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Digital Modulation Techniques
Iwao Sasase
Department of Information and
Computer Science, Keio University
http://www.sasase.ics.keio.ac.jp
Email:sasase@ics.keio.ac.jp
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Digital Modulation Techniques
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
M (Multi)-ASK ,M-FSK, M-PSK
QPSK, À /4shift QPSK
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) and GMSK
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Waveform and Spectrum
Baseband pulse waveform has low
frequency components
By modulating the carrier
depending on the input
data, we can transmit the
data in RF frequency
-T/2 T/2 0
V
T
time
Frequency
1/T 2/T 3/T 0
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
S
p
e
c
t
r
u
m
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Principle of Modulation
Depending on the information of the baseband signal,
amplitude, frequency or phase of the carrier is
changed.
t
c
e cos
Modulat ion
c
t A t S e cos ) ( ) ( = amplit ude
f requency
t t t S
c
)} ( cos{ ) ( e e + =
phase )} ( cos{ ) ( t t t S
c
o e + =
t
c
e cos
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Classification of Modulation
Techniques
Anal og
Modul at i on
Di gi t al
Modul at i on
AM (Amplitude Modulation)
FM (Fr equency Modulation)
PM (Phase Modulation)
ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying)
FSK (Fr equency Shift Keying)
PSK (Phase Shift Keying)
QAM (Quadr atur e Amplitude
Modulation )
) (t A
) (t o
) (t e
) (t A
) (t A
) (t e
) (t o
) (t o
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t f a(t)cos2π (t) S
c ASK
=
) (t a amplitude
c
l carrier frequency
ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying)
Accomplished by changing an amplitude of carrier,
depending on the input digital signal
ASK is also called as “On-Off-Keying”

In binary signal case (2ASK),
a(t) is either “1” or “0”.
Carrier becomes “on” and “off”
In binary signal case (2ASK),
a(t) is either “1” or “0”.
Carrier becomes “on” and “off”
Binary OOK modulation waveform
2
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Non-Coherent Detection
Envelope Detection of ASK
Bandpass
filter
Rectifier
Lowpass
Filter
Decision
Th
Threshold Voltage
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Coherent detection
Coherent Detection of ASK
Bandpass
Filter
Carrier
Recovery
Circuit
Lowpass
Filter
Decision
Threshold Voltage
t e cos
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FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)
Accomplished by changing an instantaneous
Frequency, depending on the input digital signal
) 2 cos(
) 2 cos(
{ ) (
2 2
1 1
o t
o t
+
+
=
t l A
t l A
t S
FSK
v v v v
Input waveform
FSK
Binary FSK modulation waveform
Carrier frequency f
ÿ
and
f
2
respond to “1” and
“0”, respectively
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PSK (Phase Shift Keying)
Accomplished by changing a phase of carrier,
Depending on the input digital signal
ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ
QeR›lâ _b
PSK
Binary PSK modulation waveform
) t f cos(2 π (t) S
c PSK i
A o + = A amplitude
i
o phase
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SNR (Signal-to-noise ratio in dB)
ÿ ÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ
ÿÿ
ÿ ÿ
ÿÿ
ÿ ÿ
ÿÿ
ÿ ÿ
ÿÿ
ÿ ÿ
ÿÿ
ÿ ÿ
ÿÿ
ÿ ÿ
B
E
R

(
b
i
t

e
r
r
o
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r
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e
)



