Satellite Design Course
Spacecraft Configuration
Structural Design
Preliminary Design Methods
This material was developed by
Rodger Farley (NASA GSFC) for
ENAE 691 (Satellite Design)
Feb 19 2003
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Source of Launch Vehicle Loads
Feb 19 2003
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Typical Loads TimeLine Profile
Max Q
H2 vehicle to geotransfer orbit
MECO
1st
stage
Feb 19 2003
SECO
2nd stage
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3rd stage
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Design Requirements, Loads
Material processing, assembling, handling
Testing
Transportation
Launch handling
Launch loads
Steady state accelerations (max Q, end of burn stages)
Sinusoidal
vibrations, transient (lift off, transonic, MECO, SECO) and steady
(resonant burn from solid rocket boosters)
Acoustic and mechanical random accelerations (lift off, max Q)
Shock vibrations (payload separation from upper stage adapter)
Depressurization
Orbit Loads
Feb 19 2003
spinup, despin, thermal, deployments, maneuvers
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Configuration Types LEO stellar pointing
High inclination WIRE
Low inclination XTE, HST
Articulated solar array
Feb 19 2003
Fixed solar array sunsync orbit
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Configuration Types GEO nadir pointing
Intelsat V
Articulated s/a spin
once per 24 hours
TDRSS A
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Configuration Types HEO
IMAGE 2000
AXAF1 CHANDRA
required to stare
uninterrupted
250m long wire
booms, rpm
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Configuration types misc
Sun shield
Highgain
antenna
Magellan to Venus
MAP at L2
Cylindrical, bodymounted
solar array
Lunar Prospector
Feb 19 2003
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Bodymounted s/a
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Structural Configuration Examples
Cylinders and Cones high buckling resistance
Box structures hanging electronics and equipment
Triangle structures
Rings
transition structures and interfaces
Trusses
sometimes needed
extending a hard point (picking up point loads)
As much as possible, payload connections should be kinematic
Skin Frame, Honeycomb Panels, Machined Panels, Extrusions
NOTE: ALWAYS PROVIDE A STIFF AND DIRECT LOAD PATH! AVOID BENDING!
STRUCTURAL JOINTS ARE BEST IN SHEAR!
Feb 19 2003
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Structural examples
MAGELLAN box, ring, truss
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Structural examples
HESSI ring, truss and deck
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OAO cylinder/stringer and decks
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Structural examples
TRMM
Rain Radar
Reaction wheel pyramid
Instrument support truss
and panel structure
Bus structure, cylinder,
machined and honeycomb
panels
Feb 19 2003
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Structural examples
Archetypical cylinder and box
Hybrid one of everything
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Egg crate
composite panel
bus structure
Structural examples
EOS aqua, bus
Hard points created at
intersections
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Structural examples
COBE
STS
version
COBE
5000 kg !
Delta II version
2171 kg !
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Modular Assembly
Instrument Module optics, detector
Bus Module (house keeping)
Propulsion Module
Modules allow separate organizations,
procurements, building and testing
schedules. It all comes together at
observatory integration and test (I&T)
AXAF
Interface control between
modules is very important:
structural, electrical, thermal
Feb 19 2003
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Anatomy of s/c
Interface
structure
Kinematic Flexure
mounts to remove
enforced displacement
loads
Axial viewing, telescope type
Reaction
wheels
Stationkeeping hydrazine, polar mount
Solid kick motor, equatorial mount
Instrument
module
Launch Vehicle
adapter
Deckmounted or
wallmounted boxes
Feb 19 2003
Propulsion
module
Bus
module
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Anatomy of s/c
Transverse viewing, Earth
observing type
Heat of boxes radiating outward
Eggcrate extension
Cylinderinbox
Instruments
FOV
Launch
Vehicle I/F
Drag makeup
Propulsion
module
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Hydrazine tank equatorial
mount on a skirt with a
parallel load path ! The
primary structure barely
knows its there.
