strengths-Development Model by
Hulme et al
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Hulme et al)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
behavior theories of leadership from
Michigan and Ohio State
Student will describe personal application
of the above theories (Michigan & Ohio
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Charismatic leadership
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
contingency approach to leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Fiedler)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Path-Goal theory by House
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (House)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Leader Member Exchange (LMX) theory
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Leadership Substitutes Theory

HDF 190

The six steps characterize the leadership identity development model are Awareness,
Exploration/Engagement, Leader Identified, Leader differentiated, Generativity, and
Integration/Synthesis. Each step is designed to develop and enrich a leader while also changing others
view of them while also broadening their view of leadership and what it meant to lead. This model is
first designed to help a leader become aware of their abilities as leader, and their motivation to impact
the community. After that, they can begin to explore ways to use their strengths and engage others in
the community. Its through this exploration of their newly developed skills that they identify themselves
as the leader and a part of the community. After that a leader is able to take their role in the groups and
community with confidence, or a leader differentiated. This confidence also allows them to believe in
their abilities and use them to their greatest potential. In the generativity stage is when the leader has
to deep their self-awareness and learns to take their strengths and is constantly able to put them into
action. The whole goal of these steps is to allow for the leader to become the best possible version of
themselves they can be, so they can Integrate their past successes together.


Student will describe personal application

of the above theory
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Models of leader emergence
Student will describe the impact of traits
on leadership emergence and
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
Chaos approach to leadership by
Student will describe personal application
of the above theory (Wheatley)

Outcome Category: Inclusive Leadership / Diversity and its Application to Leadership



Student will demonstrate how cultural

anthropology / paradigms relate to
Student will describe personal example
of using cultural anthropology /
paradigms as a leader
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Cycles of Socialization (Harro)
theory and its uses in leadership

Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice

HDF 291
HDF 291- The Cycles of Socialization discusses identities and how they fit into the fabric of society. It
discusses how oppression, racism, and disadvantage is continually nurtured throughout the
generations, despite the advancements made in modern times. The first step in this cycles before
were even born. Were born into certain groups, Agent groups being the privilege, and Target groups
being the disenfranchised. The second step is after were born, and we are indoctrinated into the
beliefs and groups of our parents. This step is designed to assimilate and normalize us to the
oppression in society. Another important part of this step is that it dehumanizes the Target group to the
Agent in order to fit them into the necessary identities. The next step in the cycle the enforcement of
the cultural socialization outside of our parents influence. This is designed to teach us as children to
adhere to society, and that we are rewarded for following our prescribed identities. The next step is
enforcement, where it is our turn as new members of society to enforce these socialized rules. Those
who choose to reject these rules are seen as outcasts, and those of Target groups who accept the
lesser position will feel anger and resentment. The next step is the results of these enforcements,
where we begin to see these adverse policies harm everyone. The final step is action, whether or not
we can break free from this cycle and begin to chance the society that has created it.

Evidence- Cycles of Socialization


B. Harro (1982). Referenced in Adams, et al. 1997 Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice


Students will demonstrate personal

application of the Cycles of
Socialization (Harro)

HDF 291

HDF 291- For my HDF 291 class, one of our assignments was to focus on a theory of model we had
learned about in class and write a paper relating it to our lives. I chose to write about the Cycles of
Socialization because I felt like the resonated strongly with me personally and mirrored my younger
years very closely. I spoke about my individual identities, specifically which ones were considered
Target identities, and which ones were considered Agent identities. My Target identities included being
a woman, being a minority, overweight and currently working through a mental illness. My Agent
groups were that I was straight, a middle-class citizen, and Christian. When I was born, I was
indoctrinated into my parents beliefs of being Christian and in the middle class. This was the First
Socialization. Through my time in North Dakota, I was also introduced into the Institutional and
Cultural Socializations, where I learned that many people only saw me for the color of my skin, and I
placed in my Target group of being a minority. My peers routinely chose Enforcement of this cultural
norm, choosing to set me apart from them in their friend groups. The Results of this conditioning was
that for many years, I chose not to speak out about my identities, which ended up suffocating my
identities as a result. The final step is Action. When I finally got to college I was able to branch out, and
through the help of others I was able to build my identities and learn how to fight the Cycle of
The biggest difference I discussed was with the second step, where parents often unconsciously teach
their children to adhere to certain societal rules. My mother was very different in regards to this step,



Evidence- Theory paper

Evidence- Rose Butler Brown Picture
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Cycles of Liberation (Harro) theory
and its uses in leadership
Student will demonstrate personal
application of the Cycles of Liberation
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Configuration of Power (Franklin)
and its relationship to leadership
Student will demonstrate personal
application of the Configuration of
Power (Franklin)
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
racial identity development via the Cross,
Helms or other models (Ferdman &
Gallegos; Kim; Horse; Wijeyesinghe etc.)

