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Raphson load flow method

Pudi Sekhar

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela, India

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela, India

aspects, where the proper action needs to be taken by the

operational engineers for the unseen contingency. Therefore the

contingency analysis is key for the power system security. The

contingency ranking using the performance index is a method for

the line outages in a power system, which ranks the highest

performance index line first and proceeds in a descending

manner based on the calculated PI for all the line outages. This

helps to take the prior action to keep the system secure. In the

present work the Newton Raphson load flow method is used for

the power system contingency ranking for the line outage based

on the Active power and Voltage performance index. The

ranking is given by considering the overall performance index,

which is the summation of Active power and voltage performance

index. The proposed method is tested on a standard-5 bus system

Keywords Power system security; Contingency ranking;

Newton -Raphson method; Performance index

I.

INTRODUCTION

point of view of power system operation and planning. The

Security assessment is necessary for the power system

operational engineers and its importance is presented in [1-2]

The Security assessment is the process of identifying the

operating limits violation, where it helps in taking prior steps to

keep the system secure. It provides the system condition and

behavior under possible contingencies. Therefore the

information obtained can be used for secure operation and

planning. The Power system is a complex network consisting

of numerous equipments. The failure of any of the equipment

during its operation harms the reliability of the system and

hence leading to the outages, which influences the security of

the power system.

The application of AC power flow methods in outage cases

have been discussed by authors in [3]. In Ref. [4-5], the

authors presented how the line flows is influenced for generator

and line outages using distribution factors. In [6] the authors

discussed how the computational problems can be reduced for

contingency screening using the complete bounding method.

For contingency evaluation the authors in [7] introduced the

method of concentric relaxation. For quick power flow

solutions, the zero mismatch method is proposed in [8]. The

selection of weighting coefficients for performance indices for

contingency ranking has been presented in [9].The combination

contingency ranking has been presented in [10]. The authors in

[11] discussed the methods available for contingency screening

and ranking. The use of an iterative method to calculate Eigen

values under outage condition for contingency ranking is

proposed by authors in [12]. Yilang chen et al in [13], proposed

direct ranking method, in which performance index for a

contingency case do not require post contingency voltages at

each bus for ranking. In [14] the authors used decoupled load

flow and compensation method to obtain Post outage voltages

and ranking is given based on performance index.

The outage can be defined as a temporary suspension of

operation. Therefore the contingency is defined as a future

event (outage) or circumstance that is possible but cannot be

predicted with certainty.

Ejebe and Wollenberg brought in the contingency

ranking concept, in which the contingencies are arranged in

descendent order by considering the performance index [15].

The contingency analysis comprise of the simulation of

each contingency for the power system model under study. It

consists the following steps:

1) Contingency creation: It includes a set of probable

contingencies that may takes place in a power

system. This step focuses on setting up contingencies

list.

2) Contingency selection: This step involves choosing

contingencies which are severe, among the available

list of contingencies that leads to bus voltage and

power limit violations. This step reduce the

contingency list by excluding lowest severity

contingencies. The performance index is used to

measure the severity

3) Contingency evaluation: This step comprises of

taking the control action to minimize or eliminate the

consequences of contingency.

Therefore the power system planning and operational

engineers need to focus on investigating the consequences of

outages based on their severity. The performance index (PI) is

used to gauge the severity and rank those contingencies based

the Section-II deals with the algorithm of NR method and the

Section-III discusses the contingency ranking approach.

Whereas the Section-IV deals with results and discussion.

Finally Concluding remarks are provided in Section-V. In the

present work, for a standard 5-bus system, line outage case is

considered and the load flows are calculated using NR method

[16] for each outage and severity index called performance

indices (PI) are calculated. The severity of line outages is

ranked based on the performance index.

II.

THE ALGORITHM

involves the following six steps:

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Form the Y-bus matrix

Calculate real and reactive powers and power residuals

Calculate the Jacobian matrix J

Calculate the new voltage magnitudes and phase angles

The process is continued until the power residuals are less

than specified accuracy

III.

Where,

|Vi| ---- Voltage magnitude corresponding to bus i

|Visp| ---- Specified voltage magnitude corresponding to bus i

Vilim ---- Voltage deviation limit

n ---- Penalty function (=1)

NB ----Number of buses in the system

W ---- Real non-negative weighting factor (= 1)

The bus voltages are influenced by the reactive power

produced by the generating units and PIV gives the severity of

abnormal voltages until the reactive power lie in the limits.

Under contingency case the reactive power may approach the

limits, and in this scenario the AC load flow computes the bus

voltages by considering the reactive power limits and thus

voltage violation is observed from their actual voltage at the

generator buses. In this case the voltage study during

contingency involves the generators reactive power

constraints.

The established formula is:

NB

PIP = W 2n

i=1

Qi

that it gives active, reactive power flows and magnitudes of

bus voltage. In the present work of power system contingency

ranking approach, line outage case has been considered and

the ranking is given based on the severity measured using the

performance index. These indices are computed using the load

flow methods for each contingency. Based on the performance

index obtained the contingencies are ranked starting with the

highest value of PI.

The performance indices [15] which are widely used are,

V

i

lim

2n

N

2n

G

max

+ W 2n Q Q

i

i

i =1

max

Qi

NG

W

---- Real non-negative weighting factor (= 1)

preference. The proposed approach includes PIP and PIV.