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Attaching distortionsensitive components
2
3,2,1
3
2,2,2
Note: vee points towards
cone
1
Ballincone, Ballinvee, Ball on flat
Bipod legs, tangential flexures
Breathes from point 3
Breathes from center point
1
Rod flexures arranged
in 3,2,1
1,1,1,1,1,1
Breathes from point 3
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General Arrangement Drawings
Stowed configuration in Launch Vehicle
Transition orbit configuration
Final onstation deployed configuration
Include Field of View (FOV) for instruments and thermal
radiators, and communication antennas, and attitude
control sensors
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3view layout, onorbit configuration
Overall dimensions and
field of views (FOV)
Antennas showing field
of regard (FOR)
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3view layout, launch configuration
Solar array panels
Star trackers
array drive
PAF
Torquer bars
Make note of
protrusions into payload
envelope
Omni antennas
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High gain antenna,
stowed
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Spacecraft Drawing in Launch Vehicle
Launch Vehicle electrical interface
Fairing access port for the
batteries
Feb 19 2003
Prelaunch electrical access
redtag item
ENAE 691
XTE in Delta II 10 fairing
R.Farley NASA/GSFC
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Drawing of deployment phase
Pantograph deployment mechanism
EOS aqua
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Launch Vehicle Interfaces and Volumes
Payload Fairings
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Payload Envelope
For many vehicles, if the spacecraft
meets minimum lateral frequency
requirements, then the envelope
accounts for payload and fairing dynamic
motions.
If frequency requirements are not
met, or for protrusions outside the
designated envelope, Coupled
Loads Analysis (CLA) are required
to qualify the design, in cooperation
with the LV engineers.
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Launch Vehicle Payload Adapters
Vband clamp, or
Marmon clampband
Shear Lip
Clampband
6019 3point adapter
Feb 19 2003
6915 4point adapter
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Structural Materials
Material
Metallic Guide
(kg/m3)
E
(GPa)
Fty
(MPa)
E/
Fty/
Aluminum
6061T6
7075T651
2800
2700
68
71
276
503
24
26
98.6
186.3
23.6
23.4
167
130
Magnesium
AZ31B
1700
45
220
26
129.4
26
79
Titanium
6Al4V
4400
110
825
25
187.5
7.5
Beryllium
S 65 A
S R 200E
2000

304

207
345
151

103.5

11.5

170
Ferrous
INVAR 36
AM 350
304L annealed
4130 steel
8082
7700
7800
7833
150
200
193
200
620
1034
170
1123
18.5
26
25
25
76.7
134.3
21.8
143
1.66
11.9
17.2
12.5
14
4060
16
48
7944
8414
8220
200
206
203
585
206
1034
25
24
25
73.6
24.5
125.7
16.4
23.0
12
12
(m/m K)
(W/m K)
Heat resistant
Nonmagnetic
A286
Inconel 600
Inconel 718
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Materials Guide Definitions
mass density
Youngs modulus
Fty
material allowable yield strength
E/
specific stiffness, the ratio of stiffness to density
Fty /
specific strength, the ratio of strength to density
coefficient of thermal expansion CTE
coefficient of thermal conductivity
Note: Pa = Pascal = N/m2
Material Usage Conclusions: USE ALUMINUM WHEN YOU CAN!!!