Evidence- Racial Identity Model

Student will demonstrate personal
application of model(s) of racial identity
development above

Evidence- My Story paper

Evidence- Rose Butler Brown Picture

because she tried to be very conscious about teaching me from a young age to be opened minded.
She wanted me to be able to recognize societal rules and regulations, and give me the tools to push
against them without suffering the consequences that many outsiders normally do when breaking the

HDF 291

HDF 291

HDF 291- The Ferdman and Gallegos Model of Latino Identity development focuses mainly on the
idea that being a Latina or a Latina can be many different things, from style to culture to a wide variety
of physical attributes. The identity of being a Latina or Latino varies greatly form person to person. This
model tries to give common orientations that Latinas or Latinos may choose to ascribe to. The first
orientation is Latino-integrated. This orientation understands racial constructs in the United States and
is willing to challenge racism. They also have fully integrated their Latino identity with their other
identities. The Latino-identified orientation is different in the aspect that they do not necessarily see the
differences of ethnicity or country of origin but instead see being Latina or Latino as a single
encompassing race. The Subgroup-identified orientation identifies almost exclusively with their ethnic
origin instead of seeing Latina and Latino as an over-arching race. However, this orientation is still
willing to challenge racism. The Latino as other orientation only partially identifies themselves Latina or
Latino because of heritage or physical characteristics. This orientation does not place themselves in
specific categories or ethnicities. The Undifferentiated/denial orientation adopts a color-blind ideology,
saying that race doesnt matter, and ignoring racism as a whole and attributing it to individual cases
rather than a societal problem. The final orientation, white identified, will adopt a white racial identity
and see themselves as white. This orientation will also often adopt the ideal that other races, like Latina
and Latino are less in society.
Wijeyesinghe, C., & Jackson, B. W. (2001). New perspectives on racial identity development: A
theoretical and practical anthology. New York: New York University Press.
HDF 291- For our first assignment in HDF 291, we were asked to write a story of our lives and how our
identities as women of color had grown over the years. In my story I talked about several instances in
my life where I adhered to a certain orientation described in the Model of Latino Identity. When I was
living in Dickinson, ND, I often identified as the Undifferentiated/denial orientation because I lived in a
predominantly white area, and my skin was light enough that I could pass for white in certain circles.
For myself, it became a kind of camouflage. I had been bullied so often for having darker skin, and had
seen what it meant to be called a Native American in North Dakota. I wanted to distance myself as
much as possible from being different from white, because I was afraid of the consequences.
It wasnt until I moved away and went to college that I started to accept my ethnicity as a Latina and be
proud of my minority status. I now identify in the Latino-identified orientation. It really was college, when
I started seeing others of different identities wearing them proudly on their sleeve did I start to think of
my Latina heritage as an asset instead of as a liability. It was really HDF 291 that helped return to me
be Latino-identified, because I was finally in a class that looked like me, that was in all shapes and
sizes and different colors. I was finally able to see something other than white, to know that I could be
reflected in others, and that it was okay to call myself a Latina even though I didnt speak Spanish.



Students will demonstrate knowledge of

McIntoshs theory of privilege and its
relationship to leadership
Student will demonstrate personal
application of McIntoshs theory
Student will describe the differences and
similarities of individual and institutional
oppression and relationships to
Student will show knowledge of effective
leadership as it relates to change agency

HDF 190

While learning about the Social Change Model, we also learned about change agents, whose duty it is
to lead the process towards change. Change Agents are also able to relate to the 7 Cs in the Model
and that is how they become effectively strong leaders within social change. Change agents know that
change and growth from that change requires effective agents. Change agents must also understand
that some people will always resist change, and that has to be accepted. Change Agents should
strategize ways to overcome any resistance they may face. As a change agent, one should have
confidence in the change they are sewing. These agents set the pace and feeling for a campaign of
change. They have to accept the risk and the responsibility if something goes wrong or a mistake is
made. They should always try to make the first move unless it is unwise for them to do so for the
campaign. Change tends to be a long process, and a Change Agent needs to understand that. Change
Agents work to be strong leaders that learn to influence and lead towards change.

