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Appendix K

Cultural Resources Report

HISTORIC BUILDING SURVEY OF TEN-MILE APE


FOR THE PROPOSED HOUNSFIELD WIND FARM,
Panamerican
Consultants, Inc.

GALLOO ISLAND, TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD,


JEFFERSON COUNTY, NEW YORK

Buffalo Branch

2390 Clinton Street

Buffalo, NY 14227

Tel:
(716) 821-1650

Fax: (716) 821-1607

(OPRHP #07PR06733)

Tuscaloosa Branch

924 26th Avenue East

Tuscaloosa, AL 35404

Tel:
(205) 556-3096

Fax: (205) 556-1144

Memphis Branch

91 Tillman Street

Memphis, TN 38111

Tel:
(901) 454-4733

Fax: (901) 454-4736

Tampa Branch

5910 Benjamin Center

Drive, Suite 120

Tampa, FL 33634

Tel:
(813) 884-6351

Fax: (813) 884-5968

Corporate Headquarters

2301 Paul Bryant Drive

Tuscaloosa, AL 35402

Tel:
(205) 248-8767

Fax: (205) 248-8739

Prepared for:
UPSTATE NY POWER CORP.

950-A Union Road, Suite 20

West Seneca, New York 14224-3454

Prepared by:
PANAMERICAN CONSULTANTS, INC.

Buffalo Branch Office

2390 Clinton Street

Buffalo, New York 14227

April 2009

HISTORIC BUILDING SURVEY OF THE TEN-MILE APE


FOR THE PROPOSED HOUNSFIELD WIND FARM,
GALLOO ISLAND, TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD,
JEFFERSON COUNTY, NEW YORK
OPRHP # 07PR06733

Prepared for:

UPSTATE NY POWER CORP.

950-A Union Road, Suite 20

West Seneca, New York 14224-3454

Prepared by:

Frank J. Schieppati, Ph.D., RPA, Principal Investigator

Christine M. Longiaru, M.A. Architectural Historian

Mark A. Steinback, M.A., Senior Historian

Sharon Jenkins, M.A., Architectural Assistant

PANAMERICAN CONSULTANTS, INC.

Buffalo Branch Office

2390 Clinton Street

Buffalo, New York 14227

(716) 821-1650

April 2009

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Management Summary
SHPO Project Review Number: 07PR06733
Involved State and Federal Agencies: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation, Public Service Commission
Phase of Survey: Historic Building Survey of 10-Mile Viewshed (Area of Potential Effect [APE])
Location Information:
Location: Eastern shore of Lake Ontario
Minor Civil Division: Towns of Hounsfield (MCD 04510), Henderson (MCD 04509),
Brownville (MCD 04504), Cape Vincent (MCD 04505), Lyme (MCD 04513) and Village of
Sackets Harbor (MCD 04558).
County: Jefferson
Survey Area (Metric & English)
Length and Width: topographic viewshed within 10 miles (16 km) of the Galloo Island
project footprint based on a turbine height of 410 feet (125 m). The Village of Sackets
Harbor is outside the 10-mile ring but is included in the survey. The total on-shore
(terrestrial) survey area (exclusive of Sackets Harbor) within the topographical-based
viewshed is approximately 33.6 square miles. Due to inaccessibility, no direct survey work
was conducted on Grenadier, Fox and Stony Islands, reducing the terrestrial area to 28.7
square miles. Of this area, 24.4 square miles are within the topographic viewshed.
USGS 7.5-Minute Quadrangle Maps: Cape Vincent South 1960, Chaumont 1960, Galloo
Island 1960, Henderson 1961, Henderson Bay 1960, Point Peninsula 1960, Sackets
Harbor 1961 and Stony Point 1960 (all New York)
Results of Phase IA Architectural Survey: see report listed below
Schieppati, Frank J., Mark A. Steinback, Rebecca J. Emans, Kelly Mahar, Christine M.
Longiaru, and Michael A. Cinquino
2008 Phase IA Cultural Resources Investigation for the Proposed Hounsfield Wind
Farm, Galloo Island Project Area, Town of Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New
York 07PR6733. Panamerican Consultants, Inc., Buffalo Branch, Buffalo.
Prepared for Upstate NY Power Corporation, West Seneca, NY.
Results of Architectural Survey
NR-Listed Historic Districts: One (Sackets Harbor Village Historic District)
NR-Listed individual buildings/structures: 7
NR-Eligible individual buildings/structures: 2
Number of recommended potential eligible buildings/structures/cemeteries/
districts in the Project viewshed: 37 NR-Eligible Individual
Number of properties surveyed in Project viewshed assigned an Unevaluated
status due to lack of access: 19
Report Author(s):
F. Schieppati, C. Longiaru, M. Steinback, S. Jenkins
Date of Report: April 2009
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Table of Contents

Management Summary .................................................................................................................iii

List of Figures and Tables............................................................................................................vii

List of Photographs ...................................................................................................................... xi

1.0

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1-1

2.0

Cultural Background ......................................................................................................... 2-1

3.0

Architectural Survey .......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.1 Methodology.............................................................................................................3-1

3.2 Architectural Investigations within the Ten-mile APE ...............................................3-1

3.3 National Register Criteria .........................................................................................3-2

3.4 Historic Building Review by Municipality ..................................................................3-2

3.4.1 Town of Brownville (MCD 04504), Jefferson County....................................3-5

3.4.2 Town of Cape Vincent (MCD 04505), Jefferson County ..............................3-6

3.4.3 Town of Henderson (MCD 04509), Jefferson County ..................................3-8

3.4.4 Town of Hounsfield (MCD 04510), Jefferson County ...................................3-8

3.4.5 Village of Sackets Harbor (MCD 04558), Town of Hounsfield,

Jefferson County ..........................................................................................3-9

4.0

Architectural Summary ...................................................................................................... 4-1

4.1 Galloo Island, Town of Hounsfield............................................................................4-1

4.1.1 Little Galloo Island Overview ......................................................................4-48

4.1.2 Galloo and Little Galloo Islands: Previous Architectural Investigations......4-48

4.1.3 Conclusions

and Recommendations ..........................................................4-48
4.2 Stony Island, Town of Hounsfield...........................................................................4-50

4.2.1 Stony
Island History ....................................................................................4-51

4.2.2 Calf Island Overview...................................................................................4-57

4.2.3 Stony Island and Calf Island: Previous Architectural Investigations ...........4-57

4.2.4 Conclusions

................................................................................................4-57
4.3 Town of Henderson, Jefferson County ...................................................................4-58

4.3.1 Stony Point Lighthouse, Stony Point, Henderson (USN 04509.000011) ....4-58

4.3.2 Seasonal and Recreational History and Resources in Henderson .............4-60

4.3.3 Robert G. Wehle State Park, Stony Point, Henderson ...............................4-64

4.3.4 Stony Point Air Force Site ..........................................................................4-72

4.3.5 Henderson Harbor, Town of Henderson.....................................................4-73

4.3.6 Association Island, Town of Henderson .....................................................4-78

4.4 Grenadier Island, Town of Cape Vincent .............................................................4-106

4.4.1 Grenadier

Island History ...........................................................................4-106
4.4.2 Grenadier Island Previous Architectural Investigations ............................4-111

4.4.3 Conclusions

..............................................................................................4-113
4.4.4 Little
Grenadier Island ..............................................................................4-114
4.5 Fox Island, Town of Cape Vincent .......................................................................4-116

4.5.1 Fox Island History .....................................................................................4-116


4.5.2 Fox Island: Previous Architectural Investigations ....................................4-118

4.5.3 Conclusions

..............................................................................................4-118

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5.0

Architectural Survey Results .............................................................................................5-1

5.1 Town of Brownville (MCD 04504), Jefferson County ...............................................5-1

5.2 Town of Cape Vincent (MCD 04505), Jefferson County ..........................................5-1

5.3 Town of Henderson (MCD 04509), Jefferson County ..............................................5-2

5.4 Town of Hounsfield (MCD 04510), Jefferson County ...............................................5-3

5.5 Village of Sackets Harbor (MCD 04558), Town of Hounsfield, Jefferson County ....5-4

5.6 Town of Lyme (MCD 04513), Jefferson County .......................................................5-4

6.0

Impacts ............................................................................................................................. 6-1

7.0

Mitigation........................................................................................................................... 7-1

8.0

Annotated List of Properties .............................................................................................. 8-1

9.0

Cemeteries........................................................................................................................ 9-1

9.1 Military Cemetery on Dodge Avenue........................................................................9-1

9.2 Sackets Harbor Lakeside Cemetery.........................................................................9-6

10.0 References...................................................................................................................... 10-1

Appendix A. Project Maps


Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE Survey Map (large foldout)
Sackets Harbor Survey Map (small foldout)

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List of Figures and Tables

FIGURE

PAGE

1.1 Location of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island in the Town of

Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New York .........................................................................1-3

1.2 Proposed wind farm facilities on Galloo Island .................................................................1-4

1.3 Location of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island and the projects

ten-mile topographic viewshed..........................................................................................1-5

1.4 The Village of Sackets Harbor, Town of Hounsfield, within the viewshed

(topographic) of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project ...........................................................1-6

1.5 Grenadier, Fox, and Stony Islands in eastern Lake Ontario and the proposed

Hounsfield Wind Farms ten-mile viewshed ......................................................................1-7

2.1 Northern New York land purchases, 1790-1815 ...............................................................2-5

2.2 Arrangement of American defenses around Sackets Harbor during the War of 1812 ......2-9

2.3 Galloo and Stony Islands in 1888 ...................................................................................2-12

3.1 Detail of ten-mile APE viewshed, showing Stony, Grenadier and Fox Islands and

Town of Lyme....................................................................................................................3-7

3.2 Sackets Harbor with project viewshed and NRL properties indicated.............................3-10

3.3 Sackets Harbor Historic District Boundaries, Sackets Harbor ........................................3-12

3.4 Sackets Harbor fortifications, ca. 1814 ...........................................................................3-17

3.5 Madison Barracks after ca. 1890 ....................................................................................3-21

4.1 Oblique aerial view (toward the west) of Galloo Island and several landmarks ................4-1

4.2 Oblique aerial view of northern section (toward the northwest) of Galloo Island and

several landmarks ............................................................................................................. 4-2

4.3 Oblique aerial view of the midsection (toward the west) of Galloo Island .........................4-2

4.4 Oblique aerial view of north shore (toward the west) of Galloo Island .............................4-3

4.5 Oblique aerial view of southwestern section (toward the southwest) of Galloo

Island................................................................................................................................. 4-3

4.6 Layout and location of the Main Lodge Complex on the southeastern shore of

Galloo Island .................................................................................................................... 4-5

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4.7 Galloo Island Lodge Complex consisting of the Main Lodge and outbuildings, with

photograph angles ............................................................................................................4-6

4.8 Location of Lighthouse and Fog Horn House at southwestern tip of Galloo Island ........4-15

4.9 Plan of Galloo Island Lighthouse with location of former assistant keepers house,

with photograph angles...................................................................................................4-16

4.10 Location and layout of former Coast Guard Station at the east end of Galloo Island .....4-28

4.11 Plan of the former Coast Guard Station on Gill Harbor with photograph angles .............4-29

4.12 Location of Caretakers House on Gill Harbor at the eastern end of Galloo Island.........4-35

4.13 Plan of Galloo Island Caretakers House with photograph angles ..................................4-35

4.14 Guest House located at the extreme northeastern end of Galloo Island ........................4-38

4.15 Plan of Guest House with photograph angles .................................................................4-38

4.16 Location of Clubhouse on North Pond, Galloo Island, facing west .................................4-41

4.17 Plan of Galloo Island Clubhouse with photograph angles ...............................................4-42

4.18 Aerial view of Stony Island in relation to Galloo Island and Town of Henderson ............4-50

4.19 Stony Island in 1895........................................................................................................4-51

4.20 A mid-nineteenth-century log cabin on Stony Island .......................................................4-52

4.21 A ca. 1928 photograph of the Stony Island School .........................................................4-52

4.22 A ca. 1960 photograph of Stony Island School with overgrown vegetation ....................4-53

4.23 The former Stony Island Inn (Hotel), Stony Island ..........................................................4-54

4.24 Mrs. M.E. Luff property Famous Fishing Grounds on Stony Island ..............................4-55

4.25 Stony Island Lodge, Stony Island....................................................................................4-55

4.26 Undated postcard of the Millionaires Club at Stony Island ..........................................4-56

4.27 Stony Point Lighthouse, Henderson, Jefferson County, facing northwest ......................4-60

4.28 Map of Robert G. Wehle State Park, Henderson ............................................................4-65

4.29 Camp buildings on Association Island, Town of Henderson, Jefferson County ..............4-78

4.30 Town of Henderson in 1867 showing Sixth Town Point (Association Island) .................4-80

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4.31 Association Island, the center island above (not identified on map), in 1895 with

Snowshoe Bay and Six Town Point Island......................................................................4-81

4.32 Association Island in 1956, GEs final season at the island ............................................4-83

4.33 A ca. 1960s aerial view of the YMCA Camp at Association Island, facing northeast......4-84

4.34 A 1965 aerial view of Association Island YMCA Camp, facing north ..............................4-84

4.35 YMCA Camp at Association Island as depicted on the camps placemats .....................4-85

4.36 Ca. 1960s aerial view of YMCA Camp at Association Island, facing south-

southeast.........................................................................................................................4-86

4.37 Ca. 1960s photograph from YMCA Camp period at Association Island showing the

ca. 1920s cabins in background......................................................................................4-86

4.38 Ca. 1977 photograph of row of cabins and lampposts, Association Island.....................4-87

4.39 Faade of Town Hall, Association Island ca. 1960s ........................................................4-96

4.40 Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County .......................................................4-108

4.41 Grenadier Island School House, Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent ................................4-109

4.42 TILTs Grenadier Island Grassland Preserve ................................................................4-110

4.43 Grenadier Island Grassland, Cape Vincent...................................................................4-111

4.44 The NRE Abandoned Farm on Grenadier Island Road #3 (Humphrey Farm

House/Carbide House) .................................................................................................4-112

4.45 Uhlein House at 2533 Grenadier Island Road #1 .........................................................4-113

4.46 Aerial view of Little Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County ........................4-114

4.47 Early twentieth-century postcard of Little Grenadier Island...........................................4-115

4.48 Aerial view of Fox Island, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County, facing east .......................4-116

4.49 Original Governor Horace White Lodge in early 1900s, Fox Island ..............................4-117

6.1 The topographic viewshed of the ten-mile APE of the Hounsfield Wind Farm ..................6-2

6.2 Graph showing the categories of visible turbines and the numbers of properties in

each category based on the topographic viewshed ..........................................................6-4

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TABLE

3.1 NRL and NRE Structures (and Historic Districts) within the Ten-mile APE ......................3-4

4.1 Extant structures on Galloo Island ....................................................................................4-4

4.2 List of components of NRE Association Island as evaluated in 1994 .............................4-88

5.1 Summary of properties in the ten-mile APE study area in the Town of Henderson ..........5-2

5.2 Summary of properties in the ten-mile APE study area in the Sackets Harbor .................5-4

5.3 Summary of properties in the ten-mile APE study area in the Town of Lyme ...................5-5

6.1 All NRL, NRE, and potentially NRE properties ordered sequentially by map point

within the Ten-mile APE of the Hounsfield Wind Farm .....................................................6-5

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List of Photographs

PHOTOGRAPH

PAGE

3.1

Samuel Read House, an early (ca. 1827) stone farmhouse, 20669 South Shore

Road (CR 59), Pillar Point, Brownville ...........................................................................3-5

3.2

Southern end of West Main Street, Sackets Harbor Historic District, facing north.......3-13

3.3

Looking north on West Main Street, Sackets Harbor Historic District ..........................3-13

3.4

One of West Main Streets commercial buildings, Sackets Harbor Historic District .....3-14

3.5

Christ Episcopal Church at 207 East Main Street, Sackets Harbor Historic District ....3-14

3.6

The former Union Hotel, West Main Street, now the home of the Seaway Trail

Discovery Center, Sackets Harbor Historical District ...................................................3-15

3.7

Sackets Harbors Navy Point Marina from boat launch on West Main Street,

facing northeast ............................................................................................................3-15

3.8

Boats in dry dock at Navy Point Marina, Sackets Harbor.............................................3-16

3.9

Sackets Harbor Battlefield from West Washington Street ............................................3-17

3.10 Site of Fort Tompkins overlooking Lake Ontario ..........................................................3-18

3.11 Sail Loft and Icehouse and Navy Point Marina from Sackets Harbor Battlefield..........3-18

3.12 The Commandants (left) and Lieutenants (right) houses ...........................................3-19

3.13 Harp House and associated surviving farm structures, ca. 1820-1867 ........................3-19

3.14 View of Lake Ontario from Sackets Harbor Battlefield .................................................3-20

3.15 The grounds of Fort Tompkins .....................................................................................3-20

3.16 The southeastern perimeter of the Parade Ground at Madison Barracks ....................3-22

3.17 The front of Stone Row, the original Officers Quarters, built in 1816, taken from

the Parade Ground.......................................................................................................3-23

3.18 Commemorative monument at Madison Barracks Burial Grounds ..............................3-23

3.19 Original Post Hospital constructed of limestone in 1816 ..............................................3-24

3.20 Enlisted Mens Mess Hall and Barracks Building, built ca. 1892 ..................................3-24

3.21 Enlisted Mens Barracks (most likely Barracks B) located east of original Post

Hospital. Built ca. 1890s-early 1900s ...........................................................................3-25

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3.22 Former Post Headquarters Building and former Post Exchange and Gymnasium

Building ........................................................................................................................ 3-25

3.23 Looking east down Officers Row.................................................................................3-26

3.24 Stone Water Tower and rear of Officers Row .............................................................3-26

4.1

The southeast and northeast elevations of the Main Lodge, from near the lake

shore, facing west ..........................................................................................................4-7

4.2

The southwest and southeast elevations of the Main Lodge, from near the lake

shore facing northeast....................................................................................................4-7

4.3

The northeast elevation of the Main Lodge, facing southwest .......................................4-8

4.4

The northwest elevation of the original block of the Main Lodge, facing southeast

toward the lake............................................................................................................... 4-8

4.5

The upper floor of the southeast elevation of the Main Lodge, facing west-

northwest........................................................................................................................ 4-9

4.6

The southwest elevation of the Main Lodge, facing northeast .......................................4-9

4.7

The upper stories of the northeast elevation of the Main Lodge, facing west ..............4-10

4.8

Privy (not in use), south of the Main Lodge, from near the lake shore facing

northwest...................................................................................................................... 4-10

4.9

Privy and cleanout ........................................................................................................ 4-11

4.10 The utility shed and old foundation (left), northeast of the Main Lodge, from near

the lake shore, facing north ..........................................................................................4-11

4.11 The utility shed interior, facing southwest ....................................................................4-12

4.12 Barns northwest of the Main Lodge, from south of the grass runway, facing

northwest...................................................................................................................... 4-12

4.13 Rear of the barns from the pheasant pen, facing east .................................................4-13

4.14 The pheasant pen west of the barns, facing northwest ................................................4-13

4.15 View northeast of the Main Lodge along the lake shoreline, showing the utility

shed and the Caretakers house and former Coast Guard Station in the

background ..................................................................................................................4-14

4.16 Grass runway from the southwestern end, facing northeast ........................................4-14

4.17 Galloo Island Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, facing northeast..................4-17

4.18 Galloo Island Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, facing east-northeast..........4-17

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4.19 Galloo Island Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, facing east-southeast .........4-18

4.20 Southern elevation of the Keepers House, facing northeast .......................................4-18

4.21 Western elevation of the Keepers House, facing east-southeast ................................4-19

4.22 Western and northern elevations of the Keepers House, facing southeast.................4-19

4.23 Detail of the western elevation of the Keepers House, facing east-southeast ............4-20

4.24 Galloo Island light......................................................................................................... 4-20

4.25 Roof of the Keepers House from atop the Galloo Island Lighthouse ..........................4-21

4.26 Interior (kitchen) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers House ..............................4-21

4.27 Interior (upstairs hall) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers House ......................4-22

4.28 Interior (stair well) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers House............................4-22

4.29 Interior (upstairs bedroom) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers House ..............4-23

4.30 Interior (upstairs bedroom dormer) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers

House........................................................................................................................... 4-23

4.31 Interior (upstairs hall leading to stairs) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers

House........................................................................................................................... 4-24

4.32 View toward the southwest from atop the Galloo Island Lighthouse showing the

Fog Horn House...........................................................................................................4-24

4.33 Eastern and northern elevations of the Fog Horn House associated with the

Galloo Island Lighthouse, facing southwest .................................................................4-25

4.34 Western and southern elevations of the Fog Horn House associated with the

Galloo Island Lighthouse, facing northeast ..................................................................4-25

4.35 Southern elevation of the Fog Horn House associated with the Galloo Island

Lighthouse from the lake shore, facing north ...............................................................4-26

4.36 Interior of the Fog Horn House associated with the Galloo Island Lighthouse.............4-26

4.37 Interior ceiling of the Fog Horn House associated with the Galloo Island

Lighthouse.................................................................................................................... 4-27

4.38 Former Coast Guard Station from the south side of Gill Harbor, facing northeast.......4-30

4.39 View of the former Coast Guard Station toward the lake and Stony Island, facing

east .............................................................................................................................. 4-30

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4.40 Southeast and southwest elevations of the Coast Guard Station main building,

radio tower and concrete block utility shed, facing northeast.......................................4-31

4.41 Southeastern facade of the Coast Guard Station main building, facing northeast.......4-31

4.42 Detail of the northwest corner of the former Coast Guard Station main building .........4-32

4.43 Northwest and southwest elevations of the former Coast Guard Station main

building, facing east .....................................................................................................4-32

4.44 Former Coast Guard Station Boathouse from the south side of Gill Harbor, facing

northeast ...................................................................................................................... 4-33

4.45 Detail of the Boathouse, showing dormers and roof condition the south side of

Gill Harbor (telephoto), facing northeast .....................................................................4-33

4.46 Corrugated metal garage/shed located west of the main building, facing north-

northeast ...................................................................................................................... 4-34

4.47 Caretakers House and outbuilding from the southeast side of Gill Harbor, facing

northwest...................................................................................................................... 4-36

4.48 Caretakers House from the southeast side of Gill Harbor, facing northwest ...............4-36

4.49 Caretakers outbuilding from the southeast side of Gill Harbor, facing northwest ........4-37

4.50 Northeast elevation of the Guest House, facing southwest..........................................4-39

4.51 Northeast and southeast elevations of the Guest House, facing west .........................4-39

4.52 Southwest and southeast elevations of the Guest House, facing north .......................4-40

4.53 Interior of the upper floor of the Guest House toward fireplace at the southwest

end of the house ..........................................................................................................4-40

4.54 The Clubhouse setting from the south side of North Pond, facing northeast ...............4-43

4.55

West side of the Clubhouse and outbuilding, facing east ...........................................4-43

4.56

Eastern elevation of the Clubhouse, facing west ........................................................4-44

4.57

Detail of the eastern elevation of the Clubhouse, facing west-northwest....................4-44

4.58

Western and southern elevations of the Clubhouse, facing east-northeast ................4-45

4.59

Western elevation of the Clubhouse, facing east ........................................................4-45

4.60 Clubhouse interior stone fireplace................................................................................4-46

4.61 Western elevation of the Clubhouse outbuilding, facing east ......................................4-46

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4.62 Southern and eastern elevations of the Clubhouse outbuilding, facing northwest .......4-47

4.63 Remains of a privy south of the Clubhouse outbuilding, facing south..........................4-47

4.64 Interior of privy ............................................................................................................. 4-48

4.65 Stony Point Lighthouse, Henderson, Jefferson County, facing south-southwest .........4-59

4.66 Cottages on Snowshoe Bay, Henderson, Jefferson County ........................................4-61

4.67 McConnell Cottage/Cedar Lodge at 15321 Snowshoe Road, Snowshoe Bay ..........4-61

4.68 Swan Cottage at 15318 Snowshoe Road, Snowshoe Bay ..........................................4-62

4.69 Setting of representative example of largely intact Craftsman cottage on

Lighthouse Road, Henderson ......................................................................................4-63

4.70 A representative example of a largely intact Craftsman cottage on Lighthouse

Road Henderson, Jefferson County .............................................................................4-63

4.71 A representative example of largely intact Craftsman cottage on Lighthouse

Road, Henderson .........................................................................................................4-64

4.72 A representative view of the shoreline at Robert G. Wehle State Park, Henderson ....4-66

4.73 Pill box at north end of Robert G. Wehle State Park, Henderson ................................4-66

4.74 Front view of pill box at north end of Robert G. Wehle State Park, Henderson ...........4-67

4.75 View from pill box at north end of Robert G. Wehle State Park, toward the

project, facing west ......................................................................................................4-67

4.76 Artillery Wall at north end of Wehle State Park ............................................................4-68

4.77 Close up of Artillery Wall at north end Wehle State Park .............................................4-68

4.78 Northernmost pill box at southern end of Wehle State Park ........................................4-69

4.79 Interior view of northernmost pill box at southern end of Wehle State Park.................4-69

4.80 Former Wehle summer home at Robert G. Wehle State Park .....................................4-70

4.81 Former Wehle farm buildings at Robert G. Wehle State Park......................................4-71

4.82 Stake and slider fences at Robert G. Wehle State Park ..............................................4-71

4.83 A rustic Adirondacks-inspired log cabin at Robert G. Wehle State Park ......................4-72

4.84 The Frontier House/Gill House Inn at 13565 Harbor Road, Henderson Harbor...........4-75

4.85 The R.J.W. Morgan House at 13068 Harbor Road, Henderson Harbor.......................4-75

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4.86 The former Tyler Inn at 13030 Harbor Road, Henderson Harbor.................................4-76

4.87 Summer cottage Innisfall at 13962 CR 123, Henderson Harbor................................4-77

4.88 Boathouse at 13962 CR 123, Henderson Harbor ........................................................4-77

4.89 Narrow shoal north of Association Island .....................................................................4-79

4.90 Six Town Point Island north of Association Island .......................................................4-79

4.91 A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins or wooden tents from the

GE Camp at Association Island ...................................................................................4-90

4.92 A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins or wooden tents from the

GE Camp at Association Island ...................................................................................4-90

4.93 A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins from the GE Camp at

Association Island ........................................................................................................4-91

4.94 A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins from the GE Camp at

Association Island ........................................................................................................4-91

4.95 Causeway connecting Snowshoe and Association Islands, with Association

Island in distance .........................................................................................................4-92

4.96 Association Island from causeway ...............................................................................4-92

4.97 The Island House at current entrance of Association Island ........................................4-93

4.98 Island House on Association Island, north and west elevations ..................................4-93

4.99 GE Marina and Conference Center (Dining Hall) .........................................................4-94

4.100 View from rear entrance of Association Island, Island Hall at left, and Island Bar

& Grille (Black Catte) at center .....................................................................................4-94

4.101 Island Bar & Grille, Association Island .........................................................................4-95

4.102 Town Hall on west side of canal, Association Island ....................................................4-95

4.103 Faade of Town Hall, Association Island .....................................................................4-96

4.104 East elevation of Town Hall, Association Island...........................................................4-97

4.105 North and west elevations of Town Hall, Association Island ........................................4-97

4.106 Intact section of allee of deciduous trees along Association Lane, Association

Island............................................................................................................................ 4-98

4.107 East faade of Ontario Lodge & Towers, Association Island .......................................4-98

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4.108 East faade of Ontario Lodge & Towers, Association Island .......................................4-99

4.109 East faade of Ontario Towers, Association Island......................................................4-99

4.110 West faade of Ontario Lodge & Towers, Association Island ....................................4-100

4.111 Association Lane with North Bath House and Olympic Lodge & Towers ...................4-100

4.112 East and north elevations of North Bath House (Bath House No. 2) .........................4-101

4.113 South and east elevations of North Bath House ........................................................4-101

4.114 Clubhouse (modified former Hospital building), south elevation ................................4-102

4.115 Clubhouse (modified former Hospital building), south elevation, with allee of trees

at left .......................................................................................................................... 4-102

4.116 Modified former Hospital building, northern wing at right ...........................................4-103

4.117 Olympic Marina on east side of Association Island, facing northeast ........................4-103

4.118 Skeet shoot high house at north end of Association Island........................................4-104

4.119 Sunset Cottages at Association Island ....................................................................4-104

4.120 Residence and stone foundation on Snowshoe Island ..............................................4-105

4.121 Large fieldstone fireplace on Snowshoe Island, once part of Association Island

Camp .......................................................................................................................... 4-105

9.1

Eastern driveway to Military Cemetery, facing south .....................................................9-2

9.2

View from Military Cemetery, facing north towards Lakeside Cemetery ........................9-2

9.3

Military Cemetery, facing southwest ..............................................................................9-3

9.4

Central section of Military Cemetery, facing south .........................................................9-3

9.5 Tomb of Unknown Soldiers and Sailors of War of 1812 and tombstone

monument of General Zebulon Pike, Military Cemetery.................................................9-4

9.6

Western section of Military Cemetery, facing southwest ................................................9-4

9.7

Southern section of Military Cemetery, facing southwest ..............................................9-5

9.8

Entrance Gate in southeast corner of Military Cemetery................................................9-5

9.9

Eastern driveway of Military Cemetery, facing north ......................................................9-6

9.10 Lakeside Cemetery along Dodge Avenue, Sackets Harbor, facing east-northeast .......9-7

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9.11 Eastern wagon path in older section of Lakeside Cemetery, facing north .....................9-7

9.12 Older section of Lakeside Cemetery, facing east...........................................................9-8

9.13 Older section of Lakeside Cemetery, facing east...........................................................9-8

9.14 Cypress-lined central wagon path from Dodge Avenue, Lakeside Cemetery,

facing north .................................................................................................................... 9-9

9.15 Wagon path along southern perimeter of Lakeside Cemetery, facing east ...................9-9

9.16 Southeast quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing southeast ......................................9-10

9.17 Northeast quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing northeast .......................................9-10

9.18 Northwest quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing north-northwest ............................9-11

9.19 Wagon path in western half of Lakeside Cemetery, facing north .................................9-11

9.20 Southwest quadrant of Lakeside cemetery, facing northeast.......................................9-12

9.21 Western portion of Lakeside Cemetery along Dodge Avenue, facing north.................9-12

9.22 Maintenance building on Dodge Avenue near southwestern corner of Lakeside

Cemetery...................................................................................................................... 9-13

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1.0 Introduction

Panamerican Consultants, Inc. (Panamerican) was contracted by Upstate NY Power


Corporation to conduct a historic building survey of the ten-mile Area of Potential Effect (APE)
for the Hounsfield Wind Farm, a wind-energy project proposed for location in Jefferson and
Oswego counties, New York (Figure 1.1). Upstate NY Power proposes to construct the turbines
for the proposed wind farm on Galloo Island in the Town of Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New
York. The project will consist of the installation and operation of up to 84 wind turbines for the
purpose of generating approximately 252 megawatts (MW) of electricity and infrastructure.
Infrastructure includes, but is not limited to, a docking facility, an operations-and-maintenance
building, interconnects, roads (Figure 1.2), and, under a separate project, approximately 9 miles
(14.5 km) of underwater cable and 41.6 miles (67 km) of overhead transmission line. Locations
of the various proposed structures on Galloo Island are preliminary and may be adjusted as the
result of project and regulatory requirements as well as natural and cultural resources concerns.
The maximum height of the turbines and blades is planned to be 410 feet (125 meters).
The Proposed Action consists of the construction and operation of the Project (which is
subject to review under the New York State Environmental Quality Review Act [SEQRA]) and
the construction of transmission lines and related facilities (which is not subject to review under
SEQRA). That portion of the Project which is subject to review under the SEQRA regulations (6
NYCRR Part 617) will include the installation and operation of up to 84 wind turbines on Galloo
Island, together with the associated collection lines (below grade and overhead) and related
facilities including a docking facility, helipad, living quarters, parking areas and operations and
maintenance facilities (see Figure 1.2). In 2008, Panamerican completed a Phase IA cultural
resources investigation for Hounsfield Wind Farm (see Schieppati et al. 2008a).
Additionally, the Project will include construction and operation of an approximately 50.6
mile transmission line (9 miles under Lake Ontario, 41.6 miles across the mainland), together
with interconnection facilities and other related facilities. This portion of the Proposed Action is
subject to review by the New York State Department of Public Service (NYDPS) under Public
Service Law Article VII and other applicable regulations. As such, that portion is a Type II action
under SEQRA (6 NYCRR 617.5[c][35]) and therefore not subject to SEQRA review (6 NYCRR
617.5[a]). In 2008, Panamerican completed a Phase IA cultural resources investigation for the
Hounsfield Wind Farm Transmission Line (see Schieppati et al. 2008b). The architectural survey
of the transmission line viewshed is pending.
The ten-mile APE historic building survey was conducted in consultation with the New York
State Historic Preservation Office (NYSHPO). The following list includes the objectives of the
architectural investigation of the Hounsfield Wind Farm, resulting from the NYSHPO consultation:
Architectural survey of the project topographical viewshed within a ten-mile
radius of the proposed project footprint on Galloo Island (Figure 1.3). The
topographic viewshed for wind farm investigations is typically five miles.
Architectural survey of the project topographical viewshed within the Village of
Sackets Harbor (Figure 1.4).
Archival research at Jefferson County libraries and historical societies for islands
within the ten-mile APE to which access may not be possible. These islands
include Grenadier, Fox, and Stony Islands (Figure 1.5).
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Determine if there are potential National Register Eligible properties (on private
property) that face away from public roads where normal photography is limited
to the right-of-way and requires permission for property access.
The Projects ten-mile APE for the historic building survey includes sections of the Towns
of Hounsfield, Henderson, Brownville, Lyme, and Cape Vincent in Jefferson County, New York
(see Figure 1.3; also Project Map at end of report). The total on-shore (terrestrial) survey area
(exclusive of Sackets Harbor) within the topographic-based viewshed is approximately 33.6
square miles. Due to inaccessibility, no direct survey work was conducted on Grenadier, Fox
and Stony Islands, reducing the terrestrial area under investigation to 28.7 square miles. Of this
area, 24.4 square miles are within the topographic viewshed. The architectural investigation
complied with NYSHPO Guidelines for Wind Farm Development Cultural Resources Survey
Work (2006). NYSHPO has designated this project number 07PR06733.
The architectural field investigation and research was conducted in the fall of 2008. Dr.
Frank J. Schieppati, RPA, served as principal investigator; Christine M. Longiaru, M.A. served
as Architectural Historian; Mr. Mark A. Steinback, M.A., served as project historian, and Sharon
M. Jenkins, M.A. served as architectural assistant. Dr. Michael A. Cinquino, RPA, was project
director.

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Figure 1.2. Proposed wind farm facilities on Galloo Island (USGS 7.5 Quadrangle Galloo
Island, NY 1960).

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Figure 1.3. Location of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island and
the projects ten-mile topographic viewshed, Jefferson County, New York (USGS
15 Quadrangles: Cape Vincent, NY 1985 and Pulaski, NY 1986).
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Figure 1.4. The Village of Sackets Harbor, Town of Hounsfield, within the
viewshed (topographic) of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project (USGS 7.5
Quadrangle, Sackets Harbor, NY 1961).
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Figure 1.5. Grenadier, Fox, and Stony Islands in eastern Lake Ontario and the
proposed Hounsfield Wind Farms ten-mile viewshed, Towns of Hounsfield and
Cape Vincent, Jefferson County, New York (USGS 15 Quadrangles: Cape
Vincent, NY 1985 and Pulaski, NY 1986).
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2.0 Cultural Background

Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, what is now Jefferson County was located between
territories utilized by the Haudenosaunee (or Iroquois) Confederacy and the Huron-Algonkians
of Canada and was not continuously occupied by either group. During the late prehistoric and
Contact periods, tribal clusters of Iroquoian-speaking peoples were distributed throughout New
York State and lower Ontario. Comprising several thousand people in at least one, and usually
several, villages in proximity to one another, each tribal cluster was separated from the others
by extensive and widespread hunting and fishing areas. For example, in present-day New York
State, nations comprising the Haudenosaunee Confederacy (i.e., Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga,
Cayuga, and Seneca) generally utilized the area from the Hudson River in the east to the
Genesee River in the west, between the Susquehanna River at the south and Lake Ontario-St.
Lawrence River at the north (Trigger 1978:344; Engelbrecht 2003; Tooker 1978).
Beginning in the last decades of the sixteenth century, increasingly regular encounters
between Europeans and Native Americans incubated a pandemic of European diseases among
unprepared Native populations, which decimated many Native groups. Typhus, smallpox, and
measles ravaged these communities. In addition to the tensions introduced through simple
contact with Europeans, trade had a major impact upon traditional aboriginal cultural patterns.
By the middle of the sixteenth century European goods were reaching Native nations in the
Mohawk River valley. The source of these goods was the French outpost of Tadoussac in the
lower St. Lawrence valley at the mouth of the Saguenay River where European fishing parties
traded for furs with the local Native groups (Brasser 1978:83; Trigger 1978:344-347).
By the end of the sixteenth century, the fur trade in the St. Lawrence valley had become
an important commercial and imperial concern, and it appears that the Mohawk had begun
raiding Native groups living in the St. Lawrence valley to obtain European-manufactured goods.
In the early 1600s, Jesuit missionaries and French traders were establishing contacts with
Native nations through the region. Commissioned to fortify outposts of trade in 1608, Samuel de
Champlain founded Qubec (1608) and established a trading post at what is now Montral
(1611). Soon after his arrival in the New World he began intervening in conflicts between Native
nations vying for control of the fur trade (Campisi 1978:481-482; Trigger 1978:346-348; Fenton
and Tooker 1978:467-469).
Generally, until the Revolutionary War, the area that is Jefferson County was situated near
the traditional lands of both the Oneida and the Onondaga, two of the original Five Nations of
the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. The traditional territory of the Oneida nation was around
Oneida Lake and Oneida Creek, and their hunting territory extended north to the St. Lawrence
River and south to the Susquehanna River, including the project area (Campisi 1978:481). The
Onondaga had a similar hunting territory, while their heartland was south of Onondaga Lake
(Blau et al. 1978:491).
The French were the first Europeans to penetrate the valley of the St. Lawrence River in
the first half of the sixteenth century. Exploring the St. Lawrence River valley in 1609, Samuel de
Champlain and a small party followed the streams and rivers inland until they reached the lake
that Champlain named for himself. While there, his party engaged a group of Mohawk in bloody
skirmish. Two of the latter were killed by gunfire, an action that would eventually help seal the fate
of the French in North America. Also in that year, the Englishman Henry Hudson, employed by the
Dutch East India Company, sailed up what the Dutch would call the North River. Reaching as far
north as what is now Albany, Hudsons encounters with the local Mohican were much friendlier.
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Near the site of present-day Castleton (south of Albany), Mohican living in a village along the river
provided food and entertainment to Hudson and his crew. Subsequent voyages by Dutch captains
established outposts in this portion of North America to advance the commercial interests of the
United Provinces of the Netherlands (Trigger 1978:346-348; Tooker 1978:430; Ellis et al. 1967:18
25).
In 1615, Champlain and a Native American force of 2,200 landed near Stony Creek in
Jefferson County as part of an attack on the Haudenosaunee living in the Mohawk valley, passing
through the southeastern part of Jefferson County. While the French were in conflict with the
various Haudenosaunee nations at various times, the Dutch were establishing a trading post
called Fort Orange at present-day Albany in 1624. Also during this time, Recollt and Jesuit
missionaries began visiting Native American villages across southern Canada and New York.
From these early settlements the penetration and exploration of inland New York began (Trigger
1978:346-348; Fenton and Tooker 1978:467-469; Campisi 1978:481-482; Sullivan 2004 [1927]:
525).
The earliest recorded Jesuit contact occurred in 1654 when Simon Le Moyne visited the
Onondaga, passing through what is now Oswego County. This contact was followed up the next
year by the arrival of Jesuits Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot and Claude Dablon. Later, a
short-lived mission was established near Onondaga Lake in 1656 called Sainte-Marie de
Gannentaha. Zachary Du Puys and an armed party of 50 Frenchmen paddled up the Oswego
River to meet the Onondaga and established the settlement among them. In 1658, du Puys and
the French were forced to evacuate Sainte Marie after hearing rumors that they were about to
be annihilated by their hosts. Several years later, Le Moyne returned to the Onondaga in 1661
1662, and another mission was established ca. 1666 called Saint Jean Baptiste. Jesuit
missionary Jacques Bruyas established the mission of St. Franois Xavier among the Oneida in
1667. While the sowing of Christianity among the Haudenosaunee by the Jesuits generally bore
little fruit at this time, the missions had modest effects on reducing the hostility between the
Haudenosaunee and the French. However, the Jesuit missions were removed from Onondaga
lands following Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonvilles pyrrhic attack against the
Seneca (1687). Hostilities between the French and Haudenosaunee finally subsided in 1696,
when Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau, Denonvilles successor as governor
of New France, directed a successful expedition against the Onondaga and Oneida. However,
the French and the Haudenosaunee would not have a stable peace until 1701 (Blau et al. 1978:
493; Tooker 1978:432; Abler and Tooker 1978:507; Johnson 1877:13-15; Gehring and Starna
1988; Campisi 1978:481-482; Emerson 1898)
At the outset of the eighteenth century, the French and British had been equally
unsuccessful in establishing fortifications within Onondaga or Oneida territory. However, as the
fur trade became an imperial concern for the European powers during the eighteenth century,
competition among these kingdoms resulted in the erection of fortified trading posts amid the
frontier. Around 1700, the Seneca allowed the British to build a fort on the northern end of
Seneca Lake, near the future village of Geneva. In 1716, the French countered with the
construction of Fort des Sables on the west side of Irondequoit Bay. The British followed by
erecting a trading post near Lake Ontario (in what is now Oswego County) in 1722. This post
was greatly enlarged and renamed Fort Oswego by 1727, becoming the main frontier outpost of
Great Britain during this period. As a result, its provisioning and protection became an imperial
priority (Abler and Tooker 1978:505-507; Trigger 1978:354-356; Aldenderfer et al. 1982:III-29).
The Haudenosaunee traded with both sides, hoping to remain free of their animosity. Moreover,
to avoid provoking them to violence and to facilitate increased trade in furs, French and English
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policy during the early eighteenth century forbid settlers from establishing homesteads in
Haudenosaunee territory (Aldenderfer et al. 1982:III-30; Blau et al. 1978:493).
In 1749, a collection of Christian Haudenosaunee (identified as the Oswegatchies, but
really Oneida, Onondaga, and Cayuga) settled at La Presentation (present-day Ogdensburg, St.
Lawrence County, well north of the project area) under the direction of Sulpician priest (Abb)
Franois Picquet. This group, comprising approximately 1,500 people, was later dispersed into
the St. Regis and Onondaga reservations (ca. 1807). This location served as a staging area for
raids against British settlements in the Mohawk and Champlain valleys during the French and
Indian War (Aldenderfer et al. 1982:III-29; Blau et al. 1978:494-495).
The ancient rivalry between the British and the French intensified during the course of the
eighteenth century, reaching a crescendo during the 1750s, when the two countries engaged in
another round of their incessant warring. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the
eastern portion of Lake Ontario was the scene of increased militarization as both the British and
the French refortified their nascent bases of operation. French efforts centered on areas near
Fort La Presentation and Fort Niagara, while the British focused on areas in proximity to Fort
Oswego. Despite French successes during the early campaigns of the conflict, the fall of
Qubec and the death of Lieutenant General Marquis de Montcalm in 1759 undermined French
ambitions in North America, and precipitated their ultimate surrender. The fall of Montral in
1760 and the signing of Treaty of Paris in 1763 officially terminated French claims in most of
North America. In 1764 Sir William Johnson concluded peace with those Haudenosaunee who
sided with the French (Aldenderfer et al. 1982:III-30, 31; Blau et al. 1978:495).
The erection of forts and trading posts and the trickle of European-American settlers into
the northern and western woodlands aggravated relations with the Native nations, which already
lived and hunted there (Tooker 1978:433-434; Blau et al. 1978:495; Otterness 2004). At Fort
Stanwix (present-day Rome, New York) the Haudenosaunee nations signed the "Property Line
Treaty of 1768," which ceded to the British all lands east of the Allegheny Mountains (including
territory not actually under Haudenosaunee control), excepting reservations of Mohawks and
others, for the purposes of settlement. What is now Jefferson County was well north of this line,
and was generally not settled except for small outposts along the major rivers (Campisi 1978:
483; Tooker 1978:434; Sullivan 2004 [1927]:525).
During the American Revolution, fighting on the frontier remained well south of the project
area and consisted largely of raids in the Mohawk, Wyoming and Cherry valleys. The area also
was spared the destruction engendered by the punitive, four-pronged assault into the heart of
Haudenosaunee country in the summer of 1779. Troops under the command of Major General
John Sullivan destroyed Haudenosaunee land in central New York, notably territory occupied by
the Seneca and Cayuga (Abler and Tooker 1978:507-508; Campisi 1978:483).
Carleton Island in the Town of Cape Vincent, outside the APE, had served as a camp
during several of the French incursions into the region during the seventeenth century, and may
have been visited by peripatetic Jesuit Pierre de Charlevoix in 1720-1721. During the
Revolutionary War, the island was garrisoned by the British who began construction of fort on it.
Initially called Fort Carleton, after Major General Sir Guy Carleton, one-time Governor of
Ontario, the fort was renamed Fort Haldimand after the then current governor, General Sir
Frederick Haldimand. Although the principal naval base on Lake Ontario, the British never
finished the fort and continued to occupy the island despite the Jay Treaty of 1794. The
Americans captured the outpost at the beginning of the War of 1812 and destroyed it (Division
of Military and Naval Affairs 2006a, 2006b; Emerson 1898).
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The British and their Loyalist allies were expelled from the new United States after the
Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the Revolutionary War, although the British did not vacate forts
along Lake Ontario or farther west until 1796 or later. The Haudenosaunee, abandoned in the
United States by their British allies after the war, were forced to make peace as separate
nations with the Americans. During these negotiations the individual nations as well as
individuals themselves had to decide whether to live in the United States or relocate to Canada.
Moreover, the Haudenosaunee relinquished all their land west of the Niagara River with the
Second Fort Stanwix Treaty (1784). Further, in separate treaties signed in 1788 at Fort Schuyler
(formerly called Fort Stanwix) between the Onondaga and the Oneida and the State of New
York, the two Haudenosaunee nations ceded to the state all their remaining land in New York
(including Jefferson County), except for specifically defined reservations around Onondaga and
Oneida lakes (which were formally established as a result of these 1788 treaties). These
treaties were disputed by groups of Haudenosaunee until 1794, when a treaty (e.g., the
Pickering or Canandaigua Treaty) was signed at Canandaigua between the United States
government and the Six Nations, which defined the boundaries of Seneca lands and the
reservations to the other Haudenosaunee nations (Deloria and DeMallie 1999:94-99; Kappler
2000 [1904]:5-6, 34-37; Abler and Tooker 1978:508).
As part of that 1788 treaty, the Oneida reserved ten miles square (100 square miles) for
Peter (or Pierre) Penet to be located in the area of his choosing. The area of Penets Square
was east of French Creek and largely contained in the Town of Clayton (Emerson 1898; Powell
1976).
Northern New York was virtually unbroken wilderness in 1783 except for a few
settlements fringing Lake Champlain. In fact, most of the region lying between Lake
Champlain on the east, Lake Ontario on the west, the St. Lawrence River on the north,
and the southern slopes of the Adirondacks remained wilderness until late in the
nineteenth century [Ellis et al. 1967:156].

European-American settlement in northern New York dates from the end of the American
Revolution. With the return of peace, settlers and land speculators again began to stream into
the frontier, exerting pressure to open up land formerly occupied by the Haudenosaunee.
Although some squatters had lived transiently on Oneida land, the British still occupied Oswego,
Oswegatchie, and Carleton Island, and continuing hostilities between the new government and
the British deterred development along the northern portion of the state until after 1796.
Undaunted, Alexander Macomb purchased 640,000 acres on the south side of the St. Lawrence
River in 1787. Later, after the state acquired northern New York in 1788 treaties at Fort
Schuyler, Macomb, as leader of a three-man company, added 3,670,000 acres to his holdings
in 1791, including all of what would become Jefferson County (Dill 1990; Haddock 1895:152).
Macombs eponymous purchase was surveyed into six great tracts and put up for sale. Tracts
Four, Five, and Six fell under the supervision of William Constable, who took over completed
control after Macomb became insolvent (Ellis et al. 1967:156-157). Galloo Island was part of
Great Tract 5 of Macombs Purchase, and the northern part of the project area was part of Great
Tract 4 (Figure 2.1).
With Macombs bankruptcy, William Constable (one of Macombs partners) actively
sought buyers for property lots in the great tracts. Constables efforts to develop the Black
River valley led him to France, where 210,000 acres of northern New York were purchased
by La Compagnie de New York in 1793 and 600,000 were sold to the Antwerp Company. The
land of La Compagnie became known as Castorland for the extensive number of beaver
(castor is beaver in French) that were reputed to inhabit the heavily forested area. La Compagnie
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Figure 2.1. Northern New York land purchases, 1790-1815 (adapted


from Ellis et al. 1967:157).
purchased the parcel to serve as a haven for French aristocrats (with their servants) escaping
the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution. Several of them built grand estates that are now in
ruin. Other speculators were attracted to the pristine North Country, including Jacques-Donatien
(James, in America) Le Ray de Chaumont, Joseph Bonaparte (Napoleons older brother and
former king of Spain), John Brown of Providence, David Parrish, and William Inman (Powell
1976:134; Ellis et al. 1967:156-157; Chan 1997:110; Pilcher 1985:2-3, 22-24, 122). The
Castorland adventure was abandoned in 1814. All in all, the north country proved a
disappointment to most land speculators, who could not successfully compete with the holders of
the richer lands of western New York and, subsequently, of the Great Lakes states (Ellis et al.
1967:158).
Settlement in Jefferson County took root slowly during the late eighteenth century and
early nineteenth century as a result of the stony soils, a short growing season, and inadequate
in-land transportation (Ellis et al. 1967:156). Several of the more intrepid French migrs had
begun settling their Castorland properties nearest the Black River at what is now Lyons Falls in
1794, and Geoffrey Desjardins erected a mill near what is now Carthage in 1795, although
these endeavors were short-lived. While speculators in the large land tracts were generally
unsuccessful, numerous homesteaders from New England, in general, and Vermont, in
particular, were drawn to the area by its cheap land and potential for industrial and commercial
activity. Jacob Brown (later a Major General during the War of 1812) settled west of what is now
Watertown in 1799 (the settlement was first called Brownville). At this time, rural communities
formed around gristmill and sawmill sites as other enterprises, such as stores, taverns, and
schools, emerged to service these nascent villages (Pilcher 1985:46-47, 60-62, 80-82, 111-112;
Widdis 1991:233; Emerson 1898: Chapter XXX; Ellis 1991:109-110). Named to honor the third
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president of the United States, Jefferson County was formed from Oneida County on March 28,
1805, when its population had reached 1,500, and Watertown was selected for the county seat
(Dixon 2001; Sullivan 2004 [1927]:526).
During this early period, Sackets Harbor was the seat of the customs district, where
soldiers were stationed to control smuggling and the formal trade between northern New York
and Canada, and seized boats and contraband were brought for appraisal and sale during the
period of the embargo mandated by President Thomas Jefferson. Initial harbor defenses were
inadequate at the outset of the War of 1812, consisting of a single brig with sixteen guns. As a
result, Fort Tompkins as well as other forts and defenses were erected, turning Sackets Harbor
into the center of both military and naval operations in the area. Despite the thousands and
troops and marines station at Sackets Harbor, the British threatened to invade the village three
times during the war. The famous battle of Sackets Harbor was fought on May 29, 1813 with
disastrous results to the enemy. After the war, Sackets Harbor became a permanent naval
station, which it remained through the nineteenth century (Ellis et al. 1967:140-141; Emerson
1898:Chapter XXX). In addition to its customs and military importance, Sackets Harbor emerged
as an important shipping and shipbuilding port becoming a key point in the lakes trade. This
importance continued through the 1860s.
Aside from ample waterpower, entrepreneurs exploited other natural resources of the area,
including iron ore and abundant timber. Serving as the foundation for nascent communities,
prominent local forges attracted both people and additional commercial enterprises. For example,
Sterlingburgh, initially a bloomary forge in 1816, attracted other industries including a distillery
(1824) and a grist and plaster mill (after 1835), as well as residential housing. Other types of
iron production facilities included Joseph Bonapartes short-lived blast furnace on the Indian
River, which produced pig and cast before being sold in 1852 to James Sterling, the regions
iron magnate. Sterling had operated iron mines in the area since 1837 as well as a blast furnace
on Black Creek and a charcoal kiln. Sterlings iron works persevered through the vacillations of
the iron market and were sold to the Jefferson Iron Company in 1869. This company ceased
operation in 1881 and the last ore shipment was sent in 1890. Other iron operations in the area
were located at Alpina and Philadelphia (Klein et al. 1985:2/16-17; Child 1890).
Agriculture provided the chief livelihood for most of the early residents of the county. The
first cash crop from the heavily timbered land was potash derived from burning the timber cut
while clearing land (Klein et al. 1985:2-18). While land in the Black River valley was generally
fertile, the rugged topography of the Tug Hill Plateau area precluded intensive agriculture. The
thin soils of the Plateau encouraged dairying, and cheese making was a prominent nineteenthcentury industry in both Lewis and Jefferson counties into the twentieth century. Begun for local
or household consumption, numerous small cheese-making operations flourished in the area
during the second half of the nineteenth century, including several associated with cheese
magnate F.X. Baumert (Klein et al. 1985:2/18-19; Aldenderfer et al. 1982:III-32).
Improved transportation networks benefited commerce and industry as well as linked the
area to the rest of New York State. Largely unpaved roads connected the various industrial sites
and small communities with distribution sites and farming areas, and included the St. Lawrence
Turnpike (1812-13), the Antwerp-Sterlingville Plank Road (1849), and the Lewisburg Plank
Road (1853). Paving of area roads did not begin until the twentieth century (Klein et al. 1985:2
19). Initiating an economic boom beginning in 1848, the Black River Canal connected Carthage
to Lyons Falls to the Erie Canal near Rome. The canal carried timber, mill and agricultural
products from the region to downstate markets (Ellis et al. 1967:246; Emerson 1898).
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Economic growth of Jefferson County was enhanced by the development of railroad


facilities after 1850. As in most places in the state, the introduction of railroad transportation
brought economic and commercial success to villages along its right-of-way, providing the
wherewithal to transport the areas agricultural and iron products to a larger market. While the
Northern Railroad (1850) connected Ogdensburg and other northern towns with the main, midstate line, the Black River & Utica Railroad (1857; reorganized in 1860) connected Philadelphia
(New York), Boonville, Lowville (1868), and Carthage (1872) with Utica and points south
(Aldenderfer et al. 1982:III-36; Klein et al. 1985:2-20). The more prominent Rome, Watertown &
Ogdensburg Railroad hauled freight, passengers and dairy products (after refrigerated boxcars
were invented), a spur of this line terminated at Cape Vincent. The two routes merged in 1886
and were consolidated in 1891 with the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad (Meinig
1966:176; Emerson 1898a).
Immigration of different ethnic groups altered the areas predominant New England
character. As noted, French immigrants had been present in the area since the 1790s. After the
completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, Irish immigrants trickled into the region, reinforced by
another stream during the late 1840s. Germans arrived around the end of the War of 1812 with
another generation coming during the mid-century. As one might expect as a result of the areas
proximity to Canada, English- and French-Canadians were a noticeable presence in the areas
lumber and manufacturing industries, particularly after the 1870s. Italians and Eastern
Europeans arrived during the late 1890s into 1900s. The population of Watertown, the countys
largest municipality, reached 22,000 in 1900 (Emerson 1898; Widdis 1991:233).
Alexandria Bay, north of the project area, as well as other localities along the St. Lawrence
River began to attract visitors as a sport-fishing resort area in the 1850s, but this trend did not
blossom until the late 1860s. Beginning in the late 1840s, entrepreneurs started developing
hotels, and the area in general, as a location for summer visitors. In the 1850s, investors began
to acquire the heavily timbered islands in the river and cut the trees for lumber, selling or leasing
the stripped island cheaply for the purpose of building a summer cottage (Emerson 1898). The
summer resort industry would not truly take off until after the Civil War, with improvements in rail
access to the area. In 1872, The Crossmon House in Alexandria Bay opened to the public and
entertained presidents U.S. Grant and Chester A. Arthur as well as other dignitaries during the
nineteenth century. By the middle of the 1870s, the summer tourist industry had fostered the
construction of large hotels and general stores and a general tripling of the areas population
during the summer months (Emerson 1898).
Watertown was (and remains) the countys commercial hub with a stop on the railroad and
numerous industrial operations using the falls at its center for power. During the nineteenth
century, Watertown supported the typical industrial and manufacturing establishments, such as
blacksmith shops, carpenters, masons, carriage and wagon manufacturers and dealers, livery
and horse stables, foundries and machine shops as well as paper and pulp mills and timbering
operations. New York Air Brake (for railroad engines) employed over 1,200 at the turn of the
nineteenth century. In 1900, 289 manufacturing establishments employed 3,760 workers
(Widdis 1991:234-5).
The economic prosperity, however, did not last. During the early twentieth century, as a
result of increasing deforestation, the once-prominent lumbering industry entered a long period
of decline. The areas geographic isolation also would play a role in the decline of the
manufacturing sector, as businesses sought to decrease transportation costs with the advent of
cheaper electric power. Suffering a similar fate during the twentieth century, the cheese and
dairying industry declined and consolidated as a result of competition from Wisconsin farms and
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increasing mechanization. The loss of economic opportunities resulted in a flight of population


(Widdis 1991; Klein et al. 1985:2-19).
Throughout the late nineteenth century into the twentieth century, the economy of
Jefferson County was resource based, with various commercial opportunities afforded by its
water, agricultural and forest resources. Dairy farming, food-making and papermaking have
been major industries, while, more recently, railroad equipment, industrial machinery and
medical equipment contribute substantially to the overall economy. The county also has
benefited from the presence of the Fort Drum Military Reservation, which brought a boom in
construction and trade (Sullivan 2004 [1927]:527).
The military presence in the area began in 1908 as the New York State National Guard
and the U.S. Army held maneuvers on 10,000 acres around Pine Plains east of Watertown.
Beginning in 1910, Pine Camp was permanently established as a site for maneuvers and
artillery testing. A landing strip for planes was added in the 1920s. The camp added over 80,000
acres of land to its reservation during World War II and was renamed Camp Drum in 1951.
Consisting of 107,265 acres at present, the installation was renamed Fort Drum in September
1974 (Klein et al. 1985:2/20-21). Currently, the fort is home to the U.S. Army 10th Mountain
Division (Light Infantry) and involved in the mobilization and training of almost 80,000 troops
annually. With the activation of the division during the 1980s, Jefferson County experienced a
26 percent population increase, becoming the fastest growing county in New York State during
this period.
During the last half of the twentieth century, recreational activities and vacationing
remained an important sector in the North Country economy, especially for those areas near the
lake and the Thousand Islands. In 2000, Jefferson County had a population of 111,738 (U.S.
Census Bureau 2000).
Town of Hounsfield. Benjamin Wrights 1796 survey of the Black River tract elaborated
eleven towns. Tract Number 1, identified as Hesiod at the time, the future Town of Hounsfield,
was owned by Richard Harrison and Joseph Ogden Hoffman. Harrison and Hoffman sold the
northern portion of the tract to Henry Champion and Lemuel Storrs in 1797, and the southern
portion, including the project area, to Peter Kemble and Ezra Hounsfield in 1801. Kemble and
Hounsfields land agents were Silas Stow and Elisha Camp. The northern portion was
eventually sold to Amasa Fox and Augustus Sackett or Sacket (the latter providing the name for
Sackets Harbor), both of whom settled along the Black River. By 1802, there were about thirty
families living in the town. Sacket built the first sawmill in 1801, and a number of EnglishAmerican families formed a settlement near Sackets mill in 1805, including Samuel Luff and his
four sons, David Merritt, Williams Ashby, John Root, Henry Metcalf, and George Slornan.
Numerous other settlers arrived prior to the War of 1812, when the town had about 950
residents (Emerson 1898:54-56, Chapter XXX; Hough 1854:171-175).
The Town of Hounsfield (sometimes Houndsfield) was incorporated in February 17, 1806
and named in honor of Ezra Hounsfield, who arrived in New York from England in 1800 as
agent for his brothers, John and Bartholomew Hounsfield. Hounsfield died without heir in 1817,
and his properties were purchased for his brother, Bartholomew, at public auction. Galloo
(sometimes Galloup, in nineteenth-century histories), Little Galloo, Stony, and Calf islands were
patented by the state to Elisha Camp, in February 15, 1823, and were included as part of
Hounsfield. In April 1818, part of Galloo Island was ceded to the United States for the purpose
of erecting and operating a lighthouse. In the history of the town these islands have been of
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little consequence. They are occupied almost exclusively for agricultural purposes and contain
excellent farming lands (Hough 1854:68-69; Emerson 1898:Chapter XXX).
During the War of 1812, numerous fortifications, including Fort Tompkins, ringed Sackets
Harbor, which was the center of American naval operations for the northern theater of the war
(Figure 2.2). At the time, it was the countrys largest naval port and shipbuilding area, and
thousands of troops and marines were quartered in the area. Twice, the harbor was attacked by
British forces. The first battle occurred in June 1812, when five British warships attacked the
U.S. Oneida and batteries in the harbor (American Forts Network 2003). As a result, the
Americans increased the fortifications at the harbor to protect the U.S. Naval Shipyard located
on Navy Point. Next to the shipyard was built Fort Tompkins, consisting of a blockhouse, twenty
guns, and earthworks. The troops were garrisoned at the Smith Cantonment, consisting of four
blockhouses and a palisade. Fort Virginia, with a blockhouse and sixteen guns, and Fort
Volunteer, an earthwork defensive structure, were completed in 1813. The British returned in
Ma

Figure 2.2. Arrangement of American defenses around Sackets Harbor during the War of
1812 (American Forts Network 2003).
May 1813, landing troops on Horse Island and proceeded to march on the harbor. The
Americans burned their military stores, and entrenched within Fort Volunteer. The British failed
against the solid American position, and retreated. Additional fortifications were added by the
Americans, including the stone tower of Fort Chauncey, the earthworks of Fort Kentucky and
Fort Stark, and additional earthworks connected the various fortifications. Fort Volunteer was
made into a Cantonment and renamed Fort Pike (see Figure 2.2; American Forts Network
2003).
The Village of Sackets Harbor was incorporated in 1814 with a population of 1,386. Six
years later, in 1820, the Town of Hounsfield attained a population of 3,429. In the 1820s, the
harbor was cleared out and improved. In 1828, the Jefferson County Canal Company was
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incorporated, with Elisha Camp leading and partially funding the construction. The canal
extended from Huntington's Mills, located two miles north of Watertown, to the harbor. Referred
to as Camps Ditch, the canal was 20 feet wide. Camp also built two sawmills, grist, plaster,
and paper mills, and a furnace near the harbor at the terminus of the canal. The canal was
abandoned after about ten years, however, and Camp lost $60,000 in his investments. Attempts
were also made to establish railroad lines in the town. The Sackets Harbor & Ellisburgh Railroad
connected to the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad in 1853, but was abandoned in
1862. In late 1874, the Sackets Harbor line of the Carthage, Watertown & Sackets Harbor
Railroad was completed, with three stations.
Jewettsville, Brownville, and Dexter are other small villages, the latter two being partially in
the Town of Brownville. Jewettsville, at one time quite prosperous, was first settled by Silas
Godfrey in 1802. Other early settlers include Benjamin Barnes, who had a frame house that he
used as a tavern, as well as a brickyard and bakery, and John McDole, who also had a tavern.
Heman Pettit arrived around 1804 and opened a mill on Mill Creek. Pettit built a sawmill for
Augustus Sackett at the harbor, and both a sawmill and a gristmill on Mill Creek for Samuel Luff.
Pettit also constructed the wharves at Sacketts Harbor. At its height, Jewettsville was a bustling
industrial town that supported four or five distilleries, three vinegar factories, a malt house, a
brewery, a bakery, a powder mill and laboratory, gunsmith shop, two cooper shops, a
wheelwright shop, a rope factory, several asheries, a woolen mill, a tannery, a glove factory, a
lime kiln, and three brickyards. Eventually, the industrial pursuits withered and the village was
largely abandoned, becoming a small crossroads hamlet (Emerson 1898).
Much of the town remained rural throughout the nineteenth century. Early commodities
included potash, lumber, and hops. Outside the small villages, a few hamlets developed in
areas such as East Hounsfield, Fields Settlement, Stowells Corners, and Sulphur Springs.
Population of the town reached its nineteenth century apex in 1840 when 4,146 people were
enumerated. The number of inhabitants declined gradually for the remainder of the nineteenth
century and was tabulated as 2,651 in 1890. The decline continued into the twentieth century,
as the population of the town fell to 2,297 in 1920 (Emerson 1898:636; Sullivan 2004 [1927]).
The town had a population of 3,323 in 2000.
Town of Henderson. The French erected a fort on Association Island in Henderson Bay
(which the French identified as the Bay of Niaoure) in the mid-eighteenth century. Historical
records show that Capt. de Villiers built a fort in 1746 (Anderson 2002), which was later
commanded by the Marquis de Montcalm. The fort was utilized until 1758, when it was
abandoned as a result of the deteriorating military situation with the British. It had served as a
headquarters for military operations and rendezvous point in preparation for attacking Fort
Oswego in 1756 (Emerson 1898). Once under the control of the Americans, the first resident in
the town was David Bronson, who arrived around 1795. He was a trapper who also planted
turnips and herdgrass. Bronson built a cabin, but it and his crops flooded, and he relocated
eastward to the center of the town, where he planted an orchard (Dixon 2001; Sullivan 2004
[1927]:526).
The 1796 survey was prepared for men who had purchased the land from Constable,
including William Henderson, Nicholas Low, Richard Harrison and Josiah Ogden Hoffman. The
investors then divided the eleven surveyed towns among themselves, with Henderson getting
towns 3, 6 and 9, of which number 6 was the future Town of Henderson. The town was further
divided into lots in 1801, although the town was not formally established until 1806 (Emerson
1898). Henderson and his land agent Jesse Hopkins established a village at Henderson Harbor.
Initially called Naples, the village consisted of 25 acres, with a four-acre public square. Hopkins
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built a house for himself and a land office building with a store by 1807. A school and meeting
house were built by 1812. Hopkins, an advocate for the construction of a dam and sawmill on
Stony Creek, also built a shipyard for the construction of schooners, which was used during the
War of 1812.
Subsequent settlement in the town concentrated along Henderson Bay, with early settlers
arriving from New England. The first tavern keeper was Roswell Davis, beginning in 1804. The
first doctor was Daniel Barney, who arrived in 1807. By that time, the town had about 1,000
residents. These early settlers included Samuel Stewart, Thomas Clark, Philip Crumett, John
Stafford, Capt. John Bishop and his sons, Calvin, Asa, and Luther, as well as Jedediah and
James McCumber, among others (Emerson 1898).
A prominent resident of the Town of Henderson was Charles G. Finney, the foremost
revivalist during the Second Great Awakening of the 1820s and 1830s. Born in Connecticut,
Finney was raised on farms in Oneida County and around the time he turned sixteen he
relocated to Henderson, becoming an attorney in the Town of Adams. He later became
professor and then president of Oberlin College in Ohio, where he pioneered co-education of
men and women and whites and blacks (Oberlin College 2006; The Forerunner 2006).
Settlement concentrated on Stony Creek in what would become Henderson Village. It was
first settled by Deacon Fellows in 1807 when he established a saw and gristmill. The mill was
taken over by John Putnam and subsequently purchased by Lodowick Salisbury. At that time
the hamlet was known as Salisburys Mills. Amos White and John Nash built a carding mill
nearby in 1812. Soon the village also had two distilleries. A few other mills and factories were
established and the post office relocated to the village from Henderson Bay. The village was
incorporated April 16, 1886, and had a population of 400 in 1898 (Emerson 1898). Population
remained small and the village later unincorporated in the twentieth century (Historical
Association of South Jefferson 2003). The Town of Henderson had a population of 2,259 in
1864 (Dixon 2001).
In the mid-nineteenth century, Henderson Harbor was a prominent entrepot for shipping
grain and stock. The harbor supported shipbuilding, but records referring to these ships are now
lost (Emerson 1898). One of the last to be built was the 350-ton Jennie White. Infrastructure for
the shipping industry was ravaged by an extensive fire in 1898, which left little remaining. By the
turn of the twentieth century, the village had become a summer resort area for fishing, with local
residents renting rooms to vacationers. Hotels included the Frontier House, the Van Dyne
House, and hotels associated with the Highland and Paradise parks along the west side of the
harbor. In 1920, the population of the town had fallen to 1,229 (Sullivan 2004 [1927]:527).
Today, the town is predominantly rural, with a population of 1,281, little changed from 1920.
Galloo Island. Originally called Galloup Island, it was part of a series of islands once
referred to as the Isles au Gallot. Galloo Island was reputedly first visited by Samuel de
Champlain in 1615, during the course of an ill-fated attack against the Haudenosaunee. Little
attention was paid to the island until the nineteenth century. The first American residents on
Galloo Island were Abraham Wilkinson, his wife, and their six children, who had relocated from
Stony Island in 1809. They returned to the mainland (to the Town of Henderson) in 1812.
Another short-lived resident was William Warner, who settled on Galloup Island in 1811 and left
in 1813 to work with Jesse Hopkins on the construction of a 40-ton schooner in the Town of
Henderson. Five years later, in 1818, the U.S. government acquired approximately 35 acres at
the southern end of the island in order to build a lighthouse. In 1823, Galloo Island and its
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neighborsLittle Galloo, Stony, and Calf islands (see Figure 1.1)were acquired by Elisha
Camp (Emerson 1898:7-8, 55-56, 619, 623; Baker 1958).
The first long-term residents were Whitford Gill and his family. Gill purchased land at the
foot of the island in 1815, but did not settle there with his family until 1822, when he built a
farmhouse. In the 1830s, he tended two orchards and operated a sawmill. His sons, Rodham,
John, and William, expanded the farm with 2,000 Merino sheep, and about 30 dairy cows.
Although Elisha Camp owned the original patent for the island, Gill purchased it from him at
some point. The Gills owned most of the island except for the lighthouse and a portion of the
island referred to as Gannett Farm (spelled Gannet on the 1887 map; Figure 2.3). Rodham
Gills portion of the family property, including a farm and three lots, was sold to Barney Eveleigh
in 1860. Byron Johnson and his cousin Erwin Willard purchased a 600-acre farm with a
farmhouse and sawmill from John Gill (Johnsons father-in-law) in 1869. Johnson built an
additional house near the farmhouse.

