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INDUSTRIAL REPORT ON
MANUFACTURING AND STUDY OF STEAM TURBINE
at B.H.E.L. Hyderabad.
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

By
M. ASHOK KUMAR
14119048

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY RAIPUR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to thank Mechanical Engineering Department
for allowing us to work on such an interesting & informative topic. We
are highly indebted to our project guide Mr. Ravinder Sir for his
guidance & words of wisdom. He always showed us the right direction
during the course of this project work. We are duly thankful to him to
referring us to sites like science direct, openpdf & providing many
research papers which had some research work.
I am also grateful to the management of Bharat Heavy
Electricals Limited (B.H.E.L.), Hyderabad for permitting me to have
training during 18th May to 16th June, 2016.
We worked as a team and saw ups and downs which are part of
any project work. But in the end it was their Guidance and my team
work which made this project possible. Last but not the least we would
also like to thank all our teachers & friends for their constructive
criticism given in right spirit.

M. Ashok Kumar (14119048)


5th Semester, B.Tech.
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National institute of Technology Raipur.

INDEX
S. No.

1.

2.

Topic

Page no.

Main Page
Acknowledgement
Organisation Profile
B.H.E.L. Hyderabad
1.1. An overview
1.1.1. BHEL Hyderabad Plant Layout
1.2 Working areas
1.2.1 Power generation
1.2.2 Power Transmission and Distribution
1.2.3 Industries
1.2.4 Transportation
1.2.5 Telecommunication
1.2.6 Renewable Energy
1.2.7 International Operations
1.2.8 Technology Upgradation and R&D
1.2.9 Human Resource Development Institute
1.2.10. Health, Safety & Environment Management
1.2.11 Environment Policy
1.2.12 Occupational Health and Safety
Steam Turbines
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Towards higher Efficiency
2.3 Compounding of Steam Turbines
2.4 Impulse Steam Turbine
2.5 Design Features of BHEL Steam Turbines
2.6 Range of capacities and parameters of Steam
Turbines
2.7 Types of Steam Turbines
2.8 Special features of Steam Turbines
2.9 The Parts of Steam Turbine

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2
5
6-14
6
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
13
13
13
14
15-40
15
17
17
18
19
20
20
21
22-29

3.
4.

2.10 Constructional features of a Blade


2.11 Various Auxillary Equipment
2.12 Various monitoring devices, safety &
protective devices
Manufacturing Process
Turbines, Compressors & Gas Turbines
201 shop
4.1 Layout of TC & GT Shop
4.2 TC & GT Production activities

30-37
38
39-40
41-42
43-55
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45-55

ORGANISATION PROFILE
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited is the largest engineering
and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related /
infrastructure sector today and ranks among the top twelve
manufacturers of power equipment in the world.
Today BHEL has 14 Manufacturing Divisions, 4 Power
Sector regional Centers, 8 Service Centers 18 regional offices
and large number of Project Sites spread all over India and
abroad enables the Company to promptly serve its customers
and provide them with suitable products, systems and services
efficiently and at competitive prices.
BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz.
power Generation and Transmission, Industry, transportation,
Renewable energy, Defence etc. BHEL, today, is fully equipped
to provide comprehensive service to clients covering system
engineering, equipment design, turkey erection and
commissioning, including civil works.
BHEL accredited with ISO 9001 certification for quality
management. All the major units/divisions of BHEL have been
awarded ISO-14001 certification for environmental management
systems and OHSAS-18001 certification for occupational health
and safety management systems.

1. BHEL HYDERABAD
1.1 AN OVERVIEW
BHEL - Hyderabad, a Manufacturing Unit located near Hyderabad city. The
major products of the Hyderabad unit are
-

Gas Turbines
Steam Turbines
Compressors
Generators and Exciters
Heat Exchangers
Pumps
Oil Rigs
Switchgear etc.
The technology of BHEL - Hyderabad, for the products / systems is on par
with the latest / best in the world. BHEL- Hyderabad has collaborations with
leading companies in the world like M/s General Electric-USA, M/s Siemens,
Germany, M/s Nuovo Pignone-Italy etc.
DIFFERENT PRODUCTS AND PROCESSING AREAS IN BHEL
HYDERABAD
SHOP

PRODUCT / PROCESS

201

STEAM TURBINES,GAS TURBINES &


CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
251
270

TURBO GENERATORS / MOTORS ETC


SWITCH GEARS
FERROUS FOUNDRY
NON-FERROUS FOUNDRY
HEAT EXCHANGERS
TOOL ROOM
HEAT TREATMENT
PATTERN SHOP
SPARES MANUFACTURING
OIL FIELD EQUIPTS ( OIL RIGS )
COAL PULVERIZERS
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

1.1.1. BHEL HYDERABAD PLANT LAYOUT

SWITCH GEAR SHOP


( 03 )