Evidence- Social change worksheet

Student will describe personal examples
of being a change agent
Student will create a personal code of
inclusive leadership
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Model of Intercultural Sensitivity by
Bennett and its uses in leadership
Students will demonstrate personal
application of the Model of Intercultural
Sensitivity by Bennett
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
the ally Action Continuum by Griffin &
Student will demonstrate personal
application of the Action Continuum by
Griffin & Harro

Outcome Category: Critical Thinking



Student will show knowledge of principles

of critical thinking (logic is used in this
Student will demonstrate proficiency of

Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice



critical thinking
Student will show knowledge of
metaphorical analysis to critically analyze
self and leadership situations
Student will demonstrate proficiency of
metaphorical analysis to critically analyze
self and leadership situations
Student will show knowledge of at least five
decision making methods

Evidence- decision making grid

Student will describe personal examples of
having used five decision making methods

HDF 190

There a many different methods and steps of good decision-making. One method is The Single
Feature Model. If a problem has too many variables, this method lets someone highlight a single
important variable and making a decision from there. This method is best when a decision is simple
and one doesnt have much time. Another method is The Additive Feature Model. This is where you
take into account all of the variables of the choice and then eliminating each option based one those
variables. This is a better method for more complex decision, but it does require more time. Another
method is The Elimination by Aspects Model. The method has a person evaluate each option one
variable at a time beginning with whatever one believes is most important. If it fails to meet ones
standards one crosses it off the list until you have one left. When one is trying to make decisions in the
face of uncertainty, there are two models, availability heuristic and representativeness heuristic.
Availability heuristic is when someone tries to determine how likely something is, and so one often
uses the past to determine an answer. Representativeness heuristic is where one compares a current
situation the prototype of an event or behavior

Student will show knowledge of at least five

problem solving / conflict management
methods, as well as understanding the
roots of conflicts
Student will describe personal examples of
having used five problem solving / conflict
management methods (if student has been
trained in mediation, that information goes
Student will describe what it means to
analyze, criticize, synthesize and utilize
information as a leader
Student will demonstrate knowledge of
leadership that is used in crisis
Student will describe examples of
leadership in crisis situations

Outcome Category: Interpersonal and Organizational Concepts & Skills


Target class

Additional Experiences

Descriptive notes regarding learning and practice






Student will demonstrate knowledge of

active listening techniques

HDF 190

-Day of Discovery
-URI Catering Services

HDF 190

-Day of discovery
-URI Catering Services


-HDF 190

Evidence- Four Agreements rubric

Student will describe examples of giving
and accepting feedback.

HDF 190

-WRT 104: Peer editing

-Leadership Institute

Evidence- Snapshots of Comments

Student will demonstrate knowledge of
facilitation and de-briefing techniques

HDF 413

-SOLC Consulting

Evidence- Active listening worksheet

Student will describe examples of using
active listening skills

Evidence- URI Catering Photo

Student will demonstrate knowledge of
functions of group communication by
Student will describe personal application
of functions of group communication
Student will show knowledge of techniques
regarding giving and accepting of feedback

Active Listening was one of the many techniques we learned in HDF 190 to help us be better leaders
and better students. Active Listening is an important skill because how well one listens can have a
major importance on how well one does in their job and in their daily life as well. The difference
between listening and active is making a conscious effort to not only hear but understand words
someone says. To enhance ones listening skills, there are several steps one can take to practice
active listening. The first is to make sure the person knows they are being listened to, like repeating a
condensed version of what they have just said, or asking specific questions. Also showing signs that
one is listening, like nodding and making nonverbal ques. This wont make one proficient in Active
Listening right away, but making a conscious effort to practice Active Listening often will not only
improve listening, but make Active Listening easier as well.
In Catering, we also have to work the suites in Ryan Center, but most of our supplies is on the first floor
in the Catering Kitchen. At each game there are a different number of suites that are in use, often with
different food, and we dont always have the slip, so it is my supervisors who tell us what we have, and
we have to practice Active Listening in order to make sure we get the right utensils and that the suites
are prepared for the game ahead. If I am also a suite attendant, I have to practice Active Listening
when I working with the suite, getting them anything they need, and also asking my supervisor if it
requires them to be billed or not because I am often times the only line of communication between my
supervisors and the guests in the suites, and that requires me to be an active listener, or at least strive
to be.