LIGHTHOUSE

Figure 2.3. Galloo and Stony Islands in 1888 (Robinson 1888).


Gannett Mill was a small concentration of houses in the vicinity of Gannetts farm (Baker
1958). Warren Gannett and Benijah Avery had bought the land from Bradley Griffin and Philip
Gage in 1856. At that time, there were several log houses and a sawmill in this locale. A
schoolhouse was built there in 1862. Gannetts son, Emmett, and daughter-in-law lived on and
ran the farm until 1897, when Emmett died. His wife, Margaret, retained the farm until 1912,
when she sold it to Asa Cranson. Emmetts brother Charles married Margarets sister Maria.
Their son Frank Ernest Gannett (born 1876) went on to found Gannett Co., Inc., the national
newspaper and media conglomerate (Quick 2006:182-183).

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In addition to the sawmills and farms, occupations on the island included teacher,
lighthouse keeper, and boat builder. The original schoolhouse at Gannetts Mill was replaced by
another school built at the mid-point of the island in the 1870s, with room for 35 students (Baker
1958; Robinson 1888).
The Galloo Island lighthouse was originally built in 1820, and consisted of a stone tower,
and a lantern of 21 lights and 15 patent lamps (Sackets Harbor Gazette nd). The light was
visible for 22 miles on the lake, but the view was obstructed by trees on the island. To improve
visibility of the lighthouse, the island was eventually deforested for lumber and for boat
construction on the island and at Henderson Bay. The lighthouse building was replaced a
number of times, possibly in 1826, as well as 1866 (Baker 1958). The 1866 lighthouse was
razed by fire a few years later and rebuilt.
Sailing schooners and scows were built at Galloo (Baker 1958). The Gills built Three
Brothers, Old Taylor, and Galloo. The Gannetts built the C.B. Gannett and the Monitor.
Shipwrecks were known to occur on the shoal at the head of the island, among them the
Ontario, during the Revolutionary War, the schooner M. Ballard, in 1866, Nellie Wilder a few
years later, and the freighter John C. Sharples in 1910.
A U.S. Coast Guard station was built on Gill Harbor in 1936 (Quick 2006:188-89). The
complex associated with the station included a dormitory, boathouse, and a 50-foot steel
lookout tower. The station also had a life boat, a pulling boat, and a line gun and signaling
equipment. A crew of seven was stationed there. Beginning in the 1940s, the station was closed
in winter and the men lived at Sackets Harbor. During the 1970s, the federal government
identified the station for closure, which occurred in 1981. Despite a lawsuit by the island
residents, who wanted to restrict access to the site and prevent public docking on the island, the
station was purchased by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in
1987.
During the 1860s more than 80 permanent residents lived on the island supporting a
school and two sawmills (Quick 2006:184). In 1917, only two farms were in operation on the
island, one owned by Captain Austin Phelps and one by the Gannett family. E.R and Rudolph
Gowing purchased the 1,400-acre Phelps farm at that time. By 1923, the entire island, except
for the lighthouse reservation, was purchased by Ontario Stock Farms, Inc. for the purpose of
raising sheep, foxes, turkey and pheasants and operating a recreational area. The operation
was not successful. Sometime in the 1930s or 1940s, Harold and Nelson Hovey purchased the
island and operated a sheep and cattle farm. A U.S. Coast Guard Station was constructed
during the late 1930s. The Coast Guard later took over operation of the lighthouse. The
lighthouse was abandoned in 1973 and the Coast Guard left its station ca. 1983. The island at
present is used for recreational hunting (Williams nd).
Town of Brownville. When formed in 1802 from the Town of Leyden, the Town of
Brownville included the present townships of Le Ray, Lyme, Pamelia, Orleans, and portions of
Alexandria (French 1860). The town attained its present size in 1821. The town was named
after the land agent for the town, Major General Jacob Brown, who was also the first settler,
arriving in 1799. He built a sawmill in 1800, and a gristmill the following year, both on Philomel
Creek. In 1800, Charles Welch and Otis Britton began cutting a road from Brownville to the
Chaumont ferry, but did not complete it (Emerson 1898; French 1860).
Early settlement of the town concentrated in the area around the present-day Village of
Brownville, along the Black River. Early settlers of Brownville included Samuel Britton, Nathan
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Welch, Calvin Britton, William Dillon, Capt. William Cole, Jonathan Webb, Stephen Gould,
William Webb, Leonard Wilson, John Cole, John Baxter, Isaac and Melvin Moffatt, Abner
Wilson, Frederick Avery and Stephen Stanley. Pioneers of the Pillar Point area were Peter and
Solomon Ingalls, Horatio Sprague, Eleazer Ball, Eliphalet Peck, Mr. Sherwin, Isaac Luther, Mr.
Burlingame, Daniel Ackerman, Jeremiah Carpenter, Jesse Stone, George Rounds, James
Douglass, Samuel Reed, Henry Adams, Luther Reed, Mr. Folsom, and Henry Ward. During the
War of 1812, a military hospital was located in the village, which also housed troops posted in
the area. Incorporated in 1828, the village had a population of 621 in 1860, and supported a
cotton factory, foundries, machine shops, and three churches. Other settlements in the town
included Dexter, which housed a large woolen factory, beginning in 1836, employing 75 people,
and had a population of 429 by 1860. Pillar Point on Lake Ontario contained 50 people
(Emerson 1898; French 1860).
The town recorded its highest number of inhabitants in the nineteenth century in 1850,
when 4,324 people were enumerated. Population of the town declined until 1890 when it began
to rebound. It contained 3,856 residents in 1920 (Emerson 1898; Sullivan 2004 [1927]). During
the late nineteenth century, settlement continued to concentrate in these same areas. The
Village of Brownville was then a station on the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad
(completed in 1852) and supported four paper and pulp-mills, two blacksmith shops, a foundry
and machine shop, a harness maker, and a livery stable. There were also two grocery stores, a
dry goods store, a general store, and a shoe shop. The village had telephone, telegraph, and
American Express offices, and a hotel as well as about 700 residents in 1898 (Child 1890;
Emerson 1898).
By 1898, Dexter had grown to 800 residents. Industries included three pulp mills, two
paper mills, two gristmills, a sawmill, a sash, door, and a blind factory, a wool-carding mill, a
wheelwright, and several blacksmiths. Other businesses included three general stores, a
number of grocery stores, meat markets, restaurants, a drug store, and several dressmakers.
There were also telegraph, telephone, and express offices (Child 1890; Emerson 1898). Smaller
hamlets included Limerick, with 75 people, Perch River, with about 40 residents, and Pillar
Point, with about 80 residents. Each had their own grocery stores or shops with telephone and
express services. In 2000, the Town of Brownville had a population of 5,843.
Town of Lyme. Located at Chaumonts Bay on Lake Ontario west of Penets Square, this
town is known for its sulphur springs and limestone quarries. Jonas Smith and Henry
Delamater, land agents for James Le Ray, were the first settlers in the present-day Town of
Lyme in 1801. Smith settled two miles north of the bay, but moved to the mouth of Chaumont
River in 1805. Other pioneers were Richard Esselstyn, T. Wheeler, Peter Pratt, and Jonas,
David, and Timothy Soper. When formed in 1818, the town included part of Clayton and Cape
Vincent. It reached its current size in 1849. During the first half of the nineteenth century,
commercial fishing and ship building were important industries. The Village of Chaumont had
306 residents in 1860, while Three Mile Bay had 295 (French 1860).
The pioneers on Point Peninsula included William Wilcox and either George H. Barnes or
Brittle Minor in 1817, although Nathan Persons (1812) and Nathaniel Warner (1814) may have
preceded them. Wilcox and Barnes were joined by Oliver Wilcox (his brother), William and
Lebbeus Hewitt, George A. and Daniel Barnes (Barness son), Daniel Holbrook and David W.
Angel prior to 1822 (Emerson 1898).
By 1890, the Village of Chaumont enumerated 700 inhabitants supported by three general
stores, two or three groceries, a drug store, blacksmith, shoe, harness, and dressmaking shops,
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a jewelry store, meat market, livery stables, cheese factories, two hotels, a telegraph,
telephone, and express offices. There were also lime and stone quarries, bending works, and
seed, hay, and grain produce stores (Child 1890).
Located on the R., W. & O. Railroad, Three Mile Bay had a population of 500 by the year
1890. The village consisted of a hotel, three general stores, two groceries, meat markets, two
hardware stores, a drug store, two furniture stores, a merchant tailor, and dressmakers and
shoemakers. There were also a restaurant and a billiard saloon. Farming and other businesses
were supported by blacksmith shops and carriage makers, a saw, shingle, and planing-mill,
gristmill, and coal dealers. The village had several factories, and a marble works. Infrastructure
resources included telegraph, telephone, and express offices (Child 1890). About 100 people
lived in the Hamlet of Wilcoxville in 1890. Located on Point Peninsula on Lake Ontario, the
community had two stores, a hotel, blacksmith, a telephone office, and a millinery shop (Child
1890).
The Town of Lyme recorded its highest number of inhabitants in the nineteenth century in
1845, when 6,018 people were enumerated. This census occurred prior to the towns final
reduction in size with the creation of the Town of Cape Vincent in 1849. Thereafter, the
population of the town began a slow decrease to 1,642 in 1920 (Emerson 1898; Sullivan 2004
[1927]). The town had a population of 2,015 in 2000.
Town of Cape Vincent. One of the earliest European settlements in Jefferson County
occurred in what is now the Town of Cape Vincent. Carleton Island served as a site of French
encampments during the seventeenth century and as a British fort during the American
Revolution (in derelict condition, the fort was captured during early stages of the War of 1812).
After the Revolution, William Richardson received a grant of land on the island as compensation
for his service in the army. Although Richardson never lived there, his grant passed through
several other non-resident owners until Charles Smyth acquired it. He, too, could not live on the
island since the British still occupied it. Matthew Wilson and William Guilland, however, claimed
to have located on Carleton Island in 1786 (Emerson 1898; Sullivan 2004 [1927]).
Smyths claim to his parcel was upheld by the New York legislature in 1821, which granted
him a patent for the remaining portion of the island (totaling approximately 1,279 acres). Despite
the legal wrangling, the island was occupied by squatters, who were timbering it. A survey
conducted in 1823 revealed that eight log houses and two cabins were present on the island
and 197 acres were under cultivation (Emerson 1898a).
Early residents of the island included Avery Smith and Abijah Lewis (lumberers), James
Estes (tavern-keeper), Mr. Shumway (teacher and Justice of the Peace), David Briggs (shoe
maker), and James Wood and Mr. Shaw (store keepers). Once the timber had been stripped
from the island, it became farmland. By 1898, non-resident persons [had] secured small
parcels in the most attractive localities and turned them into summer resorts; the permanent
occupants of the island [number no] more than half a dozen families (Emerson 1898a).
Named for Vincent Le Ray (son of James D. Le Ray, land proprietor), the Town of Cape
Vincent was formed from the Town of Lyme in April 1849 and included Grenadier, Fox and
Carleton islands. The Town of Cape Vincent, except the islands, was contained entirely within
Macombs Great Lot No 4. Captain Abijah Putnam was the earliest settler on the mainland in
1801 (at Port Putnam [later Millens Bay]), where he established a ferry to Canada. He later sold
his property to John Macomb and Peter Sternberg and left the area. The new owners laid out an
area to establish a village, but it failed to take root and was abandoned. About the same time,
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James D. Le Ray began a competing settlement at Gravelly Point two miles north, which soon
developed into the present-day Cape Vincent village (Emerson 1898a).
A state road linking Brownville to Port Putnam in 1804 provided access to the area and
drew Jonathan Cummings, Daniel Spinning, Elnathan Judd, Norman Wadsworth and John B.
Esselstyn (1803-1804). Other settlers included Eddy Cole, Caleb Loddell, Avery Smith, William
Hollenbeck, Charles Gillette, Orison and Ziruri Butterfield, Daniel Nichol, Abner and Barrett
Hubbard, Samuel Britton, Michael van Schaick, Dr. Sackett, Willard Ainsworth, Ira Hadley,
James Buckley, Oliver Pool, Abner and Philip Gaige, and Highland Millen, among others
(Emerson 1898a).
In 1812, a detachment of troops was stationed in the vicinity of Port Putnam-Cape Vincent
to defend the border, and sentinels were constantly on-guard for a surprise invasion. A hospital
and barracks were erected for troops in Cape Vincent during the war. Occasional British
incursions resulted in the burning of the barracks, Henry Ainsworths store, J.B. & R.M.
Esselstyns store, Major Esselstyns house (south of Port Putnam), several barns, two or three
small schooners, and lumber. In general, the economic development of the region was retarded
by the hostilities, as the war shut down all industry in the area, including lumbering (Emerson
1898a).
With the conclusion of the war, Le Ray encouraged and supported the immigration of
French and German refugees to the town and these groups continued coming at irregular
intervals during the nineteenth century. They settled in the central portion of the present town
(Emerson 1898a). Between 1820 and 1835, the population of the Town of Lyme (which during
this period also contained the present-day Town of Cape Vincent) more than doubled from
1,724 to 3,816. In 1845, the population was more than 6,000 (Emerson 1898a). The Town of
Cape Vincent was created in 1849, and in 1850, the town counted 3,044 residents. Cape
Vincent recorded its highest number of inhabitants in the nineteenth century in 1860, when
3,585 people were enumerated. Population of the town declined steadily through the remainder
of the nineteenth century into the early twentieth century. A total of 2,111 residents were
counted in 1920 (Emerson 1898a; Sullivan 2004 [1927]). The population of the Town of Cape
Vincent had rebounded to 3,345 in 2000.
As noted, settlement at what is now the Village of Cape Vincent was initiated by James Le
Ray ca. 1809. About that time, Eber Kelsey cleared 50 acres for Le Ray and erected a wharf, a
block [?], a dwelling house and a tavern and a large frame barn in the Gravelly Point area of
the town. In 1809, Richard Esselstyn built a house, which also served as his store, and Kelsey
operated a ferry to Canada that was reputedly used by smugglers. Later, Esselstyn partnered
with a Murray and soon began manufacturing staves. The earliest settlers included Holieb
Phelps, Richard Esselstyn, John Matthews, Mr. Nash, Eber Kelsey, Dr. Avery Ainsworth, and
Nathan Lake. By 1815, seven dwellings were purported to be located on the village site
(Emerson 1898a). As one might expect, the hostilities with the British caused many pioneers to
flee the area. However, by 1818, a customs house had been established at Cape Vincent.
Previously, Cape Vincent was a port-of-entry subordinate to Sackets Harbor.
Early industries in the village included lumbering, stave making and ark or flatboat
building. Boat building was an important enterprise until the late 1870s. The Cape Vincent
branch of the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad was completed to the village in 1852.
Cape Vincent was incorporated as a village in 1853 and reincorporated in 1871. The advent of
the railroad to the village laid the foundation for the emergence of the summer resort era above
the Thousand Islands after the Civil War. Charles Wilson erected a gristmill where Sackets
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boathouse was in the 1890s. Antoine Dwillard constructed a four-story stone gristmill where the
United States Fish Hatchery was constructed in 1898. Prior to purchase by the U.S. government
the building had been converted into a shingle and planing mill. A grain elevator was built in the
village near the railroad by Erastus K. Burnham, which he rebuilt after it burned (1894). At the
beginning of the twentieth century, numerous mercantile operations and small shops populated
the village. Market garden seed companies emerged as successful industries in the area during
the late nineteenth-early twentieth centuries, and included the A.B. Cleveland Seed company
(1885), the Cape Vincent Seed Co. (1890), and Mann & Co. Seed Company (flower) (Emerson
1898a).
At the end of the nineteenth century the town was characterized by four trading centers,
the Village of Cape Vincent, and three hamlets: Millens Bay (formerly Port Putnam), St.
Lawrence, and Rosiere. Port Putnam was largely abandoned after 1811 with the development
of Cape Vincent at Gravelly Point. In 1898, the community of Millens Bay supported a post
office, store, several church organizations, a union hall, and a summer hotel (Emerson 1898a).
St. Lawrence is located in the agricultural area in eastern part of the town. Stephen Johnson
operated a store in late 1820s. Originally identified as St. Oars Corner and later Rogers
Corners (after James Rogers tavern after 1830), St. Lawrence was called by other names until
after the Civil War. In 1898, the hamlet contained two stores, a hotel, a cheese factory and two
small shops, a church, and a school (Emerson 1989a). Rosiere, also in the central part of town,
was located on the Cape Vincent branch of the railroad in a farming area comprising French
and German settlers, and supported Peter Fraleys saw and gristmills, a hotel, one or two
stores, a school, and a Roman Catholic church (Emerson 1898a).
Containing approximately 1,290 acres, Grenadier Island is located southwest of the
mainland of Cape Vincent. Like Carleton Island to the north, Grenadier Island likely served as a
temporary camp during the numerous French incursions and picaresques to the region in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. During the Embargo period of the early nineteenth
century, the island was the host of smugglers trading between the United States and Canada.
After the boundary between the United States (i.e., New York State) and Canada was
established in 1819, Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, Joshua Waddington and Thomas L. Ogden
received a patent for the island in 1824. William and Gerardus Post bought the island in 1825,
and began selling lots to settlers who found squatters had erected dwellings on the island and
were timbering it (Emerson 1898a).
During the War of 1812, the island served as a rendezvous for American forces under the
command of Major General James Wilkinson as part of his poorly planned and executed
invasion of Upper Canada during the late fall of 1813. Wilkinsons troops were repulsed by a
much smaller British force at the Battle of Chryslers Farm in November 1813 and suffered
through a harsh winter at French Mills.
John Mitchell is regarded as the first settler of Grenadier Island. A squatter, Mitchell
constructed a cabin and started to farm after the war. By the mid-1820s, approximately fourteen
families were lumbering and farming portions of the island. Fishing was the primary occupation
of the islands settlers. The waters off the island enjoyed an excellent reputation for fishing
during the nineteenth century, which served as the foundation for its popularity as a summer
resort at the turn of the nineteenth century (Emerson 1898a; Casler 1906).
Fox Island is also included within the boundaries of the Town of Cape Vincent. Containing
approximately 257 acres, the island is east of Grenadier Island, between it and the mainland
(see Figure 1.5). Fox Island was also highly regarded for its fishing during the late nineteenth
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century into the twentieth century (Emerson 1898a). During the War of 1812, several ships
associated with Wilkinsons Army were wrecked off the island during an October 1813 storm.
Stephen Bedford was reputedly the first settler of Fox Island, albeit a short-lived one after the
war, and Furman Fish is regarded as the first owner of Fox Island (Casler 1906:131; Bedford
1998; Merchant 1946). In the twentieth century, the island was owned for a time by partnership
of New York State politicians that included one-time governor Horace White. Buffalo-born, White
was a state senator, and, after election as Lieutenant Governor, finished the final three months
of Charles Evans Hughess term as New York Governor (1910).

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3.0 Architectural Survey

3.1

METHODOLOGY

Panamerican initiated an Historic Building Survey (Phase IB) of a ten-mile visual Area of
Potential Effect (APE) around all project components of the proposed Hounsfield Wind Farm
Project according to Guidelines for Wind Farm Development Cultural Resources Survey Work
(NYSHPO 2006). The Guidelines typically prescribe a five-mile visual APE around project
components that requires investigation. For this architectural investigation, the study area is
defined as the ten-mile-radius extending from the perimeter edge of the proposed Hounsfield
Wind Farm (see Figure 1.3). Within this area, both direct and indirect visual effects are
assessed that may cause changes in the character or use of cultural properties. Panamerican
generated the viewshed analysis map of the ten-mile visual APE (or viewshed), which is based
solely on topography (see Appendix A: Project Map). As such, additional screening may be
afforded by structures and vegetation. The projects ten-mile APE (i.e., viewshed) spans
portions of the towns of Henderson, Hounsfield, Lyme, and Cape Vincent (i.e., Fox and
Grenadier Islands) in Jefferson County. Although not within a ten-mile radius, the historic Village
of Sackets Harbor was also surveyed and included as part of the APE.
The ten-mile APE historic building survey was conducted in consultation with NYSHPO.
The following list includes the objectives of the architectural investigation of the Hounsfield Wind
farm (Mr. John Bonafide, NYSHPO, personal communication, 2008).

Architectural survey of the project topographical viewshed within a ten-mile


radius of the proposed project footprint on Galloo Island.
Architectural survey of the project topographical viewshed within the historic
Village of Sackets Harbor. Note the village is not located within the ten-mile APE;
it is included in this survey because of potential visual impacts.
Archival research for islands within the APE, to which access may not be
possible, at Jefferson County libraries and historical societies. These islands
include Grenadier, Fox, and Stony islands.
Determine if there are potential National Register Eligible (NRE) properties (i.e.,
on private property) that face away from public roads where normal photography
is limited to the right-of-way and requires permission for property access.

Panamerican consulted with NYSHPO National Register & Survey Territory staff at
Peebles Island in the autumn of 2008 to further discuss the project and the ten-mile APE survey
methodology. Relevant cultural resource investigation reports and NYS Building Inventory
Forms on file at NYSHPO were also accessed.

3.2

ARCHITECTURAL INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN THE TEN-MILE APE

Prior to initiation of the ten-mile APE survey, the State Preservation Historical Information
Network Exchange (SPHINX; NYSHPO nd) was reviewed to identify previously recorded
historic and architectural resources within the study area. National Register Inventory Forms
were accessed from the State and National Registers of Historic Places (S/NRHP) web pages.
Locations of National Register-Listed (NRL) properties and their boundaries were retrieved from
NYSHPOs Geographic Information System for Archaeology and the National Register. A
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summary of the National Register status of historic resources within the study area is presented
below. (See Section 3.4 for a table listing NRL and NRE properties in the ten-mile APE and
project viewshed.)
The proposed project is located in Jefferson County, in the western North Country region
of New York State on the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Archival research for the overall historic
context of the study area focused on county and township histories and historic plat maps to
uncover information about patterns of settlement, agricultural activities, and transportation
networks that were historically vital to this region of New York State.

3.3 NATIONAL REGISTER CRITERIA


For a building or structure to be considered eligible for listing in the National Register of
Historic Places, it must be evaluated within its historic context and shown to be significant for
one or more of the four Criteria of Evaluation (36 CFR 60) as outlined in How to Apply the
National Register Criteria for Evaluation (NRHP Bulletin 15, NPS 2002). All structures examined
as part of this investigation were identified and evaluated in the field with reference to these
criteria:

Criterion A: (Event) Properties that are associated with events that have
made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or

Criterion B: (Person) Properties that are associated with the lives of


persons significant in our past; or

Criterion C: (Design/Construction) Properties that embody the distinctive


characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent
the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent
a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack
individual distinction; or

Criterion D: (Information Potential) Properties that have yielded, or may be


likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history [NRHP Bulletin
15, referencing 36 CFR Part 60].

A property is not eligible if it cannot be related to a particular time period or cultural group
and thereby lacks any historic context within which to evaluate the importance of the cultural
resource. The cultural property (e.g., historic structure or landscape) must also retain the
historic integrity of those features necessary to convey its significance. Seven aspects or
qualities of integrity recognized by the National Register are location, design, setting, materials,
workmanship, feeling, and association (NPS 2002). Actual determinations of eligibility are made
by the Field Services Bureau of NYSHPO.

3.4 HISTORIC BUILDING REVIEW BY MUNICIPALITY


The proposed project is located on Galloo Island in eastern Lake Ontario. Its ten-mile APE
encompasses areas along the mainland in Jefferson County. The study area includes portions
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of land in the following towns: Henderson, Brownville, and Lyme in addition to two islands in the
Town of Cape Vincent (Grenadier and Fox Islands). Other islands encompassed by the study
area include Little Galloo Island and Calf Island in the Town of Hounsfield, and Association
Island in the Town of Henderson. The study area also includes the Village of Sackets Harbor in
the Town of Hounsfield. As noted in the methodology, Sackets Harbor is not within the ten-mile
APE; it is the only mainland section of Hounsfield of concern for this report.
The study area includes narrow sections of eastern Lake Ontario shoreline, which consists
of sparsely populated former agricultural land as well as lakeshore cottage communities ranging
in age from the late nineteenth century through present. Overall, the topography is relatively flat
as typified by the eastern Lake Ontario shoreline. The landscape within the study area
embodies the regions distinctive historical development and exhibits both rural coastal
landscape as found in Lyme, which reflects the agricultural heritage of the North Country with its
backdrop of existing farms and farm outbuildings, and that of the shoreline communities with
their predominant lakeshore cottages and recreational character of the eastern Lake Ontario
and Thousand Islands region.
Historic building stock within the study corridor is also representative of the regions rural
development. The study area contains examples of farmsteads dating from the early nineteenth
century through the early twentieth century. Although many of these farms are no longer active,
intact farm complexes with large tracts of land are situated within the study corridor. Leading
agricultural crops at present include forages, silage corn, and grain corn. These crops once
dominated the largely flat agricultural land of the study area.
The following is a background summary of each municipality within the ten-mile survey
corridor. It includes a preliminary overview of the SPHINX database (NYSHPO nd) and is
organized by municipality from north to south, beginning with Jefferson County. Figures 3.1
through 3.4 show the locations of NRL and NRE properties in and in immediate proximity to the
ten-mile corridor for the proposed project. It is organized by Minor Civil Division (MCD). The
summary of SPHINX listings includes only buildings, structures and cemeteries.
Seven individual NRL properties, one NRL Historic District, and two NRE properties are
within the project viewshed. One of the seven individual NRL properties is also within the NRL
Sackets Harbor Village Historic District. Table 3.1 provides a list of NRL and NRE structures
(and historic districts) within the ten-mile APE. Note Table 3.1 lists three individual NRL
properties that are not in the project viewshed, but are within the 10-Mile APE radius. Table 3.1
also contains the NYSHPOs Unique Site Number (USN) as well as the NRHP number for listed
properties.

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Table 3.1. NRL and NRE Structures (and Historic Districts) within the Ten-mile APE.
Property Name

Address
(Description/Location)

Abandoned Farm

Grenadier Island Road #3,


Grenadier Island

Association Island

Town/Village

NRHP
Status

NRHP #/USN

NRE

USN
04505.000160

Association Island, Henderson


Henderson (t)
Harbor/Lake Ontario

NRE

USN
04509.000093

Galloo Island Light


House Complex

Galloo Island

Hounsfield (t)

NRL

90NR01133

Elisha Camp House*

310 General Smith Drive

Hounsfield (t)/
Sackets Harbor (v)

Union Hotel*

West Main and Ray streets

Hounsfield (t)/
Sackets Harbor (v)

Cape Vincent (t)

Sackets Harbor Village Contains 156 properties in the Hounsfield (t)/


Historic District
center of Sackets Harbor.
Sackets Harbor (v)

90NR01186/
90NR01190*
Not in project
viewshed
NRL
90NR01187/
90NR01190*
Partially in
project
NRL (HD)
viewshed
90NR01188
NRL

Black River Bay, Sackets


Harbor

Hounsfield (t)/
Sackets Harbor (v)

NRL

90NR01189

Black River Bay, Sackets


Harbor
South Shore Road, Point
Peninsula

Hounsfield (t)/
Sackets Harbor (v)

NRL

90NR01190

Lyme (t)

NRL

90NR02997

Angell Farm

South Shore, Point Peninsula Lyme (t)

NRL

90NR02996

Lance Farm

South Shore, Point Peninsula


Lyme (t)
(Chaumount)

NRL

90NR02998

Madison Barracks
Sackets Harbor
Battlefield
Getman Farmhouse

Not in project
viewshed
(90NR03007)
Not in project
United Methodist
South Shore Road, Point
Lyme (t)
NRL
viewshed
Church
Peninsula (Chaumount)
(90NR03008)
Key: NRL= National Register Listed (Individual); NRL (HD) National Register Listed Historic District;
NRE(I)= National Register Eligible (Individual); t= Town; v= Village; h= Hamlet; NR=National Register;
USN= NY SHPO assigned Unique Site Number; * = Individual NRL Property also in NRL Sackets Harbor
Historic District
Union Hall

South Shore Road, Point


Peninsula (Chaumount)

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3.4.1 Town of Brownville (MCD 04504), Jefferson County. Only a small portion of the
westernmost section of Brownville on Pillar Point is located in the ten-mile APE study area. The
entirety of this small area is in the project viewshed. This discussion focuses on Pillar Point, a
peninsula surrounded by Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, and Black River Bay.
The landscape of Pillar Point is mixed rural with scattered farmsteads and seasonal (and
year round) lakeshore cottages. The topography is relatively flat as typified by the eastern Lake
Ontario shoreline. County Route (CR) 59 is the main road on the peninsula and is a perimeter
road around Pillar Point offering scenic views of its surrounding waterways. No NRL or NRE
properties are located in the ten-mile APE study area section of the Town of Brownville.
Pillar Point is the location of an isolated nineteenth-century hamlet on the north shore of
Black River bay, in the extreme western part of the town, opposite Sackets Harbor. Early
settlersas well as farmers into the twentieth centuryexploited the lands rich and productive
soil for agriculture. By 1890, Pillar Point had a church, a few shops, and about two dozen
residences (Child 1890). In the early to mid-twentieth century, seasonal lakeshore cottages
emerged on the Point. The section of the Point in the study area largely reflects the later
twentieth-century seasonal development and includes clusters of cottages along the shoreline
on CR 59.
One notable exception is the Samuel Read House, an early nineteenth-century (ca. 1827)
native limestone farmhouse located at the western end of the Point at 20669 South Shore Road
(CR 59) (Photograph 3.1). The Samuel Read property was originally associated with Asahel
Burlingame, one of the early settlers and landholders of Brownville (Lane 1951). Based on a
n

Photograph 3.1. Samuel Read House, an early (ca. 1827) stone farmhouse, 20669
South Shore Road (CR 59), Pillar Point, Brownville (Panamerican 2008).
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review of early town maps, it appears the 39-acre parcel on which the house stands suggests
that the construction of the house followed within a year of two after Samuel Read purchased
the plot from the Mechanics Fire Insurance Company for $141.54 on August 13, 1827 (Lane
1951). Current owners have placed a date sign of 1827 above the front door. The structure is
documented on the 1855 and 1864 atlas maps with Samuel Read. The Read House is a small,
side-gabled, three-bay wide by one-bay deep building featuring limestone masonry construction
with coursed cut-stone blocks of varying sizes. Other masonry details include heavy stone
lintels and quoins. The building has a modern lesser one-story partially enclosed porch on its
side elevation and a rear frame addition. Its Craftsman-era enclosed porch as documented in a
ca. 1951 photograph of the house (Lane 1951; not reproduced here) has been removed. The
original window sash and exterior roof material have been replaced.
The Samuel Read House is architecturally significant for its association with Jefferson
Countys nineteenth-century stone masonry construction tradition. Jefferson County has a rich
supply of blue limestone, which provided an excellent building material for early settlers (see
Bonney 1985). With access to a local limestone source, both stone Federal and Greek Revivalstyle buildings were constructed throughout the county. Brownville has several largely intact
examples of nineteenth-century stone masonry buildings. The Samuel Read house contributes
to the rich nineteenth-century stone architectural heritage of the town and region.
3.4.2 Town of Cape Vincent (MCD 04505), Jefferson County. The ten-mile APE study
area encompasses three islands in the Town of Cape Vincent: Grenadier, Little Grenadier, and
Fox islands (Figure 3.1). A small section of the mainland is within the ten-mile radius but the few
structures located there are not within the viewshed. Grenadier Island is almost entirely within
the ten-mile APE viewshed, except for along its northern shore. Fox Island is completely within
the ten-mile APE viewshed. This study only addresses Grenadier (and Little Grenadier) and Fox
islands, which are located in northeastern Lake Ontario (see Sections 4.4 and 4.5 for a more
detailed discussion). The current study was limited to archival research. No site visits or
architectural investigations were conducted on Grenadier, Little Grenadier, or Fox islands.
Grenadier and Fox islands have not been formally surveyed to date, and no NRL
properties have been identified on these islands. Grenadier Island has one NRE property, which
was one of two historic resources identified as part of an architectural investigation conducted
for the St. Lawrence Wind Project (New York State Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic
Preservation [OPRHP] No. 06PR06711 [see TRC 2008]). The St. Lawrence Wind Project fivemile APE encompassed only the northeastern half of Grenadier Island. The Abandoned Farm
on Grenadier Island Road #3 (USN 04505.000160; TRC 2008) was determined NRE under
Criterion A for its association with the development of Grenadier Island and its once prosperous
agricultural community (Bonafide 2008). The other property, the Uhlein House at 2533
Grenadier Island Road #1 (USN 04505.00016061; TRC 2008), was determined Not eligible.

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Figure 1.1. Location of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island in the Town of
Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New York (USGS 15 Quadrangles: Cape Vincent, NY 1985
and Pulaski, NY 1986).
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Figure 3.1. Detail of ten-mile APE viewshed showing Stony Island, Grenadier and
Fox Islands, and Town of Lyme (USGS 15 Quadrangles: Cape Vincent, NY 1985,
Pulaski, NY 1986).
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3.4.3 Town of Henderson (MCD 04509), Jefferson County. The ten-mile APE study
area encompasses the western section of the Town of Henderson, inclusive of Stony Point and
almost all of Henderson Bay and Harbor (see Figure 1.1). The study area roughly follows Stony
Creek and extends northeasterly to Henderson Harbor. Note that the Village of Henderson is
not in the ten-mile APE study area. Stony Point is an irregular-shaped peninsula with a small
chain of islands branching off its northeastern tip (Snowshoe, Association, Six Point islands; see
Section 4.3.6). The main route to Watertown along Lake Ontario is New York State Route [NY]
3, which has a north-northeasterly alignment through Henderson. It follows the curvature of the
southeastern shoreline of Henderson Bay as it exits the town into Hounsfield. A small stretch of
NY 3 is within the study area. Stony Point is mostly in the project viewshed except for its eastern
shoreline stretching from Snowshoe Bay to Henderson Bay. Only the northern half of the
eastern shore of Henderson Harbor is within the project viewshed (see Sections 4.3.5 and
4.3.6). No NRL or NRE properties are located in the Henderson section of the ten-mile APE
study area.
Stony Point is a sparsely populated, flat peninsula with small communities of seasonal
cottages along stretches of its Lake Ontario shore and its associated bays (e.g., Ray Bay,
Gravely Bay, Whites Bay, and Henderson Bay). Each community on Stony Point has its own
road that branches off either Military or Stony Creek roads. Stony Point Lighthouse (built 1869;
USN 04509.000011 [no NRHP determination]) is prominently sited on the southwest corner of
the tip of Stony Point at the end of Light House Road (3415 Lighthouse Road see Section
4.3.1). The first lighthouse was constructed on the same site in 1837. The brick masonry tower
stands 73 feet (22.2 meters) tall and has an attached keeper's quarters. Stony Point Lighthouse
was removed from service in 1945. It is a privately owned residence situated on two acres of
land with over 600 ft (180 m) of shoreline.
The Town of Henderson has a rich architectural heritage with many extant examples of
some of the earliest buildings in the region. Similar to other towns in Jefferson County,
Henderson has an outstanding collection of early nineteenth-century examples of residential
buildings constructed of locally quarried limestone (all of which are located outside the ten-mile
APE study area [see Bonney 1985]). These surviving stone houses represent a distinct type and
period in the historical architectural development of the region. They share similar execution of
materials, craftsmanship, stylistic detail (Georgian and Federal styles), plan, massing and form.
The town has one stone building listed in the NRHP, which is not located in the study areathe
Cyrus Bates House at 7185 NY 3 (02NR04950; Rhodes 2002). The Bates House represents not
only modest Federal period residential architecture, but also early nineteenth-century
construction techniques in Jefferson County. Another excellent example of a Federal stone
house associated with one of the earliest settlers in the town is the Thomas Dobson House (ca.
1820; USN 04509.000002 [no NRHP determination]) at 12035 Harbor Road, which is not in the
study area. (See Sections 4.3.5 and 4.3.6 for a discussion of the section of the Town of
Henderson within the ten-mile APE study area.)
3.4.4 Town of Hounsfield (MCD 04510), Jefferson County. The proposed Hounsfield
Wind Farm is located on Galloo Island in the Town of Hounsfield (see Section 4.1). This historic
building survey only addresses the Galloo Islands, which include Big and Little Galloo (see
Section 4.1.1), and Stony Island (see Figure 3.1; Section 4.2). No mainland sections of
Hounsfield are included in the ten-mile APE study area, except for Sackets Harbor (see below
Section 3.4.5).

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Galloo Island contains one individual NRL property, Galloo Island Light House
(90NR01133), which is also a component of the NRL Hounsfield (Town) Multiple Resource
Area. The lighthouse was previously documented as part of the Historic American Engineering
Record (HAER). No NRE properties are located on the Galloo islands. A Stony Island
Lighthouse on Stony Island (USN 04510.0000002) with no NRHP evaluation is listed in SPHINX
for Hounsfield (NYSHPO nd). However, a review of historical maps, aerial photographs, and
local histories do not suggest the existence of a lighthouse on Stony Island. It is possible the
lighthouse reported on Stony Island is actually Stony Point Lighthouse on Stony Point in the
Town of Henderson.
3.4.5 Village of Sackets Harbor (MCD 04558), Town of Hounsfield, Jefferson County.
The center of the Village of Sackets Harbor is located approximately 13 miles (21 km) northeast
from the northeastern tip of Galloo Island, the location of the proposed project. The village is a
non-contiguous location within the historic building survey APE; it is the only mainland portion of
the Town of Hounsfield considered in this study. Sackets Harbor is included in this study at the
request of NYSHPO because of concern over potential visual impacts from the construction of the
proposed project. Almost the entire municipal boundary of Sackets Harbor is within the project
viewshed except for the shoreline around the harbor, West Main Street, and land along Mill Creek
(Figure 3.2).
Sackets Harbor formed on the southeastern edge of Black River Bay. This natural, deep
inlet influenced the villages historical development as a strategic military base and commercial
shipping port. In spite of its excellent harbor, along with the presence of a U.S. Army post from
1812 to 1946, the village never developed a large commercial or industrial base. The height of
development in Sackets Harbor occurred in the first half of the nineteenth century. During that
time, the village prospered as a major military installation and lake port. As military tensions with
Great Britain and Canada eased after the 1850s, requiring less of a presence by the military, the
villages commercial shipping industry ultimately succumbed to the increased competition by the
railroad industry (Harwood and Osterhout 1983).
Recognizing the advantages of the natural harbor and local timber resources, Augustus
Sacket settled the area in 1801 where he constructed the areas first sawmill. Within a year the
village and surrounding Town of Hounsfield grew to thirty families. Elisha Camp, Sackets
brother-in-law, came to the village in 1804, constructing his own mills and quarries. Profits rose
for village sawmills and asheries as trade with Canada grew. By 1807, however, increasing
tension between the United States and Great Britain began to take its toll on the lucrative
partnership, and was stopped altogether with the U.S. Congress passing the Embargo Act
(1807; amended in 1808 to restrict inland commerce, specifically United States-Canadian
trade). Sackets Harbor began its military history as a result of the passage of the Embargo Act,
which caused smuggling to take place on Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. To combat
increasing smuggling activities, the first American warship, the brig Oneida, and a contingent of
infantry and artillery were stationed at Sackets Harbor.
Following the outbreak of the War of 1812, Sackets Harbor became the center of United
States naval and military activity in the upper St. Lawrence River Valley, and for all of Lake
Ontario. Shipwrights, seamen, soldiers, settlers, and camp followers congregated into the then
wilderness community that Augustus Sacket had settled only a few years earlier. The entire
U.S. Lake Ontario fleet was built or refitted for military use and was stationed at Sackets
Harbor and thousands of troops manned the fortifications surrounding the village to protect the
fleet. Surrounding woodlands supplied ample quantities of timber for frigates built in the
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Figure 3.2. Sackets Harbor with project viewshed and NRL properties indicated (USGS
Sackets Harbor 1961).
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bustling shipyards as well as for barracks, blockhouses, and defense works to protect the
harbor. In July 1812 and again in May 1813, British and Canadian forces attacked the
protective ring of fortifications encircling the harbor. The Americans successfully defended the
harbor and its shipyards. In the decade after the war, the original fortifications were dismantled.
The importance of a northern military base was reaffirmed by the Army in 1816, when the
federal government established the Madison Barracks military installation. The U.S. Navy would
continue to maintain its naval station until the 1950s. The harbor too remained an active commercial
shipping port into the late nineteenth century due largely to the business and employment generated
by these federal installations. In addition, agricultural crops were an important part of the Sackets
Harbor economy, partially due to the demands from Madison Barracks.
Three factors contributed to Sackets Harbors decline during the middle of the nineteenth
century: improved relations between the United States and Canada following the Patriots War
(1837-1840), which negated the need for a strong naval post; the move to centralize U.S.
military posts after the Civil War, which threatened the existence of Madison Barracks; and the
advancing railroad industry into the north country, which competed with lake shipping. The
villages original rail line, first built in 1853 was abandoned in 1862. By the time the new rail line
reached the village in 1875, most rail traffic had been routed through Watertown, thus
eliminating the village as an important destination. In 1892, the village was given an economic
boost with the expansion of Madison Barracks. The program allowed for a continued economic
base for the Town of Hounsfield and Sackets Harbor would become a summer resort for military
families. The village maintained a fairly stable existence until the 1950s when it entered a period
of decline after the U.S. government declared Madison Barracks surplus in 1946. Additionally,
the New York Central Railroad line was abandoned in 1950 and the Navy left in 1956. Today
the basic layout of the village remains the same as when it was initially settled and the
community continues to reflect its predominantly residential heritage in its wide tree-lined streets
and spacious nineteenth-century homes. Recent expansion has taken place on the three exit
routes from the village but the central portion has retained much of its early character and scale.
The portion of Sackets Harbor in the project viewshed contains the NRL Sackets Harbor
Village Historic District and three individual NRL properties (Elisha Camp House [90NR01186];
Madison Barracks [90NR01189]; and Sackets Harbor Battlefield [90NR1190] (see Figure 3.2). The
NRL Union Hotel, which is also in the NRL Sackets Harbor Village Historic District, is not within the
project viewshed. One other NRL property adjacent to Sackets Harbor is the Shore Farm
(90NR01141) located on Military Road east of Mill Creek and the village limits (not in the study
area). The NRL Dr. Samuel Guthrie House is located outside the village (not in the study area).
The central core of Sackets Harbor, with 156 properties on 71 acres, constitutes the NRL
Sackets Harbor Historic District (90NR01188; see Harwood and Osterhout 1983). The district
encompasses most of the Village of Sackets Harbor; an excellent and largely intact example of
a predominantly residential nineteenth century village in Northern New York (see Figures 3.2
and 3.3; Photographs 3.2 through 3.8). The northern half of the district, which includes West
Main Street and the harbor, is not in the project viewshed. Ten of twelve streets in the district
contain private residences, which are interspersed with one park, two museums, two churches,
and two early industrial buildings (now used for other purposes). A two-block area of West Main
Street in the center of town comprises the village business district, where private homes are
tucked between the two- and three-story commercial buildings. The village dock and boat
launch are adjacent to the commercial center of the village; it provides direct access to Navy
Point Marina (Photographs 3.7 and 3.8) and the harbor. The harbor forms the northern
boundary of the district. Two NRL properties, Sackets Harbor Battlefield State Historic Site and
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Madison Barracks, flank the western and northeastern edges of the district. The eastern
boundary abuts areas of predominantly modern construction though a small number of
architecturally significant structures can be found. Delineating the southern edge are open
fields, the villages central school and a residential area that has little historical or architectural
relationship to the district.

Figure 3.3. Sackets Harbor Historic District Boundaries, Sackets Harbor (Harwood and
Osterhout 1983).
A large number of buildings within the historic district exhibit Federal or Greek Revival
influence, which reflects the villages overall period of significance. Other styles in the district
include Italianate, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Bungalow, and Vernacular. The commercial
district on West Main Street displays a wide range of building styles including Federal, Greek
Revival, and Italianate. The district has several significant individual buildings such as the
Augustus Sacket House; the George Tisdale house; the Dennis Brooks House; the Mill; and the
Commodore Woolsey House. Two imposing Federal structures, the Union Hotel (90NR01187
[Photograph 3.6]) and the Elisha Camp House (90NR01186), are both contributing elements to
the district, as well as individual NRL properties.
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Photograph 3.2. Southern end of West Main Street, Sackets Harbor Historic
District, facing north (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.3. Looking north on West Main Street, Sackets Harbor Historic
District (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.4. One of West Main Streets commercial buildings, Sackets Harbor
Historic District (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.5. Christ Episcopal Church at 207


East Main Street, Sackets Harbor Historic
District (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.6. The former Union Hotel, West Main Street, now the Seaway Trail
Discovery Center, Sackets Harbor Historical District (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.7. Sackets Harbors Navy Point Marina from boat launch on West
Main Street, facing northeast (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.8. Boats in dry dock at Navy Point Marina, Sackets Harbor
(Panamerican 2008).
As the earliest and most historically significant center in Hounsfield, Sackets Harbor is
mentioned in the NRL Town of Hounsfield Multiple Resource Area ([MRA]; 90MRA00033)
nomination form to provide an appropriate context for the MRAs candidate properties (see
Bonafide 1989). The Hounsfield MRA nomination includes 13 architecturally or historically
significant resources located throughout Hounsfield; all of which are not within the current study
area. Resources in the MRA represent the towns growth from its early nineteenth century
settlement into the early twentieth century. Two NRL properties are located near the study area
and are included in the Hounsfield MRA. The Dr. Samuel Guthrie House (90NR01140) is one of
the earliest extant houses in the town (ca. 1818). It is the earliest example of brick construction
in Hounsfield outside Sackets Harbor and features Federal design and architectural elements.
The house is located just outside the ten-mile survey boundary. Dr. Guthrie was the inventor of
chloroform. Shore Farm (90NR01141), which is adjacent to the study area to the north, is also
included in the MRA. A Colonial Revival-inspired estate, the land was the original site of
Jefferson Countys first gristmill (see Figure 3.2).
The NRL Sackets Harbor Battlefield (90NR01190) encompasses approximately 260 acres
of land stretching from the harbor southward along bluffs overlooking Black River Bay, including
Horse Island (see Watts 1974; see Figures 3.2 and 3.4; Photographs 3.9 through 3.15). The
historic property includes the Naval Station site, the Fort Tompkins site, remnants of Fort
Kentucky, and portions of the 1813 battlefield (see American Forts Network 2003). New York
State owns and operates the northeastern 26 acres surrounding Navy Point as a State Historic
Site. The battlefield contains the Commandants House (ca. 1847-1849, see Photograph 3.12),
the Lieutenants House (ca. 1849, see Photograph 3.12), a stable, an icehouse (see Photograph
3.11), a dug well, a reconstructed picket fence, and boardwalk (all part of the mid-nineteenthcentury naval station), and a stone War of 1812 monument (see Photographs 3.10, 3.14 and
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Figure 3.4. Sackets Harbor fortifications, ca. 1814, all part of the Sackets Harbor
Battlefield property (American Forts Network 2003).

Photograph 3.9. Sackets Harbor Battlefield from West Washington Street


(Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 3.10. Site of Fort Tompkins overlooking Lake Ontario. Note white stone
obelisk, a War of 1812 Monument, at far left between trees (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.11. Sail Loft and Icehouse (left) and Navy Point Marina from
Sackets Harbor Battlefield. The two structures at right are part of the Marina
complex (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.12. The Commandants (left), and Lieutenants (right) houses


(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.13. Harp House and associated surviving farm structures that
occupied a portion of Sackets Harbor Battlefield, ca. 1820-1867 (Panamerican
2008).
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Photograph 3.14. View of Lake Ontario from Sackets Harbor Battlefield. The
commemorative War of 1812 monument was erected in 1913 (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.15. The grounds of Fort Tompkins (Panamerican 2008).

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3.15). Other surviving structures include a farmhouse, barn and garage associated with a farm
that occupied a large part of the battlefield from ca. 1820 to 1867 (see Photographs 3.9 and
3.13). The battlefield is archaeologically sensitive as it includes the ruins of two War of 1812
forts, a later fortification, and the site of a large wooden cantonment. The ground also marks the
site of two War of 1812 battles. A commemorative obelisk, located within the site of Fort
Tompkins, was erected in 1913 (see Photographs 3.10, 3.14 and 3.15).
The site of the naval station was dominated by Fort Tompkins, a 20-gun, stone-core
earthworks fortification and its attendant barracks and blockhouse. Located adjacent to the U.S.
Naval Shipyard, the fort was first built in 1812 (American Fort Networks 2003). The Smith
Cantonment, a palisaded complex with four blockhouses, served as the garrison area. Both the
blockhouse of the 16-gun Fort Virginia and the earthworks of Fort Volunteer (later the site of
Madison Barracks) were constructed by 1813. To strengthen the towns defenses after the
second British attack in 1813, palisaded earthworks (Fort Kentucky), a stone tower (Fort
Chauncey), Fort Stark (earthworks), and a ring of earthworks that connected them with Forts
Virginia and Volunteer were added. Fort Volunteer would become Fort Pike. An additional
garrison post, Pike Cantonment was built adjacent to Fort Pike. The battlefield itself lies to the
south. A series of Army barracks occupied the central park area of the battleground throughout
the War of 1812. At the time of the British attack in 1813, this area had just been cleared of
timber for ships that were under construction in the harbor. Further clearing took place when
Fort Kentucky and its attendant outworks were erected. The fort was leveled after the war and
the land was used for farming. Parts of the existing frame farmhouse were probably begun
around this time but the structure as a whole seems to have been completed ca. 1840 (see
Photographs 3.9 and 3.13). None of the original outbuildings have survived intact although a
portion of the old barn may have been incorporated into the existing twentieth-century structure.
A portion of the original acorn finial paddock fence is still extant.
A portion of the old battlefield was donated to the Jefferson County Historical Society and
the Village of Sackets Harbor for use as a park in 1886. It was transferred to New York State in
1933. In 1967, the New York State Historic Trust began acquiring additional land from the
former Naval Station and the battlefield area as part of a proposed historical program at the site.
As a site which played a major part in the history of the States role in the War of 1812 and
subsequent operations pertaining to international relations throughout the nineteenth century,
the battlefield holds great potential for architectural, historical, and archaeological significance.
As the struggle for American independence progressed, a number of fortifications were
built along the American shores of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Strategically
located to aid in the fight for the tenuously held northern border, the NRL Madison Barracks
(90NR01189) was established as a permanent military station and was to become a principal
link in the American chain of defense (see Figures 3.2 and 3.5; Photographs 3.16 through 3.24).
Originally built on a 39-acre parcel of land on the outskirts of the Village of Sackets Harbor, the
property now encompasses 113 acres on the shore of Black River Bay (Brooke 1974). With the
War of 1812 over, maintaining the U.S.-Canadian boundary in this part of the North Country
became more of a focus.
In anticipation of the expansion needed to carry out such a large objective, General Jacob
Brown ordered the construction of Madison Barracks in 1815, which incorporated the site of Fort
Pike (originally Fort Volunteer), the eastern anchor of the Sackets Harbor defensive line
(American Forts Network nd). Named in honor of President James Madison, the installation was
designed by William Smith. Major Samuel Brown, General Browns brother, oversaw the posts
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Figure 3.5. Madison Barracks after ca. 1890 (American Forts Network nd).

Photograph 3.16. The southeastern perimeter of the Parade Ground at Madison


Barracks. Note the rusticated stone water tower (ca. 1892) at far left (Panamerican
2008).

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Photograph 3.17. The front of Stone Row, original Officers Quarters, built in
1816, taken from the Parade Ground (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.18. Commemorative monument at Madison Barracks Burial


Grounds (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.19. Original Post Hospital constructed of limestone in 1816. Note


iron balcony in middle bay of second floor (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.20. Enlisted Mens Mess Hall and Barracks Building, built ca. 1892,
located on the northwestern rim of the Parade Ground (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.21. Enlisted Mens Barracks (most likely Barracks B), located east
of original Post Hospital. Built ca. 1890s-early 1900s (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.22. Former Post Headquarters Building (left) and the former Post
Exchange and Gymnasium Building (right) (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 3.23. Looking east down Officers Row, located along southeastern
perimeter of Parade Grounds, east of Stone Row (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 3.24. Stone Water Tower and rear of Officers Row taken from Polo
Grounds (Panamerican 2008).
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construction. The series of limestone buildings, constructed between 1816 and 1819 and built
around a square parade ground, included two rows of soldiers barracks; the officers quarters
(Stone Row), which were separated by a Sally Port; and a hospital (see Photographs 3.16, 3.17
and 3.19). In response to the so-called Patriots War in Canada, additional buildings were built
in the late 1830s. The base was abandoned from 1852 to 1861 and then became a training post
for incoming recruits. In 1879, a fire destroyed a portion of Stone Row, the original officers
quarters and other buildings. The installation doubled in size with a new intensive expansion
program during the 1890s. By the close of the nineteenth century, new barracks, officers
quarters, administration building, hospital, and mess hall were in place (see Photographs 3.20,
3.21, 3.23 and 3.24). The installation would become a major Field Artillery garrison post and
had training facilities and a firing range at Stony Point and Pine Camp (later Camp Drum).
During World War II, Madison Barracks accommodated 45 officers and 1,040 enlisted men.
Capital improvements to the buildings would total $1 million. But by 1946, the government
decided to abandon the fort moving the base to Camp Drum which was later to become Fort
Drum.
A total of 80 structures, including the Mill Creek Bridge, built in 1812, are listed as being
present on the grounds throughout its more than 150-year history. Surviving structures exhibit
the popular architectural style of the period in which they were built. The base is presently under
private ownership and a small number of buildings on the site are rental properties. Despite
virtual abandonment for over 25 years, Madison Barracks still remains an excellent example of
early nineteenth century masonry construction in the North Country of New York State that is
interspersed with later nineteenth and early twentieth century military architecture.

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4.0 Architectural Summary

This section provides detailed discussion of architectural resources within the 10-mile
project APE. This area includes Galloo Island, Stony Island, the Grenadier Islands, and Fox
Island as well as sections of the Towns of Hounsfield, Henderson, Cape Vincent, Lyme and
Brownville. Sackets Harbor, which is outside the 10-mile viewshed, was discussed in Section
3.4.5.

4.1

GALLOO ISLAND, TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD

The Project area is located on Galloo Island, a primarily privately-owned island in


northeastern Lake Ontario. It measures approximately four miles (6.4 km) along its northeastsouthwest axis and one mile (1.6 km) along its northwest-southeast axis and contains wetland
areas in the south, east-central, and northern portions of the island. Small tracts of the island
are under the control of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC),
the former Coast Guard Station and a wildlife refuge adjacent to and encompassing the Galloo
Island Lighthouse. Bordering NYSDEC property, at the southwestern end of the island, is a
privately owned one-acre parcel containing the NRL Galloo Island Lighthouse complex
[90NR01133; including an attached Keepers House and a Fog House]. The NYSDEC holding
and the Lighthouse complex are not part of the proposed Project (i.e., these properties are
located outside the project area). Four groups of structures belong to the islands present owner
including the Main Lodge, Caretakers House, Guest House, Clubhouse, an abandoned fishing
shack, and several scattered sheds and small barns. The owner maintains a herd of white-tailed
deer and grows feed crops (in the northern section of the island) primarily to maintain the herd.
Limited hunting of deer and waterfowl is undertaken on the island through arrangement with the
owner. Figures 4.1 to 4.5 show oblique aerial views of the island.

Figure 4.1. Oblique aerial view (toward the west) of Galloo Island and several
landmarks (Panamerican 2007).
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Figure 4.2. Oblique aerial view of the northern section (toward the northwest) of
Galloo Island and several landmarks (Panamerican 2007).

Figure 4.3. Oblique aerial view of the midsection (toward the west) of Galloo Island
(Panamerican 2007).

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Figure 4.4. Oblique aerial view of the north shore (toward the west) of Galloo
Island (Panamerican 2007).

Figure 4.5. Oblique aerial view of the southwestern section (toward the southwest)
of Galloo Island (Panamerican 2007).

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A summary of the history of Galloo Island is presented in Section 2.0. Two areas totaling
approximately 34 acres were excluded from the Phase IA investigation. The first totals
approximately 30 acres, located at the west extent of the island. The area is under different
ownership and is not part of the APE. Within the excluded area are two structures; a Fog Horn
House and the NRL Galloo Island Lighthouse (90NR01133). The second excluded area, totaling
approximately 3.6 acres, is owned by New York State. On this parcel are five structures
associated with a former Coast Guard Station.
Previous Investigations on Galloo Island. Panamerican conducted a Phase IA cultural
resources investigation for Galloo Island, which included a historic overview and an architectural
investigation (Schieppati et al. 2008a). The Phase IA report documented approximately 23
structures on the island. Table 4.1 lists the properties documented on the island with their
NRHP status.
Table 4.1. Extant structures on Galloo Island.
Location on
Galloo Island

More than
50 years old

Comments

Main Lodge

Main Lodge

Yes

Expanded and modified ca.


mid-nineteenth century building

Privy
Utility Shed east of Main
Lodge
Two Barns northwest of
Main Lodge
Pheasant Pens
Two modern sheds
Air Strip
Galloo Island Lighthouse
and Keepers House
Fog Horn House
Coast Guard Station
Main Building
Boat House and Docks
Metal Utility Shed
Concrete Block Utility Shed
Radio Antenna

Main Lodge

Yes

Main Lodge

No

Main Lodge

Yes

Main Lodge
Main Lodge
Main Lodge

Yes
No
No

Southwest end of island

Yes

Southwest end of island

Yes

Coast Guard Station

Yes

Coast Guard Station


Coast Guard Station
Coast Guard Station
Coast Guard Station
East end of island on Gill
Harbor
East end of island on Gill
Harbor
Northeast end of island
Northeast end of island
East side of North Pond
East side of North Pond
East side of North Pond
North side of North Pond

Yes
No
No
Yes

Name of Structure

Caretakers House
Caretakers Garage
Guest House
Shed, Guest House
Clubhouse
Storage Shed
Deteriorated frame privy
Fishermans Shack

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No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Modern structure set on old


foundation.