P
e PSKÿcoherentÿ
ASKÿcoherentÿ
FSKÿcoherentÿ
PSKÿdifferentialÿ
FSKÿnoncoherentÿ
ASKÿnoncoherentÿ
Error Performance
2 / 1
0
) 4 / (
2
1
X F er lc l
e
= ASK
2 / 1
0
) / (
2
1
X F er lc l
e
= PSK
2 / 1
0
)
2
(
2
1
X
F
er lc l
e
=
FSK
Bit error probability
Bit error probability
erfc ÿ complement ar y error function
E ÿ ener gy per bi t
N
ÿ
ÿ power spect rum densi ty ( psd) of noise
BER Performance
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PSK has better power and frequency efficiencies
compared to ASK and FSK
PSK achieves small bit error rate (BER) for the same C/N
ÿ carrier-noise ratio)
PSK has constant envelope (no information in amplitude ),
and is robust to time-varying fading channel.
PSK is popularly used in many communication systems
such as satellite and mobile communication systems.
Characteristic of PSK
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MASK refers to ASK that transmit
more bits by using multilevel
amplitude a(t) of baseband
waveform. MASK is usually called
as Multilevel ASK, or MASK.
where l=log
2
Vbits of
information are transmitted by
using M-level amplitude.
Multilevel Amplitude Shift KeyingÿM-ASKÿ
In MASK, band, 1/k of occupancy bandwidth can be conserved
while transmitting k bit information. That is, by using multilevel
amplitude, the bit rate can be increased without the bandwidth
expansion. Larger transmission power is required.
Waveform of MASK signal
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0
l
0
l
0
l
v-ary PSK ÿ-ary PSK
ÿÿ-ary PSK
Phase allocation of MPSK signal
In MPSK, signal amplitude is constant. Each signal
constellation point is placed on the circumference where
the center equals to origin.
Multi-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK)
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Quadrature PSK (QPSK)
Serial/Parallel
×
cosÉ t
x
sinÉ t
QPSK modulator
The transmitter consists of two quadrature modulation components
cosÉ tand sinÉ t to transmit 2 bits/symbol
+
± ÿ
± ÿ
± ÿ
Input data
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QPSK Modulator
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QPSK Demodulation
ÿQuadrature Detectionÿ
BPF
LPF ×
cosÉ t
In-phase component
LPF ×
sinÉ t
Quadrate component
QPSK receiver
Signal phase ÿ° ÿÿ° ÿÿÿ° ÿÿÿ°
LPF input ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ
Signal phase ÿ° ÿÿ° ÿÿÿ° ÿÿÿ°
LPF input ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ
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Quadrature Detection
In quadrature detection, for symbol detection, plus and minus
of in-phase and quadrate components can be decided independently.
Quadrateÿ0v
la-µ|a sevl v
QPSK
Quadrateÿ0v
In-phaseÿl v
Quadrature detection of
cos component
Decision
boundary
ÿÿÿÿÿ
ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿ
ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ
ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿ ÿÿ
4
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A /4 shift QPSK
adopted in mobile phoneÿ PDCÿ
2bits/symbol
8 signal points are allocated
on the circumference
In each symbol transmission, QPSK
signal points are shifted by À /4.
Since there are no phase transition
crossing origin, the signal envelope
does not become zero, and thus,
envelope fluctuation is smaller
compared to the conventional QPSK.
Q
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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM )
QAM changes both amplitude and phase.
Quadrature multilevel ASK using two orthogonal carriers
ÿ sin and cos ÿ of the same frequency
) 2 sin(
2
) 2 cos(
2
) (
min min
t l |
1
F
t l a
1
F
t s
c i
s
c i
s
0AV
t t + =
V i 1 t ,....., 2 , 1 0 0 0 0 0 = s s
16QAM signal points
16QAM
4bits/symbol
Compared to QPSK, frequency
efficiency is improved to be
double.
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Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
1 l l 1 l l
c c
4 / 1 , 4 / 1
2 1
÷ = + = 0 0
MSK is continuous phase FSK with minimum
frequency shift

+ ÷ =
l
|
0 c
|
|
VSK
1
t
t n t n t l
1
F
t s o
t
t
2
) ( ) ( 2 cos
2
) (
Feature of MSK
0û continuous phase FSK with constant envelope
0û digital FM with modulation index 0.5
0û good spectral efficiency
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Input NRZ (Non-Return to Zero) pulse sequence is band-limited
by Gaussian LPF.
Gaussian Filtered MSK (GMSK)
Gaussian
Low pass
filter
FM transmitter with
modulation index 0.5
GMSK Output
NRZ Data
GMSK transmitter
GMSK has advantages of MSK, and achieves narrow spectrum.
0ûGSMÿ Global System for Mobile Communicationÿ
0ûDECT (Digital European Cordless Telecommunication)
0ûCT2
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Configuration of MSK and
GMSK Modulator
Modulation exponent=0.5
Configuration of MSK and GMSK
Gaussian
Filter
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Power Spectral of GMSK and MSK
P
o
w
e
r

S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

[
d
B
]
Nor malized frequency fT
Power spectr al of GMSK and MSK
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Error rates characteristic of
GMSK and MSK
B
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E
r
r
o
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R
a
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e
B
i
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E
r
r
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r

R
a
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e
Signal-noise ratio [dB]
(a) Error rates of GMSK
B
i
t

E
r
r
o
r

R
a
t
e
Signal-noise ratio [dB]
(b) Error rates of MSK
Er ror rates characteristic of GMSK and MSK

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