At the beginning of Leadership Institute, we learned about the Four Agreements, and they talk say to
be impeccable with your word, dont take anything personally, dont make assumptions, and always do
your best. These are excellent rules when receiving and giving feedback. When giving feedback, you
have to be impeccable with your words means that you have to mean what you say. You have to be
direct, but also have to say it in way other people will listen. When receiving feedback, you cant it
personally; you have to take the feedback with a grain of salt. You also cant make assumptions, not
just about the feedback, but also about the people trying to give it. Regardless of whether you are
giving feedback or receiving it, you have to do your best.
In my freshmen fall semester, I took Writing 104, and we had several writing projects that we had to
submit drafts for, and then we were required to peer edit each others projects and then revise them
according to the comments. As I read through my peers work, it became clear that my peers werent
as well developed in writing areas as I was. I had to still give them honest feedback, but at the same, I
also give them feedback that would help them make their paper better. When receiving their
comments, I also had to listen to the feedback and apply it, but I also needed to listen to my writing
technique and style and still make my paper the best it could be.
When facilitating a retreat or activity, according to the GRABBSS assessment tool, there are seven
groups to consider when planning, facilitating, and the de-briefing. The first is the goals of the group,
what they want to accomplish during the retreat and activity. If a group wants to establish trust, then the
facilitator has to keep in mind that goal when choosing the activity, and when facilitating and debriefing
it. When debriefing the activity, choosing an activity that highlights the goals of the group is important,
not only so that the facilitator can effectively debrief the group, but also so that the group can ultimately
complete their goal through physical learning and introspection. An example of effective debrief to
determine how the group is feeling it the Thumb-o-mometer to how the group is generally feeling after
the activity. The second is the readiness of the group. If facilitator deems that the group is not taking
the proper caution when completing the activities, then the facilitator must be able to alter or change
the activity not only to make it safe for the participants, but also to create an activity from which the

participants will learn. The third is affect of the group. If a group is struggling with their empathy and
understanding of each other, then creating a debriefing activity that taps into their understanding of
each other and helps them connect and complete their goals. A good debriefing activity to encourage
empathy is the feeling cards debrief, so that others can share their feelings in an open space and
order. The fourth is behavior. How the group acts in an activity can also tell the facilitator more than just
the goals of the group, but also unspoken areas of tension that might be in the group, things that the
facilitator might be able to bring up in debrief and give a chance to be discussed. The fifth is body.
When completing activities, as a facilitator, they must consider the physical ability of the group so that
they can challenge the group without putting them in serious harm or risk. The sixth is stage. When
challenging the group, its necessary to consider the developmental stage of learning the group is at,
because again, a facilitator doesnt want to give the group much challenge it doesnt learn. The seventh
is setting. Setting is important because it brings together not only the factors of the physical
environment, but also of the climate of the group and surrounding them as well. Its important to a
facilitator to be able to read this climate, especially during de-briefing, so that the facilitators can guide
the de-briefing to address any issues.



Evidence- GRABBSS Assessment tool

Student will demonstrate proficiency of
facilitation and de-briefing techniques

HDF 413

Evidence- Shadowing paper

Student will demonstrate knowledge of
framing and breaking the frame

-SOLC Consulting

Schoel, J., & Maizell, R. S. (2002). Exploring islands of healing: New perspectives on adventure based
counseling. Beverly, MA: Project Adventure.
For my first shadowing retreat, my lead wanted to push me out of my comfort zone, and so she asked
me to facilitate an initiative-style activity for the Girls Lacrosse group. It was called Poseidons
Adventure, and it the most basic terms it was like stepping stones, but with more moving props, parts,
and rules for them to follow. Because the Lacrosse seemed particularly high functioning, we as the
facilitators thought it was good to give them a little more of a challenge. I wrote up the activity and used
a story to frame the rules. Not only did I want the activity to be fun, but I also wanted the group to really
get them into the game. The story frame worked really well, and after they finished the task, we as
facilitators thought that they could use more of a challenge, so I altered the frame to challenge the
group a little more. In the middle of the activity, I used the Thumb-o-mometer to see how challenged
the group was feeling, and how supported the group was. When the activity was over, we split them
into two groups and let them talk amongst themselves. We chose the questions debrief so that the
facilitators could see what things they wanted to talk about, and facilitate from there. In the beginning,
we used the what, when, where, how questions to get the ball rolling. We also used the talking chicken,
because there were some members of the group that were talking out of turn. We also used the oneword feeling round so that way everyone got a change to speak and be heard, at least once in the