NRL
NRL

Modern
Modern
Modern
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The existing architectural resources on Galloo Island are found at six locations, primarily
on the southeastern shore (i.e., Main Lodge, Caretakers house, former Coast Guard Station,
and Guest House). The Lighthouse is located at the southwestern tip of the island and the
Clubhouse is located on the north shore, on the east side of North Pond. A small fishermans
shack stands on the west shore of North Pond. A summary of each of the six locations follows.
The Main Lodge. The Main Lodge is a modified, and largely expanded, mid-nineteenth
century building. Located on the southeastern shore of the island, this lakeside building is set in
a manicured lawn with few hardwood trees (Figures 4.6 and 4.7). The building is surrounded by
several ancillary modern outbuildings including sheds, storage buildings, barns, a pheasant pen,
and a privy. An airstrip occupies much of the immediate area to the northwest of the Main
Lodge. The original block of the Main Lodge consists of a frame, 1-story rectangular block
clad with cedar shingles and set on a native gray limestone foundation. A mid-nineteenth
century vernacular interpretation of the Greek Revival style, the original block retains its heavy
cornice, overhanging eaves and overall massing. The building has been enlarged with the
addition of a large two-story wing with raised basement, lesser one-story rear additions, and
wraparound deck. Other twentieth-century modifications include replacement sash, new window
openings, and an exterior stone chimney. Its modern wraparound deck offers wide-open views
of Lake Ontario (Photographs 4.1 through 4.16).

Figure 4.6. Layout and location of the Main Lodge complex on the southeastern
shore of Galloo Island (Panamerican 2007).

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Figure 4.7. Galloo Island Lodge Complex consisting of the Main Lodge and
outbuildings, with photograph angles.

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Photograph 4.1. The southeast and northeast elevations of the Main Lodge, from
near the lake shore, facing west (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.2. The southwest and southeast elevations of the Main Lodge,
from near the lake shore, facing northeast (Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.3. The northeast elevation of the Main Lodge, facing southwest
(Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.4. The northwest elevation of the original block of the Main Lodge,
facing southeast toward the lake (Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.5. The upper floor of the southeast elevation of the Main Lodge
facing west-northwest (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.6. The southwest elevation of the Main Lodge, facing northeast.
Note gray limestone foundation of original block (Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.7. The upper stories of the northeast elevation of the Main Lodge,
facing west (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.8. Privy (not in use), south of the Main Lodge, from near the lake
shore, facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.9. Privy and cleanout (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.10. The utility shed and old foundation (left), northeast of the Main
Lodge, from near the lake shore, facing north (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.11. The utility shed interior, facing southwest (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.12. Barns northwest of the Main Lodge, from south of the grass
runway, facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.13. Rear of the barns from the pheasant pen, facing east
(Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.14. The pheasant pen west of the barns, facing northwest
(Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.15. View northeast of the Main Lodge along the lake shoreline,
showing the utility shed and the Caretakers house and former Coast Guard
Station in the background (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.16. Grass runway from the southwestern end, facing northeast
(Panamerican 2007).
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Galloo Island Lighthouse. The NRL Galloo Island Lighthouse (90NR01133) stands at the
southwest end of Galloo Island (see Figures 4.1 and 4.5). The light tower is a conical structure
measuring 60 feet (18 m) high with a base of 15 feet (4.5 m) narrowing to 10 feet and 4 inches
(3.1 m) at the crown (Photographs 4.17 to 4.19). A polygonal-shaped lantern with finial caps the
tower (Photograph 4.24). Its surrounding galley with enclosed iron rail is supported by simple
bracketing. The associated Keepers House is a largely intact, though deteriorated, Greek
Revival building. It is attached to the east side of the tower by a single-story, frame hyphen
(Photographs 4.17 to 4.23). Completed in 1857, the tower and dwelling were constructed in gray
limestone quarried from the island. These structures replaced the previous (ca. 1820)
lighthouse. Stylistic elements of the Keepers House include limestone sills and lintels, quoins,
six-over-six double-hung wooden sash windows, and a heavy cornice. Three pedimented
dormers protrude from the east and west slopes of the buildings cedar-shingle clad roof
(Photograph 4.25). A period frame addition was added to the north faade of the main stone
block (Photographs 4.20 to 4.23). The addition is separated from the main block by a central
interior parged chimney with three chimney pots. This addition mimics the style of the stone
structure with its cornice returns and six-over-six double-hung wood sash windows (see HAER
Survey form, Miller 1979).
The associated Fog Horn House is located southwest of the lighthouse on the shoreline
(Photographs 4.32 to 4.37). Constructed in the early twentieth century, the building consists of a
brick masonry rectangular block with a frame tower set on its northern roof slope. The building
features a period sliding double door on the east elevation. Two segmented arched windows
with stone sills and a round-arch entry are located on the south and west elevations. Decorative
embellishments include a corbelled cornice and splayed arch lintels. The hipped roof, with
unenclosed overhanging eaves, is sheathed with corrugated metal. The interior of the building
has been exposed to the elements due to removal, or deterioration, of its windows and doors
(Photographs 4.36 and 4.37). Only the foundation of the Assistant Keepers House remains.

Figure 4.8. Location of the Lighthouse and Fog Horn House at the
southwestern tip of Galloo Island.
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Figure 4.9. Plan of Galloo Island Lighthouse showing the location of the former assistant
lighthouse keepers house, with photograph angles.

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Photograph 4.17. Galloo Island Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, facing
northeast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.18. Galloo Island Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, facing
east-northeast. Concrete fuel oil cradles are visible at right (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.19. Galloo Island Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, facing
east-southeast. Fog Horn House is visible at right (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.20. Southern elevation of the Keepers House, facing northeast


(Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.21. Western elevation of the Keepers House, facing east-southeast


(Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.22. Western and northern elevations of the Keepers House, facing
southeast (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.23. Detail of the western elevation of the Keepers House, facing
east-southeast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.24. Galloo Island light (Panamerican 2007).


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Photograph 4.25. Roof of the Keepers House from atop the Galloo Island
Lighthouse (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.26. Interior (kitchen) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers


House (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.27. Interior (upstairs hall) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers
House (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.28. Interior (stair well) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse Keepers
House (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.29. Interior (upstairs bedroom) of the Galloo Island Lighthouse


Keepers House (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.30. Interior (upstairs bedroom dormer) of the Galloo Island


Lighthouse Keepers House (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.31. Interior (upstairs hall leading to stairs) of the Galloo Island
Lighthouse Keepers House (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.32. View toward the southwest from atop the Galloo Island
Lighthouse showing the Fog Horn House (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.33. Eastern and northern elevations of the Fog Horn House associated
with the Galloo Island Lighthouse, facing southwest (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.34. Western and southern elevations of the Fog Horn House
associated with the Galloo Island Lighthouse, facing northeast (Panamerican
2007).
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Photograph 4.35. Southern elevation of the Fog Horn House associated with the
Galloo Island Lighthouse from the lake shore, facing north (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.36. Interior of the Fog Horn House associated with the Galloo
Island Lighthouse (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.37. Interior ceiling of the Fog Horn House associated with the
Galloo Island Lighthouse (Panamerican 2007).
Coast Guard Station. The former Coast Guard Station complex is prominently sited on a
hill above Gill Harbor overlooking Lake Ontario to the southeast (see Figures 4.1, 4.2, 4.10 and
4.11). Constructed ca. 1936, the main building was executed in the Shingle style and is still
sheathed with its original cedar shingles (Quick 2006:188-89) (Photographs 4.38 to 4.43). The
building consists of a frame, two-story, five-bay by three-bay, rectangular block with hipped roof.
The cedar shingle clad roof has centrally placed hipped dormers with paired windows protruding
from the north and south faades. Fenestration is symmetrical with six-over-six double-hung
wood sash windows. A partial-width hipped roof porch supported by square posts extends along
the south faade; it offers wide open views of Lake Ontario. The early twentieth-century
Boathouse is set along the rocky shore of Gill Harbor (Photographs 4.44 and 4.45). The building
consists of a long rectangular gable-roofed block sheathed with cedar shingles. It has three
open boat bays on the gable end and asymmetrical fenestration with both paired and tripartite
groupings of six-over-six double-hung wood sash on the east and west faades. The roof has
an exterior cedar shingle siding, gabled dormers and near ridge chimney. Many of the roof
shingles have become detached leaving the underlayment exposed. The complex also contains
two modern buildings, a concrete bock shed and a corrugated metal garage/shed (Photograph
4.46).
A crew of seven was originally stationed at Galloo Island. The once active station
consisted of a dormitory, boathouse, and a 50-foot steel lookout tower. The station was fitted
with a lifeboat, a pulling boat, a line gun, and signaling equipment. Beginning in the 1940s, the
station closed in winter and the crew lived at Sackets Harbor. During the 1970s, the federal
government listed the station for closure, which occurred in 1981. Despite a lawsuit by the
island residents, who were concerned about public picnicking and public docking on the island,
the station was purchased by the NYSDEC in 1987.
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Figure 4.10. Location and layout of the former Coast Guard Station at the east end of
Galloo Island, facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).

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Figure 4.11. Plan of the former Coast Guard Station on Gill Harbor with photograph
angles.

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Photograph 4.38. Former Coast Guard Station from the south side of Gill Harbor,
facing northeast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.39. View of the former Coast Guard Station toward the lake and
Stony Island, facing east (Panamerican 2007)

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Photograph 4.40. Southeast and southwest elevations of the former Coast Guard
Station main building, radio tower and concrete block utility shed, facing
northeast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.41. Southeastern facade of the former Coast Guard Station main
building, facing northeast (Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.42. Detail of the northwest corner of the former Coast Guard
Station main building (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.43. Northwest and southwest elevations of the former Coast Guard
Station main building, facing east (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.44. Former Coast Guard Station Boathouse from the south side of
Gill Harbor, facing northeast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.45. Detail of the Boathouse, showing dormers and roof condition
of the south side of Gill Harbor (telephoto), facing northeast (Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.46. Corrugated metal garage/shed located west of the main


building, facing north-northeast (Panamerican 2007).

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Caretakers House. The Caretakers House (see Figures 4.2, 4.12 and 4.13) is a modern,
long rectangular, side-gabled rustic log cottage. It is set on a hill above Gill Harbor overlooking
Lake Ontario; the harbor is accessed by wooden stairs (Photograph 4.47). The building features
an integral porch on the southwest faade, overlapping v-notched corners, a polygonal bay with
new picture window, massive exterior stone chimney and is topped by a metal seam roof
(Photograph 4.48). An associated log outbuilding is located to the west of the main structure
(Photograph 4.49).

Figure 4.12. Location of the Caretakers House on Gill Harbor at the eastern end of
Galloo Island and southwest of the former Coast Guard Station (Panamerican
2007).

Figure 4.13. Plan of Galloo Island Caretakers House with photograph angles.
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Photograph 4.47. Caretakers House and outbuilding from the southeast side of
Gill Harbor, facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.48. Caretakers House from the southeast side of Gill Harbor,
facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.49. Caretakers outbuilding from the southeast side of Gill Harbor,
facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).

Guest House. The Guest House is modern structure sited on a sloped lot overlooking
Lake Ontario at the northeastern extreme end of the island. The lot is surrounded by manicured
lawns (see Figures 4.1, 4.14 and 4.15). Executed in frame, the building has a raised basement.
The main block is sheathed in weatherboard and its gable ends feature cedar shingles. On the
southwest faade is a large, stone interior end chimney. Other elements include its steeply
pitched side-gabled roof sheltering a two tier porch, modern plate glass windows with
overhanging eaves, and decorative exposed rafter tails (Photographs 4.50 through 4.53).

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Figure 4.14. Guest House located at the extreme northeastern end of Galloo Island
(Panamerican 2007).

Figure 4.15. Plan of Guest House


with photograph angles.

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Photograph 4.50. Northeast elevation of the Guest House, facing southwest


(Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.51. Northeast and southeast elevations of the Guest House, facing
west (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.52. Southwest and southeast elevations of the Guest House, facing
north (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.53. Interior of the upper floor of the Guest House toward fireplace
at the southwest end of the house (Panamerican 2007).
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Clubhouse. The Clubhouse is located on the northern edge of the island on the east side
of North Pond (Figures 4.1, 4.2, 4.16 and 4.17). Built in the late nineteenth century, the
Clubhouse is a modest vernacular frame building with an L-shaped plan. It retains some of its
original features such as overall massing and scale, and a few four-over-four double-hung wood
sash windows. Modifications include asbestos siding, altered fenestration on the gable end and
a single-story enclosed porch addition in the wing (Photographs 4.55 to 4.59). A Craftsman-era
storage shed stands to the east of the property. The outbuilding has a pyramidal roof,
overhanging eaves and six-over-six windows (Photographs 4.61 and 4.62). A deteriorated frame
privy is located southeast of the house (Photographs 4.63 and 4.64).

Figure 4.16. Location of the Clubhouse on North Pond, on the north shore of Galloo
Island, facing west (Panamerican 2007).

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Figure 4.17. Plan of the Galloo Island Clubhouse with photograph angles.

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Photograph 4.54. The Clubhouse setting from the south side of North Pond,
facing northeast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.55. West side of the Clubhouse and outbuilding, facing east
(Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.56. Eastern elevation of the Clubhouse, facing west (Panamerican


2007).

Photograph 4.57. Detail of the eastern elevation of the Clubhouse, facing westnorthwest (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.58. Western and southern elevations of the Clubhouse, facing eastnortheast (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.59. Western elevation of the Clubhouse, facing east (Panamerican


2007).
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Photograph 4.60. Clubhouse interior stone fireplace (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.61. Western elevation of the Clubhouse outbuilding, facing east


(Panamerican 2007).

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Photograph 4.62. Southern and eastern elevations of the Clubhouse outbuilding,


facing northwest (Panamerican 2007).

Photograph 4.63. Remains of a privy south of the Clubhouse outbuilding, facing


south (Panamerican 2007).
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Photograph 4.64. Interior of privy (Panamerican 2007).


4.1.1 Little Galloo Island Overview. Little Galloo Island is located on the southeast side
of Galloo Island. It contains approximately 43.8 acres. In December 1998, NYSDEC acquired
Little Galloo Island as a gift from the Phillips Petroleum Corporation. The island is a nationally
recognized colonial waterbird colony. It is one of the very few uninhabited islands in eastern
Lake Ontario. The entire island is within the 10-mile APE viewshed.
The history of Little Galloo Island is linked with that of the Galloo Islands (see Galloo
history in Section 2.0). A review of historical maps of the island revealed that a structure was
documented on the island on the 1887 map. A site visit was not conducted on Little Galloo
Island as part of the current architectural investigation. Based on examination of available aerial
photography and telephoto views from Galloo Island, it does not appear that there any extant
structures on the island.
4.1.2 Galloo and Little Galloo Islands: Previous Architectural Investigations. A
background site file check at NYSHPO was conducted to identify previous cultural resources
investigations of Galloo and Little Galloo Islands. No cultural resources investigations are
presently on file at NYSHPO except for Phase IA and Phase IB studies conducted for the
proposed Hounsfield Wind Farm (see Schieppati et al. 2008a and 2008b).
4.1.3 Conclusions and Recommendations. Six structures on Galloo Island are greater
than 50 years of age. These include the Lighthouse and attached Keepers House, the Fog
Horn house, the Main Lodge, the Clubhouse, the former Coast Guard Station main structure,
and the associated Boathouse. As noted, the lighthouse complex is NRL. While the Clubhouse
and Main Lodge appear to be nineteenth-century structures, there are no references to them
until the 1930s (see Figure 2.6). However, the Main Lodge may be associated with the 1910
Johnson and Gill farm. Based on a comparison of similar building stock in the region, the
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Clubhouse appears to be representative of vernacular forms constructed in the late nineteenth


century. A review of historical maps and local histories of the island suggests that the
Clubhouse might have been either constructed in an older style in the 1930s or moved to its
present location at that time. If the latter is true, the Clubhouse does not retain its original setting
and, along with its deteriorated condition and lack of notable stylistic elements, does not meet
the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the National Register. The original setting of the Main Lodge
is problematical and, while the structure is in very good condition, it has been significantly
modified over the years. The Main Lodge building does not appear meet NRHP criteria and it
does not exhibit sufficient architectural integrity to be considered NRE.
The former Coast Guard main structure and Boathouse were constructed in the 1930s
using designs that were in common use by the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. The buildings are
both in deteriorated condition and do not appear to meet the National Register criteria for
individual listing. However, the Galloo Island Coast Guard Station is a good representative
example of a largely intact ca. 1936 Coast Guard Station in the Great Lakes region of the United
States. It is recommended as potentially eligible for listing as part of a thematic (maritime)
multiple resource listing for Coast Guard resources or other associated maritime themes of the
Great Lakes. Note, the present lighthouse on Galloo Island pre-dates the Coast Guard Station
by eighty years and originally by more than a hundred years.

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4.2. STONY ISLAND, TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD


Stony Island is a privately owned, approximately 1,526-acre island located near the
northeastern end of Lake Ontario at the headwaters of the St. Lawrence River in the municipal
boundaries of the Town of Hounsfield. The approximately five-mile long by two mile-wide island,
set on a northeast-southwest axis, is approximately 4.5 miles west of Henderson and 12 miles
from Henderson Harbor (Figure 4.18). A long, narrow pond divides the island in half. Galloo
Island, the location of the proposed Hounsfield Wind Farm, is located approximately 2.25 miles
west of Stony Island. Calf Island is located off of the southwest end of the island. The entire
island is within the 10-mile APE viewshed. This section provides an historic overview of Stony
Island.

Figure 4.18. Aerial view of Stony Island in relation to Galloo Island and the Town of
Henderson (Google Earth 2009).

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Figure 4.19. Stony Island in 1895 (surveyed 1893) (USGS Stony Island, NY Quadrangle
USGS 15 Minute Series, 1895).

4.2.1 Stony Island History. Stony Island reportedly served as a stopping place for
Samuel de Champlain before his landing in 1615 at Henderson Harbor, as his notes indicated
that he camped on an island prior to his arrival on the mainland (Quick 2006:173). Historically,
Stony Island has been identified as part of the Galloo Islands, which were included in Macombs
original purchase. In 1823, Elisha Camp was issued patents for most of Galloo, Little Galloo and
Calf islands along with several other islands. The status of first settler on Stony Island has been
attributed to Abraham Wilkinson (1769-1864), who arrived on the island in 1806 (Quick
2006:173). Four years later, the next settler was Jason Crittenton (1740-1813). During the War
of 1812, timber from the island was used to build ships at Sackets Harbor. The American fleet
caught and sunk a British ship hiding in the islands Brodies Bay. During the nineteenth century
several shipwrecks occurred near Stony Island.
Stony Island witnessed two distinct periods of development. The first era of growth was
the lumber-shingle mill period, while the second was the farming and fishing-resort industry. In
the early-to-mid nineteenth century, a dense canopy of cedar trees covered the island. Early
settlers utilized the islands rich timber resources to construct their dwellings. An example of one
of the earliest dwellings, though no longer extant, was an unidentified ca. mid-nineteenth
century log cabin (Figure 4.20). The cedar shingle industry on the island provided a livelihood
for a dozen families, a series of hotels (due to fires), and a schoolhouse. The ca. 1888 school
also served as a church (Figures 4.21 and 4.22). Joseph Benoit arrived on the island in 1855
and opened a summer hotel at the foot of the island. His son, Medric F. Benoit (1846-1921),
from Montreal, Canada, was a farmer who ran the family hotel until 1916. In the 1860s, Robert
Brodie purchased 420 acres on the island for $4,030 dollars (Quick 2006:173). Brodie and his
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Figure 4.20. A mid-nineteenth-century log cabin on Stony Island, one of the


earliest structures on the island (no longer extant) (Oswego Falls-Sealright Co.
1954:27).

Figure 4.21. A ca. 1928 photograph of the Stony Island school (Oswego FallsSealright Co. 1954:27).
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Figure 4.22. A ca. 1960 photograph of the Stony Island school with overgrown
vegetation (Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:27).
brother John (1838-1871) built a shingle mill that employed a dozen men. The Brodie family
imported from their native Scotland Ayrshire cattle, sheep and Shetland ponies. They kept the
young livestock on the island, where the stock could freely graze without the threat of dogs, a
hazard then on the mainland. As they cleared their land, the family constructed the first road
across the island as well as several stone walls around it (Quick 2006:173). The Brodies owned
their own boats to transport their livestock and lumber to the mainland. Another shingle mill was
owned by Willard & Johnson and, in 1902, Harrison Algate & Co. moved their portable sawmill
to the island. A 1907 fire across the southern end of the island ended the islands century of
lumbering (Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:23).
The sport-fishing era on Stony Island began in 1875 when farmers started taking in
vacationers during the summer. During the early period, there were great quantities of salmon
and lake trout, which was followed by a prolific black bass. The advent of the motorboat
provided farmers with easier transport of their harvest to the mainland to sell; however the
introduction of delivery trucks that brought produce from other areas led to the demise of
agricultural endeavors on the island. The island had a short-lived post office established in
1876, which was only in operation for a single summer season. In 1888 property owners
included Robert Brodie, Barney Eve Leigh, Mrs. Pomeroy, A Luff and Joseph Benoit (see Figure
2.3). The 1895 topographical map of the island documented fourteen structures (Figure 4.19).
Stony Island Inn (Hotel) was established before 1890 and was operated by James
Galloway (1857-1907) by 1892 (Figure 4.23). In 1894, the steamer William Gilbert ran between
Henderson Harbor, Stony Island, and Sackets Harbor. The proprietor of Stony Island, W.G.
Northram praised the Stony Island black bass in his writings to attract guests. In an illustrated
booklet on Stony Island Northam wrote:

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Figure 4.23. The former Stony Island Inn (Hotel), Stony Island (Anonymous 1961:7).
All ye city toilers, unnerved and in need of rest, recreation, or the greatest sport of gentlemen
and philosophersangling with rod and reel for the noblest fish that swims, the
smallmouthed black basstake my advice, I say and so make up your summer budge as to
include the Stony Island Inn, and Ill warrant youll thank The Old Timer [Anonymous
1961:14].

During the early years of its sport-fishing era, the island also had its own boarding house and
cabins as well as guides and commercial boat transportation. In the 1890s and early 1900s,
Stony Island Inn and the cabins maintained by the Luff family (Figure 4.24), who were known
to sport fisherman across the east coast. A fire in August 1898 destroyed Stony Island Inn
(Quick 2006:175). The island also had a distillery for distilling juniper and cedar oils, which
was established on the island in 1900.
In 1901, a group of men from Syracuse constructed Stony Island Lodge on the outward
head of the island, which the original club members believed to be the center of the best bass
fishing in the region (Anonymous 1961:12; Figure 4.25). The lodge was built to the design of
club member and eminent central New York architect Archimedes Russell (1840-1915;
Anonymous 1961:10). Russell completed nearly 850 commissions during his 43-year career,
almost all of them in central New York. By 1900, he had contributed more to the architecture
of central New York than any other architect. For Stony Island Lodge, the stone was hauled
twenty miles by barge from Chaumont because the islands native stone was not suitable for
construction of the lodge. The lodges porch faces west toward so guests could enjoy the
sunset over the lake. Original shingles on the lodge were some of the last made at the
islands shingle mill.
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Figure 4.24. Mrs. M.E. Luff property Famous Fishing Grounds on Stony Island
(Anonymous 1961:6).

Figure 4.25. Stony Island Lodge, Stony Island (Anonymous 1961:cover).


Stony Island has been host to many notable politicians and leaders of business. Secretary
of State John W. Foster (1892-1893) regarded Stony Island as Americas finest vacation treat
(Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:9). A group of visitors to Stony Island, known as the
Millionaires Club, included Harvey Firestone, Calvin Coolidge, Henry Ford, and Thomas
Edison (Figure 4.26). At the peak of the islands resort age, Stony Island Lodge could
accommodate 50 guests in 20 sleeping rooms in the main building and more in associated
cottages (Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. ca 1954:20). The hotel had a 35-foot passenger steam
yacht named Hazel, which had a daily schedule between Stony Island and Sackets Harbor
(Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:20).
One of the best known guides in the history of the island was Will Stevens of Henderson
Harbor, who served as guide, friend and confidant for three secretaries of State: John W. Foster
(Secretary of State in the administration of President Benjamin Harrison); Robert Lansing
(Fosters son-in-law and Secretary of State in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson);
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and John Foster Dulles (Fosters grandson and Secretary of State in President Dwight
Eisenhowers administration) (Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:21-22). Lansing wrote a history
of the region. Dulles spent his boyhood summers at Stony Island.
In 1924, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Cowie purchased the lodge and its associated property.
Mr. Cowie was a distinguished Syracuse attorney, serving as General Counsel and a director of
the Oswego Falls Corporation for many years (Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:28). The
Cowies continued the Stony Island clubs tradition of hospitality at the lodge until his death in
1948. The following year, Oswego Falls-Sealright Company purchased the lodge and 640 acres
of the island. Mr. and Mrs. J. Aiken Montague owned the rest of the island at that time. The last
family to live on Stony Island was the Westcotts, operators of a year-round dairy business. They
moved to Watertown in 1932. In 1954, Stony Island Lodge solely occupied the island (Oswego
Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:26). At that time, older buildings on the island and the old school house
(closed in 1928) were reported to have disappeared or were in deteriorated or poor condition
(Oswego Falls-Sealright Co. 1954:26).

In 1966, Phillips Petroleum (Phillips), based in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, acquired Stony Island
when the company purchased the holdings of Oswego Falls-Sealright Company. Phillips began
using the property as a corporate retreat on a regular basis in the mid-1970s. Though the island is
wholly within the Town of Hounsfield, Phillips maintains a large boathouse along Harbor Road in
Henderson Harbor. The company employs about 18 people and buys many of its supplies through
Henderson businesses. Low oil prices prompted Phillips to curtail operations on the island three
times since 1980, most recently in 1999, for about a year each time. In 2002, Conaco & Phillips
merged to become ConacoPhillips Petroleum, the current owners of Stony Island.

Figure 4.26. An undated postcard of the Millionaires Club at Stony Island (from l.
to r.: Harvey Firestone, Calvin Coolidge, Henry Ford, and Thomas Edison). The keg
is marked with Coolidges name (reproduced courtesy of Historical Association of South
Jefferson).
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4.2.2 Calf Island Overview. Calf Island is a small, privately owned, 34.8-acre island
located off the northwest head of Stony Island. It received its name because the island is
shaped like a calfs head (Quick 2006:173). The island is a tilted limestone shelf with a thin layer
of soil containing a relatively large inland pond and wetland area. It is one of the very few
uninhabited islands in eastern Lake Ontario. The entire island is within the 10-mile APE
viewshed.
The history of Calf Island is linked with that of the Galloo Islands (see Galloo island
section). Review of historical maps of the island revealed that a structure was documented on
the island on the 1887 map. Presently, based examination of aerial photography, there appears
to be historic structures on the island. Local residents and visitors use the island for recreational
fishing, waterfowl hunting and birdwatching.
4.2.3 Stony Island and Calf Island: Previous Architectural Investigations. A
background site file check at NYSHPO was conducted to identify previous cultural resources
investigations on Stony and Calf islands. No cultural resources investigations are presently on
file at NYSHPO. The SPHINX database (NYSHPO nd) for the Town of Hounsfield lists a Stony
Island Lighthouse (USN 04510.000002; no NRHP determination). An historic building form (from
ca. 1970s) is on file at NYSHPO; however, the form offers no descriptive or location information.
A review of historical background information and historical maps did not indicate the existence
of a lighthouse on Stony Island. It appears the so-called Stony Island Lighthouse was more
than likely confused with that of Stony Point Lighthouse on the mainland in Henderson.
4.2.4 Conclusions. The current architectural investigation was limited to archival
research; site visits were not conducted for Stony and Calf islands as part of the 10-mile APE
study. As such, the extent and integrity of historic resources on these two islands has not been
assessed (i.e., unevaluated for NRHP eligibility).
Stony and Calf islands are privately owned by ConocoPhillips Petroleum. The company
still operates Stony Island Lodge as a corporate retreat. The lodge is historically significant for
its association with the summer resort era of eastern Lake Ontario and the Thousand Islands. It
is further possibly architecturally significant for its association with prominent central New York
architect Archimedes Russell and as a representative example of rustic lodge resort
architecture. However, the architectural integrity of Stony Island Lodge is not known. One other
resource of note is a reported cemetery on the island containing the graves of former Stony
Island inhabitants. The location of this cemetery is not known (Quick 2006:177). The old Stony
Island school house is no longer extant; it succumbed to fire in 1990 (Jefferson County Journal
[JCJ] 1990).

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4.3

TOWN OF HENDERSON, JEFFERSON COUNTY

The following is an historical and architectural summary of locales in the Town of


Henderson within the 10-mile APE study area (see Section 4.3.6 for Association Island). The
Henderson Historical Society was closed for the season during field and research visits for this
study. Henderson research was conducted at the Historical Association of South Jefferson.
Other historical information was culled from Jefferson County histories and historical atlases,
Quicks History of the Town of Henderson (2006), Town of Henderson Historical Driving Tour
brochures, and relevant Internet sites.
4.3.1 Stony Point Lighthouse, Stony Point, Henderson (USN 04509.000011). The
United States Congress appropriated $3,000 on March 3, 1837 for construction of a lighthouse
to mark Stony Point in the Town of Henderson. Set on a five-acre parcel, the lighthouse was
finished and operational by the end of the following year. Navy Lieutenant C.T. Platt submitted a
report on the Stony Point Lighthouse to the Secretary of the Treasury dated November 26,
1838. The lighthouse is No. 18 in the 10th Lighthouse District, which contains 50 lighthouses.
Visibility of the original light ranged up to a distance of 18 miles. The lights first keeper was
Wiley Gilbert Nichols (1802-1879). In 1857, the Stony Point Lighthouse was fitted with a fifthorder Fresnel lens, requiring just one lamp. The 1868 Annual Report of the Lighthouse Board
noted that the dwelling, tower, and outhouses at Stony Point were considered not worthy of
repair. The board recommended construction of a new facility at Stony Point.
During the summer of 1869, work began on a new lighthouse, following plans similar to
those used for the dwelling and attached tower built at Copper Harbor, Michigan in 1866. The
lighthouse was constructed with a square 73-ft high brick tower, lantern room, and an attached
frame keepers house. Stone used in the lighthouse was quarried near the site. The interior of
the lighthouse features a 72-step, curved cast-iron staircase leading to a trap door in the steel
deck. It has an outdoor catwalk with iron rail around a ten-sided room that held beacon. The
lighthouse was mostly complete by the end of 1869 with minor plastering and outside pointing
carried out the following year. As a result of difficult site access and high labor expenses, the
final construction costs of Stony Point Lighthouse totaled roughly $13,000.
Minor improvements and repairs were made to the lighthouse according to entries for
Stony Point in the Annual Report of the Lighthouse Board. The 1882 report noted a small cellar
was excavated under the dwelling and lined with stone, and minor repairs were made to the
dwelling. Construction of a new metal oil house and conversion of the old oil room into a living
room were noted in the 1897 report. Around 1900, some 106 feet of lead pipe was laid to
connect the dwelling with the stations well. A major change to the lighthouse occurred in 1901
when the height of the original three-story tower was built up from 38 feet to 50 feet to increase
focal plane of the light (i.e., range of the light). A new brick square tower section was
constructed with a blind arch on each elevation with window above. Other modifications
included painting the lighthouse white to increase its visibility, thus making it a better daymark,
and adjusting the interval between the lights flashes from two minutes to one. In 1908, the old
light failed and was replaced by a new larger light that could be seen on a clear night some 25
to 30 miles away.
Mial E. Eggleston, keeper at Crossover Island Lighthouse, transferred to Stony Point
Lighthouse in 1906, where he served for 36 years. Wiley Koepka, keeper on Galloo Island for
the previous nine years, was transferred to Stony Point lighthouse in 1942 to replace Eggleston
and to guard the property during the emergency created by the war. Koepka was the last
keeper at Stony Point Lighthouse and served until November 1946, when the light was
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discontinued for the season. By the opening of navigation in 1947, the lighthouse had been
converted into an automated light. The current light is set atop a steel tower located
approximately 100 feet from the 1869 lighthouse, closer to the shoreline. In 1960, the U.S.
Coast Guard sold the lighthouse property for $9,107 dollars to Mr. and Mrs. Cotler. It changed
ownership twice in the 1960s. During that period, the lighthouse had been vandalized and
damaged by fire. A fire in 1969 destroyed a barn on the property, and damaged the north side of
the dwelling and its roof (Quick 2006:165). Minor damage from smoke and water occurred in the
lighthouse tower. After owning the Stony Point Lighthouse for more than 20 years, the Leonard
family placed it on the market in 1998 for $650,000. The property included 3.35 acres of land
with 600 ft of shoreline, less than half of its original acreage. The current owners purchased the
property four years later for $272,500. Upon initiating restoration of the lighthouse, the owners
learned it was not structurally sound and were forced to completely overhaul the structure.
Based on visual inspection from the road, the Stony Point Lighthouse tower appears to be
largely intact. The attached former keepers house, however, has been extensively altered and
modernized. Despite alterations to the attached dwelling, Stony Point Lighthouse is historically
significant for its association with nineteenth-century navigational history of the Great Lakes,
and specifically for its role in northeastern Lake Ontario. A light has been in operation at Stony
Point from 1837 through present. The Stony Point Lighthouse site retains its historic use,
location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. The lighthouse tower
is still painted white and still serves as daymark for lake vessels. Stony Point Lighthouse is also
architecturally significant as a surviving representative example of a post-Civil War lighthouse
type constructed in the Great Lakes.

Photograph 4.65. Stony Point Lighthouse, Henderson, Jefferson County, facing


south-southwest (Panamerican 2007).
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Figure 4.27. Stony Point Lighthouse, Henderson, Jefferson County, facing


northwest (NPS 1959).
4.3.2 Seasonal and Recreational History and Resources in Henderson. Henderson is
recognized as a seasonal and recreational destination similar to other Lake Ontario Thousand
Islands communities. Henderson Harbor is the towns maritime center (see Section 4.3.5). On
the west side of Henderson Bay off Paradise Park Road is the lakeshore community of Highland
Park, which was founded as a planned community with a row of eight, ca. 1880 Stick-style
cottages. Its building plots, walks, and drives were laid out according to a site plan. Paradise
Park is in the study area, but not within the project viewshed. To the north of Highland Park, and
north of the survey corridor, is a row of late nineteenth-century cottages set along Snowshoe
Bay (Photograph 4.66). Built in ca. 1882, Cedar Lodge (or McConnell Cottage) was the first
Victorian-era cottage to be erected on the point (Photograph 4.67). The McConnell Cottage,
Swan Cottage (Photograph 4.68), and the next cottage to the southeast all displayed the same
original baluster, the acorn and spade. All three cottages are believed to have been built by
William McConnell. Many of the older cottages on Snowshoe Road have been previously
inventoried with Building Structure Inventory Forms on file at NYSHPO; however, none of these
cottages have NRHP determinations. Only two of the northernmost cottages on Snowshoe Bay
are in the project viewshed: McConnell Cottage/Cedar Lodge and Swan Cottage/Cedarhurst.
These two cottages are historically significant as the first late nineteenth-century seasonal
cottages constructed on Snowshoe Bay. The cottages are further significant as good
representative examples of Stick-style summer cottages. The McConnell Cottage/Cedar
Lodge has been modified and expanded, but the original front-gable block still retains much of
its Stick-style details. Swan Cottage/Cedarhurst is largely intact with a wraparound rusticinspired porch.

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Photograph 4.66. Cottages on Snowshoe Bay, Henderson, Jefferson County


(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.67. McConnell Cottage/Cedar Lodge at 15321 Snowshoe Road,


the first Victorian-era cottage to be erected on Snowshoe Bay, Henderson
(Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.68. Swan Cottage at 15318 Snowshoe Road, one of the earliest
Victorian-era cottages to be erected on Snowshoe Bay, Henderson (Panamerican
2008).
Another concentration of lakeside cottages of note in the study area, the Lighthouse Road
Cottages, is sited on the southwest tip of Stony Point on Gravely Bay along Lighthouse Road.
This lakeshore enclave consists of ten non-contiguous stone and frame cottages constructed
during the Craftsman era (Photographs 4.69 through 4.71). A 1934 article in the Jefferson
County Journal mentions a row of cottages on the lake near the Stony Point Lighthouse (JCJ
1934). The Lighthouse Road Cottages have sections of stone fences along the eastern edge of
the properties, and in some cases along the lakeshore. Building materials, layout, parcel size,
and similar age of construction suggest that the Lighthouse Road Cottages might have been
laid out as a planned seasonal lakeshore community. The lakeside of Lighthouse Road is
densely populated with later frame cottages that range from the 1930s through the late
twentieth century. Visual inspection of these privately owned cottages is limited to the rear and
side elevations, as the cottages front the lake. Additionally, vantages from the road are limited
because of deep setbacks, vegetation, other cottages and/or outbuildings. The architectural
integrity of the Lighthouse Road Cottages cannot be assessed due to lack of access to the
properties, specifically the cottages lakefront facades. The cottages appear to be mostly intact
and well maintained. Based on limited visual inspection of the exterior and a comparison with
other lakeside communities in the region, the Lighthouse Road Cottages standout for their type,
architectural style, and building materials.

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Photograph 4.69. Setting of a representative example of a largely intact Craftsman


cottage on Lighthouse Road, Henderson, Jefferson County (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.70. A representative example of a largely intact Craftsman cottage


on Lighthouse Road, Henderson, Jefferson County (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.71. A representative example of a largely intact Craftsman cottage


on Lighthouse Road, Henderson, Jefferson County (Panamerican 2007).
4.3.3 Robert G. Wehle State Park, Stony Point, Henderson. The study area
encompasses Robert G. Wehle State Park on Stony Point, a 1,100-acre park on the western
shore of Stony Point on Lake Ontario (Figure 4.28). The entire park is within the project
viewshed. Established in 2003, the parks frontage includes 7,000 ft with an 80-ft high limestone
cliff providing scenic overlooks (Photograph 4.72). Recreational facilities available include 26
miles of trails for hiking, cross-country skiing and mounting biking, 17,000 ft of Lake Ontario
shoreline and other amenities. It is open to hunters in the fall. The former Wheel house and
guest cottage are available for seasonal rentals. NYSDECs Henderson Shores State Unique
Area borders the park to the east.
The park property is associated with the military history of the region. Formerly occupied
by a U.S. military reservation, Stony Point Rifle Range (or Stony Point Military Reservation) was
established in 1895 when the federal government purchased 868 acres of land along the
lakeshore between Six Town Point and Stony Point (Quick 2006:166). The U.S. Army used the
land as a campground and rifle range for the garrison (9th Infantry) stationed at Madison Barrack
in Sackets Harbor. Practice firing was carried out over the lake. Other Army companies from
Sackets Harbor and Fort Ontario (Oswego) utilized the reservation. During World War I, infantry
troops from Madison Barracks used this property as a training range for anti-aircraft firing
practice. In 1925, the government considered closing the Stony Point range, but two years later,
retained it. The range continued to be used by two battalions of infantry from Madison Barracks,
a large force from Fort Ontario, and troops from Pine Plains.

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Figure 4.28. Map of Robert G. Wehle State Park, Henderson. The six darkened squares
denote the locations of the six pill boxes. (NYSOPRHP 2008)
In 1941, the rifle range became part of Pine Camp, which became Camp Drum in 1951.
Also at that time, the military built a one-mile long paved road from the entrance to the pistol
range. A dirt road extended one-mile from the pistol range to the artillery range. The range served
the U.S. Army as an artillery and anti-aircraft training field before and during World War II. Stony
Point Rifle Range had a dozen buildings used as barracks and a mess hall (Quick 2006:167). In
1942, the military constructed a new defense highway extending 4.5 miles (Military Road) at a
cost of $250,000 dollars from Aspinwall Corners in Henderson to the Army range. In 1946, the
government declared the range as surplus and placed it at auction. It was sold to Angelo C. La
Villa in 1947 for $7,500 dollars. The military road was turned over to the county in 1963.
The park retains six pill boxes and one artillery wall (Photographs 4.73 through 4.79). Five
of the pill boxes are clustered at the southern end of the park with a row of three on the lakes
edge. One pill box and the artillery wall are located at the north end of the park. The pill boxes
are of poured concrete construction and vary in size. The artillery wall consists of a poured
concrete wall supported by a stone and earthen berm. During the World War II, soldiers trained
on machine guns mounted on vehicles to shoot at sleeve targets towed by airplanes while
spotters kept watch at the pill boxes to warn the practicing gunners of any nearby boats.
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Photograph 4.72. A representative view of the shoreline at Robert G. Wehle State


Park, Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.73. Pill box at north end of Robert G. Wehle State Park, Henderson
(Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.74. Front view of pill box at north end of Robert G. Wehle State
Park, Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.75. View from pill box at north end of Robert G. Wehle State Park,
Henderson toward the project area, facing west (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.76. Artillery Wall at north end of Robert G. Wehle State Park,
Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.77. Close up of Artillery Wall at north end of Robert G. Wehle State
Park, Henderson (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.78. Northernmost pill box at southern end of Robert G. Wehle State
Park, Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.79. Interior view of northernmost pill box at southern end of Robert
G. Wehle State Park, Henderson (Panamerican 2008).
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Louis A. Wehle owned over 1,000 acres of land on Stony Point. In 1957, he proposed
selling the land for one million dollars, which included four miles of lake frontage, for commercial
development (Quick 2006:167). By 1959, the National Park Service had identified Stony Point in
their Great Lakes Shoreline Recreation Area Survey as suited to supply an abundance of
campsites so vitally needed to meet the growing demand in this general region (NPS 1959). In
1968, Robert G. Wehle inherited the property. Although the Wehle family had owned Genesee
Brewing Company of Rochester, New York, for many years, Robert Wehle was better known
locally as a famed breeder and trainer of English Pointers, a sculptor, conservationist, and
benefactor of many institutions. He raised his famous Elhew (Wehle spelled backwards)
pointers at Stony Point. Wehle built a summer home, guest cottage, farm buildings, kennels,
pigeon coops, and other support buildings (Photographs 4.80 and 4.81), and also reserved a
small area for a dog cemetery. He improved and maintained the property as a rustic summer
estate. Stake and slider fences line the main paths on the property (Photograph 4.82). A rustic,
Adirondacks-inspired log cabin with a privy stands just south of the former Wehle house
(Photograph 4.83). In 1990, NYSDEC purchased the property for $2.7 million from Wehle with
the contingency that he retained lifetime use of the property, which would become a state park
one year after his death. Upon Mr. Wehles death in 2002, a trust was established to assist with
maintenance, operational and development costs for this facility and a similar park he
established in Alabama.

Photograph 4.80. Former Wehle summer home at Robert G. Wehle State Park,
Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.81. Former Wehle farm buildings at Robert G. Wehle State Park,
Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.82. Stake and slider fences at Robert G. Wehle State Park,
Henderson (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.83. A rustic Adirondacks-inspired log cabin at Robert G. Wehle


State Park, Henderson (Panamerican 2008).

4.3.4 Stony Point Air Force Site. Military activity on Stony Point continued into the Cold
War period when in 1958 the federal government established Stony Pont Air Force Site on a
tract of leased land from the Bickley Estate, near the Stony Point Lighthouse (Quick 2006:166).
The government initiated a one million dollar project involving two forms of experimental
communication technology, testing long-range, high-speed communication using ionospheric
scatter and meteoric bursts. Six 265-ft high towers weighing 34 tons each were constructed with
a connection of meshwork lines that included receiving antennas and antenna arrays (Quick
2006:166). Transmitters and receiving apparatus were housed in a 40-ft by 80-ft steel building.
With a staff of eight, project tests began in March 1959. Researchers used the radio towers to
send and receive messages between Stony Point and Carrabelle, Florida. The tests led to
advancements in "over the horizon radar" (bouncing radar signals off the ionosphere to extend
the radar range) and to the development of tropospheric communications.
By May 1959, after completing successful ionospheric scatter experiments, the Air Force
placed the station on inactive status. In August 1960, it was reactivated and, in June 1961, two
new towers were built for a classified project (Quick 2006:166). The government had a five-year
contract with the Adams Electric Light Company to provide electricity to the station at an annual
rate of $10,560. In 1963, the Air Force ceased operation at Stony Point. All equipment and
towers were removed and the land was returned to the Bickley Estate. Today, the land
encompassing the former Stony Point Air Force Site tract along the rocky shoreline of Rays and
Boomers bays is dotted with seasonal and year-round cottages.

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4.3.5 Henderson Harbor, Town of Henderson. Once under the control of the Americans
at the conclusion of the American Revolution, the first resident in the town was David Bronson,
who arrived around 1795. He was a trapper who also planted turnips and herdgrass. Bronson
built a cabin, but it and his crops flooded, and he relocated eastward to the center of the town,
where he planted an orchard (Dixon 2001; Sullivan 2004 [1927]:526). Benjamin Wrights 1796
survey of the Black River tract delineated eleven towns. The survey was prepared for men who
had purchased the land from William Constable, including William Henderson, Nicholas Low,
Richard Harrison and Josiah Ogden Hoffman. The men then divided the surveyed towns among
themselves, with Henderson getting towns 3, 6 and 9, of which number 6 was the future Town
of Henderson. The town was further divided into lots in 1801, although the town was not
formally established until 1806 (Emerson 1898). Henderson and his land agent Jesse Hopkins
established a village at Henderson Harbor. Initially called Naples, the village consisted of 25
acres, with a four-acre public square. Hopkins built a house for himself and a land office building
with a store by 1807. A school and meeting house were built by 1812. Hopkins, an advocate for
the construction of a dam and sawmill on Stony Creek, also built a shipyard for the construction
of schooners, which was used during the War of 1812.
Subsequent settlement in the town concentrated along Henderson Bay, with early settlers
arriving from New England. The first tavern keeper was Roswell Davis, beginning in 1804. The
first doctor was Daniel Barney, who arrived in 1807. By that time, the town had about 1,000
residents. These early settlers included Samuel Stewart, Thomas Clark, Philip Crumett, John
Stafford, Capt. John Bishop and his sons, Calvin, Asa, and Luther, as well as Jedediah and
James McCumber, among others. A new road extending through Henderson Harbor was laid
out in 1806. The road from Henderson Harbor became part of the state road that was built in
1813, during the War of 1812, which extended from Sackets Harbor to Oswego. Stagecoaches
from Syracuse, Rochester and Watertown stopped at Henderson hotels.
In 1836, Henderson Harbor had one dock, three warehouses, one tavern, two stores, and
12 to 15 dwellings. In the mid-nineteenth century, Henderson Harbor was a prominent entrept
for shipping grain and stock. The harbor supported shipbuilding, but records referring to these
ships are now gone (Emerson 1898). One of the last to be built was the 350-ton Jennie White.
In 1874 a new steamboat line was established between Henderson and Sackets Harbor to
connect with the Watertown and Sackets Harbor Railroad. During the second half of the
nineteenth century the steamer John Marshall made three weekly trips between Henderson
Harbor and Kingston, Ontario. Other steamers such as J.F. Dayan and Flora Holden make trips
from the harbor to Sackets Harbor, and also excursions to the Thousand Islands.
Infrastructure for the shipping industry was ravaged by an extensive fire in 1898, which left
little remaining. By the turn of the twentieth century, the village had become a summer resort area
for fishing, with local residents renting rooms to vacationers. Hotels included the Frontier House,
the Van Dyne House, and hotels associated with the Highland and Paradise parks along the west
side of the harbor. The Gill, Warner, and Tyler houses were upgraded to accommodate summer
boarders. Some of the famous summer residents at Henderson Harbor included James Brainard,
steel magnate from Cleveland, Ohio; John W. Foster, Secretary of State under President
Harrison; Frank E. Gannett, Rochester newspaper publisher; Alf M. Landon, Governor of Kansas
and presidential candidate (1936); Robert T. Lansing, Secretary of State under President Wilson;
and Henry W. Steinway, president of Steinway Piano Manufacturing Company. Steinway
vacationed in Henderson Harbor for 44 years, and died in his summer cottage.
A change occurred in the seasonal resort industry in early twentieth century in Henderson
Harbor. Older hotels and boarding houses began to close as seasonal visitors constructed
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cottages around Henderson Harbor. Paradise Park Hotel, the Park Hotel, and Brooklyn House
had previously accommodated a large share of the summer visitors. Summer cottages of both
modest and large-scale were constructed around the harbor. The advent of the automobile also
left its imprint on the Henderson Harbor. In 1928, the Henderson Harbor Improvement
Association voted to promote a new scenic highway over the hill from Dobsons Corners to
Sackets Harbor-Henderson State highway at Bassetts. The new scenic road (New York Route
[NY] 3) was completed six years later.
Section of Henderson Harbor in Study Area. Only the northern half of the eastern shore
of Henderson Harbor is in the viewshed (see Section 4.3.6 for Association Island). The main
route to Watertown along Lake Ontario is NY 3, which has a north-northeasterly alignment
through Henderson. It follows the curvature of the southeastern shoreline of Henderson Bay, as
it exits the town into Hounsfield. A small stretch of NY 3 (Harbor Road) is within the study area.
There are no NRL or NRE properties in the eastern Henderson Harbor section of the 10-mile
project viewshed. One property, the R.J. Morgan House, within the project viewshed on NY 3
(Harbor Road) has been previously inventoried.
Henderson Harbor has a modest collection of surviving early to mid-nineteenth-century
buildings. The oldest reported building in the project viewshed is the ca. 1813 Frontier
House/Gill House Inn (13565 Harbor Road [HHS 2001;Quick 2006:81]), although a small
wooden plaque inscribed with a date of ca. 1823 is on the front of the building. Located at the
northern end of the harbors commercial business district, the original front gable Federal-style
main block is the distinguishing identifier of the style with its flush board siding and louvered
oval-shaped fanlight (Photograph 4.84). In 1850, Capt. John Warner (1812-1875) purchased the
house and remodeled it into one of the best hotels in the town. The hotel changed ownership
several times after Warner. In 1890, John Lovelee purchased the building and renamed it the
Lovelee House. He built a large addition and moved the large boathouse with upper rooms and
attached it to the south end of the building. In 1899, Lovelee built a large 24-ft by 60-ft addition.
Hugh H. Gill purchased the hotel in 1910 and renamed it the Gill House, its current name. Since
the mid-nineteenth century, the hotel has been greatly expanded and modified by subsequent
owners do accommodate its guests. The Frontier House/Gill House Inn building is historically
significant at the local level for its association with the earliest period of commercial
development of Henderson Harbor and its tourist-service industry.
Located in the project viewshed is the R.J.W. Morgan House (13068 Harbor Road), a
transitional Federal and Greek Revival building prominently sited on a hill above Henderson
Harbor (Photograph 4.85). Constructed in the second quarter of the nineteenth century, the
house has a unique design with broad and deep first story and two-bay square upper story with
cupola. This building type is regional subtype of the Greek Revival style known as a cup and
saucer house because of the appearance of the smaller upper story set upon the lower story
(HHS 2001). The original rectangular block features symmetrical fenestration and features a late
nineteenth-century wraparound porch and balustrade. In 1839, Remembrance J.W. Morgan
began purchasing land in Henderson. The building is documented on the 1855 atlas. Morgan is
believed to have been involved in shipbuilding, which reportedly might have influenced the
design of his house with its so called Captains Walk on the second story. From 1883 to 1903,
another shipbuilder, Capt. William Gilbert, owned the building. Minor exterior alterations include
changes to the cupola and replacement of its original windows and chimneys. Its rear porch was
enclosed for a kitchen in the 1920s. The largely intact R.J.W. Morgan House is architecturally
significant as a rare and unique regional example of its type. It is further historically significant
for its association with the Hendersons nineteenth-century shipbuilding industry.
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Photograph 4.84. The Frontier House/Gill House Inn at 13565 Harbor Road,
Henderson Harbor (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.85. The R.J.W. Morgan House at 13068 Harbor Road, Henderson
Harbor (Panamerican 2008).
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The former Tylers Inn (13030 Harbor Road) is a surviving, largely intact example of a ca.
1871 hotel building located in the project viewshed (Photograph 4.86). The two-story,
rectangular-plan building has steeply pitched hipped roof that incorporates an open tiered porch
overlooking the harbor. The buildings design is not atypical for the region. The Tyler family
operated the inn into the 1940s.
Henderson Harbor is the towns maritime center. Both seasonal and permanent cottages
and residences, ranging in date from the towns earliest settlement through the present, line the
shores of Henderson Harbor and Bay. There are notable high-style examples as well as modest
cottages on Harbor Road (CR 123) along the eastern shore of Henderson Harbor and the
southern edge of Henderson Bay. Of note is Harbor Castle (built 1929-1936; USN 04509.0013),
which is a Tudor Revival-inspired building of stone and frame construction set on a bluff off CR
123 overlooking Henderson Harbor (not in the project viewshed). The main section of Harbor
Road is mixed commercial and residential below Lake Ontario, where the road turns to the east.
The section of road along the shore of Lake Ontario is densely populated with cottages that are
now largely year-round residences. The Craftsman style is most popular architectural style
represented along this stretch within the study area. One prominent cottage of note is set on a
hill on the south side of the road (13962 CR 123) overlooking Lake Ontario (Photograph 4.87).
Presently known as Innisfall, the cottage also has an associated boathouse (Photograph 4.88).
Many cottages have been winterized for year-round occupation.

Photograph 4.86. The former Tyler Inn at 13030 Harbor Road, Henderson Harbor.
Note first floor porch once featured similar arcade as upper porch (Panamerican
2008).

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Photograph 4.87. Summer cottage Innisfall at 13962 CR 123, Henderson Harbor


(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.88. Boathouse at 13962 CR 123, Henderson Harbor (Panamerican


2008).
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4.3.6 Association Island, Town of Henderson. Association Island is located in Lake


Ontario, off Stony Point near Henderson Harbor, in the Town of Henderson, Jefferson County
(Figure 4.29). The island is entirely within the project viewshed. At 65 acres in size, the
approximately .75-mile long by 5-mile wide island was originally part of an unbroken stretch of
land known as Six Town Point, an extension of Snowshoe Point (Photographs 4.89 and 4.90).
Over the years, land erosion of the peninsula formed a small chain of islands. Today, Six Town
Point is divided into Snowshoe Island, Association Island, Davis Island and Six Town Point
(Figures 4.30 and 4.31). A modern causeway now connects Association Island with Snowshoe
Island and the main land.

Figure 4.29. Camp buildings on Association Island, Town of


Henderson, Jefferson County. Note chain of islands and associated
shoals (USGS 7.5 minute 1986 Henderson Bay, NY).
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Photograph 4.89. Narrow shoal north of Association Island (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.90. Six Town Point Island north of Association Island (Panamerican
2008).
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Figure 4.30. Town of Henderson in 1867 showing Sixth Town Point


(Association Island) (Stone 1867).

Association Island History. The French had a fort on Association Island in Henderson
Bay (which the French identified as the Bay of Niaoure) in the mid-eighteenth century. Historic
records show that Capt. de Villiers built a fort in 1746 (Anderson 2002), which was later
commanded by the Marquis de Montcalm. It was utilized until 1758, when it was abandoned as
a result of the deteriorating military situation with the British. It had served as a headquarters for
military operations and rendezvous point in preparation for attacking Fort Oswego in 1756
(Emerson 1898). Six Town Point, including Association and Snowshoe islands, was originally an
unbroken stretch of land. Physical evidence of the reported fort structure has not been identified
(Pratt & Pratt 1994:5).
According to Henderson historian Debbie Quick, Association Island was originally known
as Warners Island after its owner George Warner (Quick 2006:146). In 1867, one structure was
documented on both Association Island, associated with the initials S.H.S., and Snowshoe
Island, associated with W. Johnson (see Figure 4.30). In 1888, Winford Hovey purchased
Warner Island (Quick 2006;46). A narrow sandbar surrounded by shallow water connected
Association and Snowshoe islands. In 1893, no structures were identified on Association Island,
while one structure was documented on Snowshoe Island, possibly the same structure depicted
on the 1867 map (see Figure 4.31).
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Figure 4.31. Association Island, the center island above (not


identified on map), in 1895 with Snowshoe Bay and Six Town Point
Island (USGS 1895 [surveyed 1893] Sackets Harbor, NY Quadrangle
Minute Series).
The National Electric Lamp Association (NELA) of the United States purchased the island in
1905 or 1906 from private owners and named the property Association Island (Association Island
RV Resort & Marina [AIResort] 2009; JCJ 1908; Quick 2006:146). NELA created Camp
Henderson, summer recreation grounds for the Association's management meetings (JCJ 1908).
The camp could accommodate between 50 and 100 people at a time. The original row of tents
paralleled the shore and fronted the harbor. An extra canvas projected over the front of each tent
to form a sort of porch. Tent interiors had white iron cots and stands with matting on the floor. A
hospital was located at the end of the row of tents. The employers tents were laid out at right
angles to the main row of tents. Near the main dock was the barroom tent. The camp also had an
entertainment tent, Rices show tent. An older house on the island was converted for use as a
kitchen. It had an adjoining 60-ft by 40-ft dining tent. The camp was equipped with a lighting
system that with its many incandescents presented a brilliant spectacle. Jefferson County
Journal speculated that at these company meetings some gigantic schemes are laid to control
the electric lighting of a continent; or it may be plans are formed to harness Niagaras power and
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put it into greater electrical miracles (JCJ 1908). In 1908, the island received telephone service
plus the Camp Association invested $3,000 in camp improvements (Quick 2006:146).
In 1911, General Electric (GE) acquired NELA and continued to operate Association
Island as a corporate retreat and training center for GE executives, customers, and employees.
For the summer season of 1915, the camp closed because of the war in Europe (Quick
2006:146). The camp reopened the following season with a staff of 30 employees. Buildings
were repaired and remodeled. In the spring of 1918, the camp improved its recreational
amenities with the addition of a six-hole golf course and a 1.75 mile bridle path for horseback
riding that was constructed around the lakeside edge of the island (Quick 2006:146). Other
improvements included a dining room with a capacity of 250 people and a remodeled kitchen,
which was one of the most up-to-date kitchens in the North Country (JCJ 1918; see Quick
2006:146-147). The camp also had a powerhouse for electricity, a bakery, a store, a bowling
alley, administration building (containing main office, post office, lounging room, etc.), an
avenue of frame tents (replaced by 280 small cabins in the 1920s), a hospital (built 1917), a
canal extending the length of the island, and the committee building (built 1917) with assembly
hall and large ball room (JCJ 1918; see Quick 2006:146-147).
According to a book published by GE in 1919, the Association Island Corporation
comprised men prominent in the electrical industrynearly all of whom were employed by GE,
which owned the island. At that time, there were three camps on the island Camp Claverack,
Camp Edison, and Camp National (Ripley 1919:27). GE published a promotional brochure in
the 1920s for Camp Claverack (AIResort 2009). Visitors en route to Association Island traveled
by train to Sackets Harbor where they were greeted by camp employees who transported them
by motorboat launches to the conference center on the island, located five miles west of
Sackets Harbor.
In 1925, a new administration hall was constructed on the island. The Association
Corporation purchased in the following year three parcels of land on the mainland at Snowshoe
Point from George S. Hovel. The parcels contained 45 acres of land that extended to the
channel between Snowshoe and Association Island. In 1927, the narrowest part of the
Snowshoe Point canal was dug to a width of 40 feet and a depth of six feet, which cut off access
to Association Island. A bridge was constructed over the canal (Quick 2006:147). The 20-ft long
bridge, between abutments, had 10-ft headway in high water. In 1928, GE president Gerald
Swope founded The Elfun 1 Society, a leadership society, to encourage free and open
discussion outside the environs of GE. The society conducted their summer meetings at
Association Island and adopted as their logo the large elm tree that once stood on the island (he
tree died in the 1970s).
By 1929, a nine-hole golf course, with floodlights for night play, was constructed on the
Hovey farm tract (Quick 2006:147). The 1929 season brought over 3,500 thousand GE
employees and their families to the island. GE also purchased Carleton Island (St. Lawrence
River, Cape Vincent) in 1930 for a new recreation camp. From 1931 to 1935, GE did not use
Association Island. The camp reopened in 1936 and 1937. Several cottages were built during
that time. The camp closed again during World War II (1938 to 1945).
GE re-opened the camp in 1946 with a series of three-day conventions for approximately
300 attendees each. The main administrative building was leveled by fire that season. The
1

A contraction of the words "Electrical Funds (Ripley 1919:27).

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camp was then opened in 1948 and 1950. GEs final season at Association Island was in 1956
(Figure 4.32). In 1959, the extent of GE property in Henderson consisted of the Association
Island Facility, Snowshoe Point property, another lot on Snowshoe Point, and three highway
properties in Henderson Harbor (Quick 2006:148).
GE's camp at Association Island has served as the subject of several academic papers.
Kurt Vonnegut, a former employee of GE who had resigned from the company to become a fulltime writer, based his first novel Player Piano (1952) on GEs Association Island. In the novel,
Vonnegut wrote of an island called The Meadows, where all of the engineers and managers of
a large corporation make an annual retreat to reaffirm devotion to the system and become a
more productive workforce. With GEs Association Island as his model, Vonnegut depicted
corporate retreats of the 1940s and 1950s as a satire of old boys at summer camp.
In September 1959, GE donated the Snowshoe Point property, 60-acre Association Island,
the cut bridge, and its 50-acre mainland property to the YMCA with a total value of $453,000
(Quick 2006:148). The new YMCA camp opened on July 1, 1960 with a staff of 61 and an ability
to accommodate 650 people. Within four years, the YMCA had added four new cottages, while
five other units were remodeled. Ontario Lodge and the recreational buildings were also
remodeled (Figures 4.33 through 4.37). In 1965, the YMCA released a plan for an $8 million

Figure 4.32. Association Island in 1956, GEs final season at the island (AIResort 2009a).
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Figure 4.33. A ca. 1960s aerial view of the YMCA Camp at Association Island, facing
northeast. Note sandbar between Snowshoe and Association islands in center right
(reproduced courtesy of Historical Association of South Jefferson).

Figure 4.34. A 1965 aerial view of the YMCA Camp at Association Island, facing north
(YMCA 1971).
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Figure 4.35. YMCA Camp at Association Island, Henderson, Jefferson County as depicted on the camps paper placements
(reproduced courtesy of Historical Association of South Jefferson).

Figure 4.36. A ca. 1960s aerial view of the YMCA camp at Association Island, facing
south-southeast (YMCA 1971).

Figure 4.37. A ca. 1960s photo from the YMCA period at Association Island with the ca.
1920s cabins in the background (YMCA 1971).
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Figure 4.38. A ca. 1977 photograph of a


row of cabins and lampposts, Association
Island (reproduced courtesy of Historical
Association of South Jefferson).

project for year-round use of the island, which entailed joining Snowshoe and Association
islands with a roadway. Other improvements were proposed, but the plans never materialized.
The YMCA operated the facilities for seven years and, due to lack of funding, closed the camp
in 1967 (Quick 2006:148).
In 1970, a non-profit called the Association Island Recreational Corporation (AIRC) formed
to try to revitalize the property after the YMCA abandoned it (AIResort 2009). In 1973, the YMCA
sold the island to the AIRC for $125,000 and the following year the island became the North
American Sailing Center. In 1975, it became the U.S. Sailing Center. From 1973-1976,
Association Island was the location of numerous sailing and windsurfing competitions, as well as
was home to the U.S. Sailing Team in preparation for the 1976 Montral Olympics, which held the
Olympic sailing competitions on Lake Ontario, out of nearby Kingston (Figure 4.38). After the
Olympics, the island was abandoned and left to deteriorate. Association Island is privately owned
today by Association Island RV Resort & Marina, which opened for business in May 2002.
Association Island Previous Architectural Investigations. In 1994, Stage IA and IB
cultural resources surveys were conducted for the Association Island Development Company (Pratt
& Pratt 1993, 1994). NYSHPO determined that Association Island was NRE (under NRHP Criteria A
and C) and was historically and architecturally significant as a rare-surviving example of an early
twentieth-century corporate camp (Garofalini 1994). At that time, only 27 camp buildings remained
that were associated with the early twentieth-century use of the island as a recreational facility (see
Table 4.2; bolded buildings no longer extant). Built between 1907 and 1935, the extant buildings
represent a range of activities and reflect a relatively undamaged recreational complex with the most
important buildings and recreational facilities intact. With the exception of two buildings, Town Hall
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(1925) and Ontario Hall (1926), most buildings are representative examples of early twentiethcentury vernacular island and shoreline architecture (i.e., simple clapboard-sided white buildings
with green roofs and trim). Town Hall and Ontario Hall are outstanding examples of Colonial
Revival-inspired structures architect-adapted to the camp milieu (Garofalini 1994). The SPHINX
database for the Town of Henderson has not been updated to include the NRE status of Association
Island (NYSHPO nd).
NYSHPO also determined that the significance of Association Island was not limited to
extant buildings. Historic landscape features associated with the camp and its activities were not
identified or evaluated at that time. Additional archaeological work was conducted (Pratt & Pratt
1994), but further evaluation of the islands historic landscape features was not carried out.
Table 4.2. List of components of NRE Association Island as evaluated in 1994.
Building Name
Island House

NRHP status
Contributing

Bath House D

---

Cottage 3

---

Pump House

Non-contributing

Boat House

---

Tank House

---

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Dining Hall
Kitchen Complex
Employee Dining Room
Refrigeration/Storage
Bowling alley
Black Catte
Tom Catte
Service Area

Contributing
Contributing
Contributing
Contributing
Contributing
Contributing
Contributing
Contributing

15

Town Hall

Contributing

New Cottages Nos. 1-4


Sunset Cottage

Non-contributing
Non-contributing

21

Bath House C

---

22
23

Ontario Hall
Bath House B

Contributing
Contributing

24

Bath House A

---

25

Hospital

Contributing

26

School House

27

Pump House/
Wastewater Discharge

Bld g No.
1

16-19
20

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Comment/ Existing Conditions


Retains architectural integrity
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Exterior modified
Retains architectural integrity. Building
not in use--boarded up.