Aluminum 7075 and Titanium 6Al4V have the greatest strength to mass ratio
Beryllium has the greatest stiffness to mass ratio and high damping
4130 Steel has the greatest yield strength
(expensive, toxic to machine, brittle)
INVAR has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion, but difficult to process
Titanium has the lowest thermal conductivity, good for metallic isolators
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Metallic Materials Usage Guide
Advantages
Aluminum
Titanium
Steel
Heatresistant
Steel
Beryllium
Feb 19 2003
Disadvantages
High strength to weight,
good machining, low cost
and available
High strength to weight,
low CTE, low thermal
conductivity, good at high
temperatures
High stiffness, strength,
low cost, weldable
High stiffness, strength at
high temperatures,
oxidation resistance and
nonmagnetic
Very high stiffness to
weight, low CTE
ENAE 691
Poor galling
resistance, high CTE
Expensive, difficult to
machine
Heavy, magnetic,
oxidizes if not stainless
steel. Stainless galls
easily
Heavy, difficult to
machine
Expensive, brittle, toxic
to machine
R.Farley NASA/GSFC
Applications
Truss structure,
skins, stringers,
brackets, face sheets
Attach fittings for
composites, thermal
isolators, flexures
Fasteners, threaded
parts, bearings and
gears
Fasteners, high
temperature parts
Mirrors, stiffness
critical parts
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Composite Materials
Pros
Cons
Lightweight (Strength to Weight ratio)
Costly
Ability to tailor CTE
Tooling more exotic, expensive/specialized
tooling (higher rpms, diamond tipped)
High Strength
Electrical bonding a problem
Good conductivity in plane
Some types of joints are more difficult to
produce/design
Thermal property variation possible
(K1100)
Fiber print through (whiskers)
Low distortion due to zero CTE possible
Upper temperature limit (Gel temperature)
Ability to coat with substances (SiO)
Moisture absorption / desorption / distortion
provided by Jeff Stewart
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Composite Material Properties
Graphite Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) density ~ 1800 kg/m3
If aluminum foil layers are added to create a quasiisotropic zero coefficient of
thermal expansion (CTE < 0.1 x106 per Co) then density ~ 2225 kg/m3
Aluminum foil layers are used to reduce mechanical shrinkage due to desorption / outgassing of water from the fibers and matrix (adhesive,ie. epoxy)
NOTE! A single pin hole in the aluminum foil will allow water desorption and
shrinkage. This strategy is not one to trust
Cynate esters are less hydroscopic than epoxies
Shrinkage of a graphiteepoxy optical metering structure
due to desorption may be described as an asymptotic
exponential (HST data):
Shrinkage ~ 27 (1 e  0.00113D) microns per meter of
length, where D is the number of days in orbit.
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Subsystem Mass Estimation Techniques
Preliminary Design Estimates for Instrument Mass
Approximate instrument mass densities, kg / m3
Spectrometers ~
250
Mass spectrometers ~
800
Synthetic aperture radar ~ 32
Rain radars ~
150
Cameras ~
500
Small instruments ~
1000
thickness / diameter ~ 0.2
Scaling Laws: If a smaller instrument exists as a model, then if SF is
the linear dimension scale factor
Area proportional to
SF2
Mass proportional to
SF3
Area inertia proportional to SF4
Mass inertia proportional to SF5
Frequency proportional to 1/ SF
Stress proportional to SF
BEWARE THE SQUARECUBE LAW! STRESS WILL INCREASE WITH SF!
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Typical List of Boxes, Bus Components
ACS
Reaction wheels
Torquer bars
Nutation damper
Star trackers
Inertial reference unit
Earth scanner
Digital sun sensor
Coarse sun sensor
Magnetometer
ACE electrical box
Mechanical
Primary structure
Deployment mechanisms
Fittings, brackets, struts,
equipment decks,
cowling, hardware
Payload Adapter Fitting
Feb 19 2003
Communication
Sband omni antenna
Sband transponder
Xband omni antenna
Xband transmitter
Parabolic dish reflector
2axis gimbal
Gimbal electronics
Diplexers, RF switches
Band reject filters
Coaxial cable
Power
Batteries
Solar array panels
Articulation mechanisms
Articulation electronics
Array diode box
Shunt dissipaters
Power Supply Elec.