Student will demonstrate proficiency of

framing and breaking the frame
Student will show knowledge of organizing
meetings / setting agendas / and leading

Evidence- Unity through Brotherhood


HDF 413

In HDF 413, we took a class to talk about what should go into a retreat and why we would use certain
activities in certain situations based on our assessment of the participants and the goals they provide.
One thing we said was super important was having some kind of full-value contract because it allowed
for us a facilitators to learn more about the group, and for the group to come up with goals that they
could work together as a group to accomplish. It helps to put them into a group mindset so that way
they can begin to work together as a unit. We also determined that it was important to have name
games in the beginning, not just to get the group going , but also so that the facilitators could learn the
names of the group and help them more effectively. Energizers are also important because after lunch,
it really helps to get them back into the retreat, and it also works if theres just been a heavy discussion.
Its a good mood lifter, especially ones like Big-Booty and YeeHaw. Initiatives are also extremely
important, especially if the group is looking to grow and learn to work together and increase their
communication skills.



Student will describe personal examples of

organizing meetings / setting agendas /
leading meetings

Evidence- Unity through Brotherhood

Student will show knowledge of
Parliamentary Procedure
Student will show knowledge of techniques
for working with difficult people
Student will describe personal examples of
using techniques to work effectively with
difficult people
Student will show knowledge of the stages
of group development (Tuckman, Bennis or

HDF 413

HDF 190

In HDF 413, one of activities we worked through as a group was receiving the goals of an imaginary
group and our goal was to assess the group through the GRABBSS tool and create a retreat agenda
based on the groups need and goals. For our group, it was called Unity through Brotherhood. It was
about a fraternity on-campus that used to be a larger brotherhood that had recently gotten smaller and
there was a disagreement between new members and older members about how to increase retention.
There was also some conflict between E-board members. In my group, we decided that we would work
to bring conflict to the forefront and work through debriefing to give them effective methods to
communicate with each other and build community between themselves and increase their fraternity
size and membership. For this we created the following retreat: We determined it would four hours
long. We wanted to start out with snowball so that we could allow them to get out some aggression in a
healthier way. Then we wanted to move to stepping stones because we wanted them to break down in
communication so that we could come in with the rope debrief and help them establish effective
communication. We were prepared for the group to break down and not complete the task because of
their storming stage in the group development. Then we would move into trolleys to help them work on
communicating as group. Then we would debrief with feeling cards to help everyone have a voice
during the debrief. Then we would break for lunch so that they would have some time to break and talk
amongst themselves. Then, after lunch we would energize them with captains coming, and then give
them another challenging activity, which was snakes. We hoped that they would finish the activity but at
the same time we also knew it would be beneficial for them to break down, so we could come back with
the Questions debrief and help them work through their potential communication issues and then end
with Chain Gang so that we could give them a physical representation of their community and the
pulse of their organization.

-SOLC Consulting

This mode is comprised of five stages. These stages of group development are meant to help groups
understand the initial stages of meshing and how to best move past them and optimize as a team.
The first stage is forming. This is the first meeting, where most members are polite and dont often
know exactly what theyre supposed to be doing. This stage will last until group members began to get
together and know each others operating styles. The second stage is storming. This stage happens
after the stage as established a norm, and then a conflict disrupts that norm. This can be a critical
stage in the sense that if the conflict is not resolved, the group itself can dissolve. The third stage is
norming. After a conflict is resolved, the group meshes into a true norm, where all members accept
and progress can be made through open acceptance of group members ideas. The fourth stage is
preforming. This is the optimal stage, where the team works without friction, and its easy to take a
step back as a leader and let the team function properly. The fifth stage is adjourning. This is the stage
where the groups project or class ends, and the group naturally dissolves.
Tuckmans Theory of Group Development (Tuckman, 1965) is generally set into five stages, which
usually precede one another, but not always. The first stage is Forming. This is the creation of the
group, where formal and societal norms are usually kept. Everybody introduces themselves, talks
about themselves a little bit, and takes in the group around them. The second phase is Storming. This
is when group friction begins to happen. There will be disagreements between the group, and some will
vie for power or leadership positions. If a topic needs to be decided, members will try to sway others
and argue against other topics. The third stage is Norming. This is when the groups conflicts settle,
and though the group is not at its most productive, they are beginning to move forward with the project
or task with little to no resistance. The fourth stage is Performing. This is when the group is performing

at its optimal level, and the group is almost entirely focused on their end goal. The final stage is
Adjourning. This is the stage of reflection, in which the group assesses the goals it made and what they
accomplished. Its usually done after the completion of the project.
While this is generally the path that most groups follow, it is noted that groups dont always follow this
path. Sometimes a group will jump straight from forming to norming, then jump back to storming when
a conflict arises. Groups may go through multiple adjourning if they have several projects to work on
over the course of the semester. This, while a guideline, is by no means a set schedule for groups to


Evidence- Snapshots
Evidence- Tuckmans Model photo
Student will describe personal examples of
group development in use (Tuckman,
Bennis or others).