No longer extant (removed post-1994);


was NRE-contributing
Retains architectural integrity
Retains architectural integrity
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing
Exterior modified
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing
No longer extant (removed post-1994);
was NRE-contributing

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Association Island Existing Conditions. A windshield survey of Association Island was


conducted in October 2008 as part of the 10-mile APE architectural investigations. The island is
a privately owned, commercial recreational enterprise, owned by Association Island RV Resort
& Marina (AIResort). The resort contains 300 RV sites, a marina with boat ramp, five modern
cottages, a registration office and store building (the Island House), Activities Center (at the
Black Catte), conference center, clubhouse, and other recreational amenities. The site visit was
conducted when the RV Park was closing for the season. Interiors of buildings were not
accessed.
Association Island currently retains many of the camp features from the NELA/GE
occupation from 1907 to 1956, despite the removal of the all of its ca. 1920s cabins and the loss
or alteration of some of the other camp buildings (see Table 4.2). The YMCA also made
improvements during their ownership, but had retained at least 170 of the 1920s cabins. In
1977, the cabins were set at auction along with other camp inventory, such as boats, dishes,
furnishings, and marine equipment. A few of the 1920s camp cabins were noted in the
Henderson Harbor area and appear to now serve as storage outbuildings (Photographs 4.91
through 4.94). Based on review of historic photographs, the cabins shared the same form and
design. The GE cabins stand out for their A-frame tent-like design. These wooden tents
consisted of a small, one-story frame cabin setback under a broad gable roof that extended over
the cabin to form a sheltered porch. A row of three cross braces and two posts supported the
porch roof. The low-lying roof had overhanging, unenclosed eaves. The cabins were sheathed
with clapboard and set on concrete footings one foot in diameter (Pratt & Pratt 1994:20). Gable
ends of the cabin had an entrance flanked by two small window openings, and a window
opening above the door. Each cabin had a water and electric station (Pratt & Pratt 1994:20).
The island largely retains the earlier camp circulation route with Association Lane intact,
the former tree-lined primary road (see Figure 4.35). Sections of an allee of deciduous trees
along Association Lane remain intact (Photograph 4.106). Two notable buildings from the
camps period of significance were demolishedthe Assembly Hall and the Boat House (Pratt &
Pratt 1994:20). Extant primary buildings from the earlier camps appear to be the Island House
at the current entrance (see Figure 4.35; Photographs 4.97 and 4.98), Town Hall on west side of
the canal (now vacant), (Figure 4.39, Photographs 4.102 through 4.105), Ontario Lodge and
Towers on Association Lane (Photographs 4.107 through 4.110), the northern Bath House on
Association Lane (Photographs 4.111 through 4.113), possible former Hospital building (now a
Clubhouse/Laundry/Bath House; Photographs 4.114 through 4.116), the Dining Hall (now part
of Conference Center; Photograph 4.99), and the Black Catte (now Island Bar & Grill;
Photographs 4.100 and 4.101; Figure 4.32). Other camp structures or features include a skeetshoot high house (Photograph 4.118), a 1960s garage/maintenance building, tennis court, and
shuffleboard court. The original GE marina (Photograph 4.117) also remains and the lagoon
enlarged for a marina. Presently, there is a row of five cottages on the southwest side of the
island at the location of the cottages identified on the YMCA map (see Figure 4.35; Photograph
4.119). When the AIResort opened, there were only two cottages at that location. Modern
support facilities have been constructed at the south end of the island.
Evidence of the camp on Snowshoe Island includes a large fieldstone fireplace
(Photograph 4.121). The island also has a late nineteenth-century residence and the stone
foundation of a barn located on private property (Photograph 4.120). A cabin, possibly one of
the camps wooden tents was noted on the south shore of Six Point Island.

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Photograph 4.91. A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins or wooden
tents from the GE Camp at Association Island off Harbor Road in Henderson
Harbor (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.92. A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins or wooden
tents from the GE Camp at Association Island off Harbor Road in Henderson
Harbor (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.93. A surviving example of one of the ca. 1920s cabins from the GE
Camp at Association Island off Harbor Road in Henderson Harbor (Panamerican
2008).

Photograph 4.94. A surviving example of a ca. 1920s cabin from the GE Camp at
Association Island off Harbor Road in Henderson Harbor (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.95. Causeway connecting Snowshoe and Association Islands, with


Association Island in distance (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.96. Association Island from causeway (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.97. The Island House at the current entrance of Association Island
(see Figure 4.35) (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.98. The Island House at the current entrance, north and west
elevations (see Figure 4.35) (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.99. GE Marina and Conference Center (Dining Hall) near entrance
of Association Island (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.100. View from near entrance of Association Island, Island Hall at
left, Island Bar & Grill (Black Catte) at center (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.101. Island Bar & Grill, Association Island (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.102. Town Hall on west side of the canal, Association Island
(Panamerican 2008).

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Figure 4.39. Faade of Town Hall, Association Island in ca. 1960s


(Historical Association of South Jefferson nd).

Photograph 4.103. Faade of Town Hall, Association Island (Panamerican 2008).


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Photograph 4.104. East elevation of Town Hall, Association Island (Panamerican


2008).

Photograph 4.105. North and west elevations of Town Hall (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.106. Intact section of allee of deciduous trees along Association


Lane, south of Ontario Lodge, Association Island (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.107. East faade of Ontario Lodge & Towers (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.108. East faade of Ontario Lodge & Towers (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.109. East faade of Ontario Towers (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.110. West faade of Ontario Lodge & Towers, Association Island
(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.111. Association Lane with North Bath House and Olympic Lodge
& Towers (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.112. East and north elevations of North Bath House (Bath House
No. 2) (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.113. South and east elevations of North Bath House (Panamerican
2008).
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Photograph 4.114. Clubhouse (modified former Hospital building), south


elevation (see Figure 4.32), Association Island (Panamerican 2008)

Photograph 4.115. Clubhouse (modified former Hospital building), south


elevation, with allee of trees intact at left, Association Island (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.116. Modified former Hospital building, northern wing at right (see
Figure 4.32), Association Island (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.117. Olympic Marina on east side of Association Island, Henderson


Harbor, facing northeast (Panamerican 2008).
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Photograph 4.118. Skeet shoot high house at north end of Association Island
(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.119. Sunset Cottages at Association Island (Panamerican 2008).

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Photograph 4.120. Residence and stone foundation on Snowshoe Island


(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 4.121. Large fieldstone fireplace on Snowshoe Island, once part of


the Associated Island Camp (Panamerican 2008).

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4.4

GRENADIER ISLAND, TOWN OF CAPE VINCENT

Grenadier Island is an approximately 1,290-acre island located near the northeastern end
of Lake Ontario at the headwaters of the St. Lawrence River, two miles from Mud Bay in Cape
Vincent, New York. The island is 2.3 miles long and 1.4 miles wide. It has two main roads:
Grenadier Island Road #1, which extends southwesterly from Harbor Basin (at the northeastern
corner of the island) and follows the southern shoreline; and Grenadier Island Road #3, which
extends west from Harbor Basin near the northern shoreline of the island. A pond is located in
the center of the island. Almost the entire island is within the 10-mile APE viewshed except for a
narrow swath of its northern shoreline. This section provides an historic overview of Grenadier
Island.
4.4.1 Grenadier Island History. French explorers and invaders Champlain, La Salle and
Frontenac, who voyaged up the St. Lawrence River to Lake Ontario, were familiar with
Grenadier Island, as were other navigators and explorers who followed. Known to the French as
the Ile de Toniata, after the Native American community in the region at that time, the island is
referenced in numerous French documents (Stanley 1976). It was also known as the Ile aux
Chevreuil after French roe deer (Casler 1906:126). The island more than likely served as a
temporary stopping place for early lake travelers (Emerson 1898). After the American
Revolution in 1783, the Mississaugas sold their rights to the land to the Indian Department
(Stanley 1976). In 1791, the Grenadier and Fox islands, then included in the township of Cape
Vincent, were purchased by Alexander Macomb. Over the years, Grenadier Island became a
haven for smugglers. As early as 1803 Samuel English and Hezekiah Barrett had petitioned the
legislature for a patent for Grenadier Island, but it was then uncertain whether it was within the
jurisdiction of New York State, hence the request could not be granted (Emerson 1898).
In 1807, the United States passed the Embargo Act restricting trade across the Canadian
border. During the subsequent embargo period smugglers sought refuge on Grenadier Island.
At the onset of War of 1812, Grenadier Island was situated along the common thoroughfare
between Cape Vincent and the lower St. Lawrence area (and also between Cape Vincent,
Sackets Harbor and Oswego), which conveyed both settlers to the region as well as others who
left the area because of the uncertainties of war. By the fall of 1813, the island served as the
rendezvous for Major General James Wilkinson's Army prior to his disastrous expedition down
the St. Lawrence to capture Montral (Emerson 1898). It took Wilkinson two months to
assemble his force (ranging between 8,000 and 10,000 men) on the island due to harsh
weather conditions. His troops encountered severe storms and, by late October, the shores of
Lake Ontario were reportedly strewn with stranded scows (Stanley 1978; Lossing 1869).
Wilkinson's entire fleet of boats sought refuge from the severe weather at Basin Harbor, at the
eastern end of the island. Formed by the wash of gravel and sand, the harbor is landlocked by
the mainland on the north and Fox Island on the east. The harbor is deep enough for any
vessel that sailed the lake and large enough to hold all of them (Bedford 1998:8-9). The
Bedford family, early settlers of the island who operated a tavern from a window of their
dwelling, boarded the principal officers while the troops camped near Basin Harbor (Bedford
1998:9). An unidentified disease is reported to have killed many soldiers on the island, as well
as their host, Cornelius Bedford (Bedford 1998:9). Deceased soldiers were buried bare in the
shallow soils of the island (Bedford 1998:9). The troops stayed for almost a year on the island.
An account from the period in the Bedford Journal claimed the Army had completely
devastated all improvements on the island, killed all the cattle and hogs and poultry and even
horses for fresh meat, destroyed fences and out houses although the officers forbid [sic] and
ordered them to meddle with anything that did not belong to them (Bedford 1998:9).
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Before the construction of the Erie Canal, the islands Basin Harbor served as a layover
for vessels transporting produce from the west to eastern markets down the St. Lawrence River
to Quebec and then to England (Bedford 1998:9). Rafts carrying square timber and staves for
casks and barrels from the dense forest surrounding the lake also harbored in the basin before
heading eastern markets. In 1819, the line dividing Canada and New York was established.
Grenadier Island was patented to Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, Joshua Waddington and Thomas L.
Ogden on October 1, 1824. On November 10, 1824 title to the island became vested in
Pierrepont, who sold it (and Cherry Island) to William and Gerardus Post, of New York, on
February 19, 1825 for $7,000. The Posts sold land to settlers, despite the number of squatters
who had taken up residence on the island and who were reluctant to vacate their improvements
(Emerson 1898).
The pioneer of Grenadier Island is supposed to have been John Mitchell, a squatter, who
built a cabin after the War of 1812 (Emerson 1898). At the time the Posts assumed ownership,
there were at least 14 families living on the island. The inhabitants were engaged in lumbering,
limited farming, and fishing. The island changed ownership several times. In 1822, there were
approximately 20 families residing on the island. A log school house was built that year near
Basin Harbor on the islands main north-south road. In 1823, Grenadier Island was surveyed
and recorded as comprising 1,290 acres. By the mid-nineteenth century the island had a cheese
factory. The fishing industry prospered in northeastern Lake Ontario during the nineteenth
century, as thousands of barrels of fish were annually taken with seines and nets located off the
shores of Grenadier Island. By the last decade of end of the nineteenth century, the extensive
fisheries had dissolved.
Grenadier Island reportedly served as a station on the Underground Railroad. Central and
Northern New York were part of the Underground Railroad, as the cities of Syracuse and
Oswego were the hubs of New Yorks freedom trail. Fugitives would travel to Cape Vincent and
other local areas to cross over to Canada. According to Nellie Casler, former historian for the
Town of Cape Vincent, the island had a safe house with a hidden room for fugitive slaves
(Casler 1906). The safe houses location on the island has not been formally investigated. The
Great Lakes Seaway Trail has recognized Grenadier Islands association with the Underground
Railroad in one of its history lessons for the Learning on the Great Lakes Seaway Trail program
(Sullivan nd:3).
During the 1870s the island contained at least a dozen farmsteads varying in size from 32
to 190 acres. Each farm reportedly had an orchard. During the 1880s, the island became a
popular summer tourist destination. The farmers on the island supported the tourist industry with
produce, as well as producing milk for Jefferson Countys flourishing cheese industry. A new
one-room frame school with an outhouse was constructed in the late nineteenth century in the
center of the island on the main road. This building is not the ca. 1822 schoolhouse of log
construction, which stood farther east, closer to Basin Harbor. The school is still extant (Figure
4.41). By 1893, there were seven structures and one main road on the island (Figure 4.40).
Development of the Thousand Islands region as a recreational destination at the end of
the nineteenth century was evidenced at Grenadier Island in 1902 by the construction of
Halcyon Point at the northeastern tip of the island. Edward B. Talcott of New York built an
impressive estate as his summer home (Casler 1906:127). Talcott had visited Cape Vincent and
its vicinity for twenty years before he purchased a nearly mile long tract along of waterfront on
Grenadier Island (Casler 1906:127). In addition to his home, he constructed a building for
helpers and guides, cold storage, a boathouse, and a wharf. Mrs. Josephine Weeks and her
husband, Judge Bartow S. Weeks, improved what became the Moro Estate at Halcyon Point for
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a reported quarter of a million dollars (Thousand Islands Sun 1952). The one time magnificent
stone Moro Castle with its luxurious furnishings became one of the finest estates in Eastern
Lake Ontario (Thousand Islands Sun 1952). In 1952, the 101-acre estate was purchased by the
local firm of Wagoner & Holman and was then placed at auction (Watertown Times 1952). Avid
fisherman and duck hunter William L. Clay of Rochester, New York, purchased the estate and
Basin Harbor at auction for $5,500 (Thousand Islands Sun 1952). The contents of the house
were also auctioned off.

Figure 4.40. Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County (USGS 1895
[surveyed 1893] 15 Quadrangle).

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Figure 4.41. Grenadier Island School House, Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent
(Wikipedia 2008).

Grenadier Island Grassland. Grenadier Island Grassland Preserve is an approximately


400-acre nature preserve, which encompasses roughly 31 percent of the island (Figures 4.42
and 4.43). It is an important part of the nesting bird and raptor habitats of this large island
(Thousand Islands Land Trust [TILT] 2008). The preserve has little human disturbance,
extensive grasslands, and abundant food sources for bird habitats.

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Figure 4.42. TILTs Grenadier Island Grassland Preserve (Jefferson County Planning
Department 2007).

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Figure 4.43. Grenadier Island Grassland, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County (Thousand
Island Land Trust 2007).

4.4.2 Grenadier Island Previous Architectural Investigations. Two historic resources


on Grenadier Island were previously surveyed as part of an architectural investigation
conducted for the St. Lawrence Wind Project (TRC 2008). These resources were the
Abandoned Farm (no street number) on Grenadier Island Road #3 (USN 04505.000160; TRC
ID No. H-36) and the Uhlein House at 2533 Grenadier Island Road #1 (USN 04505.00016061;
TRC ID No H-37). The St. Lawrence Wind Project five-mile APE included only the northeastern
half of the island.
The Abandoned Farm on Grenadier Island Road #3 (USN 04505.000160; Figure 4.44)
was determined NRE under Criterion A for its association with the development of Grenadier
Island and its once prosperous agricultural community (Bonafide 2008). The abandoned farm is
locally identified as the Humphrey Farm House or otherwise known as the "Carbide House.
Located on the northern shore of the island, the building is not within the Hounsfield Wind Farm
10-mile APE viewshed. The farm house is a ca. 1870, two-story, frame L-shaped building.
Despite its deteriorated condition, the building appears to be the best surviving example of a
frame farmhouse on Grenadier Island (see TRC 2008). Approximately a dozen farmsteads were
located on the island in the late nineteenth century. No extant buildings remain intact that
illustrate the agricultural role of the property.
NYSOPRHP determined the Uhlein House at 2533 Grenadier Island Road #1 (USN
04505.00016061) as Not NRE due to its extensive alterations that include many large modern
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additions to an original 1.5-story house (Bonafide 2008; see TRC 2008). The Uhlein house has
an associated mid-nineteenth century stone outbuilding and a large limestone chimney stack
(date unknown [Figure 4.45]). The original stone block is three-bays wide by one-bay deep with
its faade fronting east.
An incomplete copy of a cultural resources investigation for a proposed utility corridor west
of the Basin Harbor area on file at Lyme Heritage Center, with no date or author, noted two
stone gravemarkers (Francis W. Sterling [n.d.] and Vincent Bedford[1878]) were found on the
island in the summer of 1995 (Lyme Heritage Center). The location of the graves was not
identified.

Figure 4.44. The NRE Abandoned Farm on Grenadier Island Road #3 (Humphrey Farm
House/Carbide House; USN 04505.000160) (Wikipedia 2008).

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Figure 4.45. Uhlein House


04505.00016061) (TRC 2008).

at

2533

Grenadier

Island

Road

#1

(USN

4.4.3 Conclusion. As noted, the current architectural investigation was limited to archival
research. A site visit was not conducted on Grenadier Island as part of the 10-mile APE study.
Grenadier Island presently contains three extant nineteenth-century buildings, and
approximately eight seasonal cottages along its southern shoreline. Two of three nineteenthcentury buildings on the island were previously surveyed (TRC 2008; see above section). The
NRE abandoned Humphrey Farm House, also known as the "Carbide House," is a two-story
building with a basement and an attic (see Figure 4.44). The other building is the Stone House
located in the northeast corner of the Island at Harbor Basin, which is part of a large seasonal
rental cottage. The Stone House was determined Not NRE due to extensive modifications.
Despite the Not NRE status, the property is of local interest as one of Jefferson Countys
nineteenth-century stone buildings.
Grenadier Island School House, the third building, is a late nineteenth-century one-room
frame school house (see Figure 4.41). It was identified in the 10-mile APE architectural
investigation. The school house is located on Grenadier Island Road in the center of the island.
It is a one-story, front-gabled rectangular block set on a stone foundation and sheathed with
clapboard. The fenestration is intact, but the original sash has been replaced. It has a rear ridge
brick chimney. Based on this initial background review, it appears Grenadier Island School
House is potentially NRE for its historical association with the development of Grenadier Island
and the rural school districts of Cape Vincent. It is further architecturally significant as a largely
intact example of a frame one-room school house in the Northern New York.
Overall, Grenadier Island is historically significant for its association with the War of 1812
as the headquarters and encampment for Major General James Wilkinson's Army (under NRHP
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Criteria A, B and D). The island is further significant for its role in the Underground Railroad as a
safe house for fugitive slaves (under NRHP Criteria A and possibly D).
4.4.4 Little Grenadier Island. Little Grenadier Island is a small island located east of the
northeastern corner (Harbor Basin) of Grenadier Island (Figure 4.46). The entire island is within
the 10-mile APE viewshed. It was purchased in 1897 by General Louis Fitzgerald of Garrisonon-the-Hudson, and three men from New York City: Richard H. Halstead, Russell Murray and
George C. Andrea (Casler 1906:138). The following year, buildings were constructed by the four
men, which converted the island into a summer retreat, as was the popular trend in the region
during the late nineteenth century (Figure 4.47).
The current architectural investigation was limited to archival research; a site visit was not
conducted on Little Grenadier Island as part of the 10-mile APE study. As such, the extent and
integrity of historic resources associated with the ca. 1898 summer estate on Little Grenadier
Island is not known. Based on review of aerial photography, there appears to be a few
structures and a dock on the island.

Figure 4.46. Aerial view of Little Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County
(NYSGIS Clearinghouse 2009).

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Figure 4.47. An early twentieth-century postcard of Little Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent,
New York (G.H. Glenn Publisher, NY).

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4.5

FOX ISLAND, TOWN OF CAPE VINCENT

Fox Island is an approximately 263-acre island situated roughly 0.7 mile to the east of
Grenadier Island near the northeastern end of Lake Ontario at the headwaters of the St.
Lawrence River and near the isthmus of Point Peninsula in Cape Vincent, Jefferson County
(Figure 4.48). It is a long narrow strip of land of irregular shape with one main road along its
northwestern shore, Fox Island Road #7. A vast marsh area comprises the east side of the
island. The entire island is within the 10-mile APE viewshed except for a narrow swath of its
northern shoreline. This section provides an historic overview of Fox Island.

Figure 4.48. Aerial view of Fox Island, Cape Vincent, Jefferson County, facing east (Woltz
2007).
4.5.1 Fox Island History. Fox Island was identified on early maps as Isle aux Renard
(Fox) (Casler 1906:137). Both Grenadier and Fox Islands were purchased by Alexander
Macomb in 1791, and were included in the Town of Cape Vincent (Casler 1906:126). The island
is historically associated with the War of 1812 and Major General James Wilkinson's Army prior
to his disastrous expedition down the St. Lawrence to capture Montral (Emerson 1898).
Several of Wilkinsons vessels were wrecked or stranded on Fox Island during the mid-October
storm of 1813 (Casler 1906:131). At the close of the War of 1812, Stephen Bedford, the son of
Cornelius Bedford, and his family moved from Grenadier Island to Fox Island. The family
resided in a log house on the unoccupied island for at least two winter seasons from 1815 to
1816 (Bedford 1998:11). In the spring of 1817, the Bedfords returned to Grenadier Island
(Bedford 1998:13). Furman Fish, son of Ebenezer and Anna Arnold Fish, is attributed as the
first owner of Fox Island in the late 1830s (Merchant 1946). In 1864, there were two structures
on the island associated with F.J. Fish (Beers 1864).
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In 1905, a partnership of four men consisting of Senator Elon R. Brown of Watertown,


Senator Horace White of Syracuse, Judge Wallace of Albany, and Hone E. Sexton of New York
City purchased Fox Island. Five years later, Horace White (1865-1943) became the 37th
Governor of New York State (1910). The original lodge building consisted of a rustic-inspired
cottage with an open full-width porch (Figure 4.49). The interior of the lodge featured antique
furnishings mostly designed by the furniture maker Gustav Stickley. In 1906, White persuaded
the state to turn over to him a large duck marsh just offshore of the island (The New York Times
2007b). Fox Island became a favorite seasonal hunting retreat of politicians and state leaders.
Senator Brown, a former State Senate leader, died on Fox Island in 1922 of an apparent heart
attack (The New York Times 2007b).
Fox Islands Governor Horace White Lodge estate has had four owners since the 1905
partnership (The New York Times 2007a). After Whites death in 1943, Mr. Marcellus and
Clellan S. Forsythe purchased the property from the White estate (Thousand Islands Sun 1980).
It was sold in 1980 by Fox Island Realty Company, which was headed by Mr. Marcellus son
John, to S.C. Robinson of New Albany, Indiana, and Richard Mattox for $160,000 (Thousand
Islands Sun 1980). The property included at that time an airstrip, a 12-room main lodge, a
pheasant-rearing house, dog kennels, barns, a farmhouse, a caretakers cottage, two large
boathouses, a duck-decoy house, a boat shed and a pumphouse (Thousand Islands Sun 1980).
In the last two decades, the original main block of the lodge has been enlarged and
expanded with the addition of lower flanking wings (TRC 2008). The estate recently sold in 2007
for $3.78 million (The New York Times 2007a). A 40-piece collection of Gustav Stickley antique
furnishings was also auctioned (The New York Times 2007b). The current owner plans to retain
the undeveloped character of the island (The New York Times 2007a).

Figure 4.49. The original Governor Horace White Lodge in the early
1900s, Fox Island (Woltz 2007).

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4.5.2 Fox Island: Previous Architectural Investigations. Two historic resources on Fox
Island were previously surveyed as part of an architectural investigation conducted for the St.
Lawrence Wind Project (TRC 2008). These include: the Governor Horace White Lodge at
2079/2261 Fox Island Road #7 (USN 04505.000162); and a vacant building on Fox Island Road
#7 (USN 04505.000167). NYSOPRHP determined both of these buildings as Not NRE. The
St. Lawrence Wind Project five-mile APE included almost all of Fox Island except for a small
portion of its southern extremities.
The White Lodge has been significantly enlarged since the early 1900s and, except for the
chimneys and the foundation, its original features are not discernable (TRC 2008). The building
has undergone modifications that include replacement siding, primary porch enclosure, and
replacement of all original doors and windows (TRC 2008). The lodge also has a caretakers
cottage.
The other inventoried structure is a ca. 1870 deteriorated two-story, frame, L-shaped
building with gabled roof. The primary west faade has a one-story hipped porch that has
collapsed. Roof and walls have partially collapsed. There are no associated outbuildings.
4.5.3 Conclusions. Fox Island is one of the last privately held islands in the Thousand
Islands region. It remains one of the Northeast's finest water fowling destinations. The island
features a sprawling renovated lodge (White Lodge) with native stone fireplaces that includes a
guest house, a large front dock, and mainland dock recently constructed with 70-year steel
pilings and pressure-treated staving; newly constructed protected harbor and docks, associated
large steel storage barn; a harbor house; decoy house; and pumphouse (Woltz 2007). It has a
3,000-ft private grass landing strip. The island also has one late nineteenth-century abandoned
building.
Additional research conducted as part of the 10-mile APE study, revealed that Fox Island
is of historical significance for its association with events of the War of 1812 and its proximity to
Grenadier Island (a channel between the islands), which served as the headquarters and
encampment for Major General Wilkinson's Army.
The current architectural investigation was limited to archival research; a site visit was not
conducted on Fox Island as part of the 10-mile APE study. As such, the extent and integrity of
historic resources associated with the ca. 1905-1907 Horace White Lodge has not been
assessed. A previous study of the White Lodge did not provide full documentation of ancillary
structures and other features of the property. Despite alterations to the White Lodge, Fox Island
is locally important for its historical association with the early halcyon days of the seasonal
resort development of the Thousand Islands region of St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario.
White Lodge is also notable for its owners and guests who were prominent politicians of New
York State from the early twentieth century.

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5.0 Architectural Survey Results

This report documents a total of 66 properties: seven individual NRL; one NRL historic
district; two individual NRE; 37 recommended individual NRE (inclusive of two cemeteries); and
19 unevaluated properties. Farm complexes with numerous farm buildings or features are
considered as one property. As part of the final architectural survey, these properties were
examined along with other historic resources in the positive viewshed. The breakdown of the
results follows the order of the Annotated List of Properties in Section 8.0, which catalogs the
findings of this architectural survey. Buildings with limited access due to private lake frontage
(i.e., lake elevation not visible) are identified as unevaluated in this report.

5.1

TOWN OF BROWNVILLE (MCD 04504), JEFFERSON COUNTY

One individual property, the Samuel Read House at 20669 South Shore Road (in Pillar
Point) is recommended as NRE in the Town of Brownville. No previously recorded NRL or NRE
properties are located in the ten-mile APE study area section of Brownville.

5.2

TOWN OF CAPE VINCENT (MCD 04505), JEFFERSON COUNTY

For the Grenadier islands and Fox Island, the current architectural investigation was
limited to archival research. A site visit was not conducted on these three islands as part of the
10-mile APE study (see Sections 4.4 and 4.5). Grenadier Island presently contains three extant
nineteenth-century buildings. Two of three nineteenth-century buildings were previously
surveyed (TRC 2008). These include the NRE abandoned Humphrey Farm House (also
known as the "Carbide House") and the Stone House located in the northeast corner of the
island at Harbor Basin, which is part of a large seasonal rental cottage. The Stone House was
determined Not NRE due to extensive modifications. Despite the Not NRE status, the
property is of local interest as one of Jefferson Countys nineteenth-century stone buildings.
Grenadier Island School House, the third building, is a late nineteenth-century one-room,
frame school house (see Figure 4.41). Identified in the ten-mile APE architectural research
investigation, the school house building is located on Grenadier Island Road in the center of the
island. It is a one-story, front-gabled rectangular block set on a stone foundation and sheathed
with clapboard. The fenestration is intact, but the original sash has been replaced. It has a rear
ridge brick chimney. Based on this initial background review, it appears Grenadier Island
School House is potentially NRE for its historical association with the development of Grenadier
Island and the rural school districts of Cape Vincent. It is further architecturally significant as a
largely intact example of a frame one-room school house in the Northern New York.
Overall, Grenadier Island is historically significant for its association with the War of 1812
as the headquarters and encampment for Major General James Wilkinson's Army (under NRHP
Criteria A, B and D). The island is further significant for its role in the Underground Railroad as a
safe house for fugitive slaves (under NRHP Criteria A and possibly D).
Little Grenadier Island was purchased in 1897 by General Louis Fitzgerald of Garrison-on
the-Hudson and three men from New York CityRichard H. Halstead, Russell Murray and
George C. Andrea (Casler 1906:138). The following year, buildings were constructed by the four
men, who converted the island into a summer retreat. The extent and integrity of historic
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resources associated with the ca. 1898 summer estate on Little Grenadier Island is not known.
Based on review of aerial photography, there appears to be a few structures and a dock on the
island.
Fox Island is one of the last privately held islands in the Thousand Islands region. It
remains as one of the Northeast's finest water fowling destinations. The island features a
sprawling renovated lodge (White Lodge) with native stone fireplaces that includes a guest
house, a large front dock and mainland dock recently constructed with 70-year steel pilings and
pressure-treated staving; newly constructed protected harbor and docks; associated large steel
storage barn; a harbor house; decoy house; and pumphouse (Woltz 2007). It has a 3,000-ft
private grass landing strip. The island also has one late nineteenth-century abandoned building.
Additional research conducted as part of the ten-mile APE study revealed that Fox Island
is of historical significance for its association with events of the War of 1812 and its proximity to
Grenadier Island (a channel between the islands), which served as the headquarters and
encampment for Major General Wilkinson's army.
The extent and integrity of historic resources on Fox Island associated with the ca. 1905
1907 Horace White Lodge has not been assessed. A previous study of the White Lodge did not
provide full documentation of ancillary structures and other landscape features of the property.
Despite alterations to the White Lodge, Fox Island is locally important for its historical association
with the early days of seasonal resort development of the Thousand Islands region of the St.
Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. White Lodge is also notable for its owners and guests, who
were prominent politicians of New York State from the early twentieth century.

5.3

TOWN OF HENDERSON (MCD 04509), JEFFERSON COUNTY

Seventeen individual properties are recommended as NRE in the ten-mile APE study area
section of Henderson (Table 5.1). An additional 18 properties were assigned an Unevaluated
NRHP status because of lack of access (i.e., principal facades front Lake Ontario). One NRE(I)
property, Association Island, is located in the project viewshed in Henderson. There are no NRL
properties in the ten-mile APE study area in Henderson (see Section 4.3 for historic resources
in Henderson).
Table 5.1. Summary of properties in the ten-mile APE study area in the Town of Henderson.
Property Name
Robert G. Wehle State
Park
Association Island
Stony Point Light
House
Crandall Property

Margi Lodge
Roe Property
Howard Property

Address

Locality

On Lake Ontario

NRHP Status

Stony Point

Unevaluated

Association Island (h)

NRE(I)

3415 Lighthouse Road

Stony Point (h)

Recommend Eligible

3535 Lighthouse Road


3597 Lighthouse Road
3667 Lighthouse Road
3693 Lighthouse Road
3765 Lighthouse Road
3779 Lighthouse Road
3787 Lighthouse Road

Stony Point (h)


Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)

Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated

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Table 5.1 continued.


Property Name

Former Tyler Inn


Greiner Property
Hillbrook Cottage
R.J.W. Morgan House

Gill House Inn

Brown Owl Cottage


Bittersweet Lodge

Innisfaell
Cedarhurst
Cedar Lodge

5.4

Address
3815 Lighthouse Road
3833 Lighthouse Road
3845 Lighthouse Road
3857 Lighthouse Road
13030 Harbor Road/CR 123
13040 Harbor Road/CR 123
13068 Harbor Road/CR 123
13102 Harbor Road/CR 123
13370 Harbor Road/CR 123
13399 Harbor Road/CR 123
13498 Harbor Road/CR 123
13547 Harbor Road/CR 123
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123
13608 Harbor Road/CR 123
13611 Harbor Road/CR 123
13643 Harbor Road/CR 123
13644 Harbor Road/CR 123
13699 Harbor Road/CR 123
13723 Harbor Road/CR 123
13773 Harbor Road/CR 123
13799Harbor Road/CR 123
13832 Harbor Road/CR 123
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123
13689 Harbor View Road
15318 Snowshoe Road
15321 Snowshoe Road

Locality
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Stony Point (h)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)
Henderson Harbor (v)

NRHP Status
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Recommend Eligible
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible

TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD (MCD 04510), JEFFERSON COUNTY

One property, the former U.S. Coast Guard Station on Galloo Island, is recommended as
NRE (see Section 4.1.3). One NRL property, Galloo Island Lighthouse, is located in the project
viewshed in Hounsfield (see subsection below for Sackets Harbor).
For Stony and Calf islands, the current architectural investigation was limited to archival
research; site visits were not conducted on Stony and Calf islands as part of the ten-mile APE
study. As such, the extent and integrity of historic resources on these two islands has not been
assessed (i.e., unevaluated for NRHP eligibility).
Stony and Calf islands are privately owned by ConocoPhillips Petroleum. The company
still operates Stony Island Lodge as a corporate retreat. The lodge is historically significant for
its association with the summer resort era of eastern Lake Ontario and the Thousand Islands. It
is further possibly architecturally significant for its association with prominent central New York
architect Archimedes Russell and as a representative example of rustic lodge resort
architecture. However, the architectural integrity of Stony Island Lodge is not known. One other
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

5-3

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

resource of note is a reported cemetery on the island containing the graves of former Stony
Island inhabitants. The location of the cemetery is not known (Quick 2006:177). The old Stony
Island school house is no longer extant; it succumbed to fire in 1990 (JCJ 1990).

5.5 VILLAGE OF SACKETS HARBOR (MCD 04558), TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD,


JEFFERSON COUNTY
Ten individual properties are recommended as NRE in the APE study area in Sackets
Harbor (Table 5.2). An additional 18 properties were assigned an Unevaluated NRHP status
because of lack of access (i.e., principal facades front Lake Ontario).
The NRL Sackets Harbor Village Historic District is a large district containing some 156
properties, which includes most of the village proper (note: the district was assigned a single
map point for this study). Three individual NRL properties are located in the project viewshed
(see Table 5.2), inclusive of one contributing property to the district, the Elisha Camp House (it
was assigned its own separate map point for this study).
Table 5.2. Summary of properties in the ten-mile APE study area in Sackets Harbor.
Property
Boulton Beach Farms

Sackets Harbor
Battlefield
Madison Barracks
Lakeside Cemetery
Military Cemetery

Elisha Camp House


Sackets Harbor Village
Historic District

Address
Ambrose Street

Municipality
Sackets Harbor (v)

NRHP Status
Recommend Eligible

402 Ambrose Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

518 Ambrose Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

Black River Bay

Sackets Harbor (v)

NRL

Black River Bay

Sackets Harbor (v)

NRL

328 County HWY 75

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

Dodge Street
Dodge Street

Sackets Harbor (v)


Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible

352 Dodge Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

362 Dodge Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

323 East Main Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

310 General Smith Drive

Sackets Harbor (v)

NRL

Main Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

NRL

390 Ontario Street

Sackets Harbor (v)

Recommend Eligible

5.6 TOWN OF LYME (MCD 04513), JEFFERSON COUNTY


Eight individual properties are recommended as NRE in the in the ten-mile APE study
area in the Town of Lyme (Table 5.3). One property was assigned an Unevaluated NRHP
status because of lack of access (i.e., principal facades front Lake Ontario). Three individual
NRL properties in Lyme are located in the project viewshed. The study area only included Point
Peninsula.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

5-4

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Table 5.3. Summary of properties in the ten-mile APE study area in the Town of Lyme.
Property
Hanson's High
Rocks
Getman
Farmhouse
Farm
Farm buildings

Farm complex

Lance Farm
Angell Farm

Address

Municipality

NRHP Status

4811 Becker Lane

Point Peninsula (v)

Unevaluated

South Shore Road

Point Peninsula (v)

NRL

South Shore Road


South Shore Road

Point Peninsula (v)


Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible
Recommend Eligible

South Shore Road

Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible

Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible

Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible

Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible

Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible

Point Peninsula (v)

Recommend Eligible

Point Peninsula/Chaumont (v)


Point Peninsula/Chaumont (v)

NRL
NRL

19458 South Shore


Road
19532 South Shore
Road
21585 South Shore
Road
25201 South Shore
Road
25403 South Shore
Road
South Shore Road
South Shore Road

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

5-5

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

6.0 Impacts

The study area is a ten-mile radius extending from the perimeter edge of the proposed
layout of the Hounsfield Wind Farm project site. The project is located in Jefferson County. The
towns included within the projects ten-mile visual APE primarily include portions of the Galloo
Islands in Hounsfield, Henderson, Brownsville, Lyme, and Grenadier and Fox islands in Cape
Vincent. The Village of Sackets Harbor, which is 13 miles northeast of Galloo Island, was
included in the APE at the request of NYSHPO. No structures or buildings will be demolished or
physically altered in connection with the construction of the project. Access to the surrounding
historical, recreational, and commercial land uses will not be impeded by the project.
The definition of visual impacts has historically been conceptually problematic. The New
York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) defines Visual Impact as:
when the mitigating effects of perspective do not reduce the visibility of an object to
insignificant levels. Beauty plays no role in this concept. A visual impact may also be
considered in the context of contrast. For instance, all other things being equal, a blue object
seen against an orange background has greater visual impact than a blue object seen
against the same colored blue background. Again, beauty plays no role in this concept
[NYSDEC 2000:10-11].

The difficulty, however, lies in defining insignificant levels or in determining the levels of contrast
that have an effect. Further, at what level of contrast does the effect become adverse? In the
overall assessment, the multivariate natures of the NRL and NRE properties in the viewshed
can be considered to a limited degree. In many instances, the setting of the property contributes
to its eligibility, while in other cases it is less so or not at all important. In this summary, the level
of effect (visibility and contrast) is measured on the dataset as a wholethe National Register
listed and eligible (and potentially eligible) properties within the viewshed (Table 6.1 [end]).
One method used by Panamerican and others for illustrating the degree of visual impact is
loosely based on categories suggested by the U.S. Forest Service for assessing visual impacts
on landscapes. In this framework, the project viewshed is divided into zones of relative visibility
based on geographical distance from the viewer. In order to present these analyses in a
consistent and comparable manner, Panamerican uses the following categories: Foreground (0
0.5 mile); Middle ground (0.5-3.0 miles); and Background (3.0 miles to horizon). Only two
properties, the lighthouse and Coast Guard Station on the island, are in the visual foreground
while the remaining properties are well in the background relative to the wind farm. While the
Forest Service inspired scheme has been adapted for a number of 5-mile radius studies, versus
the 10-mile radius used here, it does lend some perspective when comparing this project to
other built or planned wind farms. While some of the affected historic properties are grouped
together within municipalitiesspecifically in the villages of Sackets Harbor and Henderson
Harborand along roads or in associated complexes such as farmsteads, on the whole, the
properties are found across the study area. This typifies dispersed rural settlement as well as
the clustered seasonal and permanent cottages that reflect the seasonal development of the
region.
There are 66 NRL, NRE and recommended NRE properties within the topographic
viewshed (Figure 6.1). As noted above, virtually all of these properties are located well in the
background. One of these properties is the NRL Sackets Harbor Historic District that comprises a
total of 156 properties on approximately 71 acres. The total number of structures/places within this
extended viewshed (the ten-mile ring and Sackets Harbor) is in the hundreds. However, the bulk
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-1

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

TURBINE LOCATION
10-MILE BUFFER
NO TURBINES VISIBLE

Figure 6.1. The topographic viewshed of the ten-mile APE of the Hounsfield Wind Farm
(USGS 15 Quadrangles: Cape Vincent [1985], Pulaski [1986], NY).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-2

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

of these structures/places are in Sackets Harbor, which is between 12 and 13 miles (19.3 and
20.9 km) from Galloo Island. The proposed wind farm will be sited across most of Galloo Island
except for a small portion at its southwestern end. The most significant visual impacts will be on
water and neighboring islands (primarily Stony, Grenadier and Fox islands), with lesser impacts
along the closer shorelines. As noted above, mainland impacts will be relatively minimal.
Excluding the two properties on the island, the nearest NRL/NRE property is well in the
background at 6.4 miles (10.3 km) away and the average distance to the nearest turbine for
properties within the ten-mile ring is 8.4 miles (13.5 km). For properties outside the ten-mile ring
but included in this study (Sackets Harbor), the average distance to the nearest turbine is 12.8
miles (20.6 km). So, for the majority of the NRL/NRE properties in the study area, the proposed
wind farm will be in the far visual background and will be not be discernable from most
properties.
Because the visual impact analysis is topography based and does not include vegetative
cover, it undoubtedly overestimates the number of visible turbines and the number of properties
from which they can be seen. In many ways, it represents the worst-case scenario with respect
to the general visibility of this Project.
A visual analysis conducted by Saratoga Associates (2009) supports this assessment;
concluding that the visual impacts to mainland areas would be minimal:
From ground level vantage points along the coast, the project will appear very low to the
horizon. A proposed wind turbine on Galloo Island, as viewed from the nearest coastal
vantage point would measure only 0.8 degrees vertically above the horizon (base to blade tip
at apex of rotation). This is roughly equivalent to the width of a pencil held at arms length. At
15 miles, the full height of the turbine would measure just 0.3 degrees. This is roughly
equivalent to the width of two pennies held at arms length. While this very small degree of
visibility might be perceptible to a distant observer, it is unlikely to be considered a point of
interest at such extended distance [Saratoga Associates 2009:39].

Another measure used to illustrate a wind farms visual impact is based on the number of
turbines that can be seen from NRL or NRE properties (Figure 6.2). The number of turbines that
can be seen from all properties documented within the ten-mile APE (e.g., NRL, NRE and
recommended NRE properties) spans the full range of values, however the distribution is heavily
skewed toward the full number of 84. Unlike most wind farms in New York which have been built
or planned on the mainland, Galloo Island is a solitary point on the flat plain of Lake Ontario. As a
result, the island, or at least its location, can be seen in full view from a large portion of the
mainland within the ten-mile APE. This accounts for the average number of visible turbines of 69.5
(out of 84), which is a relatively high number. In fact, 84 turbines are visible from 40 NRL/NRE
properties; nearly two-thirds of the inventoried properties. These numbers should be viewed with
caution since the visual APE in this study is well beyond the normal five-mile radius survey and is
mitigated to a great extent by distance.
Based on the available information, it is apparent that the wind farm will change the visible
landscape of the region; however, nearly all of this change will have an effect that is restricted to
surrounding waters, the sparsely populated, nearby islands and sections of the less distant
shorelines on Stony Point and Point Peninsula. The turbines will be visible features on this
remote landscape where there have not been other types of vertical, manmade features.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-3

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

45
Number of NRL/NRE and Recommended
Properties

40
40
35
30
25
20
15

10

40-49

30-39

0
84

70-80

60-69

50-59

20-39

11-19

1-10

Number of Visible Turbines


Figure 6.2. Graph showing the categories of visible turbines and the numbers of
properties in each category based on the topographic viewshed.
The The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-required lighting on some of the turbines may
be visible from far distant locations. While there may be some screening afforded by mature
trees and forest, particularly in the less-developed southern portion of the visual APE, the
prominent features of the turbines may be distantly visible, dependant on weather conditions
from some locations, primarily on the coast, during periods of dormancy.
Presently, the radio tower at the Coast Guard Station is the only significant vertical feature
on the island. While there is a series of telephone/electric line poles along the southeast shore
of the island, the poles are small and do not represent a significant vertical feature compared
to the not-to-exceed 410-ft (125-m) high wind turbines.
Shoreline properties with little forest screening will have the clearest view of the proposed
wind farm. This includes Robert G. Wehle State Park, from which the wind farm will result in
some background visual contrast. However, when considering the screening effect of the
existing forests, manmade obstructions on the mainland, the significant distances and the
atmospheric effects at those distances, it is likely that the wind farm will not be discernable from
the vast majority of NRL/NRE properties within the study area. This is particularly true for
Sackets Harbor (see Saratoga Associates 2009 for a preliminary vegetated viewshed). When
compared to other mainland wind farms in New York, the proposed Hounsfield Wind Farm will
have a significantly lesser visual effect on historic properties.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-4

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Table 6.1. All NRL, NRE, and potentially NRE1 properties ordered sequentially by map
point within the Ten-Mile APE of the Hounsfield Wind Farm.
Distance
Number
Map
to
Turbine
of Visible
Point
Nearest
ID
Turbines
Turbine

14

9.70

80

79

8.91

81

84

6.56

80

84

8.35

80

84

6.70

70

84

6.63

70

84

6.60

70

84

6.57

70

84

6.56

70

10

84

6.53

70

11

84

6.52

70

12

84

6.51

70

13

84

6.51

70

14

84

6.51

70

15

84

6.50

70

16

84

6.50

70

17

9.98

80

18

12

9.98

80

Property
Name

Address

Town

Samuel Read
20669 South
Brownville,
House
Shore Road
Pillar Point (v)
Abandoned
Farm on
Grenadier Island
Cape Vincent
Grenadier
Road #3
Island Road #3
Robert G.
Wehle State On Lake Ontario
Henderson
Park
Henderson,
Association
Association
Island
Island (h)
Stony Point 3415 Lighthouse Henderson,
Light House
Road
Stony Point (h)
Crandall
3535 Lighthouse Henderson,
Property
Road
Stony Point (h)
3597 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
3667 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
3693 Lighthouse Henderson,
Margi Lodge
Road
Stony Point (h)
3765 Lighthouse Henderson,
Roe Property
Road
Stony Point (h)
Howard
3779 Lighthouse Henderson,
Property
Road
Stony Point (h)
3787 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
3815 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
3833 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
3845 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
3857 Lighthouse Henderson,
Road
Stony Point (h)
Henderson,
Former Tyler
13030 Harbor
Henderson
Inn
Road/CR 123
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Greiner
13040 Harbor
Henderson
Property
Road/CR 123
Harbor (v)

NRHP Status
Recommend
Eligible
NRE(I)

Unevaluated

NRE(I)
Recommend
Eligible
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Unevaluated
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible

NRL = National Register Listed; NRE = National Register Eligible; I = Individual property

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-5

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Table 6.1 continued.


Distance
Number
Map
to
Turbine
of Visible
Point
Nearest
ID
Turbines
Turbine

Property
Name

Address

Town

13068 Harbor
Road/CR 123

19

12

9.96

80

20

25

9.93

80

Hillbrook
Cottage

13102 Harbor
Road/CR 123

21

72

9.79

80

R.J.W. Morgan
House

13370 Harbor
Road/CR 123

22

50

9.74

80

13399 Harbor
Road/CR 123

23

67

9.71

80

13498 Harbor
Road/CR 123

24

63

9.65

80

13547 Harbor
Road/CR 123

25

60

9.64

80

26

45

9.63

80

13608 Harbor
Road/CR 123

27

34

9.62

80

13611 Harbor
Road/CR 123

28

31

9.64

80

13643 Harbor
Road/CR 123

29

73

9.66

80

13644 Harbor
Road/CR 123

30

69

9.69

80

13699 Harbor
Road/CR 123

31

77

9.71

80

Brown Owl
Cottage

13723 Harbor
Road/CR 123

32

68

9.75

80

Bittersweet
Lodge

13773 Harbor
Road/CR 123

33

15

9.81

80

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Gill House Inn

13565 Harbor
Road/CR 123

13799Harbor
Road/CR 123

6-6

Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)

NRHP Status

Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Unevaluated

Unevaluated
Recommend
Eligible
Unevaluated

Unevaluated

Unevaluated

Unevaluated

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Table 6.1 continued.


Distance
Number
Map
to
Turbine
of Visible
Point
Nearest
ID
Turbines
Turbine

Property
Name

Address

Town

13832 Harbor
Road/CR 123

34

72

9.87

80

35

43

10.01

80

36

84

9.74

80

37

10

7.73

80

Cedarhurst

15318 Snowshoe
Road

38

84

7.71

80

Cedar Lodge

15321 Snowshoe
Road

39

84

0.15

40

84

0.14

63

41

84

12.42

80

42

84

12.42

80

43

84

12.15

80

44

84

11.61

80

45

84

13.26

80

46

84

13.25

80

47

84

13.45

80

48

84

13.76

80

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Innisfaell

13962 Harbor
Road/CR 123
13689 Harbor
View Road

Galloo Island
Light House
Complex
Coast Guard
Station

Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)
Henderson,
Henderson
Harbor (v)

Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible

Galloo Island

Hounsfield

NR Listed

3040 Galloo
Island Road

Hounsfield

Recommend
Eligible

Hounsfield,
Boulton Beach
Ambrose Street Sackets Harbor
Farms
(v)
Hounsfield,
402 Ambrose
Sackets Harbor
Street
(v)
Hounsfield,
518 Ambrose
Sackets Harbor
Street
(v)
Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
Black River Bay Sackets Harbor
Battlefield
(v)
Hounsfield,
Madison
Black River Bay Sackets Harbor
Barracks
(v)
Hounsfield,
328 County HWY
Sackets Harbor
75
(v)
Hounsfield,
Lakeside
Dodge Street Sackets Harbor
Cemetery
(v)
Hounsfield,
Military
Dodge Street Sackets Harbor
Cemetery
(v)

6-7

NRHP Status

Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
NRL

NRL
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Table 6.1 continued.


Distance
Number
Map
to
Turbine
of Visible
Point
Nearest
ID
Turbines
Turbine

Property
Name

Address

Town

49

32

13.95

80

352 Dodge
Street

50

73

14.00

80

362 Dodge
Street

51

84

13.38

80

323 East Main


Street

52

84

13.18

80

Elisha Camp
House

310 General
Smith Drive

53

42

12.81

80

Sackets Harbor
Village Historic
District

Main Street

54

84

12.23

80

55

84

6.42

80

56

84

6.54

80

57

84

9.07

80

Farm

58

84

9.74

80

Farm buildings

59

84

8.84

80

60

84

8.96

80

61

84

8.83

80

62

84

7.81

80

63

84

9.12

80

64

84

9.34

80

65

84

6.85

80

Lance Farm

South Shore
Road

66

80

6.48

80

Angell Farm

South Shore
Road

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

390 Ontario
Street
Hanson's High
Rocks
Getman
Farmhouse

Farm complex

6-8

4811 Becker
Lane
South Shore
Road
South Shore
Road
South Shore
Road
South Shore
Road
19458 South
Shore Road
19532 South
Shore Road
21585 South
Shore Road
25201 South
Shore Road
25403 South
Shore Road

Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
(v)
Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
(v)
Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
(v)
Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
(v)
Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
(v)
Hounsfield,
Sackets Harbor
(v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula/
Chaumont (v)
Lyme, Point
Peninsula/
Chaumont (v)

NRHP Status

Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
NRL

NRL
Recommend
Eligible
Unevaluated
NRL
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
Recommend
Eligible
NRL

NRL

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

7.0 Mitigation

As previously noted, there are 65 individual historic resources and one historic district
located within the expanded study area (as requested by NYSHPO) in Jefferson County that are
NRL or NRE or potentially eligible for listing in the National Register. The study area includes
the ten-mile visual APE and the Village of Sackets Harbor. The viewshed within the study area
is topographically based.
There are two NRL/NRE properties on Galloo Island, the lighthouse and former Coast
Guard Station. These properties will be visually impacted by wind farm construction. Excluding
the two properties on the island, the nearest NRL/NRE property is 6.4 miles (10.3 km) away and
the average distance to the nearest turbine for properties within the ten-mile ring is 8.4 miles
(13.5 km). For properties outside the ten-mile ring but included in this study (Sackets Harbor),
the average distance to the nearest turbine is 12.8 miles (20.6 km). So, for the vast majority of
the NRL/NRE properties in the study area, the proposed wind farm will be in the far visual
background. The number of turbines that can be seen from all properties documented within the
ten-mile APE and Sackets Harbor (e.g., NRL, NRE and recommended NRE properties) spans
the full range of values, however the distribution is heavily skewed toward the full number of 84.
Unlike most wind farms in New York which have been built or planned on the mainland, Galloo
Island is a solitary point on the flat plain of Lake Ontario. As a result, the island, or at least its
location, can be seen in full view from a large section of coastline within the ten-mile APE. This
accounts for the average number of visible turbines of 69.5 (out of 84), which is an unusually
high number. These numbers should be viewed with caution since the visual APE in this study is
well beyond the normal five-mile radius survey and is based solely on topography. As noted in
Section 6.0, when considering the screening effect of the existing forests, manmade
obstructions on the mainland, the significant distances and the atmospheric effects at those
distances, it is likely that the wind farm will not be discernable from the vast majority of
NRL/NRE properties within the study area and barely discernable from the remainder of
properties. This is particularly true for Sackets Harbor (see Saratoga Associates 2009 for a
preliminary vegetated viewshed).
Some screening will be afforded by mature trees and forested areas, particularly in the
southern portion of the APE, for half of the year. This observation is especially true for
buildings/structures in the areas surrounding streams and steep embankments. The topography
of some portions of the ten-mile visual APE will provide additional screening. While distance is a
significant mitigating factor, there are visual impacts to the area associated with the construction
of the Hounsfield Wind Farm that will require mitigation. The most significant visual impact is to
the two properties on Galloo Island.
Hounsfield Wind Farm Project (Upstate New York Power) is obligated to mitigate adverse
visual effects to NRE and NRL properties under Section 106 of the National Historic
Preservation Act as well as to mitigate significant visual impacts under Article 8 of the New York
State Environmental Conservation Law (ECL) and 6NYCRR Part 617 as delineated in
NYSDECs Assessing and Mitigating Visual Impacts (2000). In the case of the Hounsfield Wind
Farm, both Section 106 and NYSDEC mitigation were triggered by the same occurrence: the
inclusion of NRE or potentially NRE properties within the project visual APE. NYSDEC lists
specific mitigation strategies, while Section 106 does not; these two laws are not mutually
exclusive, however, and strategies for each can have common characteristics.

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The mitigation of visual effects to these properties presents an opportunity for a number of
alternative mitigative strategies. The usual mitigative approaches can be applied; however,
broader alternative strategies can encourage local community input and assist those
communities through the undertaking of hometown cultural resource projects that are
commonly in need of financial and professional assistance. The mitigative strategies below are
grouped into several categories. These categories overlap and some of the categories include
the more traditional mitigation alternatives.

PROJECT CRITERIA
Hounsfield Wind Farm Project proposes the following working criteria for any proposed
historical mitigation project or activity. These criteria provide that the subject of any such
project should:

Be consistent with the guidance of NYSHPO


Have historical significance
Serve a public historic purpose
Be a good investment
Be appropriate to the state of preservation of local historical resources

PROFESSIONAL DESIGN AND SITING


NYSDEC considers a properly designed and sited project the best way to mitigate
potential impacts. The Hounsfield Wind Farm Project is designed to mitigate the visual impact of
the turbines to the maximum extent practical. The color of the towers is a non-specular neutral
white or off-white so the towers will blend into a white sky. The turbines are laid out in a random,
natural pattern so that the flow of the landscape is not interrupted. FAA lighting is not required
on every turbine.
Upstate NY Power proposes to construct up to 84 wind turbines for the purpose of
generating approximately 252 MW of electricity and infrastructure. Infrastructure includes, but is
not limited to, a docking facility, an operations-and-maintenance building, interconnects and
roads (see Figure 1.2). The maximum height of the turbines and blades is planned to be 410 ft
(125 m). Under a separate project, approximately nine miles (14.5 km) of underwater cable and
41.6 miles (67 km) of overhead transmission line on the mainland will be constructed. Locations
of the various proposed structures on Galloo Island are preliminary and may be adjusted as the
result of project and regulatory requirements as well as natural and cultural resources concerns.
The overall electrical system will be designed and constructed in accordance with the
guidelines of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the National Electric Safety
Code, the National Electrical Code (NEC), the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), the New
York State Building Code, and the New York Power Authority.

MAINTENANCE
NYSDEC considers the maintenance of buildings/structures and landscapes and the
decommissioning of objects or buildings/structures as part of a mitigation strategy. Proper
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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

maintenance prevents eyesores and is an integral part of the Hounsfield Wind Farm Project
plan.
Local laws require a decommissioning plan to be put into place to remove obsolete and
unused turbines. The plan will include cost estimates for the removal of towers and the
reclamation of the areas including concrete foundations, access roads, seeding and re
vegetation and salvage of various materials.
SURVEYS
The completion of various types of surveys is a more traditional form of Section 106
mitigation; nevertheless it can also be used as a type of offset as described by NYSDEC. An
offset is the correction of an existing aesthetic problem identified within a viewshed as
compensation for project impacts. Elements of these surveys can include:

GIS mapping of the countys cultural resources within the affected area

Complete a detailed architectural survey of Jefferson County

Conduct surveys identifying specific architectural styles and types of buildings,

structures and landscapes within the counties, towns, villages and hamlets
affected by the project

Listing NRE resources

Sites/buildings/structures/objects/districts/landscapes that have been identified

as NRE, but never listed within the area affected by the project
Completing formal recordation documents (e.g., Historic American Buildings

Survey [HABS], Historic American Engineering Record [HAER], Historic

American Landscape Survey [HALS]) for the power houses/dams as well as

sites, buildings, structures, landscapes that have been identified but never

completed within the APE.

MONETARY CONTRIBUTIONS
The creation of a pool of funds overseen by a third party is a less traditional, but effective
way of offsetting project impacts.
Establish a monetary fund, with NYSHPO oversight, to initiate an historic

landscape preservation program to support the preservation of historic

landscapes in New York State. The introduction of such a program would offer

technical assistance to municipalities and not-for-profit organizations to increase

awareness of historic landscapes in New York State.

Establish a cemetery maintenance program that can disburse funds to maintain

small historic cemeteries in the area.

Provide funds toward the construction of a Historic Center for storage and

display of historic material. The location can be determined upon consultation

with the county and affected towns.

Donations to libraries in the affected area for purchase of local and Jefferson

County material.

Create a Historic Property Visual Mitigation Grant Fund for use by the owners of

historic structures affected by the project. Funds from grants would be used to

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

purchase onsite screening or make repairs to affected historic structures. The


details of oversight, submission protocols, and eligibility will be negotiated with
the NYSHPO.

HERITAGE TOURISM
The creation of Heritage Tourism materials has become an important part of
municipalities, regions, and states promotional activities. These materials can be easily used by
many individuals and widely distributed. Most of the activities listed below fall within the
traditional Section 106 mitigation sphere, and all can be used as offset. Measures to enhance
Heritage Tourism are particularly appropriate for this region of New York State where tourism
and seasonal residency is already an important part of the economy.

10-Minute Video Presentation. A video presentation can be used in schools, for

presentations to civic groups, and on public access television.

Brochure. A brochure highlighting historic architecture can be distributed at

public libraries, visitors centers, etc., within the affected area.

Posters. Posters can be produced highlighting the area and its history.

Driving/Walking tours. Tours can be conducted out of the public library, visitors

centers, etc., within the affected area.

Exhibit. Exhibits focusing on history and architecture can be set up in libraries,

visitors centers, town halls, etc., within the affected area.

Power-Point Presentation. This can be used in schools, for presentations to civic

groups within the affected area

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES
Educational activities have a broad appeal and can target a wide age group. Activities for
school-age groups can help raise awareness of cultural resources within the community at an
early age and engender excitement within the school system. Educational activities of various
types are traditional Section 106 mitigation options; however, the creation of a graphic novel is a
twist on this traditional use. The items below are also excellent offset activities.
Grade Appropriate Lesson Plans. Packages can include teacher information, student
activities, and possible field trips, long- and short-term class projects centered on the
affected area and distributed via Internet.
Host Public History Day. A special event can be staged in conjunction with schools and
chambers of commerce within the affected area

HISTORY ACTIVITIES
Activities related to historic resources are the most traditional of Section 106 mitigation
strategies. Nevertheless, they can be useful and an important offset activity.
Popular Written History of the County. Produce a history highlighting specific county
contributions to state and country, addressing the towns, villages and hamlets within the
affected area.
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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Historic Brochure or series of brochures addressing various aspects of the countys,


towns, villages and hamlets history within the affected area.
Oral History Project.
Placing Historic Markers.
Creation of Context/s. Produce historical/architectural histories and contexts specific to
the area, particularly a regional farming context.

HISTORIC STRUCTURE RESTORATION/STABILIZATION


To mitigate the visual effects on historic structures of the proposed Hounsfield Wind Farm,
Upstate NY Power has proposed that it purchase and stabilize the Galloo Island Lighthouse
which is NRL and in a deteriorated state (see Section 4.1). The cost to purchase the property is
$510,000, which consists of $220,000 in option payments that do not apply to the purchase
price of $290,000. If this option is acceptable to the involved parties, then the stabilization costs
will be determined following additional study.
Local community input is vital to the success of any mitigation strategy. Local historians,
town officials, and agencies will be contacted by Hounsfield Wind Farm Project to begin the
process of determining community needs. NYSHPO staff will also play a major role in this
process. This investigation of probable community needs is preliminary at best and in no way
represents a final accounting of those needs.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

8.0 Annotated List of Properties

Approximately 66 primary buildings and other historic resources (e.g., cemeteries, bridges)
were documented for the first time during this architectural survey (i.e., recommended and
unevaluated properties). An additional ten properties with NRL or NRE determinations are also
presented in the Annotated List of Properties that follows (beginning on page 8-3). Outbuildings
associated with farms or residential properties are not included in the total number of surveyed
properties.
For the purpose of clarity and organization of data, the annotated list is arranged in
sequential alpha-numerical order by county, town, village or hamlet, and street address. The
table includes three columns: 1) a thumbnail-sized photograph of each resource; 2) name,
location, date, alterations, map point number, and 3) description. If applicable, the second
column also includes S/NRHP eligibility status.1 The third column lists relevant Unique Site
Numbers (USN) on file in the SPHINX database. Dates are presented as circa, based on
exterior stylistic details and historic materials. A margin of error of approximately ten years
should be assumed when circa is applied. Providing an accurate and precise time of
construction of barns and farm buildings is usually difficult, especially when limited to a
reconnaissance survey. Often, in rural settings, many dates are approximations based on
physical evidence and the general historic context rather than on documented historical
information.
Locations of documented properties are keyed by map point on the project map located at
end of the report. The Project Map (see Appendix A) consists of a single fold-out topographic
map with the project area, turbine locations, locations of NRL and NRE buildings/structures,
recommended NRE properties, and the boundaries of the ten-mile APE.
A compact disk (CD) with digital representation of each property photographed in the
annotated list accompanies the final ten-mile APE survey report to supplement NYSHPO
review. Geographic Information System (GIS) project data will be submitted to the NYSHPO for
their agency database (to be submitted after NYSHPO review of the ten-mile APE survey
report).