Battery a/c ducting
Thermal
Propulsion
Radiators
Louvers
Heat pipes
Blankets
Heaters
Heat straps
Sun shield
Cryogenic pumps
Cryostats
Propulsion tanks
Pressurant tanks
Thrusters
Pressure sensors
Filters
Fill / drain valve
Isolator valves
Tubing
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Electrical
C&DH box
Wire harness
Instrument
electronics
Instrument
harness
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Mass Estimation, mass fractions
Some Typical Mass Fractions for Preliminary Design
Payload
Structure
Power
Electrical
harness
ACS
Thermal
C&DH
Comm
Propulsion,
dry
LEO
nadir
(GPM)
37 %
24 %
13 %
Fixed
arrays
7%
6%
4%
1%
3%
5%
26 % w/fuel
LEO
stellar
(COBE)
52 %
14 %
12 %
spins at
1 rpm
8%
8%
2%
3%
1%
0%
GEO
nadir
(DSP 15)
37 %
22 %
20 %
spins at
6 rpm
7%
6%
0.5 %
2%
2%
2%
Mass fractions as percentage of total spacecraft observatory mass, less fuel
COBE with 52% payload fraction is unusually high and not representative
ACS is Attitude Control System, C&DH is Command and Data Handling, Comm is Communication subsystem
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Mass Estimation, Refinements
The largest contributors to mass are (neglecting the instrument payload)
Structural subsystem (primary, secondary)
Propulsion fuel mass, if required
Power subsystem
Remember to target a mass margin of ~20% when compared to the
throw weight of the launch vehicle and payload adapter capability.
There must be room for growth, because evolving from the cartoon to
the hardware, it always grows!
The following slides will show the cheatsheet for making
preliminary estimates on some of these subsystems
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Mass Estimation with Mass Ratios
Mpayload/MDry ~ 0.4 for a first guess
MDry = Mpayload / (Mpayload/MDry) first cut estimate on total dry mass
Calculate total orbital average power required Poa as function of bus mass and payload requirements
Calculate MPower, and solar array area leading to a calculation on drag area
Calculate MFuel, and MPropDry with original MDry and drag area as guide
New Estimate of total dry mass:
MDry = Mpayload + MPower + MPropDry
+ MDry (MStruc/MDry + MElec/MDry + MCDH/MDry + MACS/MDry + MComm/MDry)
Iterate several times to achieve Total Dry Mass
Taking typical values: MDry = Mpayload + MPower + MPropDry +0.45MDry
MWet = MDry + MFuel
Feb 19 2003
Total wet mass, observatory launch mass37
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Mass Estimation, Power Subsystem
Givens:
ALT
circular orbit altitude, km
Poa
required orbital average power, watts
AF
area factor, if articulated arrays AF = 1, if omnidirectional in one plane, AF = 3.14, spherical
coverage
AF = 4
cell
standard cell efficiency, 0.145 silicon, 0.18 gallium, 0.25 multijunction
If the required orbital average power is not settled, then estimate
with: Poa ~ PREQpayload + 0.5 (MDry Mpayload) watts, mass in kg
Power for payload instruments
and associated electronics
Feb 19 2003
Dry bus mass, kg
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Mass Estimation, Power Subsystem
Maximum eclipsetodaylight time ratio, estimate
good for 300<ALT<1000
Required solar array
projected area normal to
sun, m2
Physical panel area, m2
Total solar array panel area considering
energy balance going thru eclipse and
geometric area factors, m2
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Mass Estimation, Power Subsystem
Mass of cells, insulation, wires, terminal boards:
Melec ~ 3.8 x ASA
Melec ~ 3.4 x ASA
for multijunction cells
for silicon cells
kg
kg packing
93%
efficiency
Mass of honeycomb substrates:
Msubstrates ~ 2.5 x ASA
for aluminum panels
Msubstrates ~ 2.0 x ASA
for composite panels
kg
kg
Since multi junction cells usually go on composite substrates, and silicon
cells went on aluminum substrates, it all comes out in the wash:
MPANELS ~ 5.85 x ASA
kg
Mass of solar array panels, electrical and structure:
MPANELS = Melec + Msubstrates
Feb 19 2003
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Mass Estimation, Power Subsystem
Mbattery = 0.06 Poa
Tracking
array
Battery mass, kg
NiCads
(this can vary greatly due to the peak power input and charging profile
allowed. High noon power input can be enormous sometimes,
depending on orbit inclination and drag reduction techniques)