Evidence- picture of group outline

Evidence- Workshop Proposal
Student will show knowledge of group
dynamics and group roles
Student will describe personal examples of
group dynamics and group roles
Student will show knowledge of effective
memberships skills in groups
Student will describe personal examples of
membership skills in use
Student will show knowledge of the
Challenge and Support theory by Sanford,
and its relationship to organizations


Evidence- Challenge/Support PowerPoint

Student will describe personal examples of
using the theory of Challenge and Support


HDF 190

-HDF 413

Tuckman, Bruce (1965). "Developmental sequence in small groups". Psychological Bulletin. 63 (6):
38499. doi:10.1037/h0022100. PMID 14314073. Retrieved 2008-11-10. Reprinted with permission in
Group Facilitation, Spring 2001
During our group project in HDF 190, we had to write a group analysis paper and talk about the
Tuckman model in relation to our group and how we worked together in the relation to the model. We
took each step and as a group, wrote how we felt we handled each step of the process.
In HDF 413, we were asked to do several projects that requires the work of the whole class to
complete. The first was the Consulting Materials Resource, which required all of us to gather to
activities and materials for a retreat, as well stating the mission and goals of SOLC for future
consultants. In our group process, we jumped very quickly from forming to preforming and were able to
complete the consultant materials on time for a great score. We had little time to adjourn though, before
we had to start another project, the Workshop Proposal. This was where our group moved back into
storming, and we fought about how to complete the proposal, and several of us chose to withdraw
instead and work on the project at a later stage, allowing for the group to move back into preforming so
that we could complete our goal. Our group process was a prime example of the group process not
following the normal pattern described in Tuckmans theory.

HDF 413

HDF 413

-SOLC Consulting

-SOLC Consulting

In the Challenge and Support theory (Sanford, 1962) it states that in order for optimum growth, there
must equal challenge and support. If there is too much support and not enough challenge, then there
will be little room for growth and student will not be in the optimum ratio for learning. If there is too
much challenge and not enough support, then the student will not be able to learn and subsequently
grow as a result. To have optimum growth the challenge and support must grow equally as the student
needs. As a facilitator, you have to be able to assess the group quickly and determine how much of a
challenge they can take without falling apart, while at the same time determined how much support
they will need to accomplish this task. It is a learning process for the facilitator, and it involves
constantly assessing the group and determining if more challenge or support is needed.
Basteris, A. (2008). Fig. 1. Sanfords theory of challenge and support: Balance between.. . Retrieved
In the Uhuru Sasa retreat, it became clear quite quickly that in order for the group to begin growth that
we would need to support them more because they were not as a high functioning of a group as we
had originally thought. We had to begin to alter the original agenda, switching out activities that we
believed would be too much of a challenge for a group of their functioning levels. When it came to the




Evidence- Uhuru Sasa Retreat Agenda

Student will show knowledge of the
construction / elements of informative and
persuasive speeches

Evidence- Torrens PDF

Student will demonstrate proficiency in
informative and persuasive public speaking

COM 100H

COM 100H

Evidence- Informational rubric

Student will show knowledge of planning
and conducting interviews (as the
Student will describe personal examples of
planning and conducting interviews (as the
Student will show knowledge of preparing
for and effective answers in interviews (as
the interviewee)
Student will describe personal examples of
preparing for and being interviewed
Student will show knowledge of effective
collaboration / coalition building