No Det. = No Determination on file; U = Undetermined status; NRE (I) = Individual NRE property on file;
NRL = National Register Listed; NHL = National Historic Landmark
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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Brownville
Pillar Point (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Samuel Read House


20669 South Shore Road

Town: Brownville
Photograph not available

Pillar Point (V)


MCD: 04504

Details:
Set on a small wooded plot on Pillar Point at
the edge of a seasonal cottage community.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1827

Map Point: 1
Photo Number: 1

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Samuel Read House (cont'd)
20669 South Shore Road

Town: Brownville
Photograph not available

Pillar Point (V)


MCD: 04504
Jefferson County
Date: c 1827
Alterations: Replacement windows,
metal roofing, frame addition,
wooden balustrade along faade
Map Point: 1

Photo Number: 2

Style: Greek Revival


Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: Limestone
Sash: New
Details:
The Read House is a small, side-gabled,
three-bay wide by one-bay deep building
featuring limestone masonry construction
with coursed cut-stone blocks of varying
sizes. Other masonry details include heavy
stone lintels and quoins. The building has a
modern lesser one-story partially enclosed
porch on its side elevation and a rear frame
addition. Its Craftsman-era enclosed porch
as documented in a ca 1951 photograph of
the house (Lane 1951) has been removed.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Samuel Read House (cont'd)
20669 South Shore Road

Town: Brownville
Photograph not available

Pillar Point (V)


MCD: 04504
Jefferson County
Date: c 1827

Map Point: 1
Photo Number: 3

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Details:
The Samuel Read property was originally
associated with Asahel[sic] Burlingame, one
of the early settlers and landholders of
Brownville (Lane 1951).Based on a review
of early town maps, it appears the 39-acre
parcel the house stands on suggests that
the construction of the house followed within
a year of two after Samuel Read purchased
the plot from the Mechanics Fire Insurance
Company for $141.54 on August 13, 1827
(Lane 1951).

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-3

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Brownville
Pillar Point (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Samuel Read House (cont'd)


20669 South Shore Road

Town: Brownville
Photograph not available

Pillar Point (V)


MCD: 04504
Jefferson County
Date: c 1827

Map Point: 1
Photo Number: 4

Details:
The Samuel Read House is architecturally
significant for its association with Jefferson
Countys nineteenth century stone masonry
construction tradition. Jefferson County has
a rich supply of blue limestone, which
provided an excellent building material for
early settlers (consult Bonney 1985). With
access to a local limestone source, both
stone Federal and Greek Revival style
buildings were constructed throughout the
county.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Samuel Read House (cont'd)
20669 South Shore Road

Town: Brownville
Photograph not available

Pillar Point (V)


MCD: 04504
Jefferson County
Date: c 1827

Details:
Brownville has several largely-intact
examples of nineteenth century stone
masonry buildings. The Samuel Read
house contributes to the rich nineteenth
century stone architectural heritage of the
town and region.

Map Point: 1
Photo Number: 5

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Samuel Read House (cont'd)
20669 South Shore Road

Town: Brownville
Photograph not available

Details:

Pillar Point (V)


MCD: 04504
Jefferson County
Date: c 1827

Map Point: 1
Photo Number: 6

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-4

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Cape Vincent

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Abandoned Farm on Grenadier


Island Road #3
Grenadier Island Road #3,
Grenadier Island, Lake Ontario

Town: Cape Vincent

Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04505
Jefferson County

The abandoned farm is locally identified as


the "Humphrey Farm House" or otherwise
known as the "Carbide House." See Section
4.4 of report. (USN not available)

Map Point: 2
Photo Number: 7

NRHP Status: NRE(I)

Robert G. Wehle State Park


On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available
MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Park property associated with the military
history of the region. Formerly occupied by
a U.S. military reservation, Stony Point Rifle
Range (or Stony Point Military Reservation)
was established in 1895 when the U.S,
Government purchased 868 acres of land
along the lake shore between Six Town
Point and Stony Point (Quick 2006:166).
(see section 4.3.3 of report)

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 8

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Northern Pill Box, facing south.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 9

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NRHP Status: Unevaluated

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Artillery Wall: facing east.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 10

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:
Pill Box at Southern End: facing west

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 11

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Driveway to Summer Residence: facing west

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 12

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NRHP Status: Unevaluated

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Summer Residence, facing southwest

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 13

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Summer Residence-lake elevation, facing


south.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 14

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Summer Residence associated cottage,


facing east.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 15

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Summer Residence associated outbuildings

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 16

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Summer residence associated Shed, facing


northeast.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 17

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Cottage North of Summer Residence,


facing north-northwest

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 18

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-8

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Shed Northeast of Summer Residence,


facing northwest.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 19

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Farm Buildings Southeast of Summer


Residence: Facing South

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 20

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Farm Buildings: Facing Northeast

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 21

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-9

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Windmill south of summer residence, facing


west.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 22

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Log Cabin south of Summer Residencefacing east.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 23

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Log Cabin, facing north

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 24

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-10

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Privy east of log cabin, facing north

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 25

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:
Elhew Cemetery, facing west

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 26

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Elhew kennels, facing north

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 27

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-11

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

Photograph not available


Outbuildings north of kennels, facing north

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 28

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Robert G. Wehle State Park


(cont'd)
On Lake Ontario, Stony Point/Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson

Details:

MCD: 04509

Main Field (Hunting Dog Training Field),


facing northeast.

Photograph not available


Jefferson County

Map Point: 3
Photo Number: 29

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Association Island
In Henderson Harbor, Henderson
Harbor/Lake Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Association Island (h)


MCD: 04509

Details:
See Section 4.3.6 of report. (USN:
04509.000093)

Jefferson County

Map Point: 4
Photo Number: 30

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: NRE(I)

8-12

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Stony Point Lighthouse


3415 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1869
Alterations: Attached keeper's
house has been heavily modified.
No extant associated outbuildings.

Details:
Replaced an earlier lighthouse. See Section
4.3.1.
(USN 04509.000011- No Determination)
Lighthouse constructed with a square 73-ft
high brick tower, lantern room, and an
attached keepers house.

Map Point: 5
Photo Number: 31

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Stony Point Light House (cont'd)
3415 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 5
Photo Number: 32

Details:
Based on visual inspection from the road,
the Stony Point Lighthouse tower appears
to be largely-intact. The attached former
keepers house though has been
extensively altered and modernized.
Despite alterations to the attached dwelling,
Stony Point Lighthouse is historically
significant for its association with nineteenth
century navigational history of the Great
Lakes, and specifically for its role in
northeastern Lake Ontario.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Crandall Property
3535 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages)

Date: ca. 1920


Alterations: Replacement sash

Map Point: 6
Photo Number: 33

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-13

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
Crandall Property (cont'd)
3535 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1920

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Two-over-two
Details:
Cottage has a deep setback with dense
trees along road. It is set on the lakeshore;
the lake faade is not visible. A stone wall
runs along lake front. Cottage has a stone
first story and clapboard on the exterior of
the upper story. It has a wide overhaning
hipped roof. East elevation has an entrance
in the right bay. Only east elevation is
visible from road.

Map Point: 6
Photo Number: 34

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3597 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1935

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is not visible from the road. It has a
deep setback with dense trees and
vegetation along road/on parcel. It is set on
the lakeshore; the lake faade is not visible.

Map Point: 7
Photo Number: 35

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3597 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)

Details:
Has a stone wall along lakefront.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 7
Photo Number: 36

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-14

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
3597 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Bungalow
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
Cottage has a stone first story and wood
shingles on the exterior of the upper story.
The east elevation has a central entrance
flanked by two window openings with 3/1
double hung wood sash. The east slope has
a shed dormer.

Map Point: 7
Photo Number: 37

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3667 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1930
Alterations: Replacement sash

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is partially visible from the road. It
has a deep setback with dense trees and
vegetation along road/on parcel. It is set on
the lakeshore; the lake faade is not visible.

Map Point: 8
Photo Number: 38

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3667 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Cottage consists of a wide rectangular 1
story block sheathed with stone and capped
by a broad low-pitched hipped roof. It has
an attached entry porch on the north
elevation; stone wall along lake front; and a
shed.

Map Point: 8
Photo Number: 39

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-15

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

3667 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)

Details:
West and south elevations not visible.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 8
Photo Number: 40

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Margi Lodge
3693 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1928

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is partially visible from the road. It
has a deep setback and set within a cluster
of cottages and outbuildings. It is set on the
lakeshore; the lake faade is not visible.Set
behind garage, partially visible from road

Map Point: 9
Photo Number: 41

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Margi Lodge (cont'd)


3693 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: n/a
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
Cottage is a small rectangular block with a
steeply pitched side-gabled roof and stone
exterior. The east elevation has an
integrated enclosed porch. No other
elevations of the cottage are visible from the
roadside.

Map Point: 9
Photo Number: 42

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-16

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Margi Lodge (cont'd)


3693 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)

Details:
Set behind garage, partially visible from road

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 9
Photo Number: 43

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Margi Lodge (cont'd)


3693 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 9
Photo Number: 44

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Roe Property
3765 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1935

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is partially visible from the road. It
has a deep setback with dense trees and
vegetation along road/on parcel. It is set on
the lakeshore; the lake faade is not visible.

Map Point: 10
Photo Number: 45

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-17

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Roe Property (cont'd)


3765 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
A small stone cottage with entrance on east
elevation. No other elevations of building
are visible from roadside.

Map Point: 10
Photo Number: 46

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Howard Property
3779 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1925

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: n/a
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is not visible from the road. It has a
deep setback with dense trees and
vegetation along road/on parcel. It is set on
the lakeshore; the lake faade is not visible.
Set back behind hedgerow with outbuilding.

Map Point: 11
Photo Number: 47

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3787 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1925

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is not visible from the road. It has a
deep setback with dense trees and
vegetation along road/on parcel. It is set on
the lakeshore; the lake faade is not visible.

Map Point: 12
Photo Number: 48

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-18

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
3787 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
A stone bungalow cottage with stone
exterior, side-gabled roof, and enclosed
porch. East elevation has enclosed entry
porch and shed dormer. No other elevations
of building are clearly visible from roadside.
It has two associated outbuildigns and a
stone wall along street.

Map Point: 12
Photo Number: 49

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3787 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 12
Photo Number: 50

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3815 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1950

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Original relationship with neighboring
cottages (Nos. 3833 & 3845) within stone
walls is unknown. Facing south.

Map Point: 13
Photo Number: 51

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-19

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
3815 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Gable
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
Frame cottage with cedar shingles set at
roadside and contained within a perimerter
stone wall. It has an associated boat slip.

Date: c 1915

Map Point: 13
Photo Number: 52

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3815 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509

Facing north.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1915

Map Point: 13
Photo Number: 53

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3815 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)

Details:
Boat slip and shed.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1915

Map Point: 13
Photo Number: 54

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-20

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

3833 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1880/1920

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages). It
has a deep setback. Located on lakeshore;
the lake faade is not visible.

Map Point: 14
Photo Number: 55

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

(cont'd)
3833 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Other
Foundation: n/a
Sash: New
Details:
Cottage has frame and stone. It consists of
a side-gabled block with attached lesser
addition (originally a porch?) with attached
entry porch, along east elevation.

Map Point: 14
Photo Number: 56

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3845 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1928

Details:
One of ten stone & frame cottages on
Lighthouse Road (See Seciton 4.3.2 of
report for Lighthouse Road Cottages).
Cottage is partially visible from the road. It
has deep setback with dense trees and
vegetation along road/on parcel. It is set on
the lakeshore; the lake faade is not
visible.Stone wall along street; obscured by
frame shed.

Map Point: 15
Photo Number: 57

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-21

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
3845 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
A one-story stone cottage with wide, lowpitched hipped roof. Only the east elevation
of the cottage is partially visible from the
roadside.

Map Point: 15
Photo Number: 58

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3845 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Stony Point (h)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 15
Photo Number: 59

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

3857 Lighthouse Road, Lake


Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)

Details:
Stone wall along street

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1880/1920

Map Point: 16
Photo Number: 60

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-22

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Stony Point (h)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
3857 Lighthouse Road, Lake
Ontario

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Stony Point (h)

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Stone
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
Stone wall along street

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1920's

Map Point: 16
Photo Number: 61

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Former Tyler Inn


13030 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1871
Alterations: Replacement sash.

Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
An excellent surviving example of a late
19th century family owned inn located in
Henderson Harbor. The building consists of
long rectangular block with incorporated
arcaded, full-height, tiered porch under
steeply-pitched hipped roof. It was more
than likely updated in the Craftsman-era.

Map Point: 17
Photo Number: 62

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Former Tyler Inn (cont'd)
13030 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Located on east side of road, overlooks
Henderson Harbor. The buildings design is
not atypical for the region. The Tyler family
operated the inn into the 1940s.

Map Point: 17
Photo Number: 63

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-23

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
Greiner Property
13040 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Vernacular
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
A good representative example of a latenineteenth century seasonal cottage at
Henderson Harbor. The buildings stands
out for this Adirondack-inspired rustic porch.

Date: ca. 1885


Alterations: Replacement windows.
Entrance door.

Map Point: 18
Photo Number: 64

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Greiner Property (cont'd)
13040 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Located on east side of road, overlooks


Henderson Harbor.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 18
Photo Number: 65

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Greiner Property (cont'd)
13040 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 18
Photo Number: 66

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-24

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Setting, looking south. Large-summer
residence located on hill on east side of
road, overlooking Henderson Harbor.

Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 67

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
(cont'd)
13068 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: modern
Alterations: Replacement windows.

Style: Shingle
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: New
Details:
A good representative example of a large
modern Shingle style-inspired summer
residence, more than likely architect
designed. It is located on the site an earlier
summer residence. Note terraced hillside
and steps The property stands out for its
largely-intact boat house.

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 68

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 69

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-25

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Detail of north elevation.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 70

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

A hightly-intact house barn on the northwest


edge of property. Note molding in gable end.

Jefferson County
Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 71

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Associated largely-intact boathouse on
Henderson Harbor, facing southwest. Only
one of its type noted in Henderson Harbor.

Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 72

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-26

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Details:
Associated boathouse, facing westnorthwest.

Jefferson County
Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 73

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13068 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Associated boathouse, facing northwest.

Jefferson County
Date: 1893

Map Point: 19
Photo Number: 74

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Hillbrook Cottage
13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
A Craftsman bungalow set on a landscaped
lot on the east side of the road, overlooking
Henderson Harbor.

Date: ca 1930

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 75

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-27

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)


13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Winding stone stairway with arch leading up
to front of house; waterfall and brook along
side towards front of property.
Trees/vegetation obscure view of house.

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 76

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)
13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Style: Bungalow
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: n/a
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: Stone
Sash: n/a
Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 77

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)
13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
An excellent example of a largely-intact,
early 20th century seasonal cottage with
landscaped grounds. It has an integrated
open full-width porch with battered square
porch supports set on stone piers; 3/1
double-hung wood sash; and a hipped
dormer on front slope.

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 78

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-28

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)


13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 79

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)
13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Stone steps to Hillbrook.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 80

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)
13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Stone steps to Hillbrook.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 81

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-29

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Hillbrook Cottage (cont'd)


13102 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Stone-lined channel.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 20
Photo Number: 82

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
R.J.W. Morgan House
13370 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1830
Alterations: Minor exterior
alterations include changes to the
cupola and replacement of its
original windows and chimneys. Its
Map Point: 21

Photo Number: 83

Style: Greek Revival


Stories: Two
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Other
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
A largely-intact, transitional Federal and
Greek Revival building prominently sited on
a hill above Henderson Harbor. It has two
associated outbuildings.
Previously Inventoried (USN
04509.000004)- No NRHP determination.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
R.J.W. Morgan House (cont'd)
13370 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Constructed in the second quarter of the
nineteenth century, the house has a unique
design with broad and deep first story and
two-bay square upper story with cupola.
This building type is regional subtype of the
Greek Revival style known as a cup and
saucer house because of the appearance
of the smaller upper story set upon the
lower story (HHS 2001).

Map Point: 21
Photo Number: 84

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-30

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

R.J.W. Morgan House (cont'd)


13370 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
The original rectangular block features
symmetrical fenestration and features a late
nineteenth century wraparound porch and
balustrade.

Map Point: 21
Photo Number: 85

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
R.J.W. Morgan House (cont'd)
13370 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
In 1839, Remembrance J.W. Morgan began
purchasing land in Henderson. The building
is documented on the 1855 atlas. Morgan
is believed to have been involved in
shipbuilding, which reportedly might have
influenced the design of his house with its
so called Captains Walk on the second
story.

Map Point: 21
Photo Number: 86

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
R.J.W. Morgan House (cont'd)
13370 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
The largely intact R.J.W. Morgan House is
architecturally significant as a rare and
unique regional example of its type. It is
further historically significant for its
association with the Hendersons nineteenth
century shipbuilding industry.

Map Point: 21
Photo Number: 87

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-31

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

13399 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Prairie
Stories: One
Plan: L-shaped
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Other
Details:
A largely-intact excellent example of Prairieinspired building. Property may be a private
club/ boathouse; boat slips on south side of
structure.

Date: ca 1920

Map Point: 22
Photo Number: 88

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13399 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

nine-over-one window sash

Jefferson County

Map Point: 22
Photo Number: 89

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13399 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Detail of entrance

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 22
Photo Number: 90

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-32

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13399 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
South elevation

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 22
Photo Number: 91

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13399 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Property may be a private club or
boathouse; boat slips on south side of
structure; nine-over-one window sash

Map Point: 22
Photo Number: 92

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13498 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: Mid-19th Century

Style: n/a
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: New
Details:
One of the oldest buildings in Henderson
Harbor. Kicated on east side of road,
overlooks harbor. Stone retaining wall along
front perimeter of property. Craftsman style
updating.

Map Point: 23
Photo Number: 93

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-33

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13498 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: Mid-19th Century

Map Point: 23
Photo Number: 94

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13498 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: Mid-19th Century

Map Point: 23
Photo Number: 95

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13498 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Association Island cabin at rear of property.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: Mid-19th Century

Map Point: 23
Photo Number: 96

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-34

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13547 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1920

Details:
An uncommon example of a rusticated
concrete block seasonal building in
Henderson Harbor. Located on the south
side of the Gill House Inn. The building
might have been originally part of the Gill
House property.

Map Point: 24
Photo Number: 97

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

Town: Henderson

Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Rusticated Concrete Block
Foundation: Rusticated concrete block
Sash: New
Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

It features tiered porches on the east and


west elevations, and a widow's walk.

(cont'd)
13547 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Jefferson County

Map Point: 24
Photo Number: 98

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13547 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Constructed in the early 20th c., the building
is associated with the seasonal and
recreational history of Henderson Harbor.

Map Point: 24
Photo Number: 99

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-35

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13547 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 24
Photo Number: 100

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Gill House Inn
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1813
Alterations: Several alterations and
expansions of the inn.

Style: Other
Stories: Two
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: n/a
Sash: New
Details:
The oldest reported building in the project
viewshed is a ca. 1813 Frontier House/Gill
House Inn (13565 Harbor Road [HHS
2001;Quick 2006:81]); though a small
wooden plaque inscribed with a date of ca.
1823 is on the front of the building.

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 101

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Gill House Inn (cont'd)
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Details:
Located at the northern end of the harbors
commercial business district, the original
front gable Federal style main block is the
distinguishing identifier of the style with its
flush board siding and louvered ovalshaped fanlight.

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 102

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-36

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Gill House Inn (cont'd)


13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Details:
In 1850 Capt. John Warner (1812-1875)
purchased the house and remodeled it into
one of the best hotels in the town. The hotel
changed ownership several times after
Warner. In 1890, John Lovelee purchased
the building and renamed it the Lovelee
House. He built a large addition and moved
the large boathouse with upper rooms and
attached it to the south end of the building.

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 103

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Gill House Inn (cont'd)
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Details:
In 1899, Lovelee built a large 24-ft by 60-ft
addition. Hugh H. Gill purchased the hotel in
1910 and renamed it the Gill House, its
current name. Since the mid-nineteenth
century, the hotel has been greatly
expanded and modified by subsequent
owners do accommodate its guests.

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 104

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Gill House Inn (cont'd)
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
The Frontier House/Gill House Inn building
is historically significant at the local level for
its association with the earliest

Date: c 1823

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 105

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-37

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Gill House Inn (cont'd)


13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Harbor side view, facing southeast.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 106

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Gill House Inn (cont'd)
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 107

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Gill House Inn (cont'd)
13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 108

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-38

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Gill House Inn (cont'd)


13565 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
View of Henderson Harbor from Gill House

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1823

Map Point: 25
Photo Number: 109

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13608 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1915

Details:
A large bungalow with integrated side
porches under broad- gabled roof. Small
open porches on east and west slopes.
Enclosed entry porch on north elevation.

Alterations: Vinyl siding

Map Point: 26
Photo Number: 110

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
(cont'd)
13608 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: n/a
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Vinyl siding
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
Located on prominent large corner lot at
north end of Henderson Harbor.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 26
Photo Number: 111

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-39

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13608 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 26
Photo Number: 112

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13611 Harbor Road/CR 123, On


west side of bend

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1860

Style: Colonial Revival


Stories: One
Plan: n/a
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: Six-over-six
Details:
A good representative example of mid-to
late nineteenth century vernacular cottage
expanded in the early twentieth century with
Colonial Revival stylistic elements. Lake
front elevation not visible from roadside.

Map Point: 27
Photo Number: 113

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13611 Harbor Road/CR 123, On


west side of bend (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Details:
Located on west side of road, at north end
of Henderson Harbor.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 27
Photo Number: 114

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-40

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13611 Harbor Road/CR 123, On


west side of bend (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 27
Photo Number: 115

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13643 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1920

Details:
Located on north side of road, on lakeshore.
The building is an early twentieth century
summer residence with a combination of
popular residential architectural styles of the
period. It has an associated boathouse.

Map Point: 28
Photo Number: 116

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

(cont'd)
13643 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Style: Other
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: n/a
Details:
Lakeside elevation not visible/accessible.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1920

Map Point: 28
Photo Number: 117

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-41

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13643 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1920

Map Point: 28
Photo Number: 118

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13643 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

East elevation.

Jefferson County
Date: 1920

Map Point: 28
Photo Number: 119

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13643 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Boathouse.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1920

Map Point: 28
Photo Number: 120

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-42

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13643 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1920

Map Point: 28
Photo Number: 121

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13644 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: late 19th Century

Style: Vernacular
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
A good representative example of a
Vernacular summer residence constructed
in the late nineteenth century. It is one of
the oldest buildings along this stretch.

Alterations: Replacement sash,


Picture windows, attached modern
garage
Map Point: 29
Photo Number: 122

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13644 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
It features Craftsman-era wraparound porch.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: late 19th Century

Map Point: 29
Photo Number: 123

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-43

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13699 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
A largely-intact Craftsman bungalow located
on the lakeshore. It is set below grade on a
small wooded lot. It has a period garage.

Date: ca. 1905

Map Point: 30
Photo Number: 124

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

(cont'd)
13699 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: n/a
Foundation: Rusticated concrete block
Sash: New
Details:
Facing northwest.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 30
Photo Number: 125

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13699 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
East elevation

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 30
Photo Number: 126

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-44

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13699 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Street elevation

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 30
Photo Number: 127

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13699 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Facing northeast.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 30
Photo Number: 128

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13699 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
west elevation

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 30
Photo Number: 129

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-45

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
Brown Owl Cottage
13723 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1890
Alterations: Addition, porch on east
side, shed dormer, replacement
sash.

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular with side ell
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Six-over-six
Details:
Known historically as the Brown Owl
Cottage. It was originally constructed as a
three-bay wide block with central entry
porch. An in-kind two story western addition
was constructed at a later date. Facing
northeast.

Map Point: 31
Photo Number: 130

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Brown Owl Cottage (cont'd)


13723 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Located on lakeshore. Lake frontage not


accessible/visible. Facing north.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 31
Photo Number: 131

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Brown Owl Cottage (cont'd)


13723 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
West elevation

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 31
Photo Number: 132

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-46

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Brown Owl Cottage (cont'd)


13723 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
East elevation

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 31
Photo Number: 133

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Brown Owl Cottage (cont'd)


13723 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Associated landscaped parcel across the


street from the Brown Owl Cottage.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 31
Photo Number: 134

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Bittersweet Lodge
13773 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: New
Details:
Guest house, facing northeast

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1905

Map Point: 32
Photo Number: 135

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-47

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Bittersweet Lodge (cont'd)


13773 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Guest House facing northwest

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 32
Photo Number: 136

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Bittersweet Lodge (cont'd)


13773 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Main Cottage

Jefferson County

Map Point: 32
Photo Number: 137

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Bittersweet Lodge (cont'd)


13773 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
A good representative example of a large
Craftsman-era cottage located on the
lakeshore side of the road. The lake
frontage is not accessible/visible.

Map Point: 32
Photo Number: 138

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-48

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Bittersweet Lodge (cont'd)


13773 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Period garage and gazebo opposite cottage.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 32
Photo Number: 139

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13799 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1919

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Asphalt
Foundation: Concrete slab
Sash: Other
Details:
A good surviving example of a small early
twentieth century seasonal cottage with
attached garage bay fronting road. It is
located on a small lot on the lakeshore side
of the road.

Map Point: 33
Photo Number: 140

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

13799 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
The cottage is largely intact. It has 8/12
double-hung wood sash. The lake frontage
is not accessible/visible.

Map Point: 33
Photo Number: 141

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-49

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

13832 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: Concrete block
Sash: Six-over-six
Details:
Cottage located on south side of road,
overlooks lake. A good example of an early
20th c. Craftsman-inspired cottage.

Date: c 1920
Alterations: replacement sash

Map Point: 34
Photo Number: 142

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13832 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 34
Photo Number: 143

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13832 Harbor Road/CR 123 (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Details:
Also has novelty siding; recessed porch in
front; screened porch on side

Jefferson County

Map Point: 34
Photo Number: 144

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-50

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Innisfaell
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1910

Details:
An excellent example of a largely-intact
Shingle/Craftsman cottage set on a hill
above the road, overlooks the lake. The
cottage has a deep set back with manicured
lawn and landscaping.

Map Point: 35
Photo Number: 145

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Innisfaell (cont'd)
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Other
Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 35
Photo Number: 146

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Innisfaell (cont'd)
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 35
Photo Number: 147

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-51

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Innisfaell (cont'd)
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Details:
Associated caretaker's cottage on east side
of house.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 35
Photo Number: 148

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Innisfaell (cont'd)
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123

Photograph not available

Town: Henderson

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509

Craftsman style boathouse.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 35
Photo Number: 149

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Innisfaell (cont'd)
13962 Harbor Road/CR 123

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Details:
Boathouse

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 35
Photo Number: 150

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-52

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

13689 Harbor View Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Folk Victorian
Stories: Two
Plan: L-shaped
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Limestone
Sash: One-over-one
Details:
A largely-intact Folk Victorian cottage
located off of Henderson Harbor. It has a
full-width Victorian porch and decorative
vergeboards and millwork on gable end.

Date: 1890

Map Point: 36
Photo Number: 151

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13689 Harbor View Road (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1890

Map Point: 36
Photo Number: 152

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

13689 Harbor View Road (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1890

Map Point: 36
Photo Number: 153

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-53

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

13689 Harbor View Road (cont'd)

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: 1890

Map Point: 36
Photo Number: 154

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedarhurst
15318 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1892

Details:
Swan Cottage/Cedarhurst is largely-intact
Stick style cottage with rustic Adirondackinspired porch. The cottage is one of the
first constructed on Snowshoe Bay.
Previously inventoried (USN
04509.000078) - No NRHP determination.

Map Point: 37
Photo Number: 155

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedarhurst (cont'd)
15318 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)

Style: Not Noted


Stories: Not noted
Plan: Not noted
Roof: Not noted
Ext. Siding: Not noted
Foundation: Not noted
Sash: Not noted
Details:
Cottage overlooks Snowshoe Bay.

MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 37
Photo Number: 156

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-54

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Cedarhurst (cont'd)
15318 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 37
Photo Number: 157

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedarhurst (cont'd)
15318 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 37
Photo Number: 158

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedarhurst (cont'd)
15318 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 37
Photo Number: 159

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-55

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Cedarhurst (cont'd)
15318 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 37
Photo Number: 160

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedar Lodge
15321 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County
Date: c 1882

Style: Stick
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Not noted
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Not visible
Sash: Two-over-two
Details:
Built in ca. 1882, Cedar Lodge (or
McConnell Cottage) was the first Victorianera cottage to be erected on the point. It
overlooks Lake Ontario. Previously
inventoried (USN 04509.000079) - No
NRHP evaluation.

Map Point: 38
Photo Number: 161

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedar Lodge (cont'd)
15321 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Details:
Kitchen expanded to east in 1887. Lake
room built in 1840s. East bedroom built in
1960s.

Map Point: 38
Photo Number: 162

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-56

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Henderson
Henderson Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Cedar Lodge (cont'd)


15321 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 38
Photo Number: 163

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedar Lodge (cont'd)
15321 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 38
Photo Number: 164

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Cedar Lodge (cont'd)
15321 Snowshoe Road

Town: Henderson
Photograph not available

Details:

Henderson Harbor (V)


MCD: 04509
Jefferson County

Map Point: 38
Photo Number: 165

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-57

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Galloo Island Light House


Complex
Galloo Island, Galloo Island, Lake
Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Photograph not available


(90NR01133) See Section 4.1 of report

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 39
Photo Number: 166

NRHP Status: NR Listed

Coast Guard Station


Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available
MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: 1936

Details:
The former Coast Guard Station complex is
prominently sited on a hill above Gill Harbor
overlooking Lake Ontario to the southeast.
(See Section 4.1 of report)

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 167

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Coast Guard Station (cont'd)
Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Style: Craftsman
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Wood shingle
Foundation: Poured concrete
Sash: Other
Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: 1936

Constructed in ca. 1936, the main building


was executed in the Shingle style and still
sheathed with its original cedar shingles
(Quick 2006:188-89). The building consists
of a frame, two-story, five-bay by three-bay,
rectangular block with hipped roof.

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 168

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-58

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Coast Guard Station (cont'd)


Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

The cedar shingle clad roof has centrally


placed hipped dormers with paired windows
protruding from the north and south
faades. Fenestration is symmetrical with
six-over-six double-hung wood sash
windows. A partial-width hipped roof porch
supported by square posts extends along
the south faade; it offers wide open views
of Lake Ontario.

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 169

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Coast Guard Station (cont'd)
Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 170

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Coast Guard Station (cont'd)
Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

The early-twentieth century associated Boat


House is set along the rocky shore of Gil
Harbor. The building consists of a long
rectangular gable-roofed block sheathed
with cedar shingles. It has three open boat
bays on the gable end and asymmetrical
fenestration with both paired and tripartite
groupings of six-over-six double-hung wood
sash on the east and west faades.

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 171

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-59

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield

Annotated List of Properties


Photograph

Property Information

Description

Coast Guard Station (cont'd)


Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

The roof has an exterior cedar shingle


siding, gabled dormers and near ridge
chimney. Many of the roof shingles have
become detached leaving the underlayment
exposed.

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 172

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Coast Guard Station (cont'd)
Galloo Island Road, Galloo Island,
Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Photograph not available


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 40
Photo Number: 173

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms
Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Details:
A surviving large active family farm located
south of Sackets Harbor proper. It consists
of two farmhouses and farm outbuildings
spanning both sides of the road. Facing
south.

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 174

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-60

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)


Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Details:
Side-gabled transitional Federal/Greek
farmhouse - modified. Gambrel roof barn to
rear with silo and harvestore. Facing
southwest.

Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 175

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Details:
Boulton Beach Farms is the only active
dairy farm remaining in the village of
Sackets Harbor. It is historically significant
for its association with the agricultural
history of the village and region.

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 176

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Style: Federal
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Asbestos shingle
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
L-shaped farmhouse (modified and
expanded). Facing west.

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 177

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-61

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)


Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
Facing southwest.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 178

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Facing west.

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 179

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
South elevation, facing northwest.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 180

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-62

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)


Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 181

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Dairy barn complex on west side of road.

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 182

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Details:
late 19th-ca.1900 farm buildings on west
side of road.

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 183

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-63

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)


Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Details:
Large gambrel-roof barn with vertical board
siding and earthen ramp, milkhouse.

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 184

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

late 19th century farm building on west side


of road

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 185

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Boulton Beach Farms (cont'd)
Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Details:
Farm buildings on west side of road, facing
northwest.

Jefferson County
Date: est. 1863

Map Point: 41
Photo Number: 186

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-64

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

402 Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Description
Style: Greek Revival
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: L-shaped
Roof: n/a
Ext. Siding: Vinyl siding
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
associated structure of Bolton Beach farms

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 42
Photo Number: 187

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

518 Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1920s

Details:
Duplex located at end of road at southern
end of the village. Unusual form/style for
housing in the region. It overlooks Lake
Ontario, facing north.

Map Point: 43
Photo Number: 188

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
(cont'd)
518 Ambrose Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Style: Colonial
Stories: Two
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Gable
Ext. Siding: Brick
Foundation: Poured concrete
Sash: New
Details:
U-shaped plan housing with brick veneer,
colonial revival entrances, central chimney.
Facing north

Alterations: replacement sash.

Map Point: 43
Photo Number: 189

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-65

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

518 Ambrose Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
Facing west.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 43
Photo Number: 190

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

518 Ambrose Street (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

east and north elevations, facing west.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 43
Photo Number: 191

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Sackets Harbor Battlefield
Black River Bay

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
(90NR01190)

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 44
Photo Number: 192

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: NR Listed

8-66

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Madison Barracks
Black River Bay

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
(90NR01189)

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 45
Photo Number: 193

NRHP Status: NR Listed

328 County HWY 75

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: c 1835

Details:
Located on south side of road. A good
representative example of a "butterfly"
subtype of the Greek Revival style. It
features a central block with flanking winds.
The wing at left was enclosed more than
likely in the early 20th c.

Map Point: 46
Photo Number: 194

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
(cont'd)
328 County HWY 75

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Style: Greek Revival


Stories: One
Plan: Gable front with wing
Roof: Gable
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
It is located outside of the village proper in
an historically agricultural area of the village.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1835

Map Point: 46
Photo Number: 195

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-67

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

328 County HWY 75 (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: c 1835

Map Point: 46
Photo Number: 196

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

328 County HWY 75 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Associated barn.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1835

Map Point: 46
Photo Number: 197

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Military Cemetery
Dodge Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
See cemetery section

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 47
Photo Number: 198

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-68

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Lakeside Cemetery
Dodge Street, Frontage on Old
Military Rd

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
See cemetery section.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 48
Photo Number: 199

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

352 Dodge Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1900

Style: Folk Victorian


Stories: Two
Plan: L-shaped
Roof: Gable
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Limestone
Sash: New
Details:
A largely-intact example of a simple Folk
Victorian residence located at the eastern
end of the village. It has a full-width porch
and rear addition. Facing southeast.

Map Point: 49
Photo Number: 200

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

352 Dodge Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
Located on south side of road.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 49
Photo Number: 201

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-69

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

352 Dodge Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 49
Photo Number: 202

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

352 Dodge Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 49
Photo Number: 203

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

362 Dodge Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1879

Style: Queen Anne


Stories: Two
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Limestone
Sash: Other
Details:
A largely-intact Queen Anne residence with
Stick detail located in the eastern end of the
village. It has a wraparound porch and rear
wing. Rear wing is possibly the older section
of the building.

Map Point: 50
Photo Number: 204

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-70

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

362 Dodge Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Details:
Located on south side of road. It has an
associated house barn.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 50
Photo Number: 205

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

362 Dodge Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 50
Photo Number: 206

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

323 East Main Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1842
Alterations: Addition.

Style: Greek Revival


Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: Two-over-two
Details:
A good representative example of a brick
Greek Revival building located east of the
village center. It consists of a two-bay wide
by 2-bay deep block with lower wraparound
addition. The faade is sheathed in
clapboard, it features cornice returns and
intact entrance.

Map Point: 51
Photo Number: 207

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-71

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
323 East Main Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Description
Style: Greek Revival
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: Two-over-two
Details:
It has a single bay garage/house barn.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 51
Photo Number: 208

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

323 East Main Street (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Facing northeast.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 51
Photo Number: 209

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

323 East Main Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)

Details:
detail of entrance.

MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 51
Photo Number: 210

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-72

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

323 East Main Street (cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 51
Photo Number: 211

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Elisha Camp House
310 General Smith Drive

Photograph not available

Town: Hounsfield

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

(90NR01186)

Jefferson County

Map Point: 52
Photo Number: 212

NRHP Status: NR Listed

Sackets Harbor Village Historic


District
Main Street

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Details:
Main, Washington, Pike, Edmund, Hill,
Hamilton, Broad and Ambrose Streets
(90NR01188)

Map Point: 53
Photo Number: 213

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: NR Listed

8-73

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

390 Ontario Street, Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County
Date: ca 1950

Description
Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Other
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Other
Details:
A largely-intact unusual example of a ca.
1950 clay tile cottage with a stone veneer
on its lake elevation. Retains original
casement windows (steel); has vinyl sided
enclosed porch

Map Point: 54
Photo Number: 214

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

390 Ontario Street, Lake Ontario


(cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 54
Photo Number: 215

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

(cont'd)
390 Ontario Street, Lake Ontario

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Style: n/a
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Hipped
Ext. Siding: Other
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Other
Details:

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510
Jefferson County

Map Point: 54
Photo Number: 216

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-74

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Hounsfield
Sackets Harbor (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

390 Ontario Street, Lake Ontario


(cont'd)

Town: Hounsfield
Photograph not available

Sackets Harbor (V)


MCD: 04510

Details:
Note corner windows. Rear addition
covered in vinyl siding.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 54
Photo Number: 217

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Hanson's High Rocks


4811 Becker Lane

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1930

Style: Craftsman
Stories: One
Plan: U-shaped
Roof: Gable
Ext. Siding: Novelty siding
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Other
Details:
A small seasonal cottage community
located on the southwest tip of Point
Peninsula on Lake Ontario. It consists of a
cluster of cottages dating from the early to
mid-twentieth century.

Map Point: 55
Photo Number: 218

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Hanson's High Rocks (cont'd)


4811 Becker Lane

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Details:
The cottages are located next to the NRListed Getman Farmhouse and NR-Listed
Angell Farm.

Date: c 1930

Map Point: 55
Photo Number: 219

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

8-75

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Hanson's High Rocks (cont'd)


4811 Becker Lane

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1930

Map Point: 55
Photo Number: 220

NRHP Status: Unevaluated

Getman Farmhouse
South Shore Road

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

(90NR02997)

Jefferson County

Map Point: 56
Photo Number: 221

NRHP Status: NR Listed

Farm
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Details:
A good representative example of a Greek
Revival farmhouse located on Point
Peninsula. It reflects the vernacular building
tradition of the region during the early to mid
19th c. Facing southwest.

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 222

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-76

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
Farm (cont'd)
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Greek Revival
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular with side ell
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Asbestos shingle
Foundation: Limestone
Sash: Other
Details:
It consists of an original 5 bay by 2-bay,
side-gabled frame block with central
entrance and a later, attached wing.
Fenestration includes ne-over-one and twoover-two double hung sash. 2 barns located
south of house, one with front gable roof
with attached shed, the other has a sidegabled roof and side entry on barn side.

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 223

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm (cont'd)
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

The farmhouse is unoccupied, but the farm


still appears to be active (hay cultivation).

Jefferson County

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 224

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm (cont'd)
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 225

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-77

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Farm (cont'd)
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
Farm buildings located to south of
farmhouse. Facing southeast.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 226

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm (cont'd)
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Facing northwest.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 227

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm (cont'd)
South Shore Road, West side,
south of Beach Rd

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 57
Photo Number: 228

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-78

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Farm buildings
South Shore Road, and
Pinewoods, on corner

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Details:
An outstanding, highly-intact collection of
farm buildings located on the southwest
corner of South Shore Rd and Pinewoods
Rd. The original farmhouse is no longer
intact. These outbuildings collectively
represent the historic agricultural traditions
of Point Peninsula and the region.

Map Point: 58
Photo Number: 229

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm buildings (cont'd)
South Shore Road, and
Pinewoods, on corner

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Facing southwest.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 58
Photo Number: 230

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm buildings (cont'd)
South Shore Road, and
Pinewoods, on corner

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)

Details:
Facing west north-west.

MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 58
Photo Number: 231

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-79

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

South Shore Road, South of No.


19052

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Description
Style: Greek Revival
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: Rectangular with side ell
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: Stone
Sash: Two-over-two
Details:
A good representative example of a
vernacular mid-nineteenth century
farmhouse located on Point Peninsula. It
consists of a frame, side-gabled, 5-bay by 2
bay block with lesser side wing and rear
addition.

Map Point: 59
Photo Number: 232

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

South Shore Road, South of No.


19052 (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Located on northwest side of road,


overlooks Lake Ontario toward Brownsville.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 59
Photo Number: 233

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

South Shore Road, South of No.


19052 (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
No associated historic-era farm buildings
are extant. It has a modern barn.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 59
Photo Number: 234

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-80

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
Farm complex
19458 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Greek Revival
Stories: Two
Plan: L-shaped
Roof: Gable front
Ext. Siding: Asbestos shingle
Foundation: Stone
Sash: Six-over-six
Details:
A mid-nineteenth century Vernacular
farmhouse with associated farm buildings
dating from the second half of the 19th c.
Facing northwest.

Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 235

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm complex (cont'd)
19458 South Shore Road

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Farm path on north side of farmhouse.


Facing west.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 236

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm complex (cont'd)
19458 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Details:
Farm located on northwest side of road,
overlooks Lake Ontario toward Brownsville.
The L-shped farmhouse has few noted
alterations.

Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 237

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-81

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Farm complex (cont'd)


19458 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)

Details:
South elevation of farmhouse, facing north.

MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 238

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm complex (cont'd)
19458 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 239

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
Farm complex (cont'd)
19458 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
Associated farm buildings appear to be
largely-intact. Facing southwest.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 240

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-82

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Farm complex (cont'd)


19458 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 60
Photo Number: 241

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

19532 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1900

Details:
A largely-intact early-twentieth century
cottage set on the northwest side of the
road, overlooking Lake Ontario. This
cottage is one of the most intact of its type
on Point Peninsula.

Map Point: 61
Photo Number: 242

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
(cont'd)
19532 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)

Style: Vernacular
Stories: One
Plan: Rectangular
Roof: Side gable
Ext. Siding: Clapboard
Foundation: n/a
Sash: Other
Details:
Facing southwest.

MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 61
Photo Number: 243

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-83

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

19532 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 61
Photo Number: 244

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Details:
A good representative example of a Greek
Revival farmhouse that typifies the
vernacular building tradition of Point
Peninsula and the region. The farm is
located on the north side of the road. Facing
southwest.

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 245

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
Outbuildings are located on south side of
house. Facing north.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 246

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-84

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
21585 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Description
Style: Greek Revival
Stories: One-and-a-half
Plan: L-shaped
Roof: Gable
Ext. Siding: Asbestos shingle
Foundation: Stone
Sash: Two-over-two
Details:
Farmhouse consists of frame, side-gabled,
5-bay by 2-bay block with lesser wing and
rear addition. Facing north.

Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 247

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

It has pediment Italianate window surrounds


and frieze windows. Facing southwest.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 248

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
Collection of largely intact farm buildings.
Facing west-northwest

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 249

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-85

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)

Details:
Facing north.

MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 250

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Facing southwest.

Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 251

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

21585 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: c 1850

Map Point: 62
Photo Number: 252

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-86

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

25201 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: ca. 1890

Details:
A largely-intact, example of a Queen Anne
farmhouse located on Point Peninsula. It
represents the late nineteenth century
prosperity of the region's agricultural
industry. Facing north.

Map Point: 63
Photo Number: 253

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

25201 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Details:
Farmhouse located on east side of road and
overlooks Chaumont Bay. It is the only one
of its type represented on Point Peninsula.

Map Point: 63
Photo Number: 254

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible
(cont'd)
25201 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Style: Queen Anne


Stories: Two
Plan: Irregular
Roof: Cross gable
Ext. Siding: Asbestos shingle
Foundation: Stone
Sash: n/a
Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 63
Photo Number: 255

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-87

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

25201 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)

Details:
Has barn; Craftsman style garage

MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 63
Photo Number: 256

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

25201 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

It has a detached Craftsman-era garage.

Jefferson County

Map Point: 63
Photo Number: 257

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

25403 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
Farm complex on east side of road. Facing
northwest.

Jefferson County
Date: 1860
Alterations: Vinyl siding,
replacement windows

Map Point: 64
Photo Number: 258

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-88

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information
(cont'd)
25403 South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County
Date: 1860

Description
Style: Italianate
Stories: Two
Plan: Rectangular with rear ell
Roof: Deck-hip
Ext. Siding: Vinyl siding
Foundation: Stone
Sash: New
Details:
A good representative example of an
Italianate farmhouse located on Point
Peninsula. It consists of a frame, two-story,
5-bay by 2-bay block with hipped roof. It has
entry porches on three elevations;
symmetrical fenestration, frieze windows,
and paired brackets. Possibly missing
cupola.

Map Point: 64
Photo Number: 259

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

25403 South Shore Road (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Details:
It has a lesser two -story rear addition with
an attached one-story shed-roof addition.
Facing southwest.

Date: 1860

Map Point: 64
Photo Number: 260

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

25403 South Shore Road, Lake


Ontario (cont'd)

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (V)


MCD: 04513

Details:
Possibly missing cupola; has associated
outbuildings

Jefferson County
Date: 1860

Map Point: 64
Photo Number: 261

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: Recommend


Eligible

8-89

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Jefferson County
Town: Lyme
Point Peninsula (Chaumount) (V)
Photograph

Annotated List of Properties


Property Information

Description

Lance Farm
South Shore Road

Town: Lyme
Photograph not available

Point Peninsula (Chaumount) (V)

Details:
(90NR02998)

MCD: 04513
Jefferson County

Map Point: 65
Photo Number: 262

NRHP Status: NR Listed

Angell Farm
South Shore Road

Photograph not available

Town: Lyme

Details:

Point Peninsula (Chaumount) (V)


MCD: 04513

(90NR02996)

Jefferson County

Map Point: 66
Photo Number: 263

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

NRHP Status: NR Listed

8-90

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

9.0 Cemeteries

The current study identified two potential NRE cemeteries in the project viewshed: Military
Cemetery on Dodge Avenue, Sackets Harbor; and Sackets Harbor Lakeside Cemetery. Neither
of these cemeteries are included in the NRL Village of Sackets Harbor Historic District or NRL
Hounsfield Multiple Resource Area.

9.1

MILITARY CEMETERY ON DODGE AVENUE

Military Cemetery is located on the south side of Dodge Avenue (CR 75) in the Village of
Sackets Harbor (Photographs 9.1 through 9.9). It is directly opposite Lakeside Cemetery.
Residential properties border the cemetery to the east and west. Military Cemetery (USN
04558.000009) has no NRHP eligibility determination listed in the NYSHPO SPHINX database.
The cemetery has a deep setback with two long driveways and a well-maintained lawn. A
modern wooden sign and flagpole are set at the roadside. The graves are located in the
southern end of the cemetery property. An iron fence lines the driveways and the main
cemetery section containing the graves. The cemetery is laid out around a central monument, a
granite memorial for the unknown soldiers and sailors of the War of 1812. Behind the monument
lay several small headstones with simple inscriptions forming a semi-circle around the
monument. Tall conifer trees line the perimeter of the cemetery. An entrance gate is located at
the southeast corner of the cemetery. Most of the grave markers are U.S. military issue. The
oldest documented grave is the 1813 grave of Frederick Augustus Leonard, U.S. Navy. He
reportedly died of illness brought on by the attack on the garrison at York, Canada on April 7th.
Next to the unknown soldiers and sailors monument is a monument for General Zebulon Pike,
commemorating Pike and the soldiers who died in 1813 at the Battle of York (Toronto). Overall,
the condition of the cemetery is excellent with only noticeable weathering of grave markers. For
a list of burials at the Military Cemetery, see the Northern New York Genealogy Cemetery
Collection (NNY Genealogy 2008a).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-1

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.1. Eastern


(Panamerican 2008).

driveway

to

Military

Cemetery,

facing

south

Photograph 9.2. View from Military Cemetery, facing north toward Lakeside
Cemetery (Panamerican 2008).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-2

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.3. Military Cemetery, facing southwest (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.4. Central section of Military Cemetery, facing south (Panamerican


2008).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-3

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.5. Tomb of the unknown soldiers and sailors of the War of 1812
with the tombstone monument for General Zebulon Pike at right, Military
Cemetery (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.6. Western section of Military Cemetery, facing southwest


(Panamerican 2008).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-4

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.7. Southern section of Military Cemetery, facing southwest


(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.8. Entrance Gate in southeast corner of Military Cemetery


(Panamerican 2008).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-5

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.9. Eastern


(Panamerican 2008).

9.2

driveway

of

Military

Cemetery,

facing

north

SACKETS HARBOR LAKESIDE CEMETERY

Sackets Harbor Lakeside Cemetery is located on a triangular-shaped section of land


formed by Old Military Road and Dodge Avenue (CR 75) in the Village of Sackets Harbor,
Jefferson County. Access to the cemetery is from Dodge Avenue. The NRL Madison Barracks is
directly opposite to the north on Military Road. Military Cemetery and residential housing are
located on Dodge Avenue. This active cemetery is very well maintained (Photographs 9.10
through 9.22).
Lakeside Cemetery is a large cemetery that is rectangular in plan. The original early- to
mid-nineteenth-century cemetery is located in the southeastern quadrant. The cemetery
expanded eastward in the late nineteenth century. Its planned design is representative of the
picturesque rural movement of the period with its grid sectional layout of radiating wagon paths
from the center of the cemetery and landscaping. The cardinal wagon paths feature a dense
alle of cypress trees. A variety of both deciduous and conifer trees line the perimeter of the
cemetery and are also scattered throughout the cemetery. A simple metal post and wire fence
encompasses the cemetery. The historic landscape features of the cemetery appear to be
largely intact.
A wide-range of grave markers is represented at Lakeside Cemetery. These include
simple tablet-type headstones from the early to mid-nineteenth century to larger granite markers
from the Victorian era. Graves dating from the second half of the twentieth century through
present are located in the western portion of the cemetery. For a list of burials at Lakeside
Cemetery see the Northern New York Genealogy Cemetery Collection (NNY Genealogy
2008b).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.10. Lakeside Cemetery along Dodge Avenue, Sackets Harbor,


facing east-northeast (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.11. Eastern wagon path in the older section of Lakeside Cemetery,
facing north (Panamerican 2008).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.12. Older section of Lakeside Cemetery, facing east (Panamerican


2008).

Photograph 9.13. Older section of Lakeside Cemetery, facing east (Panamerican


2008).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-8

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.14. Cypress-lined central wagon path from Dodge Avenue,


Lakeside Cemetery, facing north (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.15. Wagon path along southern perimeter of Lakeside Cemetery,


facing east (Panamerican 2008).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-9

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.16. Southeast quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing southeast


(Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.17. Northeast quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing northeast


(Panamerican 2008).
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-10

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.18. Northwest quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing northnorthwest (Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.19. Wagon path in western half of Lakeside Cemetery, facing north
(Panamerican 2008).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-11

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.20. Southwest quadrant of Lakeside Cemetery, facing northeast


Panamerican 2008).

Photograph 9.21. Western portion of Lakeside Cemetery along Dodge Avenue,


facing north (Panamerican 2008).

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-12

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Photograph 9.22. Maintenance building on Dodge Avenue near southwestern


corner of Lakeside Cemetery, facing east-northeast (Panamerican 2008)

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

9-13

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

10.0 References

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Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-1

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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10-2

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-3

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-4

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Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-5

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Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-7

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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10-8

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-10

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

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1961 Henderson, NY Quadrangle, 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). U.S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D.C.
1961 Sackets Harbor, NY Quadrangle, 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). U.S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D.C.
1985 Cape Vincent, NY Quadrangle, 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). U.S. Geological
Survey, Reston, VA.
1986 Pulaski, NY Quadrangle, 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). U.S. Geological Survey,
Reston, D.C.
Van Diver, Bradford B.
1985 Roadside Geology of New York. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, MT.
Watts, Dale E.
1974 Sackets Harbor Battlefield Sackets Harbor, Jefferson County New York National Register
of Historic Places InventoryNomination Form (90NR01190). New York State Office of
Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation, Peebles Island, Waterford [online www].
Available URL: http://www.oprhp.state.ny.us/hpimaging/hp_view.asp?GroupView=3019
[accessed September 2, 2008].

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-11

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Werbizky, Tania
1990a Getman Farmhouse (component #19), Lyme, Jefferson County. Building Structure
Inventory FormMultiple Resource Area, Town of Lyme, Jefferson County, New York
(90MRA00034). Prepared by St. Lawrence Ontario Commission.
1990b Lance Farm (component #20), Lyme, Jefferson County. Building Structure Inventory
FormMultiple Resource Area, Town of Lyme, Jefferson County, New York
(90MRA00034). Prepared by St. Lawrence Ontario Commission.
1990c United Methodist Church (component #21), Lyme, Jefferson County. Building
Structure Inventory FormMultiple Resource Area, Town of Lyme, Jefferson County,
New York (90MRA00034). Prepared by St. Lawrence Ontario Commission.
1990d Union Hall (component #22), Lyme, Jefferson County. Building Structure Inventory
FormMultiple Resource Area, Town of Lyme, Jefferson County, New York
(90MRA00034). Prepared by St. Lawrence Ontario Commission.
Watertown Times
1952 Vast Estate Is Sold on Grenadier Island. Watertown Times (August 1952).
Wikipedia
2008 Grenadier Island School House, Grenadier Island, Cape Vincent. Wikipedia [online
document]. Available URL:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/JZSXYAilND20Lobt71fIAXczjEwifdmd0300.jpg
[accessed March 12, 2009]
2008 The Abandoned Farm on Grenadier Island Road #3 (Humphrey Farm House/
Carbide House). Wikipedia [online document]. Available URL:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e3/DSC_3263o.JPG [accessed March 12,
2009]
Widdis, Randy William
1991 We Breathe The Same Air: Eastern Ontarian Migration to Watertown, New York. In
Coming and Becoming; Pluralism in New York State History, compiled by Wendell Tripp,
pp. 227-246. New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY.
Williams, J. Robert
nd The Galloups Approach the End of an Era. Scrapbook in possession of islands owner.
pp. 227-246. New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY.
Wolf & Associates, Inc.
2007 Historic Fox Island Auction. Wolf & Associates, Inc., np [online www]. Available URL:
http://www.woltz.com/580/index.htm [accessed January 8, 2009].
YMCA
1971 Association IslandOn Lake Ontario. YMCA booklet. Available at Historical
Association of South Jefferson, Adams, NY.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

10-12

Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE

Appendix A. Project Maps


Hounsfield Wind Farm 10-mile APE Survey Map (large foldout)

Sackets Harbor Survey Map (small foldout)

Hounsfield Wind Farm


10-mile APE
Jefferson County, NY
Architectural Survey

Negative Viewshed
(No Turbines Visible)

Turbine Location

!
(
2

Turbine ID

National Register
Listed

Ten Mile
Study Area

Map Inset Area


64

!
(
63

Recommend NRE (I) Structures

!
(

(Colors Represent Number of Turbines That Are Visible at Each Structure


Within 10-Mile APE)

(
!

1-10

(
!

41-50

(
!

11-20

(
!

51-60

(
!

21-30

(
!

61-70

(
!

31-40

(
!

71-84
!
(
57

United
Methodist
Church

4
Miles

Kilometers
4

!
(

58

Union Hall

62
60

!
(
!
(

61
65
Lance Farm

!
(
!
(

59

Mapping Information
55

Created By: Panamerican Consultants, Inc. Buffalo, NY

!
(
56
Getman
Farmhouse

Note: Viewshed is only calculated within the 10-mile APE (including Sackets Harbor: see correlating map)

66
Angell Farm

Note 2: Map Point labels are located on the side of the street of the corresponding structure.

Mapping Date: March 2009

!
(

Topographic Sources:
USGS Cape Vincent 1985; USGS Cape Vincent South 1960; USGS Chaumont 1960; USGS Galloo Island 1960;
USGS Henderson 1961; USGS Henderson Bay 1960; USGS Point Peninsula 1960; USGS Pulaski 1986

Stony Point Cottages

1:8000

16
14

15

!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(

13
12

!
(
!
(
!
(

11
10

84

75

76

66

!
(
!
(

60

56

!
(

46

!
(

33
32
22

!
(

15
14

29

18

11

19

20

71

70

40

53

27

51

28

26

78

39

63

79

52

41

80

!
(

40

25
21

54

h
36

17

35

64

55

42

43

30

12

24

h
h

16

13

23

34

31

44

72

h
h

65

62

45

47

58

73

49

74

61

57

48

69

82

67
59

77

68

81

83

37

38

50

!
(

h
10
9

2
1

38

39
Galloo
Island
Lighthouse

!
(!
(
37

!
(

Henderson Harbor

!
(
INSET: HENDERSON HARBOR

1:8000

!
(

(
!
(!
!
(!
!
(
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(!
(

35

!
(!
(

33

!
(
!
(
!
(

32

!
(
31

!
(

34

!
(

30

!
(
!
(

INSET: STONY POINT


COTTAGES

28
26

!
(
!
(

27

!
(
!
(
(
!
(!
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(
!
(

29

!
(

!
(
!
(

!
(

25

!
(
24

!
(

!
(
36
23
21

22

!
(

!
(

20

!
(
!
(

19
18

!
(
!
(

17

!
(

!
(!
(

Hounsfield Wind Farm


10-mile APE
SACKETS HARBOR
Jefferson County, NY
Architectural Survey

Negative Viewshed
(No Turbines Visible)

National Register
Listed

Recommend NRE (I) Structures


(Colors Represent Number of Turbines That Are Visible at Each Structure
Within Sackets Harbor APE)

!
(

1-10

!
(

41-50

!
(

11-20

!
(

51-60

!
(

21-30

!
(

61-70

!
(

31-40

!
(

71-84

1,000

250

2,000
Feet
Meters
500

45
Madison Barracks

52
Elisha Camp
House

Mapping Information

Dr. Samuel Guthrie


House

Created By: Panamerican Consultants, Inc. Buffalo, NY


Note:

Viewshed is only calculated within Sackets Harbor


(and the 10-mile APE: see correlating map)

Note 2: Map Point labels are located on the side of the street of the
corresponding structure.

Mapping Date: March 2009

!
(

47

Topographic Sources:

!
(

!
(

USGS Henderson Bay 1960; USGS Sackets Harbor 1961

!
(

Union Hotel

49

50

48
54

!
(

53
Sackets Harbor
Village Historic District

44
Sackets Harbor
Battlefield

51
!
(

42

!
( !
(

!
(

!
(

46

SBarnes

43

41

PHASE IB CULTURAL RESOURCES


INVESTIGATION FOR THE PROPOSED
Panamerican
Consultants, Inc.

HOUNSFIELD WIND FARM,


GALLOO ISLAND, TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD,

Buffalo Branch

2390 Clinton Street

Buffalo, NY 14227

Tel:
(716) 821-1650

Fax: (716) 821-1607

Tuscaloosa Branch

924 26th Avenue East

Tuscaloosa, AL 35404

Tel:
(205) 556-3096

Fax: (205) 556-1144

Memphis Branch

91 Tillman Street

Memphis, TN 38111

Tel:
(901) 454-4733

Fax: (901) 454-4736

Tampa Branch

5910 Benjamin Center

Drive, Suite 120

Tampa, FL 33634

Tel:
(813) 884-6351

Fax: (813) 884-5968

JEFFERSON COUNTY, NEW YORK


(OPRHP #07PR06733)

Prepared for:
UPSTATE NY POWER CORPORATION

950-A Union Road, Suite 20

West Seneca, NY 14224-3454

Corporate Headquarters

th
2205 4 Street

Suites 21 & 22

Tuscaloosa, AL 35401

Tel:
(205) 248-9867

Fax: (205) 248-8739

Prepared by:
PANAMERICAN CONSULTANTS, INC.

Buffalo Branch Office

2390 Clinton Street

Buffalo, New York 14227

February 2009

PHASE IB CULTURAL RESOURCES INVESTIGATION


FOR THE PROPOSED HOUNSFIELD WIND FARM,
GALLOO ISLAND, TOWN OF HOUNSFIELD,
JEFFERSON COUNTY, NEW YORK
OPRHP # 07PR06733

Prepared for:

UPSTATE NY POWER CORPORATION

950-A Union Road, Suite 20

West Seneca, NY 14224-3454

Prepared by:

Frank J. Schieppati, Ph.D., RPA, Principal Investigator

Edwin W. Button, M.A., Field Director

Mark A. Steinback, M.A., Senior Historian

Rebecca J. Emans, Ph.D., RPA, Lab Director

Michael A. Cinquino, Ph.D., RPA, Project Director

PANAMERICAN CONSULTANTS, INC.