The Fig. 1, shows the flow chart for the overall

performance index based power system contingency ranking.

measure the degree of line over loads

)(

NL

PI P = W 2 n Pl

l =1

Pl

max 2 n

(1)

Where,

Pl and Plmax ---- MW flow and MW capacity of line l

---- Number of lines of the system

NL

W

---- Real non-negative weighting factor (= 1)

N

---- Penalty function (=1)

Pl

max

= Vi *V j

Where,

Vi

Vj

X

)X

(2)

---- Voltage at bus j by NR load flow

---- Reactance of the line connecting bus i and bus j

determines the out of limit bus voltages.

NB

PIv = W 2 n

i =1

) |V i| |Vi sp |

lim

i

2n

(3)

(4)

Fig. 1.

IV.

method to find out the PI under the MATLAB environment.

The entire study has been carried out on Standard 5-bus

system.

A. 5-Bus System

The system shown in Fig. 2, consists of one slack bus and

four load buses. These are connected with seven transmission

lines. The voltages and active power flows for the precontingency case are presented in Fig. 2.

using the parameters from load flow both the voltage and

active power performance indices are computed for the single

outage. The Fig. 3, shows the line-1 outage and corresponding

power flows and voltages. The pre and post contingency bus

voltages and active power flows are shown in Table I and

Table II respectively. Using (1) and (3) active power and

voltage performance index for each outage are calculated

which are shown in Table III, along with the contingency

ranking.

TABLE I.

(LINE-1 OUTAGE)

Bus

Number

1

2

3

4

5

Pre-contingency voltage

(pu)

1.060

1.047

1.024

1.024

1.018

TABLE II.

Line

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

STATE (LINE-1 OUTAGE)

Start

bus

1

1

2

2

2

3

4

TABLE III.

Post-contingency voltage

(pu)

1.060

0.902

0.896

0.890

0.872

End

bus

2

3

3

4

5

4

5

Pre contingency

power flow (pu)

0.889

0.407

0.247

0.279

0.548

0.189

0.063

Post Contingency

power flow (pu)

0

1.4326

0.1536

0.0401

0.3909

0.6678

0.2221

Outage line

number

PIP

PIV

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0.1074

0.0418

0.0418

0.0451

0.1212

0.0406

0.0417

1.8052

0.2390

0.3194

0.3128

0.2818

0.3387

0.3548

Overall

Performance

Index(OPI)

1.9126

0.2808

0.3612

0.3578

0.4030

0.3793

0.3965

Ranking

1

7

5

6

2

4

3

high for line-1 outage and therefore it is ranked first

V.

CONCLUSION

indices gives a measure of severity of possible line outage

contingencies in the system. The highest value of indices

provides the severity of the outage and has the maximum

possibility of making the system parameters to go beyond the

operating limits. The severity of the particular outage helps the

power system operation engineers to take prior action;

therefore it helps as a guide to run reliable power system.

Apart from this approach the contingency analysis can also be

carried out using the neural networks and the fuzzy logic.

Fig. 3.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

control, 2nd Edition, John and Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009.

B. Stott, O. Alsac and A.J. Monticelli, "Security analysis and

optimization," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 12, Dec 1987, pp.

1623-1644.

N.M. Peterson W.F. Tinney and D.W. Bree, Iterative linear AC power

flow for fast approximate outage studies, IEEE Transactions on Power

Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 91, No. 5, October 1972, pp.2048-2058.

Ching-Yin Lee and Nanming Chen, "Distribution factors of reactive

power flow in transmission line and transformer outage studies," IEEE

Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, February 1992, pp. 194200.M. Young, The Technical Writers Handbook. Mill Valley, CA:

University Science, 1989.

S.N. Singh and S.C. Srivastava, "Improved voltage and reactive power

distribution for outage studies," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,

Vol.12,No.3,August1997,pp.1085-1093

J. Zaborsky, K.W. Whang, K. Prasad, Fast contingency evaluation using

concentric relaxation, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and

Systems,Vol. PAS-99, No.1, January1980, pp. 2836.

V.Brandwajn and M.G. Lauby, "Complete bounding method for AC

contingency screening," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4,

No.2, May 1989,pp. 724-729.

R. Bacher, W.F. Tinney, "Faster local power flow solutions: the zero

mismatch approach," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No.

4, October 1989, pp. 1345-1354.

R. Fischil, T.F. Halpin and A. Guvenis, The application of decision

theory to contingency selection, IEEE Transactions on circuits and

systems, Vol. CAS-29, No. 11, Nov. 1982, pp. 712-723.

N. Amjady and M. Esmaili, Appliaction of new sensitivity analysis

frame work for voltage contingency ranking, IEEE Transactions on

power systems, Vol. 20, No. 2, May 2005, pp. 973-983.

G.C. Ejebe, G.D.Irisarri, S. Mokhtari, O. Obadina, P. Ristanovic and J.

Tong, Methods for contingency screening and ranking for voltage

stability analysis of power systems, IEEE Transactions on power

systems, Vol. 11, No. 1, Feb. 1996, pp. 350-356.

C.L. Chang and Y.Y. Hsu, A new approach to dynamic contingency

selection, IEEE Transactions on power systems, Vol. 5 No. 4, Nov.

1990, pp. 1524-1528.

Y. Chen and A. Bose, Direct ranking for voltage contingency

selection, IEEE Transactions on power systems, Vol. 4, No. 4, Oct.

1989, pp. 1335-1344.

A. Mohamed and G.B. Jasmon, Voltage contingency selection

technique for security assessment, IEE proceedings, Vol. 136, No.1,

Jan. 1989, pp. 24-28

G.C. Ejebe, B.F. Wollenberg, Automatic contingency selection, IEEE

Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-98, No. 1, January

1979,pp.97-109.

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