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RELIGION

AND
SPIRITUALITY
SPIRITUALITY VS RELIGION
SPIRITUALITY
BEYOND THE MATERIAL;
TRANSCENDENTAL
SEEING A SACRED FORCE IN ALL
THINGS
BELIEVING/VALUING A REALITY
BEYOND
THE PHYSICAL WORLD
RELIGION
SYSTEM OF BELIEFS AND PRACTICES
THAT NURTURE A RELATIONSHIP

WITH A SUPREME BEING


RELIGION AND AFRICAN AMERICANS-THE NEW
WORLD
CAME WITH SPIRITUALITY/NEED FOR
RELIGION
CHRISTIANITY USED TO FILL SPIRITUAL
VOID
AS A MEANS OF SOCIAL CONTROL
I.E., TO KEEP COMPLIANT AND
DOCILE
ALSO, USED TO COMMUNICATE HIDDEN
MESSAGES
AND

TO GAIN A SENSE OF RESPECT,


SENSE OF BEING IN CONTROL

SOME AFRICANS [~ 200,000] CAME WITH


MUSLIM BACKGROUND; WHICH WAS
LATER
SUPPLANTED BY CHRISTIANITY [OF
WHITES]
REVIVED AMONG BLACKS IN AMERICA
CIRCA 1913
WHY?
ESP ATTRACTIVE TO MEN IN
ADDRESSING
AND

COMMUNITYS ECONOMIC NEEDS,


MENS SOCIAL ROLES IN

COMMUNITY
CURRENTLY, MUSLIMS MOST DIVERSE
RELIGION
IN U. S.; INCLUDES BLACKS, WHITES,
ASIANS,
AS WELL AS IMMIGRANTS FROM
AFRICA, ASIA,
EASTERN EUROPE, AND MIDDLE EAST

SHARED FEATURESAFRICAN TRADITIONAL


RELIGION

AND CHRISTIANITY
MONOTHEISTIC BELIEF SYSTEM
BELIEF IN CREATOR
BELIEF THAT SOUL IS IMMORTAL
TOLERANCE OF OTHR BELIEF SYSTEMS
SINGING, DRUMMING, DANCING
POSSESSION BY GODS
SPIRITUALITY PERMEATING ALL ASPECTS
OF LIFE
RELIGION PROVIDES A MORAL CODE
HUMAN RESPONSIBLE FOR FALL FROM
GRACE
HUMAN CAN RECONCILE WITH CREATOR
AND GAIN SALVATION
UNIQUE TO TRADITIONAL AFRICAN RELIGIONS
GOD AND DIVINITIES OR OBJECTS

INHABITED
BY SPIRITUAL BEINGS; BELIEF IN
SPIRIT BEINGS
I.E., WORSHIP DIRECTED AT SUCH
OBJECTS
HUMAN FULFILLMENT IN THIS WORLD;
LITTLE
CONCERN WITH AFTERLIFE
BELIEF IN ANCESTORSHAVING SPECIAL
POWERS
IN AFTERLIFE
BELIEF IN MAGIC/SUPERNATURAL FOR
GOOD/BAD
BELIEF THAT MEDICINE ASSOC WITH
RELIGION
COMMUNALISMNO SEPARATION OF
INDIVIDUAL
FROM COMMUNITYS RELIGION [NO
ATHEISTS]

RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES/DEMOGRAPHICS OF
AAS
GREATER RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT BY:
WOMEN
OLDER PERSONS
MARRIEDS
MORE EDUCATED
SOUTHERNERS
ACTIVITIES
MORE READING OF RELIGIOUS
MATERIALS
MORE LISTENING TO RELIGIOUS
BROADCASTS
MORE PRAYING
GREATER CHURCH ATTENDANCE

LONGER CHURCH SERVICES


COMMUNITY RELIGIOUS
CHARACTERISTICS
PASTOR SEEN AS IMP LEADER OF
COMMUNITY
MOSTLY PROTESTANT/MOSTLY
BAPTIST
SPOUSES LIKELY IN SAME
DENOMINATION
MORE LIKELY TO BE IN SOUTH
HIGHER REPRESENTATION OF
FEMALES
LIKELY

LEAST LIKELY TO BE MARRIED/MORE


TO BE DIVORCED

ACCT FOR: 22% JEHOVAHS


WITNESSES;

24% MUSLIMS IN U. S.
CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN AMERICAN
CHURCHES
CHURCH 2ND ONLY TO FAMILY IN
IMPORTANCE
VIEWED AS MEMBER OF EXTENDED FAMILY
IS THE CENTERPIECE OF AFRICAN
AMERICAN
COMMUNITY
WAS/IS AT CENTER OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND
POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
CAN SERVE AS SOURCE OF CONFLICT
WHEN
CLASH OF CHURCH AND
INDIVIDUAL
VALUES [E.G., HOMOSEXUALITY]
TRADITIONALLY LED BY MEN [PASTORS,

DEACONS]
WOMEN

THOUGH LARGELY COMPOSED OF


AND CHILDREN

WOMEN HANDLE MOST OF CHURCH


ACTIVITIES
BENEFITS
SPIRITUAL BELIEFS, RELIGIOUS
PRACTICES
SERVE AS COPING MECHANISMS
WHEN
FACED WITH ADVERSITYALLOWS
FOR
POSITIVE REFRAMING OF LIFE AND
SUFFERING

SPIRITUALITY USED TO SUPPORT


MENTAL
HEALTH NEEDS THROUGH:
DISAPPROVAL OF DRUG USE
HIGHER SELF-ESTEEM
LESS AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
PHYSICAL HEALTH ATTITUDES
EXISTING ISSUES
CHURCH INSTEAD OF MENTAL HEALTH
SERVICES
EXPERIENCE OF DEPRESSIONstoping OF
SPIRITUAL PRACTICES/SEEKING

COUNSELING
RELIGION AS ADDICTION
OPENNESS TO HOMOSEXUALITY
CHURCH AS OPPRESSOR AND LIBERATOR
DISCONNECT BETWEEN CHURCH
ATTENDANCE
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
MARRIAGE
PREMARITAL BIRTHS