Buffalo Branch Office

2390 Clinton Street

Buffalo, NY 14227

(716) 821-1650

February 2009

Management Summary
SHPO Project Review Number: 07PR06733
Involved State and Federal Agencies: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation, Public Service Commission
Phase of Survey: Phase IB cultural resources investigation
Location Information:
Location: Galloo Island
Minor Civil Division: Town of Hounsfield
County: Jefferson
Survey Area (Metric & English)
Length and Width: Varies per project component (including interconnects, access roads,
docking facility, helicopter pad, temporary living quarters, up to 84 turbines, substation,
five meteorological towers, and maintenance buildings) on an island 1.5 miles wide by 4.5
miles long (2,200 acres).
Number of Acres surveyed: 35.5 acres
USGS 7.5-Minute Quadrangle Maps: Galloo Island, NY Quadrangle 1960
Archaeological Survey Overview:
Number & Interval of Shovel Tests: Total 6,043 tests, including 6,030 at 5-meter
interval, 13 tests at varied interval.
Number & Size of Units: n/a
Width of Plowed Strips: n/a
Surface Survey Transect Interval: n/a
Results of Archaeological Survey:
Number & name of prehistoric sites identified: None
Number & name of historic sites identified: 4 (Site PCI/Galloo Island-1 through -4)
Number and name of sites recommended for Phase II/Avoidance: Site PCI/Galloo
Island-2 (N. Wattam farmstead)
Results of Architectural Survey: see report listed below
Schieppati, Frank J., Mark A. Steinbeck, Rebecca J. Emans, Kelly Mahar, Christine M.
Longiaru, and Michael A. Cinquino
2008 Phase IA Cultural Resources Investigation for the Proposed Hounsfield Wind
Farm, Galloo Island Project Area, Town of Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New
York 07PR6733. Panamerican Consultants, Inc., Buffalo Branch, Buffalo.
Prepared for Upstate NY Power Corporation, West Seneca, NY.
Report Author(s): F. Schieppati, E. Button, M. Steinback, R. Emans, and M. Cinquino
Date of Report: February 2009

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table of Contents

Management Summary ................................................................................................................. ii

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. iv

List of Tables................................................................................................................................vii

List of Photographs ...................................................................................................................... ix

1.0

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1-1

2.0

Summary of Background Research ..................................................................................2-1

2.1 Previous Research ...................................................................................................2-1


2.2 Phase IA Archaeological Sensitivity Estimates ........................................................2-1

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

Methodology .....................................................................................................................3-1

3.1 Research Design ....................................................................................................3-1


3.2 Field Methodology ...................................................................................................3-3

3.3 Laboratory Analysis .................................................................................................3-4

Field Investigation ............................................................................................................ 4-1

4.1 Historic Survey Areas .............................................................................................4-3

4.2 Arbitrary Survey Areas ...........................................................................................4-36


4.3 Exploratory Testing Areas ......................................................................................4-73

Conclusions and Recommendations.................................................................................5-1

5.1 Conclusions .............................................................................................................5-1

5.2 Recommendations ...................................................................................................5-5

References ......................................................................................................................6-1

Appendices
Appendix A: Photographs
Appendix B: Shovel Test Log
Appendix C: Artifact Catalog
Appendix D: Site Forms

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

iii

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

List of Figures

FIGURE

PAGE

1.1 Location of Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island in the Town of

Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New York ..........................................................................1-2

1.2 Proposed wind farm facilities on Galloo Island .................................................................1-3

1.3 Existing structures on Galloo Island..................................................................................1-4

1.4 Oblique aerial view (toward the west) of Galloo Island and several landmarks ................1-4

2.1 Galloo (Galloup) Island in 1887.........................................................................................2-2

2.2 Galloo Island in 1895 ........................................................................................................ 2-3

2.3 Galloo Island ca. 1910 as sketched by Howard Baker ......................................................2-5

2.4 Galloo Island, 1932-1935 .................................................................................................. 2-6

2.5 Archaeological sensitivity estimates of Galloo Island based on the findings of the

Phase IA investigation.......................................................................................................2-7

3.1 Proposed shovel test locations later modified to account for field conditions ...................3-2

4.1 Project area showing Survey Areas, MDS locations, identified sites and other

features ............................................................................................................................. 4-4

4.2 Survey Area 1/MDS-2 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ....................4-6

4.3 Survey Area 2/MDS-3 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ................4-11

4.4 Survey Area 3/MDS-3 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ................4-21

4.5 Survey Area 4/MDS-4 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ..................4-24

4.6 Survey Area 5/MDS-5 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ..................4-26

4.7 Survey Area 6/MDS-6 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ..................4-27

4.8

Survey Area 7/MDS-7 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ..................4-29

4.9a Survey Area 9/MDS-8 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ................4-30

4.9b Survey Area 9/MDS-8 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ................4-31

4.10 Survey Area 12/MDS-9 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ................4-35

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

4.11 Survey Area 8 shovel test transect locations ..................................................................4-37

4.12 Survey Area 10 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-38

4.13 Survey Area 11 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-40

4.14 Survey Area 13 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-41

4.15 Survey Area 14 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-42

4.16 Survey Area 15 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-44

4.17 Survey Area 16 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-45

4.18 Survey Area 17 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-46

4.19 Survey Area 18 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-47

4.20 Survey Area 19 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-49

4.21 Survey Area 20 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-50

4.22 Survey Area 21 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-52

4.23 Survey Area 22 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-53

4.24 Survey Area 23 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-54

4.25 Survey Area 24 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-56

4.26 Survey Area 25 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-57

4.27 Survey Area 26 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-59

4.28 Survey Area 27 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-60

4.29 Survey Area 28 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-62

4.30 Survey Area 29 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-63

4.31 Survey Area 30 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-64

4.32 Survey Area 31 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-66

4.33 Survey Area 32 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-67

4.34 Survey Area 33 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-69

4.35 Survey Area 34 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ..........................4-70

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

4.36 Survey Area 35 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-72

4.37 Survey Area 36 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ..........................4-74

4.38 Survey Area 37/MDS-3 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ..............4-75

4.39 Survey Area 38 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-77

4.40 Survey Area 39 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle ............................4-80

4.41 Survey Area 39A shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ........................4-81

4.42 Survey Area 40 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles ..........................4-82

4.43 Survey Area 41 shovel test transect locations ................................................................4-84

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

vi

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

List of Tables

TABLE

PAGE

2.1

Map Documented Structures represented on published maps of Galloo Island ...............2-3

2.2

Map Documented Structures represented on sketch maps of Galloo Island ....................2-4

3.1

Project Components of the Phase IB Research Design ...................................................3-3

4.1

Summary of Survey Areas and number of shovel tests dug .............................................4-2

4.2

Phase IB surveyed MDS locations ....................................................................................4-3

4.3

Ceramic and Glass Artifacts from Survey Area 1, Stratum 1 ............................................4-7

4.4

Metal, Faunal, and Other Artifacts from Survey Area 1, Stratum 1 ...................................4-8

4.5

Ceramic tableware used for Mean Ceramic Date calculation ...........................................4-9

4.6

Summary of artifacts found in Survey Area 2, by Stratum ..............................................4-12

4.7

Ceramic Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum .........................................................4-13

4.8

Glass Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum ..............................................................4-15

4.9

Nails from Survey Area 2, by Stratum .............................................................................4-16

4.10 Other Metal Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum ....................................................4-17

4.11 Faunal Materials from Survey Area 2, by Stratum ..........................................................4-18

4.12 Other Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum..............................................................4-18

4.13 Ceramic tableware used for Mean Ceramic Date calculation .........................................4-19

4.14 Artifacts from Survey Area 3, by Stratum ........................................................................4-22

4.15 Artifacts from Survey Area 9, by Stratum ........................................................................4-33

4.16 Areas surveyed in addition to original Phase IB research design ...................................4-73

4.17 Artifact and Modern Materials from Survey Area 36, Stratum 1 ......................................4-74

4.18 Cultural Materials from Survey Area 37, Stratum 1 .........................................................4-76

4.19 Cultural Materials from Survey Area 39, by Stratum .......................................................4-79

4.20 Surface finds from Survey Area 39A ...............................................................................4-82

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

vii

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

4.21 Surface finds from Survey Area 40 ................................................................................. 4-83

5.1

Summary of Phase IB surveyed MDS locations ............................................................... 5-2

5.2

Summary of Phase IB additional surveyed locations ........................................................ 5-5

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

viii

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

List of Photographs

PHOTOGRAPH

PAGE

Evidence of extensive lumbering of cedar trees on Galloo Island for use in making

shingles, facing south....................................................................................................... A-1

Stump fence (cedar) located northwest of dilapidated stone barn shown in

Photographs 33 and 34, facing northeast ........................................................................ A-1

Stump fence (cedar) located perpendicular to north shore of Galloo Island, facing

north ................................................................................................................................. A-2

Split-rail fence located near the north shore, situated within the west portion of Galloo

Island, facing south-southeast ......................................................................................... A-2

Portion of stone wall found west of ponds located at north end of Galloo Island,

facing west-northwest ...................................................................................................... A-3

Portion of stone wall found along foot of ridge located at the north end of Galloo

Island, facing northeast .................................................................................................... A-3

Flagged corners of stone foundation found within Survey Area 1/ MDS-2, facing

southeast.......................................................................................................................... A-4

Northwest elevation of house ruin (foreground) within Survey Area 2/ MDS 3

(multiple structures), facing northeast .............................................................................. A-4

Southeast elevation of house ruin, facing northwest ........................................................ A-5

10

Typical shovel test having one stratum terminating on solid bedrock (shown) or

friable bedrock. STP 9.2 (Survey Area 2) shown ............................................................. A-5

11

Ash/debris layer found in STP 3.6 (Survey Area 2), terminating on bedrock ................... A-6

12

North elevation of mill foundation within Survey Area 3/MDS 3 (multiple structures),

facing south...................................................................................................................... A-6

13

Vegetation obscuring a chimney fall within the mill foundation, facing northeast ............ A-7

14

Bird-monitoring equipment within Survey Area 4/MDS 4, facing south............................ A-7

15

Field investigation within Survey Area 5/MDS 5, facing southwest .................................. A-8

16

Field investigation within Survey Area 6/MDS 6, facing southeast .................................. A-8

17

Field investigation within Survey Area 7, facing east ....................................................... A-9

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

ix

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

18

South elevation of mill foundation within Survey Area 9/MDS 8, facing northwest from
edge of shoreline.............................................................................................................. A-9

19

Possible tanker (note barrel-shaped construction), located 150 ft west of mill

foundation, facing west .................................................................................................... A-10

20

Survey Area 12/MDS 9 (multiple structures), located within tree cluster at north end

of Galloo Island, facing northeast..................................................................................... A-10

21

Vegetation covering Survey Areas 10 and 11, facing northeast ...................................... A-11

22

Exposed bedrock adjacent to southwest corner of Survey Area 19, indicative of

shallow soils within the APE, facing south ....................................................................... A-11

23

Two 10-ft by 30-ft piles of cleared field stones found adjacent to the north extent of

Survey Area 20, facing west ............................................................................................ A-12

24

Rocky outcrop within Survey Area 24, facing west .......................................................... A-12

25

General locale of Survey Area 26 among agricultural fields located at north end of

Galloo Island, facing east ................................................................................................. A-13

26

Survey Area 29 covered largely with swallow-wort an invasive vine-like species,

facing east........................................................................................................................ A-13

27

Cedar stumps from nineteenth-century foresting, facing southwest ................................ A-14

28

View of low-lying ponds and terrain north of Survey Area 34, situated on an elevated

ridge at the north end of Galloo Island ............................................................................. A-14

29

Belt-driven piece of agricultural machinery found within Survey Area 34, facing east..... A-15

30

Rock piles found in Survey Area 35, located within an agricultural field, facing north ..... A-15

31

East elevation of an approximate 18-ft long stone foundation wall within Survey Area

36, facing east .................................................................................................................. A-16

32

Telephone poles resting on concrete footers within Survey Area 36, facing northeast ... A-16

33

Northwest elevation of stone barn ruin, located within Survey Area 37, facing east........ A-17

34

Northeast elevation of barn ruin shown, facing south ...................................................... A-17

35

Survey Area 38: atypical patch of tall vegetation within a grove of trees, facing

southeast.......................................................................................................................... A-18

36

Fishermans shack located along west bank of North Pond, within Survey Area 39,

facing southwest .............................................................................................................. A-18

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

37 Survey Area 39A, centered on a modern bottle dump located approximately 300 feet

south of the fishermans shack, facing west ..................................................................... A-19

38 Detail of materials found in modern dump ....................................................................... A-19

39 Additional shovel testing (Survey Area 40) conducted south of the Club House to

test for buried deposits near debris, facing north ............................................................. A-20

40 STP 40.3 (approximately 50-cm wide) which tested a rock-lined anomaly, facing

southwest ......................................................................................................................... A-20

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

xi

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

1.0 Introduction

Panamerican Consultants, Inc. (Panamerican) was contracted by Upstate NY Power


Corporation to conduct a Phase IB cultural resources investigation for the Hounsfield Wind
Farm, a wind-energy project proposed for location in Jefferson and Oswego counties, New York
(Figure 1.1). Upstate NY Power proposes to construct the turbines for the proposed wind farm
on Galloo Island in the Town of Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New York. The project will consist
of the installation and operation of up to 84 wind turbines for the purpose of generating
approximately 252 Megawatts (MW) of electricity and infrastructure. Infrastructure includes, but
is not limited to, a docking facility, an operations-and-maintenance building, interconnects, roads
(Figure 1.2); and, under a separate project, approximately 9 miles (14.5 km) of underwater
cable and 41.6 miles (67 km) of overhead transmission line. Locations of the various proposed
structures on Galloo Island are preliminary and may be adjusted as the result of project and
regulatory requirements as well as natural and cultural resources concerns.
The Phase IB cultural resources investigation involved surface inspection and shovel
testing in selected portions of the project area designed to meet the requirements of the State
Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). Representative photographs of the field conditions, setting,
and cultural features are presented in Appendix A. The investigation was designed to comply
with the New York State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) Guidelines for Wind Farm
Development Cultural Resources Survey Work (2006). The investigation was also conducted
according to the New York Archaeological Councils (NYAC) Standards for Archaeological
Investigations and additional SHPO guidelines. Previous surveys include a Phase IA
investigation for the project which was conducted by Panamerican (Schieppati et al. 2008). The
SHPO designated project number is 07PR06733.
The focus of the Phase IB investigation is limited to Galloo Island, a privately owned
property located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario (see Figure 1.1). The island is 1.5 miles
wide by 4.5 miles long, with an area totaling 2,200 acres. Approximately 70 percent of the island
is wooded. The northeastern portion of the island is largely level and well drained and is used
for limited agricultural purposes (mostly hay). The southwestern portion of the island consists of
a wide, fairly level plane, elevated approximately 10 feet above lake level. Bedrock is at, or
near, the surface over much of this area. Field grass covers much of the plane, which is cut and
bailed. At the northern extent of the island is North Pond, located inland from the north shore.
Two smaller ponds are located adjacent to the south shore, also at the east extent of the island.
Existing structures on the island include the National Register Listed Galloo Island Lighthouse
[90nr01133] with attached keepers house and a separate foghorn house all located at the
southwestern tip of the island. Structures on the southeastern coast include the former Coast
Guard Station consisting of a main building, a boathouse, a corrugated metal garage, a utility
shed and a radio tower; the owners Main Lodge (including barns and outbuildings), a
Caretakers house, and a Guest House. A fishermans shack and a house structure known as
the Clubhouse are located on North Pond (Figures 1.3 and 1.4).
Two areas totaling approximately 34 acres were not included in the Phase IB study area.
The first area (approximately 30 acres) is located at the southwestern tip of the island and
includes the lighthouse parcel surrounded by a parcel administered by the New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The second area, consisting of the
former Coast Guard Station (3.6 acres), is also administered by the NYSDEC. No project
construction will occur in these areas.
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Figure 1.1. Location of Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island in the Town of
Hounsfield, Jefferson County, New York (USGS 100K Topographic Pulaski, NY 1986; 50K
Topographic Stony Island, 1980).
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Figure 1.2. Proposed wind farm facilities on Galloo Island (USGS 7.5 Quadrangle Galloo
Island, NY 1960).

The field investigation was conducted in August and September 2008. Dr. Frank J.
Schieppati, RPA, served as principal investigator; Dr. Rebecca J. Emans, RPA, was project
archaeologist and laboratory director, and Mr. Mark A. Steinback, M.A., was project historian.
Mr. Edwin W. Button, M.A., was field director, assisted by six field technicians. Dr. Michael A.
Cinquino, RPA, was project director.

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Figure 1.3. Existing structures on Galloo Island (USGS 7.5 Quadrangle Galloo Island, NY
1960).

Figure 1.4. Oblique aerial view (toward the west) of Galloo Island and several landmarks
(PCI 2007).
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2.0 Summary of Background Research


2.1

PREVIOUS RESEARCH

In February 2008, Panamerican Consultants, Inc. completed a Phase IA cultural resources


reconnaissance survey for the proposed Hounsfield Wind Farm project on Galloo Island
(Schieppati et al. 2008). That study included a background/literature search, a site file check,
and a field inspection of the project area. Archaeological and historic site files at the New York
State Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation (OPRHP) were reviewed as an
initial step to determine the presence of known archaeological sites within a one-mile radius of
the APE. These files include data recorded at both the OPRHP and the New York State
Museum (NYSM). The Phase IA study also assessed cultural resource sensitivity and past
disturbances within the project area, as well as providing photographic documentation of
conditions throughout the Area of Potential Effect (APE or impact area) following NYSHPO
Guidelines for Wind Farm Development (2006). Results of the site file check indicated no
previously recorded archaeological sites on Galloo Island.

2.2

PHASE IA ARCHAEOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY ESTIMATES

Information collected during the Phase IA survey was used to assess the sensitivity of the
project area for the presence of prehistoric and historic period cultural resources. The Phase IA
estimates are summarized below.
Prehistoric Workshop and Camp Sites. The setting of the project area on a relatively
large island in Lake Ontario was suitable for resource procurement (e.g., hunting, fishing and
limited gathering). Therefore, the project area is sensitive for small campsites. Ontario is a fresh
water lake so the availability of potable water is not an issue. The most sensitive locations for
sites are in proximity to the coast and adjacent to wetlands. Clusters of artifacts, stray finds or
low density and scattered artifact assemblages may be encountered.
Prehistoric Villages. No sites were identified in the project area. In general, the carrying
capacity of the island is limited and the likelihood of an unreported village site on the island is
low.
Other Prehistoric Sites (e.g., quarry, rockshelter, burials, mounds). The likelihood of
finding prehistoric quarry sites is moderate. The limestone bedrock underlying the project area
may have chert inclusions providing an important source of materials for stone tool
manufacture. This estimate is further supported by the fact that the bedrock is at, or near, the
surface in many areas of the island. The likelihood of finding rockshelter sites is near zero since
the island terrain is virtually flat. The likelihood of mounds is low as none have been reported
and they would have been readily visible given the flat terrain. Soil limitations also contribute to
the estimation. Sensitivity for burials is generally low primarily due to the lack of reasonably
deep soil on the island.
Historic Archaeological Sites. The initial historic use of the project area (the island) was
likely the production of shingle and shake from the once extensive stand of cedar. Following
deforestation, the island was used for grazing for both sheep and cattle. A limited amount of
agriculture took place where soil conditions were favorable (the northeastern section of the
island). The proposed turbine locations are generally dispersed across the entire island,
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although the major wetland areas will be avoided (see Figure 1.2). Historic farmsteads and
milling took place all along the southeastern shore. With the exception of the Clubhouse which
appears will not be directly impacted by project construction, and the location of a World War II
watchtower, all the known foundations, standing and map documented structures as well as
potential historic period archaeological resources are along the southeastern shore. As
presently designed, 18 of the proposed 84 turbines and associated interconnects as well as all
of the support structures are along the southeastern shore. Sensitivity for historic middens along
the southeastern shore is moderate to high. Once the foundations and any middens or artifact
deposits have been located and mapped, avoidance can be accomplished through minor
changes in facility layout.
Two historic maps, Robinson 1887 and the USGS 1895 topographical map (reprinted in
1925) were reviewed during the Phase IA survey of the project area (see Schieppati et al. 2008:
Figures 2.3 and 2.4). The 1887 map illustrated approximately 17 structures along the eastern/
southern shore of Galloup Island (Figure 2.1). At the islands southwestern tip is what appears
to be the lighthouse. Continuing north, two structures were shown associated with R. Eveleigh,
seven structures associated with N. Wattam, Schoolhouse No. 10, a structure attributed to R.R.
Gannet, one to R.F. Johnson, and four structures clustered at the northeastern tip of the island
associated with N. Wattam.

Figure 2.1. Galloo (Galloup) Island in 1887 (Robinson 1887).

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The 1895 USGS map illustrated 10 structures along the eastern/southern shore (Figure
2.2). At the southwestern tip is the lighthouse, then one where the Eveleigh structure was
shown; one where the seven Wattam structures were illustrated; one where the 1887
schoolhouse was shown; one structure where the 1887 Gannet structure was depicted; one
structure at Gill Harbor (approximately where the R.F. Johnson structure was shown in 1887);
and four structures near the northern tip where the N. Wattam structures were shown in 1887.
Table 2.1 lists the map documented structures (MDS) shown on Figures 2.1 and 2.2.

LIGHTHOUSE

Figure 2.2. Galloo Island in 1895 (USGS 15 Quadrangle, Stony Island, NY 1895).
Table 2.1.
Map Documented Structures1 represented on published maps of Galloo Island.

Map Documented
Structure (MDS)
MDS 1
MDS 2

1887
(Robinson)
Lighthouse
R. Eveleigh - two structures

1895
(USGS)
Lighthouse
one structure

MDS 3

N. Wattam - 7 structures

one structure

MDS 4
MDS 5
MDS 6
MDS 7
MDS 8

S. H. No. 10
not represented
R. R. Gannett
B. F. Johnson
N. Wattam, 4 structures

not represented
one structure
one structure
one structure
4 structures

The lighthouse and attached keepers house are not normally considered MDSs since they are extant.
They are included, in this case, for clarity.
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In addition to published maps, former residents of the island have drawn their own maps.
Howard Baker drew a map from memory in 1967, representing the island probably in the 1910s
or later (Figure 2.3). Elsie Newton-Coits map drew on her memories of living on the island
between 1932 and 1935 (Figure 2.4). The map representing the island in the 1910s shows the
Lighthouse, the Paxon House (formerly the R. Eveleigh structure), five houses surrounding the
Gannett Mill, the schoolhouse, the location of the Gannett House and Mill, the Johnson and Gill
Farm, the Johnson Mill, the Wattam Farm, the Cottage, and the north pond. Table 2.2 lists the
map documented structures shown on Figures 2.3 and 2.4.
Table 2.2.

Map Documented Structures2 represented on sketch maps of Galloo Island.

ca. 1910
(Baker 1967)
Lighthouse
not represented
not represented
not represented
Paxon House

1932-1935
(Newton-Coit n.d.)
Light House
Light House Keeper
Assistant Keeper
Boat House
not represented

MDS 6

5 Houses that surrounded the


Gannett Mill

House (unoccupied), Cattle Shed,


Chicken House

MDS 7
MDS 8
MDS 9
MDS 10
MDS 11
MDS 12
MDS 13
MDS 14
MDS 15
MDS 16

Original Schoolhouse
Gannett House and Mill Site
Johnson and Gill Farm
not represented
not represented
not represented
not represented
Johnson Mill
Wattam Farm
Cottage

Schoolhouse
Big House
Cow Barn, Horse Barn, Shed
Shed for Colt
Fox Pen
Tower
Cottage
Windmill
not represented
not represented

MDS 17

North Pond

Storage Warehouse, Fish Shack, Ice


House, Club House

Map Documented
Structure (MDS)
MDS 1
MDS 2
MDS 3
MDS 4
MDS 5

Figure 2.4 illustrates more detailed information about buildings associated with the
lighthouse and some of the farms. Near the lighthouse were a house for the keeper (attached),
the assistant keeper, and a boat house. From the southern tip of the island were an unoccupied
house (the R. Eveleigh/Paxon house), a cattle shed, a chicken house, the schoolhouse, the Big
House (Gannett farmhouse), a cow barn, a horse barn, a shed, and a shed for a colt. Between
the two bays were a windmill (Johnsons Mill), a fox pen, the lookout tower, the Cottage, and a
storage and hen house. At North Pond were a fish shack, an ice house, and a club house, as
well as a dock.

The lighthouse and attached keepers house, the Clubhouse, the Fish Shack and possibly the Big
House are not normally considered MDSs since they are extant. They are included, in this case, for
clarity.
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Figure 2.3. Galloo Island ca. 1910 as sketched by Howard Baker (Baker 1967).

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 2.4. Galloo Island, 1932-1935 (Newton-Coit n.d.).


The Phase IA study concluded that the prehistoric sensitivity of the island is low to
moderate. One of the contributing factors of this assessment is the islands inaccessibility. While
not impossible, the trip from the mainland by canoe, even using an island-hopping route, would
have been quite perilous and can be characterized as having a poor risk-reward ratio (i.e., high
risk and low reward). There are instances during the winter when travel by foot over lake ice
would have been possible. Historically, this was not an uncommon method for reaching the
island in winter, although the risk-reward characteristics of such a trip during the prehistoric
period would have likely made it an uncommon occurrence. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to
assume that Native Americans may have used the island periodically throughout prehistory for
hunting, fishing and trapping. Seasonal, short-term camps would be the most likely settlement
type to occur on the island.
The remains of these prehistoric settlements, if they are present, are unlikely to be located
within wetland areas or in the margins of wetlands. They are also unlikely to be situated on
exposed bedrock but can be located at virtually any other location on the island. Historic period
sensitivity is restricted, primarily, to the southeastern shore where most of the periods activity
took place. Figure 2.5 is a representation of archaeological sensitivity based on the findings of
the Phase IA investigation.

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Figure 2.5. Archaeological sensitivity estimates of Galloo Island based on the findings of the Phase IA investigation (USGS
7.5 Quadrangle, Galloo Island, NY 1960).

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3.0 Methodology

The cultural resource investigation testing strategy for wind power projects has been
designed by the New York State Historic Preservation Office (NYSHPO 2006). The testing
strategy presented below follows this guidance. The field investigation includes an intensive
surface and subsurface examination (e.g., shovel testing) of samples of the project area (oe
Area of Potential Effect [APE]) determined by a required testing plan. Pedestrian or walkover
reconnaissance surveys of these designated areas were conducted to identify visible or surface
cultural features, soil disturbance, and wet or poorly drained areas.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN


The Phase IB field investigation at Galloo Island was conducted following the current
Guidelines for Wind Farm Development Cultural Resources Survey Work (NYSHPO 2006). The
field investigation included a walkover survey, photographic documentation of site conditions
and the excavation of shovel tests at 5-m (16-ft) intervals in designated areas based on
NYSHPO consultation (Figure 3.1; Appendix A: Photographs).
The Phase IB research design specified the excavation of 5,915 shovel tests within 35
one-acre test areas. In general, tests were excavated at 5-m intervals. Much of the islands
ground surface is at or near bedrock. These areas along with delineated wetlands were
excluded from the survey and the 35 test locations, herein referred to as survey areas, were
scattered within those areas of the island considered testable. Twenty-six survey areas were
arbitrarily placed across the island within these testable areas. Nine survey areas were placed
within areas determined to have an increased historic-period archaeological sensitivity due to
the presence of map-documented structures (MDSs) (Table 3.1).
General Prehistoric Archaeological Sensitivity. The project areas setting of a relatively
large island in Lake Ontario was suitable for resource procurement (e.g., hunting, fishing and
limited gathering), making the project area sensitive for small campsites. Ontario is a fresh
water lake so the availability of potable water is not an issue. The most sensitive locations for
sites are in proximity to the coast and adjacent to wetlands. The project area is moderately
sensitive for quarry workshops due to the possible unknown deposits of chert inclusions within
the abundant underlying and exposed limestone bedrock. The project area is not
characteristically sensitive for finding a rockshelter as the island terrain is virtually flat. Mounds
are not likely as none have been reported within this historically lumbered and grazed island.
Sensitivity for burials is generally low primarily due to the lack of suitable deep soil on the island.
General Historic Archaeological Sensitivity. The initial historic use of the island was
likely the production of shingle and shake from the once extensive stand of cedar. Following
deforestation, the island was used for grazing for both sheep and cattle. A limited amount of
agriculture took place where soil conditions were favorable (the northeastern section of the
island). Historic farmsteads and milling took place all along the south shore (see Section 2.1,
after Schieppati et al. 2008: Section 2.4.1). With exception of the Clubhouse located at the
northeast shoreline, all the known foundations, standing and map documented structures as
well as potential historic period archaeological resources are long the south shore. Sensitivity
for historic middens along the south shore is moderate to high.

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Figure 3.1. Proposed shovel test locations later modified to account for field conditions (USGS 7.5 Quadrangle, Galloo
Island, NY 1960).

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Table 3.1. Project Components of the Phase IB Research Design.


Historic Survey Areas (MDS locations)
Survey Area
Total STPs
1 (MDS 2)

169
2 (MDS 3 - multiple

169
structures)

3 (MDS 3 - multiple

169
structures)

4 (MDS 4)

169
5 (MDS 5)

169
6 (MDS 6)

169
7 (MDS 7)

169
9 (MDS 8)

169
12 (MDS 9 - multiple

169
structures)

STP totals =

Arbitrary Survey Areas


Survey Area
Total STPs
8
169

10

169

11

169

13
14
15
16
17

169

169

169

169

169

18

169

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

1,521 (9 acres)
STP total =
Phase IB STP total = 5,915 (35 acres)

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169

169
4,394 (26 acres)

3.2 FIELD METHODOLOGY


Shovel test pits (STPs) are excavated at 5-m (16.4-ft) intervals in areas of natural soils and
adjacent to map-documented and standing structures. Exceptions from the 5-m (16.4-ft) interval
due to disturbance (i.e., manmade ponds, standing water, push-piles, gravel concentrations,
and roads) are recorded on field maps. Shovel tests average a minimum of 40 cm (16 in) in
diameter and are excavated to at least 10 cm (4 in) below potentially artifact-bearing soils. All
soils are matched to Munsell color charts and sieved through -inch hardware cloth screens.
Tests are terminated if water is encountered in the test pit, indicating poorly drained soils.
Additional shovel tests are excavated around positive shovel tests to define preliminary site
boundaries, artifact concentrations, or to determine that the find spot is an isolated occurrence.
Close-interval shovel testing is implemented when surface features (e.g., a foundation,
depression or the presence of map documented structures) are identified. Areas of severe
disturbance, standing water, and slope greater than 15 percent (rare in this case) are
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documented but not shovel tested. All shovel tests are backfilled to natural contour upon
completion. All shovel tests are recorded on project maps and included in the report.
Artifacts encountered during the survey are collected and placed in plastic bags and
labeled with provenience information. Modern materials, such as plastic and container glass,
are noted on field forms but not collected. Modern materials, such as coal, red brick fragments,
and miscellaneous nail fragments also are noted but not collected unless they can be clearly
identified as historic or found in association with historic period artifacts. All field information
collected from shovel tests is recorded on shovel test forms, including the location, pertinent
stratigraphic data, soil types, natural or man-made disturbances in the area, and the presence
or absence of cultural materials. The field director maintains a daily log and photographs
manmade disturbances and environmental conditions.

3.3

LABORATORY ANALYSIS

Recovered cultural materials are stored at Panamericans Buffalo Office for processing
and analysis. Processing of recovered artifacts follows guidelines elaborated in 36 CFR Part 79
(Curation of Federally-Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections) and in the New
York Archaeological Councils Standards and Curation of Archaeological Collections document
(NYAC 1994). Standard archaeological procedures of cleaning and storage are also followed,
with provenience information kept with artifacts at all times.
Lithic Analysis. Lithic tools and tool manufacturing byproducts (debitage) are closely
inspected with the aid of an illuminated magnifying lens (175 percent magnification). Projectile
point morphological descriptions used in this investigation conform to those presented by
Ritchie (1989:10-11). These diagnostic attributes are used to infer age or cultural complex
affiliations established in the projectile point typology discussed by Ritchie (1989). Other tool
types are described using standard terminology (e.g., end scraper, side scraper) used for lithic
technology (see Crabtree 1972 Part II:31-98).
Historic Artifacts. Historic artifact analysis typically entails the categorization of artifacts
by broad material class (e.g., ceramic, glass, metal), with further subdivision into artifact types
based on manufacturing characteristics, form, and function. These identifications are based on
the New York State Museum artifact catalog (NYSM 2004), published guides such as Miller
(2000), Munsey (1970), Nol Hume (1969), and South (1977), and well established Internet
sites (e.g., Stelle 2001). The data is recorded in an artifact catalog (see Appendix C), which
includes provenience, material class, artifact type, count, secondary type (e.g., color of
decoration on ceramics), description (e.g., portion of vessel if a fragment, description of makers
mark), and the beginning and ending dates of manufacture. The initial purpose of the
classification is to identify the general time period to which the assemblage dates.

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4.0 Field Investigation

A total of 6,043 shovel tests were dug during the Phase IB survey, exceeding the 5,915
shovel tests estimated in the accepted testing plan. A total of 5,901 shovel tests (including 8
tests dug at close intervals) were located within 35 identified one-acre survey areas (designated
Survey Areas 1 through 35) (Figure 4.1). The remaining shovel tests (n=128) were dug at
varying intervals over smaller areas at seven additional locations (designated Survey Areas 36
through 39, 39A, 40 and 41). The additional tests were implemented by the field director in order
to investigate areas of potential interest not included in the original research design.
Survey Areas 1 through 35 typically consisted of a 208-ft (63.4-m) by 208-ft (63.4-m)
square testing pattern totaling one acre (0.4 hectare) in coverage. A total of 169 shovel tests
were dug at each survey area, with the exception of Survey Area 1 (n=154 shovel tests) and
Survey Area 9 (n=171 shovel tests), along 13 transects enumerated typically from west to east,
with 13 shovel tests enumerated typically south to north along each transect. An additional eight
shovel tests were dug in proximity to a false-positive test (a soil stain that turned out to be a
rodent burrow) encountered in the Phase IB shovel test investigation. All positive shovel tests
are presented in Appendix B. Photographs of the Phase IB investigation area are provided in
Appendix A.
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in addition to a pick-up truck were used to reach surveyed
areas, employing a network of unpaved access roads covering much of the island. A walkover
inspection of each survey area was conducted. In addition, the Field Director used an ATV to
explore larger areas adjacent to the designated surveys, and conducted a general exploration of
the island for evidence of former land use, former structures, and additional areas of potential
archaeological interest.
The following land-use features were observed and recorded as a result of the general
exploration of the island.
a) A vast grass-covered area with weathered cedar stumps observed in the west-central
portion of the island - evidence of the nineteenth century deforestation of the island for
the likely production of shingle and shake (see Appendix A: Photograph 1).
b) South boundary of a sheep or cow pasture fence created from cedar stumps, located
adjacent to the southwest shore (see Appendix A: Photograph 2).
c) East boundary of a sheep or cow pasture fence created from cedar stumps, located
perpendicular to the northwest shore (see Appendix A: Photograph 3).
d) Split-rail fence denoting former separation of parcel or property located within the west
portion of Galloo Island (see Appendix A: Photograph 4).
e) Stacked-stone fence adjacent to west side of inland ponds (see Appendix A:
Photograph 5).
f) Stacked-stone wall found adjacent to foot of ridge located at north end of Galloo Island
(see Appendix A: Photograph 6).

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The fences described above provide evidence into past uses of the land for grazing of
sheep and cattle and possibly indicate the limits of former parcels. No evidence of former
structures was observed within or in proximity of the fence lines. It is suggested the fences are
associated with the historic farmsteads that were once located along the south shore (see
Section 2.1, after Schieppati et al. 2008: Section 2.4.1). A discussion of the surveys conducted
within areas associated with the historic farmsteads (identified herein as Historic Survey Areas)
is described below.
For analytical purposes, areas surveyed during the Phase IB field investigation are
discussed according to three group-sets: Historic Survey Areas, Arbitrary Survey Areas, and
Exploratory Testing (Table 4.1).

Table 4.1. Summary of Survey Areas and number of shovel tests dug.
Historic Survey Areas
Total
Survey Area
STPs
1 (MDS 2)
154
2 (MDS 3 - multiple
structures)
3 (MDS 3 - multiple

structures)
4 (MDS 4)
5 (MDS 5)
6 (MDS 6)
7 (MDS 7)
9 (MDS 8)
12 (MDS 9 - multiple
structures)

STP total =

Arbitrary Survey Areas

Exploratory Testing
Total
Survey Area
STPs
36
72
37 (MDS 3
multiple
28
structures)

Survey Area
8

Total STPs
169

169

10

169

169

11

169

38

12

160
169
169
169
171

13
14
15
16
17

169
169
169
169
169

39
39A
40
41

10
2
3
15

169

18

169

STP total =

142

1,499

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19

169
20
169
21
169
22
169
23
169
24
169
25
169
26
177
27
169
28
169
29
169
30
169
31
169
32
169
33
169
34
169
35
169
STP total =
4,402
Phase IB STP total = 6,043

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Historic Survey Areas include nine one-acre surveys associated with map-documented
structures (Survey Areas 1 through 9, and 12).
Arbitrary Survey Areas include 26 one-acre surveys placed over Galloo Island in testable
areas (Survey Areas 8, 10, 11, 13 through 35).
Exploratory Testing includes additional shovel tests implemented by the field director in
order to investigate areas of potential interest not included in the original research design
(Survey Areas 36 through 39, 39A, 40 and 41).

4.1

HISTORIC SURVEY AREAS

Eight areas associated with map-documented structures (see Section 3.1) along the south
shore of Galloo Island were surveyed during the Phase IB investigation. Nine surveys were
conducted within the eight MDS areas (Table 4.2). Two surveys - Survey Area 2 and Survey
Area 3, were placed in an area associated with MDS 3 (multiple MDSs) in order to provide
increased testing coverage. A summary of the field investigation conducted at each MDS
location is presented after Table 4.2.

Table 4.2. Phase IB surveyed MDS locations.


Survey
Area

Mapped
Documented
Structure (MDS)

MDS 2

2
3
4
5
6
7
9

MDS 4
MDS 5
MDS 6
MDS 7
MDS 8

12

MDS 9

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MDS 3

1887

1895

(Robinson)
R. Eveleigh
2 structures
M. Wattam
7 structures
S.H. No. 10
not represented
R. R. Gannett
B.F. Johnson
not represented
M. Wattam
7 structures

(USGS)

4-3

1 structure
1 structure
not represented
1 structure
1 structure
1 structure
1 structure
4 structures

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.1. Project area showing Survey


Areas, MDS locations, identified sites and
other features (USGS Galloo Island, NY
1960).

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Survey Area 1/MDS-2 [154 shovel tests dug]. This survey area is located adjacent to
the south shore at the west end of the island, at an elevation of about 260 ft (79 m) amsl (see
Figure 4.1). The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity due to mapdocumented structures (MDS-2) shown on the Robinson map from 1887 (two structures labeled
as R. Eveleigh) and the USGS map from 1895 (one structure, unnamed) (see Section 2.2:
Figures 2.1 and 2.2). The survey area is within a fairly level field covered with field grass,
thistles, and tall weeds.
The walkover reconnaissance identified a stone foundation measuring 20 by 25 feet (6.1
by 7.6 m) located approximately 30 ft (10 m) northeast of an unpaved access road that follows
the lake edge (Figure 4.2; see Appendix A: Photograph 7). The foundation is situated where a
structure (MDS-2) is shown on the 1887 map. Two stone fences, aligned perpendicular to the
shore, are located approximately 20 ft (6 m) and 80 ft (24 m), southwest of the foundation. A few
shagbark hickory trees stand in proximity to the foundation and stone fences.
A total of 154 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 1/MDS-2 (see Figure 4.2). Of
these, 104 shovel tests (67 percent) had one stratum, consisting of dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 23 cm (9 in) to bedrock. Forty-nine shovel tests (31 percent) had two strata.
Stratum 1 consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 24 cm (9.4 in).
Stratum 2 typically consisted of mottled light grayish brown and yellowish brown clayey loam,
terminating at an average depth of 35 cm (13.8 in). Most of these tests terminated due to
bedrock. STP 9.1 had a third stratum of brown clayey loam 38 to 43 cm (15 to 16.9 in) to bedrock.
A total of 215 artifacts were found in Stratum 1 of 40 positive shovel tests within Survey
Area 1 (see Appendix C: Artifact Catalog). The artifacts include 41 ceramics, 54 glass, 104
metal, 8 faunal, and 8 other items. These are summarized in Tables 4.2 and 4.3.
Ceramics include a variety of decorated pearlwares, including blue-and-white (n=1, STP
6.9, 1779-1830), polychrome (n=1, STP 7.0, 1795-1830), and blue transfer-print (n=1, STP 4.9,
1820-1830). Decorated whitewares are hand-painted and polychrome (n=1, STP 5.11, 1829
1850), and transfer-print, including blue (n=6, STPs 4.9 and 5.9, 1820-1860), light blue (n=1,
STP 7.6, 1826-1831), and red (n=1, STP 5.11, 1829-1850). Also found were undecorated
creamware (n=2, STP 7.8), ironstone (n=4, STPs 7.1 and 7.11), pearlware (n=1, STP 5.11),
porcelain (n=1, STP 11.1), and whiteware (n=14, STPs 1.3, 3.6, 5.11, 6.1, 6.9, 6.12, 7.6, 11.12
and 13.3). Other ceramics include one unidentifiable piece with eroded surfaces (STP 10.1),
and five pieces of brick (STPs 5.11, 6.9, 7.7 and 12.4).
The 54 glass artifacts include 36 pieces of window glass (STPs 4.9, 5.1, 5.8, 5.9, 6.1, 6.7,
6.8, 6.9, 7.1, 7.7, 7.8 and 13.3), a milk glass hat pinhead (STP 7.8), and 17 pieces of various
container glass. The container glass includes a bottle fragment (STP 7.9), a piece of a pressedglass bowl (STP 6.11), four pieces of aqua container glass (STPs 5.11, 7.1), three pieces of
clear container glass (STP 5.11), four pieces of thin clear container glass (STP 5.11), a piece of
frosted glass (STP 4.9), and three pieces of modern container glass (STPs 4.7, 10.13 and 11.5).
More than half of the metal artifacts were nails or nail fragments (n=63 of 104, or 61
percent). Cut nails predominate, with only four being wire nails. The cut nails were mostly
common nails, but also found were box nails, sheathing nails, and spikes. Other metal artifacts
include 28 pieces of sheet iron (STP 1.2), two pieces of barrel hoops (STPs 6.9 and 7.8), and
one each of iron container fragment, brass grommet, a utensil handle, metal fragment, iron ring,
a screw, a strap with wire nails, a piece of iron strap, a tube, and two pieces of wire (see Table
4.4).
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4-5

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.2. Survey Area 1/MDS-2 shovel test transect locations and photograph
angle.

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4-6

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.3. Ceramic and Glass Artifacts from Survey Area 1, Stratum 1.
Material
Ceramic

Type
creamware, undecorated
ironstone, undecorated
pearlware, blue-and-white
pearlware, polychrome
pearlware, transfer-print
pearlware, undecorated
Pearlware Total
porcelain, undecorated
redware, glazed
whiteware, hand-painted,
polychrome

Dates
1775-1820
1842-1930
1779-1830
1795-1830
1820-1830
1779+

STP
7.8
7.1, 11.1
6.9
7.9
4.9
5.11

1875+
1800+

11.1
6.8

Count
2
4
1
1
1
1
4
1
1

1829-1850

5.11

whiteware, transfer-print

1820-1860 (blue)
1826-1831 (light blue)
1829-1850 (red)

6
1
1

whiteware, undecorated

1820+

4.9, 5.9,
7.6
5.11
1.3, 3.6, 5.11, 6.1, 6.9,
6.12, 7.6, 11.12, 13.3

Whiteware Total
ceramic, unidentifiable
(eroded surfaces)
brick
Ceramic Total
Glass
bottle glass
bowl, pressed
container glass
container glass, thin
glass, frosted
glass, modern (not collected)
Container Glass Total
hat pin, head, milk glass

window glass

14
23

non-diagnostic

10.1

non-diagnostic

5.11, 6.9, 7.7, 12.4

non-diagnostic
1825+
1800-1940 (aqua)
non-diagnostic (clear)
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

7.9
6.11
5.11, 7.1
3.6, 5.8, 7.7
5.11
4.9
4.7, 10.13, 11.5

41
1
1
4
3
4
1
3
17

late nineteenth-early
twentieth century
(milk glass)

7.8

non-diagnostic

4.9, 5.1, 5.8, 5.9, 6.1,


6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.1, 7.7,
7.8, 13.3

36

Glass Total

54

Survey Area 1 Ceramic and Glass Total

95

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.4. Metal, Faunal, and Other Artifacts from Survey Area 1, Stratum 1.
Material
Metal

Type
nail, cut

Dates
1830+

STP
5.8, 5.9
5.8, 5.9, 6.1, 6.11, 7.1,
7.7, 7.9, 8.8, 8.9, 9.6

nail, cut, box

1830+

nail, cut, common

1830+

5.1, 5.8, 5.9, 5.11, 6.1,


6.7, 6.9, 7.1, 7.7, 7.8,
7.9, 9.9, 10.7, 12.6

31

nail, cut, sheathing


nail, cut, small
nail, cut, spike
nail, cut, undetermined

1830+
1830+
1830+
1830+

3.5, 4.6
8.8
5.9, 6.7, 6.11, 7.8, 11.7
9.6

2
1
6
2

Nail, Cut, Total


nail, wire
nail, wire, spike
Nail, Wire, Total
Nail Total
barrel hoop
container, iron
grommet, brass
handle, utensil
metal fragment, nondiagnostic
ring, iron
screw
sheet iron
strap with wire nails, iron
strap, iron
tube, iron
wire
wire, iron
Metal Total
Faunal
mammal bone
mammal bone, medium
mammal bone, sheep
mammal bone, small
Faunal Total
Other
charcoal
pencil, slate
slag, brass or copper
synthetic
wood, cut
wood, timber
Other Total
Survey Area 1 Metal, Faunal, Other Total
Survey Area 1 Total

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Count
5
12

59
1860+
1860+

5.1, 6.1
6.9

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

6.9, 7.8
4.9
9.6
6.9

3
1
4
63
2
1
1
1

non-diagnostic

3.2

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
1860+
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

8.13
5.1
1.2
10.13
5.8
9.12
6.9
9.12

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

1.2, 9.8
7.1
7.1
4.6

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

5.11
7.8
9.9
1.2
1.2
6.9

1
1
28
1
1
1
1
1
104
3
3
1
1
8
0
1
1
2
3
1
8
120
215

4-8

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

The eight faunal remains were small and medium mammal bones, including a sheep ulna
(STP 7.1). Other materials found include three pieces of cut wood (STP 1.2), a piece of wood
timber (STP 6.9), two pieces of synthetic fiber (STP 1.2), a piece of brass or copper slag (STP
9.9), and a slate pencil (STP 7.8). Charcoal was found in STP 5.11).
Summary. The functional characteristics of the assemblage are a combination of both
domestic trash (e.g., ceramic tableware and container glass) and structural materials (e.g. nails,
window glass, and bricks). The structural materials, including 36 fragments of window glass,
and 63 nails or fragments of nails, probably derive from the superstructure of the building
represented by the stone foundation ruins. The few brick fragments (n=5) are not sufficient for
the superstructure to have been predominantly brick: it most likely was wood. As stated above,
the foundation is in the general vicinity of the MDS shown in 1887, attributed to R. Eveleigh.
While most of the cultural materials are chronologically non-diagnostic, the small amount
of tableware ceramics suggests a mid- to late-nineteenth century and early twentieth century
occupation. As stated above, the pearlware and whiteware manufacture dates denote time
ranges of about 1795-1860, although the total number of these diagnostic artifacts is small
(n=12 fragments), representing a minimum of seven vessels. A mean ceramic date of 1840 was
calculated using the diagnostic tableware (Table 4.5). This date reflects the average date of
manufacture of these items, not their use-life. The actual disposal of the materials in this
assemblage could be the late nineteenth century, since ceramic wares tend to have a twentyyear or more use-life prior to breakage or disposal. Keeping in mind the delayed disposal
pattern of ceramic tablewares, the mean ceramic date is generally consistent with the date of
the MDS shown in 1887.
Table 4.5. Ceramic tableware used for Mean Ceramic Date calculation.
Type
creamware, undecorated
ironstone, undecorated
pearlware, blue-and-white
pearlware, polychrome
pearlware, transfer-print
whiteware, hand-painted, polychrome
whiteware, transfer-print-blue
whiteware, transfer-print-light blue
whiteware, transfer-print-red
Total

Count Beginning
End
2
1775
1820
4
1842
1930
1
1779
1830
1
1795
1830
1
1820
1830
1
1829
1850
6
1820
1860
1
1826
1831
1
1829
1850
18
Average Midpoint Date

Midpoint
1797.5
1886
1804.5
1812.5
1825
1839.5
1840
1828.5
1839.5
1840

The nineteenth century stone foundation (MDS 2) and associated structural debris,
fragmented ceramics, and glassware found during the shovel testing of Survey Area 1/MDS-2
was designated as an historic site, PCI/Galloo Island-1 (R. Eveleigh structure). An OPRHP
historic site form was completed and is presented in Appendix D.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Survey Area 2/MDS-3. This survey area is located adjacent to the south shore near the
west end of the island, at an elevation of about 260 ft (79 m) amsl. The survey area has an
increased archaeological sensitivity due to seven map-documented structures shown on the
1887 map (labeled as N. Wattam; see Section 2.2: Figure 2.1), designated MDS-3. No
structures are shown in proximity to Survey Area 2 on the 1895 USGS map. Survey Area 2 was
placed within the east boundary of where the Wattam structures are clustered (see Figure 4.1).
The survey area is within a level field covered with field grass and thistle. The presence of hay
rolls nearby indicates the immediate area was harvested for hay prior to the commencement of
field work.
The walkover reconnaissance identified a stone house ruin measuring 21 by 30 feet (6.4
by 9.1 m), located approximately 115 ft (35 m) northwest of the south-shore cliff edge (see
Appendix A: Photographs 8 and 9). The ruin is situated where a group of structures are shown
on the 1887 map. A collapsed stone birthing barn is located approximately 150 feet (46 m)
northeast of the ruin (see Figure 4.1). This barn is discussed in Survey Area 37/MDS-3 (see
Section 4.3).
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 2/MDS-3 (see Figure 4.3). Of
these, 160 shovel tests (95 percent) had one stratum, consisting of dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 21 cm (8.3 in) to bedrock (see Appendix A: Photograph 10). Five shovel tests
had two strata. In these tests, Stratum 1 consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 24
cm (9.4 in) deep. Stratum 2 typically consisted of mottled light grayish brown and yellowish
brown clayey loam, dug to an average depth of 35 cm (13.8 in). Most of these tests terminated
due to bedrock.
STP 9.1 had a third stratum (Stratum 3), consisting of brown clayey loam 38 to 43 cm (15
to 16.9 in) deep. STPs 8.5, 8.6, 9.4 and 9.6 had three strata, differing from other tests. Stratum
1 consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, averaging 24 cm (9.4 in) in depth. Stratum 2
consisted of light gray silty sand containing gravel and ash, between 18 to 23 cm (7.1 to 9.1 in)
deep (see Appendix A: Photograph 11). Stratum 3 consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam,
dug to an average terminal depth of 35 cm (13.8 in). Stratum 2 was probably an inclusion, as
there was little evidence differentiating Stratum 1 from Stratum 3.
A total of 1,376 items of material culture were found in Area 2 (see Appendix C: Artifact
Catalog). The frequencies of artifacts decreased with depth, so that 1,202 items were in Stratum
1, 122 were in Stratum 2, and 52 were in Stratum 3 (Table 4.6). Materials found were
categorized by class. Stratum 1 had 171 ceramic items, 326 glass, 654 metal, 37 faunal, and 14
other. Stratum 2 had 14 ceramic, 41 glass, 59 metal, one faunal, and seven other. Stratum 3
had seven glass, 43 metal, one faunal, and one other.
For Stratum 1, the 171 ceramic artifacts include 156 tableware fragments, a white
porcelain button, and twelve pieces of brick (Table 4.7). Ceramic tableware from Stratum 1 of
Area 2 include 112 ironstone, 12 porcelain, 14 whiteware, 15 stoneware, two bisque, and one
each of semi-porcelain, Rockingham ware, and yellow ware. Various decorative styles are
represented in this stratum. These include decalcomania, edged patterns, hand-painted, luster,
and molded for the ironstone, decaled, hand-painted, luster, and molded porcelains, and
transfer-printed, hand-painted, and molded whiteware. The semi-porcelain is of the Late
Victorian Flow-Blue variety (1885-1920).

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.3. Survey Area 2/MDS-3 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.6. Summary of artifacts found in Survey Area 2, by Stratum.


Stratum
1

Material
Ceramic
Glass

Metal
Faunal
Other
Stratum 1 Total
2
Ceramic
Glass
Metal
Faunal
Other
Stratum 2 Total
3
Glass
Metal
Faunal
Other
Stratum 3 Total
Area 2 Total

STP
1.9, 3.6-3.8, 3.11, 4.5-4.8, 5.3-5.9, 6.4-6.6, 6.8, 7.5, 7.7, 8.3, 8.5, 8.7
8.9, 9.3, 9.4, 9.9, 9.13, 10.2, 10.3, 10.5-10.8, 11.10, 12.4, 13.8
1.9, 1.13, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 2.12, 3.4, 3.6-3.8, 3.10-3.13, 3.16, 4.5-4.8,
4.11, 4.13, 5.2, 5.4-5.9, 5.11, 6.5, 6.6, 6.8, 6.12, 7.5, 8.3-8.9, 9.4, 9.5,
9.9, 10.3, 10.5, 10.6, 10.8, 11.7, 12.5, 12.8, 13.4, 13.11
1.11, 1.12, 2.8, 3.4, 3.6,-3.8, 3.10-3.13, 3.16, 4.6, 4.7, 4.11, 5.3-5.10,
5.12, 6.8, 7.5-7.7, 7.12, 8.4-8.9, 8.11, 9.4, 9.9, 9.12, 9.13, 10.4-10.9,
11.8, 11.9, 11.12, 12.5, 13.11
3.6, 4.6, 5.3-5.5, 5.7, 5.8, 6.6, 7.5, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9, 9.4, 9.7, 9.9, 9.13,
13.3
3.6, 6.8, 7.7, 8.6, 13.9
3.6, 9.8
3.6, 8.6, 9.8
3.6, 8.6, 9.8
9.8
3.6, 9.8
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6

Count
171
326

654
37
14
1202
14
41
59
1
7
122
7
43
1
1
52
1376

Only broad dates can be ascribed to most of the ceramic tableware in Stratum 1. The
predominance of ironstone (n=112, or 72 percent of the ceramic tableware) in contrast to
whiteware, and the lack of pearlware, dates the stratum to the latter part of the nineteenth century
and the first quarter of the twentieth century (ironstone dates of 1842-1930). Supportive of these
dates also are the single piece of black transfer-printed whiteware (1830-1850), and in particular
the Late Victorian Flow Blue semi-porcelain (1885-1920). Also found in this stratum was a white
porcelain button dating between 1850 and 1920.
Based on the ceramic tableware, Stratum 2 has a similar chronological relationship as
Stratum 1, although there are only 14 pieces. The ceramics include seven pieces of
undecorated ironstone (STPs 3.6, 9.8; 1842-1930), three pieces of luster and molded porcelain
(STP 9.8; 1875+), a piece of undecorated porcelain (STP 3.6; 1875+) and three pieces of
undecorated whiteware (STP 3.6; 1820+). No ceramics were found in Stratum 3.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.7. Ceramic Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum.


Stratum
1

Type
Ceramic Tableware
ironstone, decalcomania, black
ironstone, edged, dark green
ironstone, edged, luster, blue
ironstone, hand-painted, blue
ironstone, luster
ironstone, maker's mark
ironstone, molded
ironstone, molded
ironstone, molded, handpainted, blue

Dates

STP

Count

1890+
1842-1930
1842-1930
1842-1930
1842-1930
1842-1930
1842-1930
1842-1930

8.9
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
8.8
4.7, 9.4
3.7

1
1
1
1
1
1
4
2

1842-1930

3.6

ironstone, undecorated

1842-1930

3.6, 3.8, 3.11, 4.5, 4.6, 5.3, 5.4,


5.5, 5.8, 6.8, 8.3, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 9.4,
9.13, 10.3, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 13.8

99

1875+

3.6

112
3

1875+

3.6

1875+
1875+
1875+

3.6
8.9
4.8, 5.7, 11.10

1820+
1830+
1820+
1830-1850
1820+

10.5
3.6
5.7
5.6
8.8, 8.9, 10.5, 10.8

1
4
3
12
1
1
1
1
10
14

1885-1920

6.6

Ironstone Total
porcelain, decaled, pink, green
porcelain, hand-painted,
overglaze, green
porcelain, luster, molded
porcelain, molded
porcelain, undecorated
Porcelain Total
whiteware, decorated
whiteware, hand-painted, blue
whiteware, molded
whiteware, transfer-print, black
whiteware, undecorated
Whiteware Total
semi-porcelain, flow blue,
Late Victorian
stoneware, salt-glazed
Rockingham ware
yellow ware
Ceramic Tableware Total
bisque
button, white
brick
Stratum 1 Total
2
ironstone, undecorated
porcelain, luster, molded
porcelain, undecorated
whiteware, undecorated
Stratum 2 Total
Ceramics Total

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1705-1930
1788+
1788+
non-diagnostic
1850-1920
modern
1842-1930
1875+
1875+
1820+

4-13

3.6, 3.8, 4.7, 4.8, 5.4, 5.9,


6.6, 7.5, 8.8
9.9
9.9
3.6
8.5
1.9, 4.8, 6.4, 6.5, 7.7, 9.3,
10.2, 10.3, 12.4
3.6, 9.8
9.8
3.6
3.6

1
15
1
1
156
2
1
12
171
7
3
1
3
14
185

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

The 374 glass items from Area 2 include 326 from Stratum 1, 41 from Stratum 2, and 7
from Stratum 3. Stratum 1 had 212 pieces of general container glass and 114 pieces of window
glass (Table 4.8). Only a small amount of the container glass is diagnostic, based on color. No
bottle marks were on any of the glass artifacts. The diagnostic material includes eleven pieces
of aqua (STPs 3.6, 3.7, 3.10, 4.11, 4.13, 5.6, 8.7 and 12.8; 1800-1940), six blue tinge (STPs 3.8
and 5.11; 1840-1910), one purple (STP 3.6; 1870-1920), and one milk glass (STP 5.8; late
nineteenth-early twentieth). Stratum 2 had 33 pieces of general container glass, and 8 pieces of
window glass. Two pieces of the container glass were diagnostic, including a piece each of
aqua (STP 3.6; 1800-1940) and purple (STP 9.8; 1870-1920). Stratum 3 had five pieces of nondiagnostic container glass, and two pieces of window glass. Like the ceramics, the diagnostic
glass artifacts from Area 2 date to the late nineteenth to early twentieth century.
A total of 756 metal artifacts were found in Survey Area 2. These were predominantly nails
(n=664, 88 percent) (Table 4.9). Of the 575 nails found in Stratum 1, 314 were cut nails, 221
were wire, and 40 were indeterminate or modern. Stratum 2 had 24 cut nails and 20 wire nails,
while Stratum 3 had 29 cut nails and 6 wire nails. Frequencies of cut nails had a similar
stratigraphic pattern as the other artifacts from Area 2, with most of the nails found in Stratum 1,
and a gradual decrease in frequency with depth.
Most cut and wire nails were common nails. Other forms of nails include box, brad, and
spike. The large number of box cut nails might have come from one or more wooden boxes.
Two of the wire nails found in Stratum 1 of STP 3.6 had been modified to form hooks. In
general, the nails are not chronologically diagnostics, although the large number of common cut
nails may represent a mid-nineteenth century time period.
A variety of other metal artifacts were found in Survey Area 2 (Table 4.10). These were
generally chronologically non-diagnostic. Stratum 1 artifacts include 25 pieces of sheet iron
(STPs 3.10, 5.12, 6.8, 7.6, 9.4, 10.5, 8.9), six pieces of a casing (STP 8.6), four pieces of iron
strips (STPs 5.7, 8.9), four pieces of iron straps (STP 3.6, 5.10, 8.8), four pieces of iron
concretions (STP 9.4), three screws (STPs 4.7, 5.6, 8.8), three shotgun shells (STPs 3.6, 5.7),
three iron staples (STPs 5.4, 5.8), three pieces of unidentifiable iron, (STP 8.5), two each of
clasps (STPs 3.6, 8.9), eyelets (STP 8.9), washers (STPs 9.12, 10.6), and brass strips (STP
5.5). Stratum 1 of STP 3.6 had one each of brass knob, brass, valve, elbow pipe, brass plate,
brass, rod, and sheet iron. STP 3.11 had a door key and a sardine can key. STP 5.6 had a
bullet casing, STP 5.9 had a wire, STP 9.9 had a piece of folded iron, and STP 10.9 had a
modern button snap. Also found in Stratum 1 were two nuts in STPs 8.11 and 9.12, a bolt in
STP 9.12, and a bolt and nut screwed together in STP 10.4. Stratum 2 had a barrette clasp, iron
rod, screw, and a piece of wire in STP 3.6, and a hand-made strainer from a piece of brass in
STP 9.8. Stratum 3 had two pieces of a casing and six iron concretions in STP 9.6.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.8. Glass Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum.


Stratum
1

Type
Dates
STP
General Container Glass, Including Bottles, Jars, and Undetermined
container glass, aqua

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

3.6, 3.7, 3.10, 4.11, 4.13, 5.6, 8.7,


12.8
3.8, 5.11
2.4, 2.5, 2.8, 3.4, 4.6, 5.4, 5.6
3.6
3.6
3.6, 3.8, 3.16, 4.5, 4.6, 4.8, 4.11,
5.2, 5.5-5.9, 6.6, 6.8, 8.5, 8.7, 8.8,
9.9, 10.6
3.7
2.4, 3.6, 3.7, 4.7

non-diagnostic
1825+
1825+

1.9, 3.6
4.5, 4.6, 5.6
13.11

1919
late nineteenthearly twentieth
ca 1825
non-diagnostic
ca 1825

3.6

1
13
84
4
3
1
4
4

5.8

3.6
4.8
4.8
1.13, 2.7, 2.12, 3.13, 6.5, 6.12,
9.5, 10.8, 13.4
3.6, 5.7, 7.5, 8.5, 8.6, 9.9, 10.5

1
1
1

1800-1940

container glass, blue tinge


container glass, green tinge
container glass, cobalt blue
container glass, purple

1840-1910
1870+
non-diagnostic
1870-1920

container glass, various colors


(clear, amber, green)

non-diagnostic

container glass, molded, clear


container glass, thin, clear
Container Glass Total
Bottle Glass, various colors
decorative CG*, clear
decorative CG*, pink tinge
Decorative CG Total
jar, clear
milk glass, white
stopper, clear
thin glass, clear
tumbler, clear
glass, modern
melted, burnt, various colors
Other Glass Total
General Container Glass Total
Window Glass Total

modern
non-diagnostic

non-diagnostic

3.6, 3.8, 3.11, 3.12, 4.5 4.6, 4.8,


4.11, 4.13, 5.2, 5.4-5.6, 5.8, 5.9,
6.6, 7.5, 8.3-8.9, 9.4, 10.3, 10.6,
11.7, 12.5

Stratum 1 Total
General Container Glass, Including Bottles, Jars, and Undetermined
2
container glass, aqua
1800-1940
3.6
container glass, pink tinge
1870+
3.6
container glass, purple
1870-1920
9.8
3.6, 9.8
container glass, various colors
non-diagnostic
melted
non-diagnostic
8.6
General Container Glass Total
window glass, various colors
non-diagnostic
3.6, 8.6, 9.8
Stratum 2 Total
General Container Glass Including Bottles, Jars, and Undetermined
3
container glass, clear
non-diagnostic
9.6
melted
non-diagnostic
9.6
General Container Glass Total
window glass, aqua
non-diagnostic
9.6
Stratum 3 Total
Glass Total

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Count

4-15

11
6
9
1
1
42

9
103
120
212
114
326
1
1
1
8
22
33
8
41
1
4
5
2
7
374

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.9. Nails from Survey Area 2, by Stratum.


Stratum
1

Type
nail, cut
nail, cut, box
nail, cut, brad

Dates
1830+
1830+
1830+

nail, cut, common

1830+

nail, cut, spike


Nail, Cut, Total
nail, wire
nail, wire, box
nail, wire, brad

1830+

nail, wire, common

1860+

nail, wire, hooks


nail, wire, in wood
nail, wire, spike
Nail, Wire, Total
nail, indeterminant
nail, modern
Stratum 1 Nail Total
2
nail, cut, box
nail, cut, common
nail, cut, spike
Nail, Cut, Total
nail, wire, common
nail, wire, spike
Nail, Wire, Total
Stratum 2 Nail Total
3
nail, cut, common
nail, wire, common
Stratum 3 Nail Total
Survey Area 2 Nails Total

1860+
1860+
1860+

3.6, 8.6
3.6
3.6, 7.5, 8.6
2.8, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.16,
4.11, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.10, 6.8, 7.5, 7.6,
7.7, 8.5, 8.7, 8.11, 9.9, 10.4, 11.9, 11.12
3.6
3.6
3.4, 3.6

non-diagnostic
modern

3.6
1.12, 3.13, 9.12

1830+
1830+
1830+

3.6
3.6, 8.6, 9.8
3.6

1860+
1860+

3.6, 8.6
9.8

1830+
1860+

9.6
9.6

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

STP
1.11, 3.6, 5.3, 5.5, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9
3.6, 8.4, 5.8
3.6
3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.10, 3.11, 3.16, 4.6, 5.6,
5.7, 5.9, 5.12, 6.8, 7.5, 7.12, 8.4, 8.5,
8.7, 8.11, 9.4, 9.9, 9.13, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6,
10.7, 10.8, 11.8, 11.9, 11.12, 12.5, 13.11
3.12, 4.7, 8.9, 10.9

1860+
1860+
1860+

4-16

Count
124
20
1
163
6
314
130
2
3
76
2
5
3
221
26
14
575
1
32
1
34
19
1
20
54
29
6
35
664

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.10. Other Metal Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum.


Stratum
1

Type
bolt and nut
bolt
brass, knob
brass, valve
bullet casing
casing
clasp
eyelet
iron concretions
iron, folded
iron, unidentifiable
key, door
key, sardine can
nut
pipe, elbow
plate, brass
rod
screw
sheet iron
sheet iron, bent
shotgun shell
snap, button, modern
staple, iron
strap, iron
strip, brass
strip, iron
washer
wire
Stratum 1 Total
2
clasp, barrette
rod, iron
screw
strainer
wire
Stratum 2 Total
3
casing
iron concretions
Stratum 3 Total
Other Metal Total

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Dates
non-diagnostic
modern
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

STP
10.4
9.12
3.6
3.6
5.6
8.6
3.6, 8.9
8.9
9.4
9.9
8.5
3.11
3.11
8.11, 9.12
3.6
3.6
3.6
4.7, 5.6, 8.8
3.10, 5.12, 6.8, 7.6, 9.4, 10.5, 8.9
3.6
3.6, 5.7
10.9
5.4, 5.8
3.6, 5.10, 8.8
5.5
5.7, 8.9
9.12, 10.6
5.9

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

3.6
3.6
3.6
9.8
3.6

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

9.6
9.6

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

4-17

Count
1
1
1
1
1
6
2
2
4
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
25
1
3
1
3
4
2
4
2
1
79
1
1
1
1
1
5
2
6
8
92

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Faunal materials found in Survey Area 2 were predominantly mammal bone (n=31 of the
39 fragments) (Table 4.11). Stratum 1 had 28 pieces of small, medium, large and nondiagnostic mammal bones, generally representing cow, sheep/goat, or possibly deer. Six bird
bones, including two possible chicken or turkey bones (STP 6.6) and four unidentifiable pieces
(STPs 5.7 and 8.6), were also found in Stratum 1, as were two burnt bones and a nondiagnostic animal bone. Strata 2 and 3 had non-diagnostic mammal bone fragments.
Table 4.11. Faunal Materials from Survey Area 2, by Stratum.
Stratum

Type
bone, bird (non-diagnostic)
bone, bird (chicken or turkey)
Bird Bone Total
mammal bone, large
mammal bone, medium
mammal bone, small
mammal bone, (non-diagnostic)
Mammal Bone Total
animal bone
bone, burnt

Stratum 1 Total
Stratum 2 Total
Stratum 3 Total
Faunal Total

STP
5.7, 8.6
6.6
5.5, 5.7, 8.8
5.3, 8.9, 9.9
3.6
5.4, 5.8, 7.5, 9.4, 9.7, 9.13
13.3
4.6

mammal bone, (non-diagnostic)


mammal bone, (non-diagnostic)

9.8
9.6

Count
4
2
6
12
5
4
7
28
1
2
37
1
1
39

Twenty-two artifacts grouped under type other were found in Survey Area 2, including 14
in Stratum 1, seven in Stratum 2, and one in Stratum 3 (Table 4.12). These include three pieces
of charcoal in Stratum 1, five in Stratum 2, and one in Stratum 3. Stratum 1 also had a black jet
bead (STP 3.6), four pieces of window caulking (STP 8.6), a rubber washer (STP 13.9), and five
pieces of wood. Stratum 2 had a roofing slate (STP 9.8) and a piece of cut wood (STP 3.6).