HDF 190

Evidence- Puzzle Piece

Student will describe personal examples of
working in collaboratives/coalitions

HDF 190

Evidence- group contract

Student will show knowledge of
Intercultural communication considerations

HDF 190

final activity, stepping stones, it became clear that the group was begin led almost exclusively by Eboard, and that there was little opportunity for input and growth. We determined as facilitators that it
would induce more growth if we gave them too much challenge and took away the support of E-board
so that they would be able to see the lack of support from the entire group as result. In this example we
chose to make the challenge greater than the level of support because we wanted to show them that
they werent communicating effectively as a group, and couldnt learn as a whole. By letting them fail,
we supported the discussion and let them work through their failure in a supported environment and
come away with the knowledge of areas of growth that was needed as an organization.
Informative speeches and persuasive speeches are two very different things, though the way to
prepare for them can be very similar. An informative speech is meant to create an accurate mental
picture in the mind of the audience about a person, place or thing. It also describes how to preform an
action. Due to the broad idea of informing an audience, there are three major types of informative
speeches: definition speech, demonstration speech, and explanatory speech. A definition speech is
meant to explain the theory or meaning of a specific topic. A demonstration speech is meant to tell
someone how to do something. An explanatory speech is meant to create an image or vision of a topic
or place.
A persuasive speech, while still meant to inform, is also meant to show a certain point of view, and
persuade the audiences point of view. In a way, an informative speechs motive is simply to inform on a
topic, as unbiased as possible, but a persuasive speech is very biased, and meant to show only one
side of an issue, usually what the speaker believes is right.
In my COM 100H, we were required to present two informative speeches. The first informative speech I
actually adapted from a persuasive paper Id written the semester before. It actually wasnt as hard as I
thought it would be. It was very easy to adapt the facts that I had from the paper, and reuse my
sources. The hardest thing was adapting lines from my paper. I had to switch them around, change
them so that I wasnt trying to persuade my audience but instead simply inform them.
For my second informative speech, I would consider it to be an explanatory speech, because I was
trying to paint a picture of a certain people. It was also much easier for the second informational
speech because I started searching for the evidence as purely informational

One effective collaboration method is having all groups know and learn about the stages of group
development by Tuckman and Bennis. This not only allows for the group to know of the stages and how
they can affect the group. If groups understand they will all go through these stages, it may make the
meshing of the group more seamless and they can move to preforming that much more quickly, and
the project will be better.
In the beginning of the HDF 190 we were put into peer groups and were in these peer groups for the
entire semester. In these groups we didnt just collaborate on a project, we also talked about the
models and things we learned in class. It was a place for us to ask questions. While it started as a
collaboration, by the end of the semester we were more than just a group.
During my junior year of high school, I hosted an exchange student from Spain for three weeks. During
that time I learned a lot about another Spanish culture, especially in the language itself. We talked in


Spanish, and she had to teach me different words that meant something different than the little Spanish
I had learned in a Mexican household. I also had to be considerate of her, and speak slower and more
clearly so she would understand me and there wouldnt be miscommunication. We also hosted a party
for all the exchange students, and we had to ask about certain foods they ate, and what might be

Evidence- Spanish ribbon

Student will demonstrate proficiency in
intercultural communication
Student will describe ways to maintain
accountability in leadership / member
Student will describe personal examples
related to maintaining accountability as a
Student will describe ways to build
relationships between leaders and

HDF 413

-Music Manager: Musically Inclined


Evidence- Musically Inclined Concert

Student will describe personal examples of
building relationships with members as a

HDF 413

-Music Manager: Musically Inclined


Evidence- Musically Inclined retreat

Student will describe how credibility applies
to leadership, as well as the characteristics
and skills of a credible leader