MPSE = 0.04 Poa
Power systems electronics, kg
MSAD = 0.33 Mpanels
Solar array drives and electronics, kg
MSAdeploy = 0.27 Mpanels
Solar array retention and deployment
mechanisms, kg
MPower = Mpanels + MSAD + MSAdeploy + Mbattery + MPSE
Total power subsystem mass estimate, kg
Feb 19 2003
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Mass Estimation, Propulsion Subsystem
Givens:
Isp
fuel specific thrust, seconds (227 for hydrazine, 307 biprop)
deltaV required for maneuvers during the mission, m/s
TM
mission time in orbit, years
YSM
years since last solar maximum, 0 to 11 years
AP
projected area in the velocity direction, orbital average, m2
ALT
circular orbit flight altitude, km
Mdry
total spacecraft observatory mass, dry of fuel, kg
Solar array orbital average projected drag area
for a tracking solar array that feathers during
eclipse
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Mass Estimation, Propulsion Subsystem
Approximate maximum atmospheric density
at the altitude ALT (km), kg / m3
Densitymax = 4.18 x 109 x e(0.0136 ALT)
DF = 1 0.9 sin [ x YSM / 11]
Densityatm = DF x Densitymax
good for 300 < ALT < 700 km
Density factor, influenced by the 11
year solar maximum cycle (sin()
argument in radians)
Corrected atmospheric
density, kg / m3
Circular orbit velocity, m/s
Drag force, Newtons
Fuel mass for drag makeup, kg
Feb 19 2003
Note: g = 9.81 m/s2
ENAE 691
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If the mission
requires altitude
control, this is the
approximate fuel
mass for drag over
the mission life
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Mass Estimation, Propulsion Subsystem
Fuel mass for maneuvering
If maneuvers are conducted at the beginning of the
mission (attaining proper orbit):
If the fuel is to be saved for a deorbit maneuver:
Or expressed as a ratio:
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Mass Estimation, Propulsion Subsystem
Approximate V to deorbit to a 50km perigee:
From 400km circular ~ 100 m/s
From 500km circular ~ 130 m/s
From 600km circular ~ 160 m/s
From 700km circular ~ 185 m/s
If the thrusters are too small for one
large V deorbit maneuver, then 23
times the calculated fuel maybe
required (TRMM experience)
Add 10% for ullage
Remember, the dry mass estimate now includes the mass of the dry prop system components.
This means iterating with a better dry mass estimate for a better fuel calculation.
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Vibration Primmer
A vibrating structure can be thought of as
the superposition of many mode shapes
Each mode has a particular natural
resonant frequency and distortion shape
If the resonant frequencies are sufficiently
separated, then the structural response can
be estimated by treating each mode as a
singledegreeoffreedom (sdof) system
3 usual flavors of vibration:
Harmonic
Feb 19 2003
Random
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Impulsive
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Harmonic (sinusoidal) Vibration, sdof
Hz
Natural frequency of
vibration
0.05 typical
Recall:
2 f = Circular frequency, radians / s
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Harmonic Vibration, sdof
cont
Harmonic output acceleration = Harmonic input acceleration x T
f is the applied input
sinusoidal frequency, Hz
fn is the natural resonant
frequency
Typical structural values for Q: 10 to 20
For small amplitude (jitter), or cryo temperatures: Q >100
Resonant Load Acceleration = input acceleration x Q
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Natural Frequency Estimation
evenly distributed mass and stiffness
E is the Youngs
Modulus of
Elasticity of the
structural material
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Natural Frequency Estimation
discrete and distributed mass and stiffness
E is the Youngs
Modulus of Elasticity
of the structural
material
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BaseDriven Random Vibration
Random loads affect
mostly smaller, high
frequency
components, not the
overall spacecraft
structure
So
Input spectrum So described in power spectral density g2 per Hz
Miles equation gives a statistical equivalent peak g load for a
single degree of freedom system, 68% of the time (1). For
99.73% confidence (3), multiply by 3.