Table 4.12. Other Artifacts from Survey Area 2, by Stratum.


Stratum
1

Stratum 1 Total
2

Stratum 2 Total
Stratum 3 Total
Other Total

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

Type
bead, jet
caulking
washer, rubber
wood
charcoal

STP
3.6
8.6
13.9
3.6, 7.7, 8.6
3.6, 6.8, 8.6

roofing slate
wood, cut
charcoal

9.8
3.6
3.6

charcoal

9.6

4-18

Count
1
4
1
5
3
14
1
1
5
7
1
22

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Summary. The functional characteristics of the assemblage from Area 2 are a


combination of structural materials (e.g., nails, window glass, and bricks), farm-related
hardware, and domestic trash (e.g., ceramic tableware and container glass). The structural
materials, including 124 fragments of window glass and 664 nails or fragments of nails, probably
derived from the superstructure of the building represented by the stone ruins. The few brick
fragments (n=12) are not sufficient for the superstructure to have been predominantly brick: it
most likely was wood. As stated above, the foundation is in the general vicinity of the MDS
belonging to N. Wattam shown on the 1887 map.
While most of the cultural materials are chronologically non-diagnostic, the small amount
of tableware ceramics suggests a mid-nineteenth century and early twentieth century
occupation. As stated above, the ironstone, semi-porcelain, and whiteware manufacture dates
denote time ranges circa 1842 to 1930. A mean ceramic date of 1878 was calculated using the
diagnostic tableware, presented in Table 4.13. This date reflects the average date of
manufacture of these items, not their use-life. The actual disposal of the materials in this
assemblage could be the very end of the late nineteenth century, since ceramic wares tend to
have a twenty-year or more use-life prior to breakage or disposal. In general, however, the
mean ceramic date is consistent with the date of the MDS shown in 1887.
Table 4.13. Ceramic tableware used for Mean Ceramic Date calculation.
Type
ironstone, edged, dark green
ironstone, edged, luster, blue
ironstone, hand-painted, blue
ironstone, luster
ironstone, maker's mark
ironstone, molded
ironstone, molded
ironstone, molded, hand-painted, blue
ironstone, undecorated
whiteware, transfer-print, black
semi-porcelain, flow blue, Late Victorian
stoneware, salt-glazed
ironstone, undecorated
Total

Count
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
99
1
1
15
7
135

Beginning
1842
1842
1842
1842
1842
1842
1842
1842
1842
1830
1885
1705
1842

End
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1930
1850
1920
1930
1930

Average Midpoint Date

Midpoint
1886
1886
1886
1886
1886
1886
1886
1886
1886
1840
1902.5
1817.5
1886
1878

The nineteenth century stone-masonry house ruin (MDS 3) and associated structural
debris, fragmented ceramics, and glassware found during the shovel testing of Survey Area 2/
MDS-3 was designated as an historic site, PCI/Galloo Island-2 (M. Wattam farmhouse). A
dilapidated stone-masonry barn located approximately 120 ft (36.6 m) northeast of the house
ruin is included in the site (see discussion of the barn investigation in Section 4.3: Survey Area
37). An OPRHP historic site form was completed and is presented in Appendix D.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-19

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Survey Area 3/MDS-3. This survey area is located adjacent to the south shore at the west
end of the island, at an elevation of about 260 ft (79 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area
has an increased archaeological sensitivity due to seven map-documented structures (identified
collectively as MDS-3) shown on the Robinson map from 1887 (labeled as N. Wattam) and the
USGS map from 1895 (one structure, unnamed) (see Section 2.2: Figures 2.1 and 2.2). Survey
Area 3 was placed within the west boundary of where the Wattam structures are shown
clustered. The survey area is within a level field covered with field grass and thistle, bordering
the south shore. The cliff is elevated approximately 2-m (7-ft) above lake level.
The walkover reconnaissance identified a stone ruin measuring 45 by 65 feet (14 by 20
m), located at the edge of the field/lake-edge (Figure 4.4; see Appendix A: Photograph 12). The
foundation outline is partially complete; therefore observed features may represent more than
one structure. Remaining wall structures stand at 2- to 6-ft (6- to 1.8-m) elevation. A chimney fall
is represented by a pile of hand-finished red brick located within the southeast portion of the
foundation remains (see Appendix A: Photograph 13).
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 3/MDS-3 (see Figure 4.4). Of the
total, 142 shovel tests (84 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish
brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 21 cm (8 in) to bedrock. Thirty-five shovel
tests (21 percent of the total) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish
brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 22 cm (9 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of
mottled light brownish gray and yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of
26 cm (10 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to bedrock.
A total of 261 artifacts were found in Survey Area 3 (see Appendix C: Artifact Catalog).
Two pieces of brick and a wrought iron chair leg was found on the ground surface. Artifacts in
the shovel tests were mostly found in Stratum 1, which had 221 artifacts in contrast to the 37
found in Stratum 2. Stratum 1 artifacts were predominantly metal (in particular nails). Of the 56
ceramics found in the first stratum, 54 were brick fragments. Other ceramics include a single
piece of salt-glazed stoneware in STP 12.1, and a piece of redware tile in STP 8.1.
Glass found in Stratum 1 includes a piece of container glass with remnants of an applied
label (STP 13.2), two pieces of modern glass (STPs 7.3, 13.2), and seven pieces of window
glass (STPs 4.2, 9.4). No glass was found in Stratum 2. Metal artifacts totaling 128 included 77
common cut nails, nine spikes, and one modern nail (STP 13.2). Other metal artifacts include 17
pieces of strip iron (STPs 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.2), 11 iron concretions (STPs 5.1, 7.1, 8.3, 9.4), four
pieces of sheet iron (STPs 8.2, 8.3, 8.5), two pieces of iron strap (STPs 4.1, 5.2), and one each
of a can (STP 12.1, file (STP 8.1), fish hook (STP 4.1), hardware (STP 9.4), nut (STP 3.1), and
a washer (STP 10.9). Other items found in Stratum 1 include two pieces of cement (STPs 9.4,
9.5), 21 pieces of mortar (STPs 7.3, 10.5), and four pieces of plastic (STP 9.4). Artifacts found
in Stratum 2 include 18 pieces of brick (STP 9.2, 9.3), four pieces of window glass (STP 9.3), 13
common cut nails (STPs 9.2, 9.3), and two spikes (STPs 9.3).
Summary. In general, the artifacts found in Survey Area 3 are chronologically nondiagnostic, providing little information about the occupation period of the area. Most of the
materials are structural (e.g., nails, brick, and window glass). The nineteenth century shingle/
shake mill foundation (MDS 3) and associated structural debris found during the shovel testing
of Survey Area 3/MDS-3 was designated as an historic site, PCI/Galloo Island-3 (Wattam/
Gannett Mill). An OPRHP historic site form was completed and is presented in Appendix D.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-20

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.4. Survey Area 3/MDS-3 shovel test transect locations and photograph
angles.
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-21

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 4.14. Artifacts from Survey Area 3, by Stratum.


Stratum
Surface

Type
Ceramic Total
Metal Total

Surface Total
Ceramic
1

Ceramic Total
Glass

Type
brick

Dates
non-diagnostic

chair leg, wrought iron

non-diagnostic

stoneware, salt-glazed
tile, redware

non-diagnostic

brick

non-diagnostic

Other Total
Stratum 1 Total
2
Ceramic Total
Glass Total
Metal

12.1
8.1
6.6, 6.9, 7.1, 7.6, 9.5,
9.4, 9.8, 10.2, 10.3,
10.5, 11.1, 11.2, 12.1,
13.1, 13.3

Count
2
1
3
1
1
54
56

container glass,
applied label
glass, modern
window glass

modern
non-diagnostic

Glass Total
Metal

Metal Total
Other

STP/Location
chimney fall
30 ft NE of stone
foundation east wall

13.2
7.3, 13.2
4.2, 9.4

nail, cut, common

1830+

nail, cut, spike

1830+

nail, modern
Nail Total
bolt head
can
file
fish hook
hardware
iron concretions
nut
sheet iron
strap, iron
strip, iron
washer

modern

3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2,


6.1, 7.10, 7.2, 7.5, 8.2,
9.4, 9.5, 13.1, 13.2
4.1, 5.1, 6.3, 6.4, 9.4,
10.10
13.2

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

8.3
12.1
8.1
4.1
9.4.
5.1, 7.1, 8.3, 9.4
3.1
8.2, 8.3, 8.5
4.1, 5.2
3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.2
10.9

cement
mortar
plastic

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

9.4, 9.5 (present)


7.3, 10.5
9.4

brick
window glass
nail, cut, common
nail, cut, spike

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
1830+
1830+

9.2, 9.3
9.3
9.2, 9.3
9.3

Metal Total
Stratum 2 Total
Survey Area 3 Total
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-22

1
2
7
10
77
9
1
87
1
1
1
1
1
11
1
4
2
17
1
128
2
21
4
27
221
18
4
13
2
15
37
261

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Survey Area 4/MDS-4 [160 shovel tests dug]. This survey area is located in the western
half of the island, approximately 500 ft (150 m) inland from the south shore (see Figure 4.1).
The elevation is about 270 ft (82 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area has an increased
archaeological sensitivity due to a map-documented structure (MDS-4) shown on the Robinson
map from 1887 (labeled as School House No. 10]) (see Section 2, Figure 2.1). No structures are
shown in proximity to Survey Area 4 on the 1895 USGS map.
The survey area is situated within a level field of cut field grass. The tested area was
harvested for hay prior to fieldwork as evidenced by the presence of hay rolls nearby. Soils
within the survey area are generally shallow, as indicated by small patches of exposed bedrock.
An unpaved access road bisects the survey area, aligned approximately southwest to northeast.
On the north side of the access road, situated just west of the center of the survey area, is a
bird/bat monitoring station constructed of auto batteries, solar panels, plastic tubs, an inverted
trash can, and electrical equipment protected underneath plastic tubs (see Appendix A:
Photograph 14).
The walkover reconnaissance did not identify any foundational remnants within or adjacent
to the survey area. A pile of rounded fieldstones approximately 33 by 66 feet (10 by 20 m) long
and 2 ft (0.6 m) high is located outside the southeast extent of the survey area. None of the
fieldstones were characteristic of materials used in stone foundation construction observed on
the island.
A total of 160 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 4/MDS-4 (Figure 4.5); nine shovel
tests were not dug due to the presence of the bird monitoring station. None of the shovel tests
excavated contained a second stratum; bedrock was reached in all instances. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 15 cm (6 in).
No cultural materials were found during excavation.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-23

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.5. Survey Area 4/MDS-4 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-24

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Survey Area 5/MDS-5. This survey area is located almost centrally along the south shore
of the island. The elevation is about 270 ft (82 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area has an
increased archaeological sensitivity due to a map-documented structure (MDS-5) shown on the
1895 USGS map (one structure, unnamed) (see Section 2.2: Figure 2.2). No structures are
shown in proximity to Survey Area 5 on the earlier 1887 Robinson map.
The survey area is situated within an uneven field of field grass and swallow-wort (an
invasive vine-like plant). An unpaved access road aligned approximately east to west dissects
the survey area. There is a modest five percent slope northward and southward away from the
access road. A former telephone line installed in the 1930s to provide communication between
the Coast Guard station at the east end of the island and the lighthouse at the west end passes
over the south portion of the survey area (see Appendix A: Photograph 15). The walkover
reconnaissance did not identify any foundational remnants within or adjacent to the survey area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 5/MDS-5 (Figure 4.6). Forty-eight
shovel tests (28 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown to a
dark grayish brown silty loam, averaging 22 cm (9 in) to bedrock. Forty-one shovel tests (24
percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to
an average depth of 28 cm (11 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of yellowish brown sandy clay,
terminating at an average depth of 38 cm (15 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. A single piece of undecorated ironstone (ca. 1842-1930) was found in Stratum 1 of
STP 2.8. No other cultural materials were found in the survey.
Survey Area 6/MDS-6. This survey area is located centrally along the south shore. The
elevation is about 275 ft (84 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area has an increased
archaeological sensitivity due to a map-documented structure (MDS-6) shown on the Robinson
map from 1887 (labeled as R.R. Gannett) and the USGS map from 1895 (one structure,
unnamed) (see Section 2.2: Figures 2.1 and 2.2).
The survey area is situated within a field exhibiting a slight 5 percent southward slope,
covered in grass, thistle and milkweed. An unpaved access road is located adjacent to the north
extent of the survey area. The south extent of the survey area borders the edge of an
approximately 5-m (15-ft) high cliff. A small stand of trees is located partially within the survey
area along the cliff edge (see Appendix A: Photograph 16). The walkover reconnaissance did
not identify any foundational remnants within or adjacent to the survey area. There is a slightly
depressed area within the southeast quadrant of the survey area exhibiting taller, leafier,
vegetation than the surrounding area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 6/MDS-6 (Figure 4.7). Of the total,
124 shovel tests (73 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown
to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 23 cm (9 in) to bedrock. A total of 45 shovel tests
(26 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug
to an average depth of 23 cm (9 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of either a light yellowish
brown or yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 34 cm (13 in). Most of
these tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests
of Survey Area 6/MDS-6. No evidence was found to indicate the slight depression described
above was cultural in origin.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-25

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.6. Survey Area 5/MDS-5 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-26

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Figure 4.7. Survey Area 6/MDS-6 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

4-27

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Survey Area 7/MDS-7. This survey area is located adjacent to the south shore,
approximately north of center. The elevation is about 275 ft (84 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The
survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity due to a map-documented structure
(MDS-5) shown on the 1895 USGS map (one structure, unnamed) (see Section 2.2: Figure 2.2).
No structures are shown in proximity to Survey Area 7 on the earlier 1887 Robinson map.
The survey area is situated within a field exhibiting a slight 5 percent southward slope,
covered in tall field grass, thistle and weeds (see Appendix A: Photograph 17). Just outside the
survey area to the north is an unpaved access road, while to the south is 15-ft (5-m) cliff edge.
The walkover reconnaissance did not identify any foundational remnants within or adjacent to
the survey area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 7/MDS-7 (Figure 4.8). Of the total,
167 shovel tests (99 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown
to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 20 cm (8 in) to bedrock. Two shovel tests (1
percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to
an average depth of 21 cm (8 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of yellowish brown silty clay,
terminating at an average depth of 26 cm (10 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 7/MDS-7.
Survey Area 9/MDS-8 [171 shovel tests dug]. This survey area is situated on the north
shore of Gill Harbor, located south of the Coast Guard Station (see Figure 4.1). The survey area
has an increased archaeological sensitivity due to a map-documented structure (MDS-9) shown
on the Robinson map from 1887 (labeled as B.F. Johnson) and the USGS map from 1895 (one
structure, unnamed) (see Section 2.2: Figures 2.1 and 2.2).
The survey extended from near lake level at the south extent, northwards up a 60 percent
sloped bank, onto a relatively level field elevated approximately 15 ft (5 m) above lake level (280
ft [85 m] amsl). The walkover reconnaissance identified a partial stone foundation measuring 50
ft (15 m) in length from east-to-west; and approximately 35 ft (11 m) north-to-south; located at
the base of the sloped bank (Figure 4.9; see Appendix A: Photograph 18). The location of the
foundation correlates to the map documented structure (labeled B.F. Johnson, and likely a mill).
The south wall is the most intact, measuring 1.5 to 2 meters (5 to 7 feet) in height. A 2-m (6-ft)
square stone footer is located within the southwest portion of the foundation. An old wagon or
tanker frame with metal-spokes and rims was found approximately 150 feet (46 meters)
southwest of the foundation (see Appendix A: Photograph 19).
A total of 171 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 9/MDS-8 at the standard 5-m (15
ft) interval (see Figure 4.9). Twenty-seven shovel tests were dug along two transects aligned
east-west, situated between the south foundation wall and the adjacent shore of Gill Harbor. An
additional shovel test (STP 7E/0S) was placed along the transect closest to the foundation,
where a broken ceramic plate was found on the surface. No tests were dug on the steep bank.
The remaining 143 shovel tests were dug at standard interval along 13 transects, extending
northwards on top of the bank.

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Figure 4.8. Survey Area 7/MDS-7 shovel test transect locations and photograph
angle.

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Figure 4.9a. Survey Area 9/MDS-8 shovel test transect locations and photograph
angles.

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Figure 4.9b. Survey Area 9/MDS-8 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles.
Within the elevated portion of the survey area, a total of 127 shovel tests exhibited a single
stratum of dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to bedrock. Two soil strata were
found within the remaining 28 tests dug over this same area. In these, Stratum 1 generally
consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average 27 cm (11 in) depth. Stratum 2
typically consisted of a yellowish brown sandy loam, terminating at an average 34 cm (13 in)
depth. Most of the tests containing two strata also terminated early due to bedrock. Soils at the
lower base of the foundation wall and adjacent Gill Harbor shore differed from those atop the
elevated bluff in that they typically contained two soil strata (wetland type soils), and terminated
in beach gravel. Stratum 1 typically consisted of dark grayish brown sandy loam, terminating at
an average 28 cm (11 in) depth. Stratum 2 typically consisted of brownish gray sand,
terminating at an average 40 cm (16 in) depth.
A total of 94 artifacts were found in Survey Area 9 (see Appendix C: Artifact Catalog).
These include 22 fragments of an undecorated ironstone (1842-1930) plate found on the
surface near STP 7E/0S. Seventy-one artifacts were found in Stratum 1; one artifact was found
in Stratum 2. Artifacts include 28 glass, 21 metal, 10 brick, 5 ceramic, 1 faunal, and 6 items
categorized other. Pieces of brick were found in STPs 6.1, 7.2, 8.1, 9.1, 5W/0S. Five
undecorated ironstone fragments total were found in STPs 5E/0S and STP 7E/0S. NonPanamerican Consultants, Inc.

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diagnostic container glass totaled 13 fragments (STPs 0/0, 5E/0S), with the remaining glass
artifacts consisting of window glass (aqua n=5, STPs 5E/0S, 7E/0S; 1800-1940; non-diagnostic
green color n=10, STPs 5E/0S, 7E/0S). Metal items include 12 cut nails and two wire nails. One
of the cut nails, found in STP 0/0, had a modified rosehead, four were brads, five were common
cut nails, and two were indeterminate cut nails. Other metal items include an iron strap (STP
7E/0S), and five pieces of strip iron (STPs 0/0, 7E/0S). The single faunal artifact was a bird
bone found in STP 5E/0S. Other items found include coal (STP 25E/5S), a piece of red hard
plastic (STP 5E/0S), and five pieces of cut wood (STP 0/0). The only object found in Stratum 2
was a piece of a barrel hoop from STP 10W/5S.
Summary. In general, the artifacts found in Survey Area 9 are chronologically nondiagnostic, providing little information about the occupation period of the area. The materials
probably dated to the late nineteenth to early twentieth century, but this interpretation is based
on the few pieces of undecorated ironstone. Most of the materials are structural (e.g. nails,
brick, and window glass), and only a few pieces of domestic trash was found (e.g., ceramics,
container glass, personal items).
The nineteenth century stone foundation (MDS 8) and associated structural debris found
during the shovel testing of Survey Area 9/MDS-8 was designated as an historic site, PCI/
Galloo Island-4 (B.F. Johnson Mill). An OPRHP historic site form was completed and is
presented in Appendix D.

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Table 4.15. Artifacts from Survey Area 9, by Stratum.


Stratum
Surface

Material
Ceramic

Type
ironstone, undecorated

Dates
1842-1930

STP
7E 0S

Surface Total
1

Ceramic

Count
22
22

1842-1930

6.1, 7.2, 8.1, 9.1,


5W 0S
5E 0S, 7E 0S

10
5

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

0/0, 5E 0S
0/0

15
10
2

container glass, stippled

non-diagnostic

0/0

window glass

1800-1940
(aqua)
non-diagnostic

5E 0S, 7E 0S

1830+
1830+
1830+
1830+

7E 0S
0/0, 5E 0S, 7E 0S
7E 0S
0/0

1860+

0/0

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

7E 0S
0/0, 7E 0S

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

5E 0S
25E 5S
5E 0S
0/0

non-diagnostic

10W 5S

brick

non-diagnostic

ironstone, undecorated
Ceramic Total
Glass
container glass
container glass

Glass Total
Metal
nail, cut, brad
nail, cut, common
nail, cut, indeterminate
nail, cut, rosehead, modified
Nail, Cut Total
nail, wire
Nail Total
strap, iron
strip, iron
Metal Total
bird bone
Faunal
Other
coal
plastic, hard, red
wood, cut
Other Total
Stratum 1 Total
2
barrel hoop
Metal
Stratum 2 Total
Survey Area 9 Total

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5E 0S, 7E 0S

1
5
10
28
4
5
2
1
12
2
14
1
5
21
1
0
1
5
6
71
1
1
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Survey Area 12/MDS-9. This survey area is located adjacent to the south shore at the
north end of Galloo Island, at an elevation of 250 ft (76 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey
area has an increased archaeological sensitivity due to four map-documented structures
(identified collectively as MDS-9) shown on the Robinson map from 1887 (labeled as N.
Wattam) and the USGS map from 1895 (unnamed) (see Section 2.2: Figures 2.1 and 2.2).
Survey Area 12 was placed within the south boundary of where the Wattam structures are
shown clustered.
The survey area includes a fallow agricultural field covered in tall grass, thistle and
milkweed situated in the northwest portion of the survey area; woods cover the remainder in the
southeast (see Appendix A: Photograph 20). An unpaved access road, aligned southwest to
northeast, separates the two environments. The walkover reconnaissance did not identify any
foundational remnants within or adjacent to the surveyed area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 12/MDS-9 (Figure 4.10). A total
of 159 shovel tests (94 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish
brown silty loam or sandy silt, dug to an average 28 cm (11 in) depth. Stratum 2 typically
consisted of a yellowish brown mottled with a light brownish gray clayey loam, terminating at an
average 39 cm (15 in) depth. Most of these tests terminated early due to bedrock. Nine shovel
tests (5 percent of the total) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown to
a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 30 cm (12 in) to impasse. STPs 1.7 and 1.12
contained modern pieces of plastic in Stratum 1. STP 7.7 had a common cut nail (1830+). The
cut nail is interpreted as an isolated find associated with the MDS. No other cultural materias
were found in Survey Area 12/MDS-9.

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Figure 4.10. Survey Area 12/MDS-9 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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4.2

ARBITRARY SURVEY AREAS

Twenty-six test areas were arbitrarily placed across the island in areas considered testable
(i.e., avoiding areas where the ground surface is at or near bedrock or areas located within
delineated wetlands) (see Figure 4.1). The 26 test locations were designated Survey Area 8 and
Survey Areas 13 through 35. Each survey provided one-acre coverage. A detailed description of
each survey follows.
Survey Area 8. This survey area is located in the north end of the island, approximately
875 ft (267 m) inland from Gill Harbor (see Figure 4.1). It is elevated approximately 280 ft (85 m)
amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural
materials due to its location east of wetlands.
The survey area is situated within a fairly level and sparsely covered wooded area, with
tall grass and thistle undercover. A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 8
(Figure 4.11). Within the total, 143 shovel tests (85 percent) had one stratum, generally
consisting of very dark grayish brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in)
to bedrock. Twenty-six shovel tests (15 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted
of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average 18 cm (7 in) depth. Stratum 2 typically
consisted of a yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average 25 cm (10 in) depth.
Most of these tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the
shovel tests of Survey Area 8.
Survey Area 10. This survey area is located approximately 330 ft (100 m) inland from the
south shore at the north end of Galloo Island (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 285 ft (87 m) amsl. The survey area is situated within a seasonally-mowed field
covered with field grass and lesser amounts of thistle and wild-rose (see Appendix A:
Photograph 21). Small areas of exposed bedrock punctuate the survey area. An unpaved
gravel/bedrock access road dissects the survey area along the west extent. The survey area
has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to its location
within a level terrain having fairly well-drained soils.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 10 (Figure 4.12). Within the total,
165 shovel tests (98 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown
to a dark grayish brown sandy loam averaging 13 cm (5 in) to bedrock. Three shovel tests (two
percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown sandy loam, dug to
an average depth of 19 cm (7 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of a yellowish brown or dark
yellowish brown silty loam, terminating at an average depth of 22 cm (9 in). The three tests
terminated largely due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in Survey Area 10.

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Figure 4.11. Survey Area 8 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.12. Survey Area 10 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Survey Area 11. This survey area is located approximately 340 ft (104 m) inland from the
south shore, extending north from Survey Area 10 described above (see Figure 4.1). This
survey area is elevated approximately 285 ft (87 m) amsl, and is also covered with field grass,
lesser amounts of thistle and wild-rose, and exposed patches of bedrock. An unpaved
gravel/bedrock access road that dissects Survey Area 10 passes through the center of Survey
Area 11. The survey area has the same advantages for prehistoric archaeological sensitivity as
identified in Survey Area 10.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 11 (Figure 4.13). Within the total,
150 shovel tests (88 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown
to a dark grayish brown silty loam or sandy silt averaging 16 cm (6 in) to bedrock. Twenty
shovel tests (12 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown
silty loam or sandy silt, dug to an average 20 cm (8 in) depth. Stratum 2 typically consisted of a
yellowish brown or brown sandy silt or silty clay, terminating at an average 28 cm (11 in) depth.
Most of these tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the
shovel tests of Survey Area 11.
Survey Area 13. This survey area is located approximately 660 ft (201 m) inland from the
north shore of the island, elevated approximately 250 ft (76 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The
survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to
its proximity to resources associated with ponds and bays situated to the east and west of the
survey area.
The survey area is situated within an agricultural field having fairly deep and well drained
soils. The survey area was covered in field grass, with remnants of former crops including wheat
and corn present. A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 13 (Figure 4.14). Two
soil strata were typically encountered. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty
loam, dug to an average depth of 24 cm (9 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of yellowish brown,
mottled with light brownish gray clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 36 cm (14 in).
No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 13.
Survey Area 14. This survey area is located adjacent to Survey Area 13, approximately
660 ft (200 m) inland from the north shore of the island (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is
elevated approximately 250 ft (76) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological
sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to its proximity to resources associated with
ponds and bays that are located to the east and west.
Survey Area 14 is largely in an agricultural field covered in tall grass, with remnants of
former crops present. An unpaved access road dissects the southeast portion of the survey
area. A recently cut field of hay/alfalfa is located on the south side of the access road.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 14 (Figure 4.15). Two soil strata
were typically encountered. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug
to an average depth of 26 cm (10 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of yellowish brown, mottled
with a light brownish gray clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 37 cm (15 in). One
salt-glazed stoneware fragment (AD 1705-1930) was found in STP 6.2, Stratum 1, located on
the south edge of the access road. No other cultural materials were found in Survey Area 14.
The piece of ceramic is interpreted as an isolated find.

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Figure 4.13. Survey Area 11 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.14. Survey Area 13 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.15. Survey Area 14 shovel test transect locations.

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Survey Area 15. This survey area is centrally located at the north end of Galloo Island,
elevated approximately 250 ft (76 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area has an increased
archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to its proximity to resources
associated with springs and ponds situated near the survey area.
The survey is located within a level recently cut hayfield. Four rolled hay-bails are located
in the southwest corner of the survey area. A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey
Area 15 (Figure 4.16). Two soil strata were typically encountered. Stratum 1 generally consisted
of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 29 cm (11 in). Stratum 2 typically
consisted of yellowish brown mottled with light brownish gray clayey loam, terminating at an
average depth of 40 cm (16 in). A single piece of modern container glass was found in STP
11.10. No other cultural materials were found in Survey Area 15. The glass is interpreted as
modern trash.
Survey Area 16. This survey area is located centrally within the north end of Galloo
Island, adjacent to Survey Area 15 (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately
250 ft (76 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric
cultural materials due to its proximity to resources associated with springs and ponds situated
near the survey area.
The survey is located on two adjacent, fairly level, agricultural fields that drain to the south
east. The northeast corner of the survey area is covered in recently cut hay. The remaining
portion is fallow, covered with tall grass, thistle and milkweed. A total of 169 shovel tests were
dug within Survey Area 16 (Figure 4.17). Two soil strata were typically encountered. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 27 cm (11 in).
Stratum 2 typically consisted of a yellowish brown mottled with a light brownish gray clayey
loam, terminating at an average depth of 38 cm (15 in). No cultural materials were found in the
shovel tests of Survey Area 16.
Survey Area 17. This survey area is located approximately 1,800 ft (549 m) south of North
Pond, at an elevation approximately 280 ft (85 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). Survey Area 17 has an
increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of
wetlands to the north, east, and south.
The survey is located primarily on an open field covered in tall grass and weeds, with
woods covering the northeast portion. An unpaved access road follows the west edge of the
woods, determining the placement of shovel tests along Transects 7 through 11 (Figure 4.18). A
total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 17 (see Figure 4.18). Soil (Stratum 1)
within the survey area was shallow, consisting of brown to dark grayish brown silty loam
averaging 13 cm (5 in) in depth to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests
of Survey Area 16.
Survey Area 18. This survey area is located approximately 1,600 ft (488 m) south of North
Pond and adjacent to Study Area 17 (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 280 ft (85 m) amsl. Survey Area 18 has an increased archaeological sensitivity
for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the north, east, and south.
Survey Area 18 is also located primarily on an open field covered in tall grass and weeds,
with woods covering the northeast portion. The unpaved access road in Survey Area 17
continues to follow the west edge of the woods, affecting the placement of shovel tests along
Transects 11 through 13 (Figure 4.19).
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Figure 4.16. Survey Area 15 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.17. Survey Area 16 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.18. Survey Area 17 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.19. Survey Area 18 shovel test transect locations.

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A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 18 (see Figure 4.19). Only one soil
stratum was encountered in all but one shovel test, consisting of brown to a dark grayish brown
silty loam averaging 17 cm (7 in) to impasse. STP 13.11 had two strata and it also terminated
due to bedrock at an average depth of 14 cm (6 in). No cultural materials were found in the
shovel tests of Survey Area 18.
Survey Area 19. This survey area is located in the east half of the island, 2,000 ft (610 m)
inland from the north shore (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately 290 ft
(88 m) amsl. Survey Area 19 has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural
materials due to the proximity of wetlands immediately south of the survey area.
The survey is located in woods dominated by Eastern hornbeams and Shagbark hickories,
and lesser amounts of cedar and maples. There are small clearings along the north and south
extents. Exposed slabs of bedrock were observed adjacent to the southwest corner (see
Appendix A: Photograph 22). A low-lying rocky ridge line, aligned approximately southwest to
northeast, bisects the survey area. There are many exposed round rocks under one-half meter
(less than 2 feet) in diameter along the ridge, indicative of shallow underlying soils.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 19 (Figure 4.20). Within the total,
159 shovel tests (94 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 15 cm (6 in) to impasse. Ten shovel tests (6 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 15 cm (6 in).
Stratum 2 typically consisted of a yellowish brown or dark yellowish brown silty loam,
terminating at an average 22 cm (9 in) depth. All of these tests terminated early due to bedrock.
One possible sheep or deer phalange (toe bone) was found in STP 13.2 (Stratum 1). No cultural
materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 19. The bone is likely a natural
occurrence associated with the game that is managed on the island.
Survey Area 20. This survey area is located in the east half of the island, approximately
1,800 ft (549 m) inland from the north shore, adjacent to Survey Area 19 (see Figure 4.1). The
survey area is elevated approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl. Survey Area 20 has increased
archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands
immediately to its south.
This survey is located in woods dominated by Eastern hornbeams and Shagbark
hickories, and lesser amounts of cedar and maples. There is a small grass-covered clearing
along the southwest extent. The survey area is largely covered with exposed round rocks under
one-half meter (under 2 feet) diameter along the ridge, indicative of shallow underlying soils.
There are three piles of rounded fieldstones located outside the survey area (one to the east;
two towards the north), indicating the area had once likely been partially cleared for agricultural
purposes (see Appendix A: Photograph 23).
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 20 (Figure 4.21). Within the total,
163 shovel tests (96 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 17 cm (7 in) to impasse. Six shovel tests (4 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 16 cm (6 in).
Stratum 2 typically consisted of a yellowish brown or dark yellowish brown sandy loam,
terminating at an average depth of 25 cm (10 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 20.

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Figure 4.20. Survey Area 19 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Figure 4.21. Survey Area 20 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Survey Area 21. This survey area is located approximately 550 ft (168 m) inland from the
approximate center of the north shore, elevated approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl (see Figure
4.1). The shoreline consists of cliffs elevated approximately 30 ft [9 m] above lake level. The
survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to
the proximity of wetlands to the east and south.
The survey area is situated within a fairly level and sparsely wooded area with grass and
thistle undercover, and large open clearings. An unpaved access road bisects the survey area.
Field grass on the south side of the access road has been cut and bailed.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 21 (Figure 4.22). Within the total,
144 shovel tests (85 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 17 cm (7 in) to impasse. A total of 25 shovel tests (15 percent) had two strata.
Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 17
cm (7 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of a light brownish gray or yellowish brown silty loam,
terminating at an average depth of 23 cm (9 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 21.
Survey Area 22. This survey area is located approximately 550 ft (168 m) inland from the
north shore, adjacent to the west side of Survey Area 21 (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is
elevated approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological
sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the east and south.
The survey area is situated within a fairly level and sparsely wooded area with grass and
thistle undercover. An unpaved access road aligned approximately northeast to southwest
crosses the central portion of the survey area. Tall grasses and thistle bound the access road
between 10 to 20 meters (33 to 66 feet) on either side.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 22 (Figure 4.23). Within the total,
159 shovel tests (94 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 17 cm (7 in) to impasse. Ten shovel tests (6 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 18 cm (7 in).
Stratum 2 typically consisted of a light brownish gray or yellowish brown silty clay or clayey
loam, terminating at an average depth of 22 cm (9 in). Most of these tests terminated early due
to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 22.
Survey Area 23. This survey area is located approximately 550 ft (168 m) inland from the
north shore, adjacent to the west side of Survey Area 22 (see Figure 4.1). This area is elevated
approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity
for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the east and south.
The survey area is situated within a fairly level and sparsely wooded area with grass and
thistle understory, and a large central clearing in which an unpaved access road is located. A
total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 23 (Figure 4.24). One hundred-fifty shovel
tests (89 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty loam
averaging 18 cm (7 in) to impasse. Ten shovel tests (6 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 19 cm (7 in).
Stratum 2 typically consisted of a dark yellowish brown or yellowish brown silty clay or clayey
loam, terminating at an average depth of 24 cm (9 in). Most of these tests terminated early due
to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 23.
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Figure 4.22. Survey Area 21 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.23. Survey Area 22 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.24. Survey Area 23 shovel test transect locations.

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Survey Area 24. This survey area is located centrally along the north portion of Galloo
Island, setback 1,300 ft (396 m) south of the shore (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity
for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands 100 ft (30.5 m) south.
The survey area is situated within a wooded area populated with Shagbark hickory,
Eastern hornbeam, and lesser amounts of pine and white birch. The survey area exhibits a
general 5 to 10 percent southeast slope. Tall grass and pockets of standing water are located
adjacent to the south extent of the survey area. Soils are shallow, as indicated by many
exposed rounded boulders under 3 ft (1 m) in diameter covering the survey area (see Appendix
A: Photograph 24). These boulders appear in higher frequency in the northwest corner of the
survey area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 24 (Figure 4.25). Within the total,
155 shovel tests (92 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty
loam averaging 17 cm (7 in) to impasse. Fourteen shovel tests (8 percent) had two strata.
Stratum 1 generally consisted of either very dark grayish brown or dark grayish brown silty
loam, dug to an average depth of 21 cm (8 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of a yellowish
brown silty loam or clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 28 cm (11 in). Most of these
tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of
Survey Area 24.
Survey Area 25. This survey area is located centrally along the north portion of Galloo
Island, set back 1,060 ft (323 m) south of the shore, adjacent to Survey Area 24 (see Figure
4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl. The survey area has an
increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of
wetlands 300 ft (91.4 m) to the south.
The survey area is situated within a wooded area populated with Shagbark hickory,
Eastern hornbeam, and lesser amounts of pine and white birch. Tall grass and pockets of
standing water are located within, and adjacent to, the south portion of the survey area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 25 (Figure 4.26). Within the total,
125 shovel tests (74 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a very dark grayish
brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to impasse. Forty-four shovel
tests (26 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of very dark grayish brown to a
dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 20 cm (8 in). Stratum 2 typically
consisted of a light brownish gray mottled with a yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an
average depth of 29 cm (11 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural
materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 25.

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Figure 4.25. Survey Area 24 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Figure 4.26. Survey Area 25 shovel test transect locations.

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Survey Area 26. This survey area is located in the far northeastern corner of the island,
adjacent to the north shore (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated 250 ft (76 m) amsl,
approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) above lake level. The survey area is located within a fallow
agricultural field covered in tall grass, thistle, and milkweed (see Appendix A: Photograph 25).
An unpaved access road is located at the southeast corner. The survey area has an increased
archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to its advantageous location next
to aquatic resources and provision of an accessible lake-edge for people traveling by canoe
between Canada and New York State.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 26 (Figure 4.27). Six shovel tests
(3 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging
26 cm (10 in) to impasse. A total of 171 shovel tests (97 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1
generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average 24 cm (9 in) depth.
Stratum 2 typically consisted of a light brownish gray or yellowish brown clayey loam,
terminating at an average depth of 33 cm (13 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. Two shovel tests (STPs 7.1 and 13.10) contained a third stratum (Stratum 3). Stratum
3 in STP 7.1 contained light gray mottled with yellowish brown silty clay at a depth of 48 cm (19
in). Stratum 3 of STP 13.10 contained a light brownish gray clayey loam at a depth of 30 cm (12 in).
One modern or possibly recent historic artifact was found in the survey of Study Area 26.
An unidentified iron object, possibly an agricultural equipment part under 10 cm (4 in) in length
was found in STP 6.5 (Stratum 1). A dark soil stain was found in STP 7.2, at the interface of
Strata 1 and 2. No cultural materials were found within the test, but because the stain had the
appearance of a potential feature, eight radial shovel tests were dug at 1- and 3-meter (3.3- and
10-ft) intervals centered on the stained soil. No additional stains or cultural materials were found
in the close-interval shovel tests. STP 7.2 was then expanded from 30 cm (12 in) in diameter to
a 50-x-50-cm (20-x-20-in) test to reveal that the stain was in fact a dissected rodent burrow.
An isolated piece of coal was found in STP 3.11 (Stratum 1). No other cultural materials or
features were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 26.
Survey Area 27. This survey area is located at the northern end of Galloo Island, situated
on a strip of land 530 ft (162 m) wide (see Figure 4.1). Lake Ontario borders the strip of land to
the north and ponds border the south. The survey area is elevated 250 ft (76 m) amsl,
approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) above lake level. The survey area has an increased archaeological
sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to its accessible lake edge for people traveling
southwards by canoe and local access to resources associated with lakes and ponds.
The survey area is located within a hayfield covered in grass. There is a very slight
southward slope to where local drainage collects in the ponds. A total of 169 shovel tests were
dug within Survey Area 27 (Figure 4.28). Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown
silty loam, dug to an average depth of 25 cm (10 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of yellowish
brown mottled with light brownish gray clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 36 cm
(14 in). No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 27.

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Figure 4.27. Survey Area 26 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Figure 4.28. Survey Area 27 shovel test transect locations.

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Survey Area 28. This survey area is located approximately 800 ft (244 m) inland from the
north shore, near the center of the island, and elevated approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl (see
Figure 4.1). The survey area has an increased (moderate) archaeological sensitivity for
prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the north and east.
The survey area is largely situated within a fairly level field of grass, thistles and some
downed cedar trunks, and woods of Shagbark hickory and Eastern hornbeams covering the
north extent. A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 28 (Figure 4.29). Within
the total, 157 shovel tests (93 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a very dark
grayish brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to impasse. Twelve
shovel tests (7 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of very dark grayish
brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average 18 cm (7 in) depth. Stratum 2
typically consisted of a light brownish gray mottled with a yellowish brown clayey loam,
terminating at an average 21 cm (8 in) depth. Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 28.
Survey Area 29. This survey area is located 260 ft (79 m) from the north shore, elevated
approximately 290 ft (88 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area has an increased
archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the
northeast and southeast.
The survey area is within a lightly wooded area, consisting of recent growth of Shagbark
hickory and Eastern hornbeams. Weathered cedar stumps, forested in the past, sporadically
cover the survey area. A clearing containing tall grass and swallow-wort is located across the
center of the survey area (see Appendix A: Photograph 26). Seepage was observed in several
shovel tests dug within the north extent of the survey area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 29 (Figure 4.30). Within the total,
155 shovel tests (92 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown
to dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 21 cm (8 in) to impasse. Fourteen shovel tests (8
percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of very dark grayish brown to dark
grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 22 cm (9 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted
of a light brownish gray mottled with a yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average
depth of 28 cm (11 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural
materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 29.
Survey Area 30. This survey area is located 260 ft (79 m) from the north shore, adjacent
to the west side of Survey Area 29 (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately
290 ft (88 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric
cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the northeast and southeast.
Vegetation within Survey Area 30 consists primarily of recent growth Shagbark hickory
and Eastern hornbeams, and clearings with swallow-wort and grass covering. Cut and
weathered cedar stumps populate the area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 30 (Figure 4.31). Within the total,
165 shovel tests (98 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a very dark grayish
brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to impasse. Four shovel tests (2
percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of very dark grayish brown to dark
grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 21 cm (8 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted
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Figure 4.29. Survey Area 28 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.30. Survey Area 29 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Figure 4.31. Survey Area 30 shovel test transect locations.

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of yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 26 cm (10 in). Most of these
tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of
Survey Area 30.
Survey Area 31. This survey area is located 260 ft (79 m) from the north shore, adjacent
to the west side of Survey Area 30 (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately
290 ft (88 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric
cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the northeast and southeast.
Vegetation within Survey Area 31 consists primarily of recent growth Shagbark hickory
and Eastern hornbeams and clearings with swallow-wort and grass covering. Cut and
weathered cedar stumps are found over the survey area.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 31 (Figure 4.32). Within the total,
168 shovel tests (99 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a very dark grayish
brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 19 cm (7 in) to impasse. STP 1.13 was the
only shovel test with two strata. Stratum 1 has very dark grayish brown silty loam to a depth of
21 cm (8 in) and Stratum 2 is a yellowish brown clayey loam with a depth to bedrock of 29 cm
(11 in). No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 31.
Survey Area 32. This survey area is located in the west portion of the island, set back
1,060 ft (323 m) from the north shore (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 275 ft (84 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity
for prehistoric cultural materials due to proximity of wetlands to the east and south.
The survey area is located within a level field covered in tall grass and thistle. A small
cluster of trees is located within the south portion of the survey area. Isolated trees including
cedars and likely hickory punctuate the immediate area. Weathered cedar stumps cover the
south portion of the survey area (see Appendix A: Photograph 27).
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 32 (Figure 4.33). Within the total,
166 shovel tests (98 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of very dark grayish brown
to dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to impasse. Three shovel tests (2
percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of very dark grayish brown to a dark
grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 23 cm (9 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted
of a yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 33 cm (13 in). Most of
these tests terminated early due to bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests
of Survey Area 32.

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Figure 4.32. Survey Area 31 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.33. Survey Area 32 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Survey Area 33. This survey area is located in the west portion of the island, 1,320 ft (402
m) south of the north shore (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately 275 ft
(84 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural
materials due to proximity of wetlands to the east and south.
The survey area, located adjacent to the east side of Survey Area 32, is also a level field
covered in tall grass and thistle. Weathered cedar stumps are found throughout the south
portion of the survey area. A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 33 (Figure
4.34). Within the total, 165 shovel tests (98 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a
very dark grayish brown to a dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to impasse.
Four shovel tests (2 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of very dark gray to
dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth of 20 cm (8 in). Stratum 2 typically
consisted of yellowish brown silty loam, terminating at an average depth of 28 cm (11 in). No
cultural materials features were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 33.
Survey Area 34. This survey area is located on a slight knoll or ridge at the northeast end
of the island overlooking Lake Ontario to the east and fields and ponds to the north and west
(see Figure 4.1; see Appendix A: Photograph 28). The knoll or ridge is elevated 290 ft (88 m)
amsl, approximately 40 ft (12 m) above low-lying lands. The survey area has an increased
archaeological sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to its elevated proximity to
resources associated with springs, ponds, and lakes.
The survey area is on uneven terrain, with a terraced 10 percent northeast slope. The
survey area is covered with tall field grass and thistle, with lesser amounts of milkweed and
swallow-wort, and a few small cedars. Three unpaved access roads aligned approximately
southwest to northeast, transverse the survey area along the north and south extents, and
across the middle (Figure 4.35). An unidentified piece of agricultural equipment is located near
STPs 5.9 and 6.9 (see Appendix A: Photograph 29). It appears to be belt-driven, with a feeder
at one end, and a rotating wire mesh drum with an access door. No manufacturers markings
were found.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 34 (see Figure 4.35). Within the
total, 155 shovel tests (92 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of a dark grayish
brown silty loam averaging 17 cm (7 in) to impasse. Fourteen shovel tests (8 percent) had two
strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average depth
of 21 cm (8 in). Stratum 2 typically consisted of yellowish brown loamy (sandy, silty, clayey) soil,
terminating at an average depth of 30 cm (12 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 34.

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Figure 4.34. Survey Area 33 shovel test transect locations.

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Figure 4.35. Survey Area 34 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles.

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Survey Area 35. This survey area is located within the east portion of the island,
approximately 1,545 ft (471 m) inland from the south shore (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is
elevated approximately 255 ft (78 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological
sensitivity for prehistoric cultural materials due to the proximity of wetlands to the north and
south.
The survey area is within a level field of hay and thistles. A pile of predominantly rounded
fieldstones 8 by 15 meters (26 by 49 feet) is located in the southwest portion of the survey area
(Figure 4.36). Two more similar piles are located further east within the field. An approximate 5
by 45 meter (16 by 148 foot) is centrally located within the survey area. The central pile has a
large number or flat stones, which were loosely stacked (see Appendix A: Photograph 30). The
flat stones are similar to those materials observed in the construction of foundations found in
Survey Areas 1, 2 and 3.
There is a possibility that the flat stones represent the removed remnants of a former
schoolhouse (MDS-4) that was once located approximately 700 feet (213 meters) west. This is
conjecture, as no mortar was found attached to the flagstones, and no architectural materials
were found on or adjacent to the pile.
A total of 169 shovel tests were dug within Survey Area 35 (see Figure 4.36). Within the
total, 104 shovel tests (83 percent) had one stratum, generally consisting of dark grayish brown
silty loam averaging 23 cm (9 in) to impasse. Forty-four shovel tests (17 percent) had two strata.
Stratum 1 generally consisted of dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average 25 cm (10 in)
depth. Stratum 2 typically consisted of light brownish gray and yellowish brown clayey loam,
terminating at an average depth of 34 cm (13 in). Most of these tests terminated early due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 35.

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Figure 4.36. Survey Area 35 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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4.3

EXPLORATORY TESTING AREAS

A total of 128 shovel tests were dug at varying intervals over smaller areas at seven
additional locations designated Survey Areas 36, 37, 38, 39, 39A, 40 and 41 (see Figure 4.1).
The additional tests were implemented by the field director in order to investigate areas of
potential interest not included in the original research design. A summary of the explored
additional areas is presented in Table 4.16.
Table 4.16. Areas surveyed in addition to original Phase IB research design.
Survey
Area
36

Total
STPs
72

37

Reason for survey

Phase IB results

28

Partial stone foundation 9 m long with slab


floor, impacted by airfield. Likely former shed
Barn ruin adjacent to south shore

38

11

Abnormal vegetation patch

1 iron pot fragment and several cut


nails found in 4 STPS
Low frequency of building
materials found around perimeter
of structure
No cultural materials

39

10

39A

40

Extant structure Fishermans shack on


North Pond
Bottle dump south of Fishermans Shack
along North Pond
Surface finds including bottles and bed frames
south of the Clubhouse on North Pond

41

16

Abnormal vegetation patch

Minimal modern/recent historic


nails/ceramic/glass found in 4 tests
Surface scatter, circa 1950s
1970s, beer cans and bottles
Less than 10 recent-historic whole
or partial bottles observed; no
buried deposits found
1 horseshoe found

Survey Area 36. This survey area is located approximately 800 ft (244 m) inland from the
south shore, west of the Coast Guard station near the north end of the island (see Figure 4.1).
The survey area is adjacent to the north side of an unpaved airstrip that is aligned northeast to
southwest, elevated approximately 280 ft (85 m) amsl.
The survey area is at the edge of an uneven field cover in tall grass and thistles. A partial
stone foundation and slab floor measuring 5 by 8 meters (15 by 25 feet) was found adjacent to
the north edge of the airstrip as a result of a walkover reconnaissance (Figure 4.37; see
Appendix A: Photograph 31). Twelve concrete footers between 0.5 to 2.5 meters (1.6 by 8.2
feet) in length are located immediately west of the foundation (see Appendix A: Photograph 32).
A number of old telephone poles are resting on the footers.
A total of 72 shovel tests were dug at the standard 5-m (16-ft) interval along 12 transects,
each transect having 6 tests (see Figure 4.37). Within the total, 62 shovel tests (86 percent) had
one stratum, generally consisting of dark grayish brown silty loam averaging 18 cm (7 in) to
impasse. Ten shovel tests (14 percent) had two strata. Stratum 1 generally consisted of a dark
grayish brown silty loam, dug to an average 26 cm (10 in) depth. Stratum 2 typically consisted of
a yellowish brown clayey loam, terminating at an average depth of 33 cm (13 in). Most of these
tests terminated early due to bedrock.

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Figure 4.37. Survey Area 36 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles.
A total of seven artifacts were found in Stratum 1 of five shovel tests (Table 4.17). One
iron pot fragment with a 10.5-in (27-cm) diameter was found in STP 3.2. A total of three nails, a
piece of a milk glass lampshade or plate, and a piece of cut wood were found within the four
remaining positive tests (STPs 5.2, 6.2, 6.3 and 7.2). No other cultural materials were found in
the shovel tests of Survey Area 36.

Table 4.17. Artifact and Modern Materials from Survey Area 36, Stratum 1.
Material
Glass Total
Metal

Type
milk glass, rim of jar or plate,
possibly lampshade, no design
kettle, iron, rim
nail, cut, common
nail, modern

Metal Total
wood
Other Total
Survey Area 36 Total
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Dates

STP

Count

late 19th-early 20th

6.3

non-diagnostic
1830+
modern

3.2
6.2, 7.2
5.2

non-diagnostic

7.2

1
2
1
4
2
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Survey Area 37 (MDS-3). This survey area is located at the west end of the island near
the south shore, just east of Survey Area 2 which included a stone house foundation (see
Section 4.1). The survey area is elevated at 260 ft (79 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey
area has an increased archaeological sensitivity due to the presence of a stone ruin (former
birthing barn) identified in the Phase IA report (Schieppati et al. 2008). Seven map-documented
structures (identified collectively as MDS-3) are shown on the Robinson map from 1887 (labeled
as N. Wattam) (see Section 2.2: Figure 2.1). No structures are shown near Survey Area 37 on the
1895 USGS map.
The survey area is within a level field covered with field grass and thistle. The presence of
hay rolls nearby suggests the immediate area was harvested prior to the commencement of field
work. The survey was centered on the ruins of a birthing barn (sheep or cows) measuring 30 by
100 ft (9 by 31 m) (Figure 4.38; see Appendix A: Photograph 33). Walls are partially intact, with an
original height of approximately 8 ft (2.4 m). The wood-framed gambrel roof is collapsed and
leaning northwards. The structure was extended 35 ft (10.7 m) eastwards once, as noted by the
presence of un-lapped masonry (see Appendix A: Photograph 34). A stepped 20-x-30-ft (6-by-9
m) wide poured foundation, the length of the barn, was added on the south side.
Twenty-eight shovel tests were dug around the perimeter of the ruin to test for artifact
deposits or buried features (see Figure 4.38). Shovel tests were dug at 5-m (16-ft) intervals, with
STP 22 dug at 2.5 m (8.2 feet) due to an alignment error. Tests were offset approximately 5 m
(16 ft) from the structure. Shovel tests within Survey Area 37 contained one stratum, and
terminated at bedrock. Stratum 1 generally consisted of a dark grayish brown silty loam with an
average of 23 cm (9 in) to impasse.

Figure 4.38. Survey Area 37/MDS-3 shovel test transect locations and
photograph angles.
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A total of 106 artifacts were found in 15 positive shovel tests of Survey Area 37 (Table
4.18; see Appendix C: Artifact Catalog). All were found in Stratum 1. The materials include
seven pieces of ceramic, 40 pieces of glass, 53 metal items, five mammal bones (STPs 1.12, 6,
11 and 12), and a piece of roofing shingle (STP 8). The ceramics include a piece of undecorated
whiteware (STP 5), a piece each of black annular ironstone (STP 5), brown transfer-print
ironstone (STP 5), and undecorated ironstone (STP 1.3). Other ceramics include two pieces of
modern ceramic (STPs 4 and 28) and a piece of brick (STP 22). Glass items were generally
non-diagnostic, including four pieces of container glass (STPs 1.26, 4 and 5) and 36 pieces of
window glass (STPs 1.3, 3, 11, 27 and 26). Metal items include 20 cut nails or fragments (STPs
1.26, 1.3, 3, 5, 6, 11, 27), 24 wire nails or fragments (STPs 1.3, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 16, 27), and five
modern nails (STPs 4, 22, 26). Other metal items include a brass grommet (STP 6) and three
pieces of sheet iron (STP 22).
Table 4.18. Cultural Materials from Survey Area 37, Stratum 1.
Type
Ceramic

Dates
whiteware, undecorated
ironstone, annular, black
ironstone, transfer-print, brown
ironstone, undecorated
Ironstone Total
ceramic, modern
brick

Ceramic Total
Glass
container glass, aqua and clear
container glass, modern
window glass, aqua, clear, and
green
Glass Total

Dates
1820+
1842-1930
1829-1850
1842-1930

STP
5
5
5
1.3

modern
non-diagnostic

4, 28
22

non-diagnostic
modern
non-diagnostic

1.26, 5
4
1.3, 3, 11, 27,
26

1830+
Metal

nail, wire, common


nail, modern
Nail Total
grommet, brass
sheet iron

modern

1.26, 1.3, 3, 5,
6, 11, 27
1.3, 3, 5, 6, 8,
11, 16, 27
4, 22, 26

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

6
22

mammal bone, medium


mammal bone

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

1.12, 11
6, 12

non-diagnostic

nail, cut, common


1860+

Metal Total
Faunal

Faunal Total
roofing shingle
Other Total
Survey Area 37 Total

Count
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
7
2
2
36
40
20
24
5
49
1
3
53
3
2
5
1
106

Summary. Most of the materials are generally chronologically non-diagnostic and there
were no makers marks or other marks for chronological analysis. The few fragments of
ceramics indicate a date around 1900. Functionally, these materials are general domestic trash
mixed with some structural debris (e.g. window glass, nails, roofing shingle, and brick). The barn
and associated artifacts are included in site PCI/Galloo Island-2 (see discussion in Survey Area
2/MDS-3 [site PCI/Galloo Island-2]).
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Survey Area 38. This survey area is located centrally along the south shore, elevated
approximately 270 ft (82.3 m) amsl (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is within a stand of trees
adjacent to the elevated shoreline. The area is uneven, exhibiting a slight southward slope. A
walkover reconnaissance of the area identified a 10-x-15-m (16-x-33-ft) slight depression,
encircled by vegetation taller than the surrounding area (see Appendix A: Photograph 35).
Twelve exploratory shovel tests were dug across the depression (Figure 4.39). STP 0E/0S
was centrally located; nine tests were dug at 5-m, 10-m and 15-m (16.4-ft, 32.8-ft and 49.2-ft)
intervals to the north, east, and west of STP 0E/0S; two shovel tests were dug at 5-m and 10-m
(16.4-ft and 32.8-ft) intervals south of STP 0E/0S. Two soil strata were typically encountered.
Stratum 1 reached an average depth of 28 cm (11.0 in) and was dark grayish brown silty loam.
Stratum 2 reached an average depth of 39 cm (15.4) and was yellowish brown sandy loam. No
cultural materials or features were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 38.

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Figure 4.39. Survey Area 38 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Survey Area 39. This survey area is located at the western edge of North Pond,
approximately 1.6 ft (0.5 m) above lake-level (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 250 ft (76.2 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity
due to the presence of an extant structure identified in the Phase IA as a fishermans shack (see
Schieppati et al. 2008: Section 1). The shack is encircled by thistle, tall grass, and cattails (see
Appendix A: Photograph 36).
Ten exploratory shovel tests were dug around the perimeter of the fishermans shack at a
modified 5-m (16-ft) interval (Figure 4.40). Two soil strata were typically encountered. Stratum 1
reached an average depth of 23 cm (9.1 in) and was dark grayish brown silty loam. Stratum 2
reached an average depth of 35 cm (13.8 in) and was yellowish brown clayey loam.
Minor amounts of modern or recent historical material (n=15) was found in six of the
shovel tests (Table 4.19). Stratum 1 had two pieces each of undecorated ironstone (STPs 5, 8),
pink-tinged container glass (STP 5), white milk glass (STP 5), iron hardware (STPs 4, 5), sheet
iron (STP 4), and four pieces of plastic (STPs 5, 6 and 7). Stratum 2 had a single piece of
modern bottle glass (STP 2). No other cultural materials were found in the shovel tests of
Survey Area 39.
Table 4.19. Cultural Materials from Survey Area 39, by Stratum.
Stratum

Material

Type

Ceramic
Glass

ironstone, undecorated
container glass, pink tinge
milk glass

Glass Total
Metal
Metal Total
Other

hardware
sheet iron

Dates

STP

Count

1842-1930
1870+
late 19th-early 20th

5, 8
5
5

2
2
2

4, 5
4

4
2
2

6, 7
5

4
2
2

non-diagnostic
non-diagnostic

plastic

modern
1909+

Other Total

Stratum 1 Total
2

Glass

14
glass, modern

modern

Stratum 2 Total

Survey Area 39 Total

15

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Figure 4.40. Survey Area 39 shovel test transect locations and photograph angle.

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Survey Area 39A. This survey area is located approximately 300 ft (91 m) south of the
fishermans shack described in Survey Area 39 (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 270 ft (82 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity
due to a 25-by-65-foot (8-by-20-m) surface scatter of steel beer cans and bottles (see Appendix
A: Photographs 31 and 32). The scatter is located on the west side of a trail leading down
(northwards) towards the shack.
Two exploratory shovel tests were dug approximately 10 m (3.3 ft) apart to test for
stratified deposits (Figure 4.41). STP 11 was dug in a shallow depression covered with bottles.
Two soil strata were identified. Stratum 1 was dark grayish brown silty loam 9 cm (3.5 in) deep.
Stratum 2 was light gray clay loam, terminating at 11 cm (4.3 in) due to bedrock. STP 12 was
dug nearby on an undisturbed surface covered also with bottles and cans. STP 12 terminated at
a rock impasse (probable bedrock) at 23 cm (9 in), with only one stratum present (dark grayish
brown silty loam).
Shovel test results reveal that the artifact scatter was largely confined to the surface. An
assortment of dateable bottles was collected (Table 4.20). Based on the sample (n=5) and field
observations, the surface scatter is largely dominated by steel beer and soda cans that exhibit
pull tabs that were manufactured between 1962 and 1975. Glass soda and beer bottles that
were observed and sampled include examples from 1956, 1967 and 1969. Three rusty steel
beer cans predate the pull-tab cans, and likely date from the 1950s. As a group, a late 1950s to
early 1970s period of deposit is suggested. The modern surface scatter of beer bottles and cans
with minor amounts of refuse is likely associated with the nearby fishermans shack.

Figure 4.41. Survey Area 39A shovel test transect locations and photograph angles.
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Table 4.20. Surface finds from Survey Area 39A.


Material
Glass

Type
Bottle

Glass Total
Can
Metal Total
Survey Area 39A Total

Description
Canada Dry, applied label, white shield with
blue lettering, Duraglass, mark with I inside O
with diamond, crown closure
Canada Dry, applied label, white shield with
red lettering, Anchor Hocking mark H over
anchor, crown closure
Coca-Cola, applied label, white lettering, base
has Los Angeles, and Bottle Trademark, 6
FL. OZ., crown closure
Duraglass, applied label, mark with I inside O,
no diamond, crown closure
Black Label Beer, red to orange color, pull-tab

Dates

Count

1929-1958

1937+

c1950+

1954+

c1962-1975

4
1
5

Survey Area 40. This survey area is located at the east edge of North Pond,
approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) above lake level (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated
approximately 250 ft (76 m) amsl. The survey area has an increased archaeological sensitivity
due to the presence of a standing structure identified in the Phase IA as an early-twentieth
century clubhouse (see Schieppati et al. 2008: Section 4.1).
The clubhouse is situated at the waters edge, limiting the walkover reconnaissance to an
adjacent wooded area located south of the structure. The walkover reconnaissance identified
three loci where modern or recent historic materials had been discarded (Figure 4.42).

Locus 1 included two rusty bunks or box-spring frames and approximately six glass bottle
fragments, located approximately 72 ft (22 m) southeast of the clubhouse (Table 4.21; see
Appendix A: Photograph 39). STP 40.1 was placed in the center of the debris to test for
buried deposits. STP 40.1 had one stratum consisting of dark grayish brown silty loam,
terminating at 34 cm (13.4 in) upon reaching bedrock. One modern glass bottle fragment
was found, noted and discarded (Table 4.21).

Locus 2 included three broken glass bottles (surface finds) located approximately 75 feet
(23 m) south of the clubhouse (see Table 4.21). STP 40.2 was placed in the center of the
bottle scatter to test for buried deposits. STP 40.2 had one stratum consisting of dark
grayish brown silty loam, terminating at 14 cm (5.5 in) reaching bedrock. No additional
materials were found. The three bottles, 30 percent complete, date from 1915-1935. Since
these bottles were found on the surface under some brush, it is likely these were recent
discards, perhaps originating from the adjacent clubhouse.

Locus 3 included a clear bottle fragment (non-diagnostic discarded) next to a possible


stone-lined hole with an approximate 50-cm (20-in) interior diameter (see Table 4.21; see
Appendix A: Photograph 40). STP 40.3 was placed in the center of the possible feature.
STP 40.3 was dug in dark grayish brown silty loam, terminating at 65 cm (25.6 in) due to
bedrock. No cultural materials were found. The shovel test exposed loose rocks that
roughly appear stacked partially around the test. The observed rock anomaly is likely of
natural occurrence, either a rodent borrow or former location of a small tree.

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Figure 4.42. Survey Area 40 shovel test transect locations and photograph angles.
Table 4.21. Surface finds from Survey Area 40.
Stratum
Surface

Material
Glass

Type
bottle

bottle,
liquor

bottle,
liquor/ale

Description
base to shoulder, faceted
sides terminating at shoulder
with scalloping (similar to
catsup bottle), B on base
(possible Buck Glass Co.
[website: SHA.org], machine
made
1 base, 1 neck, 1 body,
LONDON and ENGLAND on
sides, lip and collar offset
finish, machine made
cork closure, neck fragment,
lip and collar finish, mold line
to lip

Dates

STP

Count

1910-1961

near STP
40.2

Circa 1910
1925

near STP
40.2

Post 1915

near STP
40.2

1
5

Surface/Glass Total
1

Glass
Other
Stratum 1 Total
Grand Total

glass,
modern
shingle

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modern, discarded in field

modern

40.1, 40.2

modern, discarded in field

modern

40.1

2
7
12

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Survey Area 41. This survey area is located adjacent to the south shore, towards the east
end of the island (see Figure 4.1). The survey area is elevated approximately 270 ft (82 m)
amsl. The survey area is within a grassy, thistle- and weed-covered field adjacent to the
elevated shoreline. A walkover reconnaissance identified a 10- by 15-m (16- by 33-ft) patch of
tall vegetation differing from the surrounding growth. An unidentified tree of moderate size is
located at the south corner of the tall vegetation patch.
Nine exploratory shovel tests were dug across the vegetation anomaly. STP 0E/0N was
centered in the vegetation and eight radial tests were dug at 5-m and 10-m (16.4-ft and 32.8-ft)
intervals extending northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest. Each test had one stratum
consisting of dark grayish brown silty loam, averaging 27 cm (10 in) to bedrock impasse.
One horseshoe was found in STP 0E/5S. The horseshoe appears to be machine made.
Six additional tests (for a total of 15 tests over the area) were placed at 5-m (16.4-m) intervals
southeast and southwest of the positive test (Figure 4.43). Soils within the additional tests were
the same in the first nine tests, except that STP 10W/5S had two strata. Stratum 1 consisted of
dark grayish brown silty loam, dug to a depth of 29 cm (11 in). Stratum 2 consisted of yellowish
brown clayey silt, terminating at a 40 cm (16 in) depth. No additional cultural materials were
found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 41. The horseshoe is an isolated find, lacking any
context with other artifacts or historic features.