HDF 190

Evidence- The Four Agreements

Just last spring I was elected to E-board ass the Music Manager. I was given control over everything
from the concert preparation to fundraising and I was now leading a whole bunch of people I had been
equal to previously before. When we had our first E-board meeting, we as E-board members discussed
and wanted to make sure that every new member felt welcome and part of the team. So we decided
that we would each take a new member to watch over and make sure they were fitting into the group.
Its also a unique situations when it comes to musical groups, especially a cappella groups, because
though were E-board members, as an ensemble, its all of our jobs to blend with each other and
balance our voices so that the audience hear all parts and we do not overwhelm the soloist. By design,
we all have to be equal in the group, so reflecting that into our group dynamics was easy. We usually
let people in in our E-board meetings, and we were always pretty up-front to our members. We also
took time to get to know each other, and only really used our power as E-board members to help
prepare them for the concert. We also chose to schedule a SOLC retreat for the whole group and not
just E-board so that we could all come together as a group and be ready for our concert. A lot of these
skills I learned through leadership, and a lot of the discussions we were able to have as a group I was
able to facilitate with my skills learned from HDF 413 and SOLC shadowing.
During this past semester, my student organization, Musically Inclined, had the chance to attend a
retreat designed to make us more cohesive as a group with the new members before our concert.
Going into the retreat, I was very excited to go because I wouldnt be a facilitator and could just enjoy
the retreat. As a member of E-board, I also wanted to make sure that everyone had a good time. I was
pleasantly surprised that everyone came together and was excited to jump into the retreat and really
wanted to work together. Though some of the activities were challenging, everyone, not just E-board,
was also cognoscente of the other members and constantly working together to make sure that
everyone was feeling safe and supported. We all took responsibility for each other, even if some of us
werent technically leaders. We all were equals. I honestly didnt notice because it was normally how
we worked, but Megan, one of our facilitators, took time to note how she couldnt tell who was E-board
and who wasnt, that we worked together so well as a group, and there wasnt a struggle for power or
anyone over-bearing over each other. Through the relationships that we all had worked on as a groups,
especially from the E-board to the new members, it was great to hear that affirmation that what we
were doing as a group was working. It was also great, as someone who also was a facilitator from
SOLC and a student in HDF 413 that I had been able to take some of the skills and tools from those
experiences and bring them into my responsibilities.
Credibility is very important to a leader. In order to lead others I believe a leader needs several things:
empathy, ethics that coincide with those they are leading, trust and credibility. Credibility is important
because it gives those who are being lead a sense of comfort in their leaders past accomplishments. A
credible leader lets their past experiences speak for themselves. They use a credible reputation as
their resume. They also dont abuse that reputation. When someone has a good reputation, some
people will take favors based on those reputation, and take advantage of others. A truly credible leader
understands their credible reputation is their strongest asset for trust and being able to lead.




Student will describe personal examples of

building, maintaining, and repairing his/her
own credibility as a leader
Student will describe ethical standards in
Student will describe influence applies to
Student will describe principles of effective
mentoring, as well as problems particular
to the mentoring relationship

Evidence- URI 101 Mentor Training packet

Student will describe personal examples of
mentoring and being mentored

Evidence- Mentor Interview Presentations

and Mentoring Project Reflections
Student will describe principles of effective
peer leadership, as well as problems
particular to peer leadership
Student will describe personal examples
related to being a peer leader and being
led by peers
Student will describe the four frames of
organizations by Bolman and Deal
Student will describe personal application
of organizational analysis using the four
frames of organizations (Bolman and Deal)

HDF 291

-URI 101 Mentor program

HDF 291

-URI Catering

HDF 291- One main principle of being an effective mentor is connecting with your mentee. While it
really depends on the situation of the mentor/mentee relationships, there is usually one thing that is
similar that creates a level of trust between the mentor and mentee. Another principle is confidence.
Mentees should be able to have confidence in their mentor to mentor and guide them in a way that
wont harm them. Another is patience. To be a mentor you need to understand that sometimes things
will not go how you intend them to go with your mentee, and sometimes you have to be patient and
understand that your role is too give them advice and it is up to the mentee whether or not they take it
or not. The most important principle for myself personally is adaptability. No matter what the situation
with your mentee, mentors should always be able to adapt to the situation.
Some problems that can occur in a mentoring relationship are a lack of communication. Sometimes,
mentor and mentee dont always have a need to be in constant contact, so there can cause a
disconnect between mentor and mentee. Another problem is a lack of trust. If a mentor and mentee
cannot trust each other, then a mentee wont be able to take advice and guidance to heart. If a mentor
cannot trust a mentee, then the mentor wont be able to advise their mentors properly.
HDF 291- When I was in high school, I was given the opportunity to direct a one act play for my
schools Madrigal Dinners. One of my main actors was my best friend Phoebe. She was a shy girl that
was new to acting, so I mentored her through the rehearsals to help grow her skills as an actor, but
also to help her build her confidence in front of others. She ended up doing well in the part, and
became a much more confidant person. For my HDF 291 class, one of our requirements was to identify
a mentee we have had and write a paper about a specific mentor-mentee relationship.
During my first semester at URI I joined the URI Catering staff. One of my supervisors took me under
her wing and helped me through a lot of my first year at URI. She taught me a lot, not only about my
job in Catering, but also about helping myself through my first semester of college. She was a very
good boss to me, and I was sad when she decided to move to Hope Dining Hall. In my HDF 291 class,
one of the requirements was to identify a mentor we had and interview them about their personal
beliefs and practices as a mentor. It was in that interview I truly recognized Meg as my mentor and the
guidance shed given me as my boss and as my mentor.