fn is the natural frequency of the system,
Q is the resonant amplification, and
So is the input acceleration power spectral
density, g2/Hz
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Deployable Boom, equations for impact torque
Io
Hinge point o
Rotational mass inertia about point o, kgm2
Dynamic system is critically damped
Maximum Impact
torque at lockin, Nm
d/dt can just be the velocity at time of impact if not critically damped
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Static Beam Deflections
For Quick Hand Calculations, these are the most common and useful
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Developing Limit Loads for Structural Design
QuasiStatic loads
Linear and rotational accelerations + dynamic
Dynamic Loads included in QuasiStatic:
Harmonic vibration (sinusoidal)
Random vibration (mostly of acoustic origin)
Vibroacoustic for light panels
Shock loads
Thermal loads
Jitter
Feb 19 2003
Dont forget, there are
payload mass vs. c.g.
height limitations for
the launch vehicles
payload adapter fitting
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Launch Loads and Fundamental Frequency
Launch Vehicle
Axial Load Factor Naxial, gs
Lateral Load Factor Nlateral, gs
Delta IV
steady state
dynamic
6.5
+/ 1.0
27Hz min
+/ 2.0
+/ 0.7
10Hz min
Atlas II
steady state
dynamic
5.5
+/ 2.0
15Hz min
+/ 0.4
+/ 1.2
10Hz min
HII
steady state
dynamic
5.2
+/ 5.0
30Hz min
2.8
+/ 2.0
10Hz min
Ariane V
steady state
dynamic
4.6
+/ less than 1.0
+/ 0.25
+/ 0.8
10Hz min
+/ 3.0
+/ 0.7
15Hz min
Delta II
steady state
dynamic
6.7 for 2000kg
+/ 1.0
18Hz min
Beware 32Hz
MECOPOGO
35Hz min
Note: the static and dynamic loads do not occur at the same time (usually)
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Rigidbody accelerations
Linear force
F = m x a = m x g x Nfactor
N is the load factor in gs
Low frequency sinusoidal below first natural
frequency will produce nearstatic acceleration
a = A x (2 f)2 where f is the driving frequency and A
x = A sin(t)
is the amplitude of sinusoidal motion
Rotational torque
Centrifugal force
Feb 19 2003
Q = I x alpha
Fc = m x r x 2
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v = A cos(t)
a = A2 sin(t)
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Combining the loads to form quasistatic levels
Limit Load = Static + dynamic + resonant + random
(low frequency)
Note: The maximum values for each usually occur at
different times in the launch environment, luckily.
The primary structure will have a different limit load than
attached components.
Solar arrays and other low areadensity exposed
components will react to vibroacoustic loads.
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Loads for overall structure, example
If the structure meets minimum frequency requirements from the launch vehicle,
then the low frequency sinusoidal environment is enveloped in the limit loads.
Secondary structures with low natural frequencies may couple in, however, and
should be analyzed separately.
Reaction loads
The structural analyst will determine which load case produces the greatest
combined axialbending stress in the structure (I, A, mass and c.g. height)
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Loads for a component, example
Mpayload = 500 kg
Mkickmotor = 50 kg
dry mass
Tstatic = 30000 N
Tdynamic = +/ 10% Tstatic at 150 Hz
(resonant burn)
m = 1 kg
Antenna boom
component
fnaxial = 145 Hz with Q = 15
fnlateral = 50 Hz with Q = 15
L = 0.5m
The axial frequency is sufficiently close
to the driven dynamic frequency that we
can consider the axial mode to be in
resonance.