Figure 4.43. Survey Area 41 shovel test transect locations.

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5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1

CONCLUSIONS

In consultation with NYSHPO and in accordance with the agencys survey guidelines for
wind power projects (NYSHPO 2006), the Phase IB field investigation included shovel testing of
a sample (n=35) of one-acre areas widely distributed over Galloo Island. The island will be
impacted by the proposed construction of up to 84 wind turbines, linear component routes (e.g.,
access roads, interconnects), a docking facility, and operations-and-maintenance facilities.
Within the designated survey total, nine surveys were placed within areas determined to have
an increased historic period archaeological sensitivity due to the presence of map-documented
structures, with the remaining 26 surveys arbitrarily placed across the island within testable
areas.
A total of 6,043 shovel tests were excavated during the Phase IB survey, exceeding the
5,915 shovel tests estimated in the accepted testing plan. In general, tests were excavated at 5
m (16.4-ft) intervals. A total of 5,901 shovel tests were located within 35 one-acre areas
designated Survey Areas 1 through 35. The remaining shovel tests (n=142) were excavated at
varying intervals over smaller areas at seven additional locations (designated Survey Areas 36,
37, 38, 39, 39A, 40 and 41). The additional tests were implemented by the field director in order
to investigate areas of potential interest not included in the original research design.
No prehistoric artifacts were found during the Phase IB field investigation of Galloo Island.
Four historic archaeological sites were identified all associated with partial structures or
foundations. A few scattered historic and modern artifacts were also found in various tested
locations on the island. These isolated finds (i.e., an isolated cut nail, a piece of coal, a piece of
clear bottle glass) are not considered indicators of larger buried deposits.
Map-documented Structures. The Phase IB investigation included the shovel test survey
of eight areas associated with map-documented structures (MDSs) (see discussion in Section
2.2; Table 5.1). The identified MDSs include a school house, two mills, and five locales with
singular or multiple residential/farmstead structures. A summary of the findings at each MDS
location follows.

MDS 1 - multiple structures. Galloo Lighthouse (not part of the project mentioned here
due to assignment of an MDS number in the Phase IA report [Schieppati 2008]). This
structure is extant, along with an attached light-keepers house and a fog-horn house.
The assistant keepers house was destroyed by fire and is the only actual MDS. The
three remaining structures are on an excluded property, outside the APE. No
archaeological investigation was conducted.

MDS 2 multiple structures (Survey Area 1). Two structures are shown on the 1887
Robinson map (labeled R. Eveleigh); one structure is shown on the 1895 USGS map
(not labeled). A 20-ft by 25-ft stone foundation under one foot in height was found where
MDS 2 is shown near the south shore. A total of 154 shovel tests were excavated at this
location (0.9-acre coverage truncated from 1-acre due to proximity of an irregular
shoreline near the foundation).

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Table 5.1. Summary of Phase IB surveyed MDS locations.


Survey
Area

MDS

1887
(Robinson)

1895
(USGS)

N/A

MDS 1

Lighthouse

Lighthouse

MDS 2

R. Eveleigh
2 structures

1 structure

MDS 3

M. Wattam
7 structures

1 structure

MDS 4

S.H. No. 10

5
6
7

MDS 5
MDS 6
MDS 7

not represented
R. R. Gannett
B.F. Johnson

not
represented
1 structure
1 structure
1 structure

MDS 8

not represented

1 structure

12

MDS 9

M. Wattam
7 structures

4 structures

3
37

Phase IB results
Reference to Assistant Keepers House,
outside of APE
Exposed stone foundation. Limited amount
(n=216) of structural debris found.
Stone house ruin. Moderate amount of
mostly structural debris (n=1,241) and some
clustered ceramics (n=135).
Exposed stone foundation of Gannett Mill.
Limited amount (n=261) of structural debris
found and one ceramic.
Barn ruin. Minor amount (n=106) of
structural debris and one ceramic.
No evidence was found.
No evidence was found.
No evidence was found.
No evidence was found.
Exposed stone foundation of Johnson Mill.
94 pieces of structural debris found,
including one broken plate (surface find).
One cut nail was found.

A total of 215 artifacts were found in 40 positive shovel tests excavated largely within a
50-ft diameter around the foundation. The artifact frequency is 5.4 artifacts per positive
test. The artifacts include 41 ceramics, 54 glass, 104 metal (largely cut nails and nondiagnostic flat fragments), eight faunal, and eight miscellaneous items. A mean artifact
date of 1840 is suggested based upon the 18 ceramic fragments (tablewares) found,
although the sample size is very limited. No intact artifact concentrations or stratified
deposits were found in the shovel tests of Survey Area 1/MDS 2. Artifacts found
associated with MDS 2 represent a typical structure demolition/debris pattern. An
OPRHP Site Form (PCI/Galloo Island-1) has been completed to document the MDS
foundation and associated artifacts.

MDS 3 multiple structures (Survey Areas 2, 3 and 37). This MDS grouping is shown on
historic maps from 1887 (Robinson seven structures labeled M. Wattam) and 1905
(USGS one structure, not labeled). Three structures associated with the Wattam MDS
group including a dilapidated (collapsed) barn, a stone house ruin, and a possible
shingle mill foundation, were investigated. The results of each survey in this grouping
are as follows:
(Survey Area 2) House ruin. This stone masonry structure measures approximately
21-ft by 30-ft, varying between 2 and 7 ft in height. A poured concrete slab is found
outside the house, adjacent to the southeast corner. A total of 169 shovel tests were
excavated within a one-acre area of coverage centered on the north wall of the house
ruin.

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A total of 1,376 artifacts were found within 79 positive tests, distributed widely over the
surveyed area. Materials found were categorized by material class. Stratum 1 had 654
metal (mostly nails), 326 glass, 171 ceramics, 37 faunal, and 14 other. Stratum 2 had 59
metal, 41 glass, 14 ceramic, 1 faunal, and 7 other. Stratum 3 had 43 metal, 7 glass, 1
faunal, and 1 other. The mean artifact frequency within positive shovel tests is 17.4, with
STP 3.6 having the highest frequency (n=290, mostly cut/wire nails and ceramics) or 21
percent of the total artifacts found. Artifacts found associated with the house ruin largely
represent building materials in a debris pattern. An 1878 period of occupation is
suggested based upon the mean date of ceramic tableware fragments found (n=135) in
the investigation. An OPRHP Site Form (PCI/Galloo Island-2) has been completed to
document the MDS house foundation, associated artifacts, and associated barn ruin
described below.
(Survey Area 37) Dilapidated (collapsed) barn. The barn ruin, is located approximately
120 ft (37 m) northeast of the house ruin described above. The barn is 45-ft by 65-ft,
varying 2 ft to 6 ft in elevation. A total of 28 shovel tests were excavated around the
perimeter of the barn at 5-m interval to test for artifact deposits or buried features. A total
of 106 artifacts were found in 15 positive shovel tests. The artifacts are mostly building
materials found in low frequency, with the exception of two ceramics and a few animal
bones. No intact artifact concentrations or stratified deposits were found in the shovel
tests.
(Survey Area 3) Wattam/Gannett Mill foundation. The foundation measures 45 ft by 65
ft, varying 2 ft to 6 ft in elevation. A chimney fall is present within. A total of 169 shovel
tests were excavated within a one-acre area of coverage centered at the south extent of
the foundation footprint adjacent to the shoreline. A total of 261 artifacts were found
within 35 positive tests, mostly located within immediate proximity of the foundation and
elevated shoreline. The artifacts are almost exclusively building materials found in low
frequency, with the exception of one stoneware fragment. An OPRHP Site Form
(PCI/Galloo Island-3) has been completed to document the MDS foundation and
associated artifacts.

MDS 4 (Survey Area 4) - School House. A total of 169 shovel tests were excavated
within a one-acre survey area where the MDS is shown on the 1887 Robinson map. No
archaeological or structural evidence of the MDS was found.

MDS 5 (Survey Area 5) - unidentified structure. A total of 169 shovel tests were
excavated within a one-acre survey area where the MDS is shown on the 1895 map
(USGS - unidentified). No archaeological or structural evidence of the MDS was found.

MDS 6 (Survey Area 6) - R.R. Gannett structure. A total of 169 shovel tests were
excavated within a one-acre survey area where the MDS is shown on the 1887
Robinson map. No archaeological or structural evidence of the MDS was found.

MDS 7 (Survey Area 7) - B.F. Johnson structure. A total of 169 shovel tests were
excavated within a one-acre survey area where the MDS is shown on the 1887
Robinson map. No archaeological or structural evidence of the MDS was found.

MDS 8 (Survey Area 9) Johnson mill foundation. A total of 169 shovel tests were
excavated within a one-acre survey area where the MDS is shown on the 1887
Robinson map. A partial stone foundation approximately 5 feet tall is located at the base

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

of a steep slope on the north shore of Gill Harbor. A total of 94 artifacts (mostly nondiagnostic building materials, i.e., brick, nails and glass) were found mainly in proximity
to the stone foundation. A broken modern or recent-historic plate was found on the
surface, at the base of the foundation. No intact artifact concentrations or stratified
deposits were found in the shovel tests. An OPRHP Site Form (PCI/Galloo Island-4) has
been completed to document the MDS remnants and associated artifacts.

MDS 9 (Survey Area 12) multiple structures. This MDS grouping is shown on historic
maps from 1887 (Robinson seven structures labeled M. Wattam); and four structures
on the 1895 USGS (unidentified). A total of 169 shovel tests were excavated within a
one-acre survey area where the MDSs are shown. One cut nail was found. The nail is
considered an insignificant isolated find.

One-acre Survey Areas. In addition to the surveyed MDS locations (MDSs 2 through 9)
discussed above, twenty-six (26) one-acre archaeological surveys (Surveys 8, 10 through 11,
and 13 through 35) were arbitrarily placed over testable portions of Galloo Island. In general,
169 shovel tests were excavated at 5-m (16-ft) intervals within each one-acre survey area (see
Figure 4.1). Eight close-interval radial tests were excavated in Survey Area 26 to further
investigate a soil stain that was determined to be a rodent burrow.
No archaeological sites were identified within the 26 tested areas. Isolated finds were
found in four of the surveyed areas, including one stoneware fragment (Survey Area 14); one
modern glass fragment (discarded) (Survey Area 15); one unidentified medium-sized animal
bone (Survey Area 19); and one piece of coal (Survey Area 26). These largely non-diagnostic
items found over formerly grazed areas or areas of limited cultivation, are not considered
significant. Evidence of past land use observed within or adjacent to the test areas included rock
piles near Study Area 20, indicating former field-clearing activities. Numerous weathered cedar
stumps associated with nineteenth-century shingle and shake manufacturing were found in
portions of Study Areas 30, 31 and 33.
Large rock piles were also found within Study Area 35, located within a hayfield that was
formerly a fenced pasture. The rock piles contained both rounded and flat rocks, with the latter
casually stacked along the west edge of the piles. The flat rocks are similar to materials used in
the construction of structures and foundations observed on the island. It is possible that the flat
rocks represent removed remnants of nearby MDS structures where no structural evidence was
found (i.e., former School House No. 10, located 880 ft [268 m] to the southeast or Unidentified
MDS-5, located 1,980 ft [585 m] east). This, however, is conjecture and no supportive evidence
is available.
Seven additional areas (designated Survey Areas 36 through 39, 39A, 40 and 41) included
between 2 to 72 exploratory shovel tests for a total of 142 (see Figure 4.1). The additional tests
were implemented by the field director in order to investigate areas of potential interest not
included in the original research design. A partial shed foundation was found in Survey Area 36;
a modern bottle dump/surface scatter (circa 1965) was found in Survey Area 39A. Survey Area
37 included testing the perimeter of a barn ruin found associated with MDS 3 (previously
described). Survey Areas 38 and 41 were tested due to atypical vegetation growth that is
indicative of buried disturbances (possible foundations). No artifact concentrations, features, or
buried foundations were found in any of the additionally tested areas. A summary of the
additional tested areas is presented in Table 5.2.
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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Table 5.2. Summary of Phase IB additional surveyed locations.

5.2

Survey
Area

Total STPs

36

72

37

28

38

11

39

10

39A

40

41

16

Reason for survey


Partial stone foundation 9-m long
with slab floor. Impacted by
airfield. Likely former shed.
Barn ruin adjacent to south shore
(previously described is summary
of the survey of MDS 3)
Abnormal vegetation patch
Extant structure Fishermans
shack on North Pond
Bottle dump south of Fishermans
Shack along North Pond
Surface finds including bottles and
bed frames south of the Clubhouse
on North Pond
Abnormal vegetation patch

Phase IB results
1 iron pot fragment and several
cut nails found in 4 STPS
Low frequency of building
materials found around perimeter
of structure
No cultural materials
Minimal modern/recent historic
nails/ceramic/glass found in 4
tests
Surface scatter, circa 1950s
1970s, beer cans and bottles.
Less than 10 recent-historic
whole or partial bottles observed.
No buried deposits found
1 horseshoe found

RECOMMENDATIONS

In accordance with the NYSHPO Guidelines for Wind Farm Development Cultural
Resources Survey Work (2006), 35+ acres on Galloo Island were surveyed using an intensive
5-m shovel test interval.
No prehistoric sites or cultural materials were found during the investigation. Four historic
archaeological sites were identified which feature both stone foundations or collapsed
structures, along with a low to moderate frequency of general structural materials (i.e., cut/wire
nails, nails, brick, glass) associated with each. A brief summary and recommendation for each
site is provided below.
Historic site PCI/Galloo Island-1 (R. Eveleigh structure). Includes a small stone
foundation and 215 artifacts (mostly building debris) found widely distributed within a
100-ft (30.5-m) diameter. No remarkable artifacts, artifact concentrations or intact
deposits were found. Further testing of the site is not likely to yield additional
information important to the history of nineteenth to early-twentieth century
occupation of Galloo Island. It does not appear that the site meets the eligibility
criteria for listing in the NRHP and no additional work is recommended.
Historic site PCI/Galloo Island-2 (M. Wattam house and barn structures). Includes a
partially intact stone-masonry house structure and a collapsed stone-masonry sheep/
cow barn. A total of 1,376 artifacts (mostly building debris) were found widely
distributed about the perimeter of the house structure. A group of ceramics, glass
and nails (n=290) having potential context were found in shallow soil in proximity to
the house ruin. A total of 106 artifacts (mostly architectural with some animal bones)
were found distributed around the barn structure. A Phase II investigation is
recommended at the site to determine NRHP eligibility if, in the unlikely event,
avoidance is not feasible.
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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Historic site PCI/Galloo Island-3 (M. Wattam/Gannett Mill foundation). Includes a


stone masonry foundation and brick chimney fall at the edge of the south shore. A
total of 261 artifacts (mostly architectural) were found in proximity to the partiallyintact foundation. No remarkable artifacts, artifact concentrations or intact deposits
were found. Further testing of the site is not likely to yield additional information
important to the history of nineteenth to early-twentieth century shingle and shake
production on Galloo Island. It does not appear that the site meets the eligibility
criteria for listing in the NRHP and no additional work is recommended.
Historic site PCI/Galloo Island-4 (Johnson Mill foundation). Includes a stone masonry
foundation at the north edge of Gill Harbor. A total of 94 artifacts (mostly
architectural) were found in proximity to the partially-intact foundation/walls. No
remarkable artifacts, artifact concentrations or intact deposits were found. Further
testing of the Johnson Mill site is not likely to yield additional information important to
the history of nineteenth to early-twentieth century shingle and shake production on
Galloo Island. It does not appear that the site meets the eligibility criteria for listing in
the NRHP and no additional work is recommended.

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Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

6.0 References

Baker, Howard
1967 Sketch map of Galloo Island, ca. 1910. Scrapbook in possession of islands owner.
Beers, S.N., and D.S. Beers
1864 New Topographical Atlas of Jefferson Co., New York. C.K. Stone, Publisher,
Philadelphia. [online www]. Available URL:
http://www.historicmapworks.com [accessed February 5, 2008]
Bell, Barbara Nicholson
2006 Flow Blue China. Buzz Bitz. The Bees Knees website [online document]. Available
URL: http://home.comcast.net/~dinerware/bitz17.html [accessed July 10, 2008].
Bellis, Mary
2008 The History of Plastics, Timeline of Plastics [online document]. Available URL:
http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/plastics.htm [accessed December 30,
2008].
Crabtree, Don E.
1972 An Introduction to Flintworking. Occasional Papers of the Idaho University Museum,
Number 28. Editors Earl H. Swanson, Jr. and B. Robert Butler.
Gillio, David, Frances Levine, and Douglas Scott
1980 Some Common Artifacts Found at Historical Sites. Cultural Resource Report No. 31.
USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Region.
Jones, Olive, and Catherine Sullivan
1985 The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the description of containers, tableware, flat
glass and closures. National Historic Parks and Sites, Canadian Parks Service. Ottawa,
Ontario.
Ketchum, W.C., Jr.
1991 American Stoneware. Henry Holt, New York.
Lief, Alfred
1965 A Close-up of Closures. Glass Container Manufacturers Institute, New York.
Miller, George L.
1987 Origins of Josiah Wedgwoods Pearlware. Northeast Historical Archaeology 16: 80-92.
1991 A Revised Set of CC Index Values for English Ceramics. Historical Archaeology 25(1):
1-25.
2000 Telling Time for Archaeologists. Northeast Historical Archaeology 29:1-22.
Munsey, Cecil
1970 An Illustrated Guide to Collecting Bottles. Hawthorn Books, Inc., New York.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-1

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Nelson, Lee H.
1968 Nail Chronology as an Aid to Dating Old Buildings. American Association for State and
Local History Technical Leaflet 48. History News 24(11).
New York Archaeological Council (NYAC)
2000 Standards for Cultural Resource Investigations and the Curation of Archaeological
Collections. New York Archaeological Council, Albany.
New York State Museum (NYSM)
2004 Policies and Procedures for the Archaeological Collections of the New York State
Museum. Anthropological Survey, New York State Museum, Albany.
Newton-Coit, Elsie
n.d. Elsie Newton-Coits drawing of Galloo Island, 1932-1935. Scrapbook in possession of
islands owner.
New York State Historic Preservation Office (NYSHPO)
2006 Guidelines for Wind Farm Development Cultural Resources Survey Work. New York
State Historic Preservation Office, Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation,
Peebles Island, Waterford.
Nol Hume, I.
1969 A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Ritchie, William A.
1989 A Typology and Nomenclature for New York Projectile Points. New York State Museum
Bulletin No. 348
Robinson, Elisha
1887 Atlas of Jefferson County, New York. E. Robinson, New York. USGenNet webpage, np
[online www]. Available URL:
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/county/jefferson/hounsfield/hounsfieldmap1887.gif,
[accessed February 5, 2008]
Schieppati, Frank J., Mark A. Steinback, Christine M. Longiaru, Rebecca J. Emans, and Michael
A. Cinquino
2008 Phase IA Cultural Resources Investigation for the Proposed Upstate NY Power Corp.
Transmission Line Project Area, Towns of Hounsfield, Henderson and Ellisburg, Jefferson
County, and Towns of Sandy Creek, Richland, Albion and Parish, Oswego County, New
York (OPRHP # 07PR6733). Panamerican Consultants, Inc., Buffalo. Prepared for
Upstate NY Power Corp., West Seneca, NY.
Shaw, Simeon
1900 History of the Staffordshire Potteries and the Rise and Progress of the Manufacture of
Pottery and Porcelain; with Reference to Genuine Specimens and Notices of Eminent
Potters. 1968 reprint ed. Scott Greenwood and Company, London.
Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA)
2007 Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website. Managed by Bill Lindsey,
retired, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Klamath Falls, OR, and Society for Historical
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-2

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Archaeology [online www]. Available


[accessed December 15, 2008].

URL:

http://www.sha.org/bottle/index.htm,

South, Stanley A.
1977 Method and Theory in Historical Archeology. Academic Press, New York.
Stelle, Lenville J.
2001 An Archaeological Guide to Historic Artifacts of the Upper Sangamon Basin. Center
For Social Research, Parkland College [online document]. Available URL:
http://virtual.parkland.edu/lstelle1/len/archguide/documents/arcguide.htm
[accessed
December 29, 2008].
Toulouse, Julian H.
2001 Bottle Makers and their Marks. The Blackburn Press.
United States Geological Survey (USGS)
1895 Stony Island, NY Quadrangle 15-Minute Series (Topographic). U.S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D.C. Reprint 1925. On file, Historic USGS Maps of New England &
New York, University of New Hampshire, Dimond Library, Documents Department &
Data Center, Durham [online document]. Available URL:
http://docs.unh.edu/nhtopos/StonyIsland.htm [accessed February 5, 2008]
1960 Galloo Island, NY; Point Peninsula, NY; Henderson Bay, NY; Stony Point, NY
Quadrangles, 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic). U.S. Geological Survey, Washington,
D.C.
1980 Stony Island, NY 50K Topographic. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.
1986 Pulaski, NY 100K Topographic. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.
Whitten, David
n.d. Glass Factory M
arks on Bottles. Glass Factories that Manufactures Insulators
homepage, np [online document]. Available URL: http://myinsulators.com/glass
factories/bottlemarks.html [accessed December 30, 2008].
Wolfe, Bernard
1945 Plastics: What Everyone Should Know. Bobbs-Merrill Co., Scranton, PA.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc.

6-3

Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB

Appendix A

PHOTOGRAPHS

Photograph 1. Evidence of extensive lumbering of cedar trees on Galloo Island for


use in making shingles, facing south (PCI 2008).

Photograph 2. Stump fence (cedar) located northwest of dilapidated stone barn


shown in Photographs 33 and 34, facing northeast (PCI 2008).
A-1

Photograph 3. Stump fence (cedar) located perpendicular to north shore of Galloo


Island, facing north (PCI 2008).

Photograph 4. Split-rail fence located near the north shore, situated within the
west portion of Galloo Island, facing south-southeast (PCI 2008).
A-2

Photograph 5. Portion of stone wall found west of ponds located at north end of
Galloo Island, facing west-northwest (PCI 2008).

Photograph 6. Portion of stone wall found along foot of ridge located at the north
end of Galloo Island, facing northeast (PCI 2008).
A-3

Photograph 7. Flagged corners of stone foundation found within Survey Area 1/


MDS-2, facing southeast (PCI 2008).

Photograph 8. Northwest elevation of house ruin (foreground) within Survey Area


2/ MDS 3 (multiple structures), facing northeast. Barn ruin (background) is in
adjacent Survey Area 37 (PCI 2008).
A-4

Photograph 9. Southeast elevation of house ruin, facing northwest (PCI 2008).

Photograph 10. Typical shovel test having one stratum terminating on solid
bedrock (shown) or friable bedrock. STP 9.2 (Survey Area 2) shown (PCI 2008).
A-5

Photograph 11. Ash/debris layer found in STP 3.6 (Survey Area 2), terminating on
bedrock (PCI 2008).

Photograph 12. North elevation of mill foundation within Survey Area 3/MDS 3
(multiple structures), facing south (PCI 2008).
A-6

Photograph 13. Vegetation obscuring a chimney fall within the mill foundation,
facing northeast (PCI 2008).

Photograph 14. Bird-monitoring equipment within Survey Area 4/MDS 4, facing


south (PCI 2008).
A-7

Photograph 15. Field investigation within Survey Area 5/MDS 5, facing southwest.
Note former telephone line along south shore of the island dissecting the survey
area (PCI 2008).

Photograph 16. Field investigation within Survey Area 6/MDS 6, facing southeast
(PCI 2008).
A-8

Photograph 17. Field investigation within Survey Area 7, facing east. The area is
elevated approximately 15 ft above lake level (PCI 2008).

Photograph 18. South elevation of mill foundation within Survey Area 9/MDS 8,
facing northwest from edge of shoreline. West extent of Gill Harbor is visible at
the base of the foundation (PCI 2008).
A-9

Photograph 19. Possible tanker (note barrel-shaped construction), located 150 ft


west of mill foundation, facing west (PCI 2008).

Photograph 20. Survey Area 12/MDS 9 (multiple structures), located within tree
cluster at north end of Galloo Island, facing northeast (PCI 2008).
A-10

Photograph 21. Vegetation covering Survey Areas 10 and 11, facing northeast (PCI
2008).

Photograph 22. Exposed bedrock adjacent to southwest corner of Survey Area 19,

indicative of shallow soils within the APE, facing south (PCI 2008).

A-11

Photograph 23. Two 10-ft by 30-ft piles of cleared field stones found adjacent to
the north extent of Survey Area 20, facing west (PCI 2008).

Photograph 24. Rocky outcrop within Survey Area 24, facing west (PCI 2008).

A-12

Photograph 25. General locale of Survey Area 26 among agricultural fields located
at north end of Galloo Island, facing east. Elevation is a few feet above lake level
(PCI 2008).

Photograph 26. Survey Area 29 covered largely with swallow wort an invasive
vine-like species, facing east (PCI 2008).
A-13

Photograph 27. Cedar stumps from nineteenth-century foresting, facing southwest.


Locally referred to as the Stump Cemetery. Survey Area 32 is partially located
within this landscape feature (PCI 2008).

Photograph 28. View of low-lying ponds and terrain north of Survey Area 34,

situated on an elevated ridge at the north end of Galloo Island (PCI 2008).

A-14

Photograph 29. Belt-driven piece of agricultural machinery found within Survey


Area 34, facing east (PCI 2008).

Photograph 30. Rock piles found in Survey Area 35, located within an agricultural
field, facing north (PCI 2008).
A-15

Photograph 31. East elevation of an approximate 18-ft long stone foundation wall
within Survey Area 36, facing east. A graded airfield (mowed area) impacts west
portion of the former structure (PCI 2008).

Photograph 32. Telephone poles resting on concrete footers within Survey Area
36, facing northeast (PCI 2008).
A-16

Photograph 33. Northwest elevation of stone barn ruin, located within Survey Area
37, facing east (PCI 2008).

Photograph 34. Northeast elevation of barn ruin shown, facing south (PCI 2008).

A-17

Photograph 35. Survey Area 38: atypical patch of tall vegetation within a grove of
trees, facing southeast (PCI 2008).

Photograph 36. Fishermans shack located along west bank of North Pond, within
Survey Area 39, facing southwest (PCI 2008).
A-18

Photograph 37. Survey Area 39A, centered on a modern bottle dump located
approximately 300 feet south of the fishermans shack, facing west. Note dump is
located in a depression (PCI 2008).

Photograph 38. Detail of materials found in modern dump (PCI 2008).


A-19

Photograph 39. Additional shovel testing (Survey Area 40) conducted south of the
Club House to test for buried deposits near debris, facing north (PCI 2008).

Photograph 40. STP 40.3 (approximately 50-cm wide) which tested a rock-lined
anomaly, facing southwest (PCI 2008).
A-20

Appendix B

SHOVEL TEST LOG

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS FOR SHOVEL PROBE LOG

Soil Colors:
BL
BR
DK
GR
LT
V
YL

Black
Brown
Dark
Gray
Light
Very
Yellow

Soil Descriptions:
CL
LO
SA
SI

Clay
Loam
Sand
Silt

Comments:
NCM No Cultural Material

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
Survey Area 1
1.1
1
1.2
1
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.7
2.1
1
2.2
1
1
2.3
1
2.4
1
2.5
1
2.6
1
2.7
1
2.8
3.1
1
3.2
1
1
3.3
1
3.4
1
3.5
1
3.6
1
3.7
1
3.8
4.1
1
4.2
1
1
4.3
1
4.4
1
4.5
1
4.6
1
4.7
1
4.8

Depth
(cm)

Munsell

Soil Color

Soil
Description

0-27
0-22
0-25
0-30
0-28
0-23
0-42
0-29
0-33
0-26
0-29
0-23
0-18
0-24
0-31
0-28
0-31
0-36
0-27
0-28
0-23
0-28
0-25
0-26
0-27
0-24
0-27
0-25
0-23
0-21
0-17

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

4.9
4.10
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-18
0-10
0-20
20-29
0-24
0-34
0-50
0-30
0-27
0-24

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

5.8
5.9
5.9
5.10

1
1
2
1

0-27
0-28
28-37
0-30

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

5.11
5.11
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.2
6.3
6.3

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

0-19
19-30
0-21
21-28
0-21
21-29
0-22
22-33

10YR 3/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4

V DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO

B-1

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
metal; bone; reached bedrock
whiteware; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
metal fragment; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nail; reached bedrock
ceramics; glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nail; bone; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
whiteware; glass; nail;
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; excavation limit reached
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; metal band;
glass; reached bedrock
whiteware; nails; glass
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; screw; glass; reached bedrock
brick fragments; charcoal (all discarded); nails;
ceramics; glass (collected)
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
6.4
6.4
6.5
6.5
6.6
6.6
6.7
6.7
6.8

Stratum
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

Depth
(cm)
0-23
22-34
0-22
22-32
0-22
22-33
0-21
21-34
0-33

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO

6.9

0-32

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

6.10
6.11
6.12
7.1

1
1
1
1

0-29
0-20
0-14
0-24

2
1

24-34
0-24

CL LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

7.2
7.3

2
1

24-32
0-25

CL LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

7.3
7.4

2
1

25-33
0-26

CL LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

7.4
7.5

2
1

26-34
0-30

CL LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

7.5
7.6

2
1

30-39
0-31

CL LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

7.6

31-39

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

7.1
7.2

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2

Comments
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
nails; glass
NCM; reached bedrock
ceramics; glass; reached bedrock
brick and timber fragments (discarded);
ceramics; glass; nail; metal hook; metal strips;
spike (collected); reached bedrock
nails; ceramics; glass;
reached bedrock
nails; glass; reached bedrock
whiteware; reached bedrock
NCM

CL LO

7.7

0-14

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

7.8

0-25

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

7.9

0-21

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

7.10
7.11
7.12
8.1

1
1
1
1

0-22
0-21
0-17
0-21

2
1

21-41
0-22

CL LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM

8.2
8.3

2
1

22-38
0-22

CL LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM

8.3
8.4

2
1

22-37
0-26

CL LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM

8.4

26-42

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR

SI LO
SI
SI
SI LO

8.1
8.2

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/6

NCM; reached bedrock


brick fragments (discarded); nails;
glass; reached bedrock
STP falls inside foundation; dry cell
core; glass; nails; ceramics; spike;
button; metal strap; reached bedrock
STP falls inside foundation; ceramics; glass;
nails; reached bedrock
nails; bone; ceramics; glass;
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

CL LO

NCM

B-2

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
8.5

Stratum
1

Depth
(cm)
0-26

8.5
8.6

2
1

26-39
0-33

8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
9.1

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

33-40
0-8
0-12
0-10
0-32
0-6
0-21
0-22
0-24

9.1
9.1
9.2
9.2
9.3

2
3
1
2
1

24-38
38-43
0-31
31-42
0-23

9.3
9.4
9.5

2
1
1

23-33
0-27
0-26

9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

2
1
1
1

9.9
9.10
9.11

Soil
Description
SI LO

Comments
NCM

CL LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM; reached bedrock
nails; reached bedrock
nails; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; root impasse
metal ring; reached bedrock
NCM

CL LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


nails; metal button; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
bone; reached bedrock
nail; unidentified metal object;
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
unidentified metal objects;
bedrock reached
NCM; reached bedrock
whiteware

CL LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); metal piece with
nails; reached bedrock
NCM

26-37
0-40
0-24
0-11

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
BR
DK GR BR
BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

1
1
1

0-14
0-3
0-9

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

9.12
9.13
10.1

1
1
1

0-47
0-24
0-23

10.1
10.2

2
1

23-36
0-24

10.2
10.3
10.4
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12

2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

24-36
0-26
0-28
28-41
0-28
28-35
0-29
0-28
0-12
0-10
0-20
0-14
0-8

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

10.13
11.1

1
1

0-18
0-21

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SA SI

B-3

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test

Stratum

Depth
(cm)

11.1
11.2

2
1

21-36
0-20

11.2
11.3

2
1

20-32
0-25

11.3
11.4

2
1

25-35
0-23

11.4
11.5

2
1

23-33
0-20

11.5
11.6

2
1

20-31
0-15

11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
11.14
12.1

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

15-29
0-22
0-27
0-12
0-18
0-20
0-24
0-17
0-16
0-30

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.4
12.5
12.5
12.6
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
12.15
12.16
13.1
13.1
13.2
13.2
13.3
13.3
13.4
13.4

2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

30-37
0-30
0-21
21-33
0-28
28-40
0-22
22-34
0-21
21-32
0-21
0-28
28-44
0-17
0-21
0-17
17-24
0-19
0-12
0-17
0-32
0-18
0-30
30-41
0-31
31-37
0-24
24-34
0-26
26-34

Munsell
10YR 5/6
10YT 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YT 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YT 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YT 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YT 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YT 6/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/1
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/1
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4

Soil Color
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
LT BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR

Soil
Description

Comments

CL LO
SA SI

NCM
NCM

CL LO
SA SI

NCM
NCM

CL LO
SA SI

NCM
NCM

CL LO
SA SI

NCM
glass (discarded)

CL LO
SA SI

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

CL LO
SA SI
SA SI
SA SI
SA SI
SA SI
SA SI
SA SI
SA SI
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


spike fragment; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
ceramic lid; whiteware; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
whiteware; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO

NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
brick fragment (discarded)
NCM
NCM
NCM
nail
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
ceramics; glass
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock

B-4

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
1
13.5
2
13.5
1
13.6
2
13.6
1
13.7
2
13.7
1
13.8
1
13.9
1
13.10
1
13.11
1
13.12
1
13.13
1
13.14
1
13.15
1
13.16
1
13.17
Survey Area 2
1.1
1
1.2
1
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.7
2
1.8

Depth
(cm)
0-34
34-40
0-24
24-30
0-24
24-35
0-28
0-37
0-17
0-20
0-10
0-24
0-18
0-16
0-20
0-15

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

0-19
0-17
0-20
0-23
0-28
0-29
0-23
0-24

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

1.9
1.10
1.11
1.11
1.12
1.13
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-23
0-23
0-31
31-40
0-40
0-38
0-28
0-21
0-24
0-20
0-18
0-26
0-26
0-28
0-25
0-25
0-27
0-16
0-20
0-21
0-19
0-27
0-37
0-29
0-15

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

3.6
3.7

2
1

15-29
0-30

10YR 7/2
10YR 4/2

LT GR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI SA
w/ASH
SI LO

3.8
3.9

1
1

0-27
0-27

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO

B-5

Comments
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragment (discarded); glass
(collected); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails
NCM; reached bedrock
nail; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); reached bedrock
nails; glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; bone; ceramics; metal objects; glass
ceramics; glass; nails; metal objects; reached
bedrock
glass; ceramics; nails; reached bedrock
nails; glass; ceramics;
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-28
0-30
0-23
0-24
0-19
0-22
0-22
0-16
0-33
0-39
0-31

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.1
5.2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-44
0-39
0-30
0-27
0-26
0-33
0-15
0-17

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

5.3

0-21

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

5.4

0-19

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

5.5

0-20

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

5.6

0-29

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

5.7

0-20

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

5.8

0-17

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.1
6.2
6.3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-18
0-9
0-16
0-15
0-13
0-12
0-13
0-13

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

6.4

0-33

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

SI LO

6.5
6.6
6.7

1
1
1

0-11
0-31
0-22

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
7.1
7.2
7.3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-24
0-13
0-5
0-22
0-24
0-19
0-18
0-12
0-15

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-6

Comments
nails; metal; glass; reached bedrock
nails; glass; ceramics; reached bedrock
nails; glass; reached bedrock
nails; glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass; whiteware; reached bedrock
glass; whiteware; nails; reached bedrock
glass; whiteware; nails; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); glass;
whiteware (collected); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass; nails; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass; reached bedrock
bone; whiteware; nail fragments; reached
bedrock
gravel; staple; ceramics; glass;
reached bedrock
gravel; bone; ceramics; glass;
nails;metal object; reached bedrock
gravel; nails; screw; bullet case; reached
bedrock
gravel; bone; nails; shotgun shell base; glass;
metal objects; ceramics; reached bedrock
staples; bone; ceramics; nails;
glass; reached bedrock
wire, nail fragments; glass; ceramics; reached
bedrock
nails; metal object; reached bedrock
glass; reached bedrock
metal; nail; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock
brick; glass (both discarded);
reached bedrock
glass; bone; whiteware; tile; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; whiteware; glass;
metal; reached bedrock
NCM; gravel; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
7.4
7.5
7.6

Stratum
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-28
0-29
0-24

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/3

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
BR

7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-23
0-6
0-29
0-22
0-21
0-26
0-10
0-23
0-20
0-20
0-18

10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

8.4
8.5

2
1

18-25
0-14

10YR 7/2
10YR 4/2

LT GR
DK GR BR

8.5
8.5
8.6

2
3
1

14-21
21-30
0-13

10YR 7/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

LT GR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

8.6
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.8

2
3
1
1
2

13-19
19-31
0-28
0-25
25-36

10YR 7/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4

LT GR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR

8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-29
0-16
0-16
0-33
0-3
0-9
0-16
0-14

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

9.4

0-16

10YR 4/2

DK GR BR

9.4
9.4

2
3

16-23
23-30

10YR 7/2
10YR 4/2

LT GR
DK GR BR

9.5
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.7

1
1
2
3
1

0-21
0-6
6-18
18-38
0-20

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR

10YR 7/2
10YR 4/2

LT GR
DK GR BR

9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11

1
1
1
1

0-28
0-23
0-18
0-17

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

9.12
9.13
10.1

1
1
1

0-16
0-37
0-17

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
Comments
SI LO
NCM; gravel; reached bedrock
glass; nails; bone; ceramic; reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
nails; metal; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); nail, wood
(collected); reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
NCM; rock impasse
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
nail; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
glass; ceramics; reached bedrock
SI LO
glass; nails
SI SA
NCM; brick fragments from top of ash
w/ASH
layer (discarded); reached bedrock
glass; unidentified metal object; button; nails
SI LO
SI SA
w/ASH
NCM
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
bone; unidentified metal; wire; glass
SI SA
w/ASH
glass; nails
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; ceramics; glass; reached bedrock
SI LO
nails; glass; metal objects; bone; ceramics
SI LO
CL LO
NCM; reached bedrock
bone; metal objects; ceramics;
glass; nails; reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; metal hardware; reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI
NCM; reached bedrock
SI
NCM; reached bedrock
SI
brick fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
brick and nail fragments (discarded);
brick; nails; ironstone (collected)
SA SI
SI SA
w/ASH
NCM
SA SI
NCM; reached bedrock
glass (discarded); disturbed; gravel;
rock impasse
SA SI
SA SI
NCM
GRAVEL
NCM
SA SI
nails; charcoal; reached bedrock
animal bone; grave; at 8cm; reached bedrock
SA SI
glass; whiteware below 10cm; gravel; reached
bedrock
SA SI
yellowware; nails; bone; reached bedrock
SA SI
SA SI
NCM
SA SI
NCM
nails; bolt; washer; square nut
(all discarded); reached bedrock
SA SI
whiteware; bone; nail; reached bedrock
SA SI
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock

B-7

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
10.2

Stratum
1

Depth
(cm)
0-10

Munsell
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR

10.3
10.4
10.5

1
1
1

0-17
0-23
0-25

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

10.6
10.7

1
1

0-16
0-13

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR

10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12
13.13

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-21
0-24
0-15
0-10
0-17
0-23
0-24
0-23
0-20
0-28
0-22
0-28
0-37
0-19
0-40
0-32
0-25
0-28
0-22
0-15
0-13
0-16
0-19
0-17
0-13
0-15
0-11
0-6
0-7
0-16
0-18
0-13
0-16
0-11
0-19
0-20
0-10
0-11
0-18
0-16
0-36
0-24
0-30
0-19
0-12

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
Comments
SI LO
brick fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
whiteware, glass (collected); brick fragments
(discarded); reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
nails; nut and bolt; reached bedrock
glass; whiteware; metal reached bedrock
SI LO
glass; washer; whiteware;
reached bedrock
SI LO
nail; whiteware; reached bedrock
SI LO
glass (discarded); whiteware; nail fragments
(collected); reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
nails; button snap; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; rocks; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
glss; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
whiteware; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
nails; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
nails; glass; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
glass; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
bone (lost); reached bedrock
SI LO
glass (discarded); reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
whiteware; reached bedrock
rubber washer (discarded); reached bedrock
SI LO
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
nail; glass; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock

B-8

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
Survey Area 3
1.1
1
1.2
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.6
2
1.7
1
1.7
2
1.8
1
1.8
2
1.9
1
1.10
1
1.10
2
1.11
1
1.11
2
1.12
1
1.12
2
1.13
1
2.1
1
2.2
1
2.3
1
2.4
1
2.5
1
2.6
1

Depth
(cm)
0-33
0-17
0-23
0-16
0-17
0-18
18-24
0-27
27-30
0-20
20-23
0-24
0-17
17-20
0-21
21-27
0-10
10-14
0-23
0-32
0-26
0-28
0-17
0-18
0-16

Munsell

Soil Color

Soil
Description

Comments

DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

YL BR
V DK GR BR

SI CL
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

YL BR
V DK GR BR

SI CL
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI CL
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

YL BR
V DK GR BR

SI CL
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

YL BR
V DK GR BR

SI CL
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

YL BR
V DK GR BR

SI CL
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

YL BR

SI CL

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


square cut nail; metal nut; unidentified metal
strip; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

2.6
2.7

2
1

16-22
0-21

2.7
2.8

2
1

21-26
0-21

2.8
2.9
2.10

2
1
1

21-27
0-26
0-16

2.10
2.11

2
1

16-19
0-22

2.11
2.12

2
1

22-28
0-19

2.12
2.13

2
1

19-22
0-17

2.13

17-24

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-11
0-15
0-21
0-20
0-17
0-18
0-28
0-19
0-27

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

B-9

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13

Stratum
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-15
0-20
0-16
0-17

Munsell
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

Soil
Soil Color Description
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.8

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

0-30
0-36
0-35
0-26
0-26
0-28
0-28
28-30
0-19

28-30
0-25
0-28
0-19
0-19
0-40
40-43
0-37
37-38
0-26
26-33
0-25
0-20
0-19
0-30
0-13
0-30
0-15
0-20
0-21
0-15
0-7
0-31
0-17
0-24
0-24

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

4.8
4.9

2
1

19-28
0-28

4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.11
6.12
6.13

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-22
0-13
0-22
0-29
0-24
0-23
0-24
0-17
0-12

10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

V DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

7.1
7.2

1
1

0-15
0-23

10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1

V DK GR
V DK GR

LO
LO

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; metal hook; metal bands; reached
bedrock
nails; metal bands; glass; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

CL LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; metal fragments
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; metal fragments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; reached bedrock
nail fragments; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick & metal fragments (all discarded);
reached bedrock
nail; reached bedrock

B-10

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test

Stratum

Depth
(cm)

Munsell

Soil Color

Soil
Description

7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.7
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
8.1

1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

0-27
0-26
0-27
0-21
21-27
0-20
20-26
0-22
22-27
0-23
0-22
0-16
0-18
0-18
0-6

10YR 3/1
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/1
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/1
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/1
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

V DK GR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR
YL BR
V DK GR
YL BR
V DK GR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

8.2

0-36

10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR

SI LO

8.3
8.4

1
1

0-22
0-28

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO

8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

1
1
1
1

0-36
0-29
0-27
0-22

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

22-30
0-32
0-19
0-25
0-24
0-20
0-38
0-12
12-23
0-13

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
LT BR GR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR
V DK GR
DK YL BR
V DK GR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.2
9.3

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 6/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 4/4
10YR 3/1

CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI
SI
SI
SI

9.3

13-25

10YR 3/1

V DK GR

SI

9.4

0-33

10YR 3/1

V DK GR

SI

9.5
9.6
9.7

1
1
1

0-25
0-26
0-32

10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1

V DK GR
V DK GR
V DK GR

SI
SI
SI

9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
10.1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-27
0-26
0-19
0-28
0-21
0-20
0-21

10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/1
10YR 3/2

V DK GR
V DK GR
V DK GR
V DK GR
V DK GR
V DK GR
V DK GR BR

SI
SI
SI
SI
SI
SI
SI LO

10.2

0-20

10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR

SI LO

10.3

0-15

10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR

SI LO

B-11

Comments
glass; mortar (all discarded);
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nail; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NAIL; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
metal file; brick impasse
nail; metal fragments;
reached bedrock
metal bolt head; tin can fragment; reached
bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
metal band fragment;
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
nail; brick fragments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
building debris: nails, brick, window glass;
rocks; mortar; rock impasse
spike; glass; nails; iron fragments; reached
bedrock
nail (collected); brick and mortar (discarded);
stone foundation sitting on bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
10.4

Stratum
1

Depth
(cm)
0-16

Munsell
10YR 3/2

Soil
Soil Color Description
V DK GR BR
SI LO

10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

0-44
0-24
0-30
0-19
19-29
0-17
0-17
0-18
0-14
0-14

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

11.1

0-20

10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR

SI LO

11.2
11.3
11.3
11.4
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13

1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

0-24
0-24
24-26
0-24
24-27
0-25
0-14
0-20
0-18
0-20
20-21
0-20
0-19
0-14
0-13

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
LT BR GR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
13.1
13.2
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5

1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

0-23
0-19
0-26
26-28
0-25
0-20
0-24
24-26
0-19
0-17
0-21
21-23
0-20
0-16
0-19
0-16
0-30
30-42
0-28
0-24
0-24
0-23

2
1
1

23-27
0-21
0-29

V DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
PALE BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
PALE BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
PALE BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT BR GR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
LT BR GR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA SI
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

13.5
13.6
13.7

10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 6/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
brick & mortar fragments (discarded); reached
bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
washer; reached bedrock
square bolt; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded);
reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
ceramics, metal ring (collected); brick
fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); nail (collected)
NCM; reached bedrock
nails; glass (all discarded); reached bedrock
brick fragments (discarded); reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM

SI CL
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

B-12

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
13.8
1
13.9
1
13.10
1
13.11
1
13.12
1
13.13
1
Survey Area 4
1.1
1
1.2
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.7
1
1.8
1
1.9
1
1.10
1
1.11
1
1.12
1
1.13
1
2.1
1
2.2
1
2.3
1
2.4
1
2.5
1
2.6
1
2.7
1
2.8
1
2.9
1
2.10
1
2.11
1
2.12
1
2.13
1
3.1
1
3.2
1
3.3
1
3.4
1
3.5
1
3.6
1
3.7
1
3.8
1
3.9
1
3.10
1
3.11
1
3.12
1
3.13
1
4.1
1
4.2
1
4.3
1
4.4
1
4.5
1
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
1
4.10
1
4.11
1

Depth
(cm)
0-23
0-30
0-18
0-17
0-20
0-18

Munsell
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2

0-16
0-11
0-11
0-15
0-12
0-7
0-13
0-21
0-9
0-5
0-6
0-14
0-15
0-23
0-21
0-10
0-22
0-13
0-18
0-11
0-11
0-18
0-12
0-8
0-7
0-6
0-16
0-16
0-21
0-12
0-22
0-14
0-26
0-7
0-21
0-14
0-20
0-11
0-4
0-13
0-6
0-15
0-19
0-20

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

0-24
0-33
0-21

Soil
Soil Color Description
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
not excavated due to scientific equipment
not excavated due to scientific equipment
not excavated due to scientific equipment
10YR 4/2
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
10YR 4/2
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
10YR 4/2
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock

B-13

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
4.12
4.13
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.3

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-19
0-13
0-18
0-17
0-18
0-15
0-10

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-17
0-12
0-12
0-13
0-26
0-16
0-14
0-17
0-12
0-15

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0-16
0-19
0-12
0-20
0-15
0-22
0-13
0-20
0-20
0-17
0-16
0-10
0-12
0-17
0-12
0-10
0-19
0-9
0-6
0-12
0-15
0-19
0-14
0-15
0-15
0-10
0-15
0-14
0-13
0-9
0-12
0-14
0-13
0-17

10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil
Soil Color Description
Comments
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
not excavated due to scientific equipment
not excavated due to scientific equipment
not excavated due to scientific equipment
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
not excavated due to scientific equipment
not excavated due to scientific equipment
not excavated due to scientific equipment
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached friable bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached friable bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached friable bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached friable bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock
DK GR BR
SI LO
NCM; reached bedrock

B-14

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-17
0-20
0-16
0-17
0-6
0-18
0-15
0-9
0-18
0-19
0-12
0-13
0-12
0-8
0-15
0-15
0-16
0-14
0-6
0-8
0-8
0-13
0-15
0-5
0-14
0-10
0-12
0-7
0-12
0-12
0-19
0-16
0-3
0-22
0-15
0-16
0-17
0-19
0-10
0-12
0-8
0-15
0-17
0-13
0-22
0-18
0-12
0-19
0-5
0-24
0-22
0-13
0-26
0-22
0-24
0-15
0-14

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-15

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
13.9
1
13.10
1
13.11
1
13.12
1
13.13
1
Survey Area 5
1.1
1
1.2
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.7
1
1.8
1
1.8
2
1.9
1
1.10
1
1.11
1
1.12
1
1.12
2
1.13
1
1.13
2
2.1
1
2.2
1
2.3
1
2.4
1
2.5
1
2.6
1
2.7
1
2.8
1
2.9
1
2.9
2
2.10
1
2.11
1
2.11
2
2.12
1
2.12
2
2.13
1
2.13
2
3.1
1
3.2
1
3.2
2
3.3
1
3.4
1
3.5
1
3.6
1
3.7
1
3.8
1
3.9
1
3.10
1
3.10
2
3.11
1
3.12
1
3.12
2
3.13
1
4.1
1
4.2
1

Depth
(cm)
0-23
0-21
0-22
0-11
0-15

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

0-22
0-17
0-10
0-15
0-18
0-13
0-15
0-28
28-40
0-26
0-30
0-24
0-24
24-35
0-25
25-35
0-21
0-22
0-20
0-12
0-13
0-18
0-23
0-22
0-30
30-40
0-24
0-28
28-40
0-30
30-41
0-32
32-45
0-18
0-30
30-33
0-22
0-21
0-22
0-14
0-18
0-14
0-27
0-29
29-48
0-27
0-26
26-39
0-24
0-28
0-18

10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
GR BR
V DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SA CL
SA LO
SA LO
SA CL
SA LO
SA CL
SA LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; bedrock reached


NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached

B-16

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.10
4.11
4.11
4.12
4.12
4.13
4.13
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.10
5.11
5.11
5.12
5.12
5.13
5.13
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.10
6.11
6.11
6.12
6.12
6.13
6.13
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-31
0-19
0-33
0-24
0-28
0-30
0-32
0-38
38-48
0-31
31-41
0-30
30-34
0-40
40-50
0-25
0-26
26-37
0-21
0-22
0-17
0-16
0-23
0-22
0-23
0-23
23-26
0-28
28-40
0-30
30-40
0-26
26-36
0-20
0-11
0-16
0-14
0-15
0-26
0-20
0-19
0-31
0-26
26-40
0-29
29-39
0-38
38-48
0-26
26-38
0-11
0-14
0-28
0-21
0-19
0-23
0-10

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-17

Comments
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; friable bedrock reached
NCM; friable bedrock reached
NCM; friable bedrock reached

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.11
7.12
7.12
7.13
7.13
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.11
8.12
8.12
8.13
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.11
9.12
9.12
9.13
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
11.1
11.2

Stratum
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-18
0-18
0-20
0-22
22-34
0-24
24-37
0-26
26-36
0-25
25-35
0-14
0-21
0-20
0-22
0-16
0-18
0-20
0-22
22-25
0-21
0-35
35-45
0-32
32-38
0-35
35-46
0-19
0-17
0-21
0-19
0-24
0-24
0-18
0-16
0-16
0-23
0-30
30-40
0-29
29-39
0-28
0-14
0-32
0-19
0-34
0-17
0-18
0-26
0-30
0-42
0-50
0-39
0-35
0-37
0-12
0-18

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/3
10YR 4/6
10YR 4/1
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/1
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
BR
DK YL BR
DK GR
BR
DK GR
BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-18

Comments
NCM; friable bedrock reached
NCM; friable bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; excavation limit reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
11.2
2
11.3
1
11.4
1
11.5
1
11.5
2
11.6
1
11.7
1
11.8
1
11.9
1
11.10
1
11.11
1
11.12
1
11.12
2
11.13
1
12.1
1
12.2
1
12.3
1
12.4
1
12.5
1
12.6
1
12.7
1
12.8
1
12.9
1
12.10
1
12.11
1
12.12
1
12.12
2
12.13
1
13.1
1
13.2
1
13.3
1
13.3
2
13.4
1
13.5
1
13.5
2
13.6
1
13.7
1
13.8
1
13.9
1
13.9
2
13.10
1
13.11
1
13.12
1
13.13
1
13.13
2
Survey Area 6
1.1
1
1.1
2
1.2
1
1.2
2
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.4
2
1.5
1
1.5
2
1.6
1
1.7
1

Depth
(cm)
18-20
0-10
0-21
0-23
23-26
0-30
0-20
0-18
0-15
0-30
0-18
0-30
30-40
0-31
0-17
0-24
0-15
0-11
0-20
0-12
0-26
0-17
0-19
0-15
0-27
0-25
25-35
0-29
0-17
0-18
0-21
21-26
0-18
0-23
23-30
0-23
0-28
0-24
0-24
24-31
0-28
0-27
0-36
0-37
37-47

Munsell
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/6

Soil Color
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR

Soil
Description
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

Comments
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM; bedrock reached
NCM
NCM; bedrock reached

0-14
14-30
0-17
17-31
0-23
0-17
17-29
0-15
15-32
0-27
0-14

10YR 4/2
10YR 6/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
PALE BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock

B-19

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.13
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.9
3.10
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
20
0-14
14-31
0-24
0-22
0-7
0-12
12-21
0-22
22-36
0-31
31-40
0-30
30-36
0-22
0-34
0-32
0-27
0-28
0-27
0-24
0-30
0-29
0-17
0-30
30-40
0-20
20-30
0-24
0-21
21-32
0-20
20-30
0-20
20-28
0-18
18-29
0-20
0-19
19-28
0-25
25-36
0-26
0-15
0-27
0-22
22-34
0-25
25-40
0-21
0-22
22-34
0-21
0-19
0-23
0-21
0-20

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-20

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
4.10
4.11
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.1
6.2
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.4
8.4

Stratum
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2

Depth
(cm)
0-19
0-23
23-34
0-15
0-24
0-26
26-39
0-26
26-30
0-25
25-31
0-17
0-16
0-24
24-30
0-19
0-23
0-22
22-26
0-23
0-22
0-18
0-23
0-32
0-20
20-35
0-22
0-19
0-22
0-28
0-28
0-32
0-23
0-28
0-17
0-19
0-16
0-31
0-28
0-28
0-23
0-20
0-18
0-18
0-16
0-23
0-15
0-18
0-26
0-25
0-16
16-26
0-36
0-23
23-36
0-16
16-35

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
PALE BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
CL SI
SI LO
SI CL

B-21

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.2
9.3
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
10.1
10.1
10.2
10.2
10.3
10.3
10.4
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
11.1
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.4
11.5
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-24
0-24
0-25
0-17
0-16
0-12
0-15
0-16
0-16
0-21
0-23
23-38
0-22
22-33
0-30
0-31
0-37
0-14
0-22
0-18
0-28
0-28
0-20
0-21
0-30
30-38
0-27
27-31
0-31
31-43
0-33
33-38
0-33
33-35
0-25
0-17
0-25
0-19
0-21
0-19
0-20
0-18
0-21
21-35
0-33
0-13
0-31
31-43
0-26
26-39
0-24
0-33
0-32
0-30
0-30
0-33
0-27

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/6
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 6/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
LT YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-22

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
11.13
1
12.1
1
12.1
2
12.2
1
12.2
2
12.3
1
12.4
1
12.4
2
12.5
1
12.6
1
12.7
1
12.8
1
12.9
1
12.10
1
12.11
1
12.12
1
12.13
1
13.1
1
13.2
1
13.3
1
13.3
2
13.4
1
13.5
1
13.5
2
13.6
1
13.7
1
13.8
1
13.9
1
13.10
1
13.11
1
13.12
1
13.13
1
Survey Area 7
1.1
1
1.1
2
1.2
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.7
1
1.8
1
1.9
1
1.10
1
1.11
1
1.12
1
1.13
1
2.1
1
2.2
1
2.3
1
2.4
1
2.5
1
2.6
1
2.7
1
2.8
1
2.9
1
2.10
1

Depth
(cm)
0-29
0-12
21-25
0-22
22-32
0-35
0-32
32-45
0-22
0-23
0-23
0-14
0-13
0-13
0-14
0-20
0-13
0-12
0-27
0-26
26-39
0-34
0-24
24-35
0-31
0-12
0-24
0-24
0-20
0-25
0-19
0-31

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SA CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

0-18
18-24
0-19
0-24
0-28
0-26
0-17
0-17
0-21
0-12
0-22
0-17
0-17
0-14
0-20
0-17
0-14
0-17
0-16
0-13
0-16
0-19
0-17
0-12

10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

B-23

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
7.1
7.2

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-15
0-20
0-21
0-35
0-25
0-31
0-27
0-25
0-28
0-23
0-13
0-21
0-29
0-26
0-21
0-17
0-21
0-20
0-25
0-28
0-18
0-13
0-18
0-10
0-21
0-21
0-20
0-23
0-22
0-22
0-19
0-15
0-16
0-17
0-17
0-17
0-14
0-35
0-31
0-27
0-16
0-10
0-18
0-16
0-13
0-13
0-14
0-13
0-18
0-17
0-15
0-18
0-20
0-19
0-11
0-25
0-20

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil
Soil Color Description
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO

B-24

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-14
0-11
0-18
0-23
0-19
0-14
0-21
0-23
23-28
0-22
0-21
0-16
0-18
0-40
0-10
0-11
0-14
0-18
0-10
0-15
0-23
0-26
0-15
0-29
0-31
0-23
0-44
0-27
0-23
0-14
0-31
0-13
0-31
0-30
0-27
0-24
0-29
0-27
0-25
0-23
0-17
0-26
0-15
0-4
0-23
0-15
0-16
0-25
0-23
0-21
0-29
0-26
0-19
0-17
0-18
0-40
0-7

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-25

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
11.7
1
11.8
1
11.9
1
11.10
1
11.11
1
11.12
1
11.13
1
12.1
1
12.2
1
12.3
1
12.4
1
12.5
1
12.6
1
12.7
1
12.8
1
12.9
1
12.10
1
12.11
1
12.12
1
12.13
1
13.1
1
13.2
1
13.3
1
13.4
1
13.5
1
13.6
1
13.7
1
13.8
1
13.9
1
13.10
1
13.11
1
13.12
1
13.13
1
Survey Area 8
1.1
1
1.1
2
1.2
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.4
2
1.5
1
1.5
2
1.6
1
1.6
2
1.7
1
1.7
2
1.8
1
1.9
1
1.10
1
1.11
1
1.12
1
1.12
2
1.13
1
2.1
1
2.2
1
2.3
1
2.4
1

Depth
(cm)
0-26
0-26
0-21
0-24
0-18
0-23
0-26
0-24
0-20
0-9
0-18
0-13
0-19
0-12
0-28
0-18
0-18
0-21
0-20
0-18
0-15
0-23
0-18
0-15
0-18
0-9
0-16
0-21
0-23
0-17
0-23
0-12
0-25

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

0-15
15-30
0-15
0-18
0-14
14-19
0-15
15-22
0-15
15-25
0-18
18-25
0-33
0-21
0-17
0-16
0-16
16-22
0-20
0-17
0-20
0-13
0-19

10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

V DK GR BR
YL BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
V DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

B-26

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.1

Stratum
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-12
0-14
14-29
0-20
20-24
0-18
18-29
0-22
0-26
0-25
0-26
0-17
0-15
0-10
0-12
0-11
0-24
24-34
0-20
20-23
0-21
0-28
0-20
0-21
0-25
0-17
0-24
0-23
0-24
0-22
0-24
0-26
0-18
18-26
0-15
15-23
0-16
16-33
0-36
0-29
0-35
0-27
0-23
0-15
0-10
0-8
0-13
0-8
0-15
0-11
0-20
0-15
0-20
0-26
0-23
0-19
0-11

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 3/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil
Soil Color Description
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
CL LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
CL LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
CL LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
CL LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
CL LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
YL BR
SI LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
SI LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
YL BR
SI LO
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
V DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR
SI LO
DK GR BR

B-27

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.12
6.13
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.12
7.13
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.11
8.12
8.12
8.13
8.13
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11

Stratum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-21
0-15
0-20
0-14
0-17
0-17
0-18
18-20
0-16
0-20
20-23
0-13
0-20
20-22
0-17
0-12
0-9
0-13
0-12
0-13
0-17
0-11
0-20
0-16
0-7
7-17
0-23
0-15
15-23
0-23
0-20
0-17
17-16
0-20
0-15
0-17
0-13
0-15
0-17
0-16
0-15
15-31
0-17
17-23
0-17
17-27
0-16
0-19
0-14
0-17
0-13
0-15
0-20
0-19
0-14
0-15
0-14

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI CL
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-28

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; root impasse
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
9.12
9.12
9.13
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.10
12.11
12.11
12.12
12.12
12.13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12

Stratum
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Depth
(cm)
0-20
20-22
0-15
0-18
0-12
0-16
0-17
0-17
0-17
0-18
0-8
0-15
0-17
0-10
0-22
0-7
0-23
0-18
0-22
0-12
0-16
0-19
0-16
0-14
0-11
0-9
0-16
0-15
0-14
0-24
0-22
0-15
0-26
0-23
0-27
0-25
0-30
0-26
0-20
20-27
0-25
25-28
0-24
24-32
0-33
0-22
0-23
0-17
0-16
0-23
0-18
0-11
0-13
0-18
0-19
0-20
0-12

Munsell
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO
CL LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

B-29

Comments
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock

Shovel Test Log for Hounsfield Wind Farm Phase IB


Shovel
Test
Stratum
13.13
1
Survey Area 9
1.1
1
1.2
1
1
1.3
1
1.4
1
1.5
1
1.6
1
1.7
2
1.7
1
1.8
2
1.9
1
1.10
1
1.11
2.1
1
2.2
1
1
2.3
1
2.4
1
2.5
1
2.6
2
2.6
1
2.7
2
2.7
1
2.8
2
2.8
1
2.9
1
2.10
1
2.11
2
2.11
3.1
1
3.2
1
1
3.3
1
3.4
1
3.5
1
3.6
2
3.6
1
3.7
1
3.8
1
3.9
1
3.10
1
3.11
4.1
1
4.2
1
1
4.3
1
4.4
1
4.5
1
4.6
1
4.7
1
4.8
1
4.9
1
4.10
1
4.11
5.1
1
5.2
1
1
5.3
1
5.4
1
5.5

Depth
(cm)
0-18

Munsell
10YR 4/2

Soil Color
DK GR BR

Soil
Description
SI LO

Comments
NCM; reached bedrock

0-13
0-8
0-2
0-20
0-7
0-23
0-25
25-36
0-30
0-24
0-17
0-21
0-18
0-17
0-20
0-19
0-2
0-19
19-25
0-38
38-49
0-27
27-35
0-30
0-26
0-23
23-34
0-20
0-12
0-24
0-21
0-3
0-25
25-37
0-56
0-31
0-19
0-25
0-26
0-15
0-13
0-12
0-8
0-5
0-16
0-23
0-24
0-18
0-17
0-9
0-20
0-18
0-16
0-8
0-11

10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/3
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 5/4
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2
10YR 4/2

BR
BR
BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
YL BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR
DK GR BR

SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SA LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO
SI LO

NCM; reached bedrock


NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; exposed bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached bedrock
NCM; reached be