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R = 1m
= 10.5 rad/s (100 rpm)
Random input So = 0.015 g2 per Hz
R.Farley NASA/GSFC
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Spinning upper stage example, cont
Axialtolateral coupling
Length L
Radius R
Deflection y
y
Paxial
Deflection y:
y = R ( / )2
Plateral
Lateral circular
bending frequency,
rad/s
= 2 fnLateral
[ 1 ( / )2 ]
Axialtolateral coupling AtoL = y / L
Equivalent additional lateral load = AtoL x Paxial
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Loads for a component, cont
Static axial acceleration GstaticA = Tstatic / g (Mpayload + Mkickmotor)
gs
Dynamic axial acceleration GdynA = Tdynamic x Q / g (Mpayload + Mkickmotor) gs
Random axial acceleration GrmdA = 3 sqr[0.5 fnaxial Q So]
gs
Axial Limit Load Factor, gs, Naxial = GstaticA + GdynA + GrmdA
Axial Limit Load, Newtons, Paxial = g x m x NaxialL
gs
Static lateral acceleration GstaticL = R 2 / g + AtoL x Naxial
Random lateral acceleration GrmdL = AtoL x 3 sqr[0.5 fnlateral Q So]
gs
gs
Lateral Limit Load Factor, gs, Nlateral = GstaticL + GdynL + GrmdL
Lateral Limit Load, Newtons Plateral = g x m x Nlateral
Moment at boom base
M = L x Plateral
gs
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Component Loads, MassAcceleration Curve
Applicable
Launch Vehicles:
STS
Titan
Atlas
Delta
Ariane
H2
Proton
Scout
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R.Farley NASA/GSFC
Simplified design curve for
components on
appendagelike structures
under 80 Hz fundamental
62
frequency
Sizing the Primary Structure
rigidity, strength and stability
Factors of safety NASA / INDUSTRY, metallic structures
Factors of safety
Verification by Test
Verification by Analysis
FS yield
1.25 / 1.10
2.0 / 1.6
FS ultimate
1.4 / 1.25
2.6 / 2.0
Factors of safety for buckling (stability) elements ~ FS buckling = 1.4
(stability very dependent on boundary conditions.so watch out!)
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Primary Structure Simplified Model
E is the Youngs Modulus
of Elasticity of the
structural material
For example, in many cases, the
primary structure is some form of
cylinder
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Sizing for rigidity (frequency)
Working the equations backwards.
When given frequency requirements from the launch vehicle users guide for 1st
major axial frequency and 1st major lateral frequency, faxial, flateral:
Material modulus E times
cross sectional area A
For a thinwalled cylinder:
I = R3 t ,
or t = I / ( R3)
A = 2 R t
or t = A / (2 R)
Material modulus E
times bending inertia I
Select material for E, usually aluminum
e.g.: 7075T6
Determine the driving requirement
resulting in the thickest wall t.
Recalculate A and I with the chosen t.
Calculate for a 10% 15% frequency margin
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E = 71 x 109 N/m2
ENAE 691
Tapering thickness will drop frequency 5% to
12%, but greatly reduce structural mass
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R.Farley NASA/GSFC
Sizing for Strength
Design Loads using limit loads and factors of safety
Plateraldes = (M + Mtip) g NlimitL
Lateral Design Load
Paxialdes = (M + Mtip) g NlimitA
Axial Design Load
Recalling from mechanics of materials:
axial stress = P/A, bending stress = Mc/I (in a cylinder, the
max shear and max compressive stress occur in different areas
and so for preliminary design shear is not considered)
Max stress max = Paxialdes / A + (Plateraldes Lcg R) / I
Margin of safety MS = {allowable / (FS x max)} 1
0 < MS acceptable
For 7075T6 aluminum, the yield allowable , allowable = 503 x 106 N/m2
With less stress the higher up, the more tapered the structure can be, saving mass
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Sizing for Structural Stability
Determine the critical buckling stress for the cylinder
In the general case of a cone:
Compare critical stress to the maximum stress
as calculated in the previous slide. Update the
max stress if a new thickness is required.
Allowable Critical
Buckling Stress
Margin of safety MS = {CR /(FSbuckling x max)} 1
Check top and bottom of cone: max, I, moment arm will be different
Feb 19 2003
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0 < MS acceptable
Sheet and stringer
construction will save ~
67
25% mass
Structural Subsystem Mass
For all 3 cases of stiffness, strength, and stability, optimization calls for
tapering of the structure.
The frequency may drop between 5% to 12% with tapering
But the primary structural mass savings may be 25% to 35%  a good trade
Secondary structure (brackets, truss points, interfaces.) may equal or
exceed the primary structure. An efficient structure, assume secondary
structure = 1.0 x primary structure. A typical structure, assume 1.5.
So, if the mass calculated for the unoptimized constantwall thickness
cylinder (primary structure) is MCYL, then the typical structure (primary +
secondary):
MSTRUCTURE ~ (2.0 to 3.5) x MCYL
This number can vary significantly
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