PUMPS SHOP
( 70 BLDG )

RIG UP YARD

BOWL MILL SHOP TOOL ROOM / SPARES CENTER ( 210 )


( 51 BLOCK )

HEAT EXCHANGERS
& FABRICATION SHOP
( 06 )

ELECTRICAL M/CS SHOP ( 02 )

FACTORY
MAIN
ENTRANCE
TC & GT SHOP
( 01 )

PREPARATORY SHOP / STORES

GT FR9
ASSLY
NON - FERROUS FOUNDRY/ FORGE SHOP
GT FR9
TEST PIT
FERROUS
FOUNDRY

PATTERN
SHOP

1.2 WORKING AREAS


1.2.1 POWER GENERATION
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear
power plant business as of 31.03.2001, BHEL supplied sets account for
nearly 64737 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 99,146 MW
in the country, as against nil till 1969-70. BHEL has proven turnkey
capabilities for executing power projects from concept to
commissioning, it possesses the technology and capability to produce
thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating
and gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW unit rating. Cogeneration and combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve
higher plant efficiencies. To make efficient use of the high-ash-content
coal available in India, BHEL supplies circulating fluidized bed
combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle power plants.
The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and
has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets.
Custom made hydro sets of Francis, Pelton and Kaplan types for
different head discharge combination are also engineering and
manufactured by BHEL. In all, orders for more than 700 utility sets of
thermal, hydro, gas and nuclear have been placed on the Company as on
date. The power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is based on
contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world and is also
internationally competitive. The Company has proven expertise in Plant
Performance Improvement through renovation modernization and
upgrading of a variety of power plant equipment besides specialized
know how of residual life assessment, health diagnostics and life
extension of plants.

1.2.2 POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D)


BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications.
Products manufactured include power transformers, instrument
transformers, dry type transformers, series and stunt reactor, capacitor
tanks, vacuum and SF circuit breakers gas insulated switch gears and
insulators. A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake
turnkey delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series
compensation systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of
transmission lines and improving system stability and voltage
regulation), shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage
improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk
power). BHEL has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art
controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long
transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV Facts (Flexible AC Transmission
System) project under execution.
1.2.3 INDUSTRIES
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries.
Cement, sugar, fertilizer, refineries, petrochemicals, paper, oil and gas,
metallurgical and other process industries lines and improving system
stability and voltage regulation, shunt compensation systems (for power
factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems(for economic
transfer of bulk power). The range of system & equipment supplied
includes: captive power plants, co-generation plants DG power plants,
industrial steam turbines, industrial boilers and auxiliaries. Water heat
recovery boilers, gas turbines, heat exchangers and pressure vessels,
centrifugal compressors, electrical machines, pumps, valves, seamless
steel tubes, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, reactors, fluidized
bed combustion boilers, chemical recovery boilers and process controls.
The Company is a major producer of large-size thruster devices. It also
supplies digital distributed control systems for process industries, and
control & instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial
applications.

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BHEL is the only company in India with the capability to make


simulators for power plants, defense and other applications. The
Company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to
help augment the supply of drinking water to people.
1.2.4 TRANSPORTATION
BHEL is involved in the development design, engineering,
marketing, production, installation, and maintenance and after-sales
service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. In the area of
rolling stock, BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000HP,
diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP, both for mainline
and shunting duly applications. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for
special applications viz., overhead equipment cars, Special well wagons,
Rail-cum-road vehicle etc., Besides traction propulsion systems for inhouse use, BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other
rolling stock producers of electric locomotives, diesel-electric
locomotives, electrical multiple units and metro cars. The electric and
diesel traction equipment on India Railways are largely powered by
electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. The company also
undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of
urban transportation systems. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of
electric trolley bus systems, light rail systems etc. BHEL is also
diversifying in the area of port handing equipment and pipelines
transportation system.

1.2.5 TELECOMMUNICATION
BHEL also caters to Telecommunication sector by way of small,
medium and large switching system.

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1.2.6 RENEWABLE ENERGY


Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting nonconventional and renewable sources of energy include: wind electric
generators, solar photo voltaic systems, solar lanterns and batterypowered road vehicles. The Company has taken up R&D efforts for
development of multi-junction amorphous silicon solar cells and fuel
based systems.
1.2.7 INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
BHEL has, over the years, established its references in around 60
countries of the world, ranging for the United States in the west to New
Zealand in the far east. These references encompass almost the entire
product range of BHEL, covering turnkey power projects of thermal,
hydro and gas-based types, substation projects, rehabilitation projects,
besides a wide variety of products, like transformers, insulators, switch
gears, heat exchangers, castings and forgings, valves, wellhead
equipment, centrifugal compressors, photo-voltaic equipment etc. apart
from over 1110mw of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia, and
execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman, some of the other
major successes achieved by the company have been in Australia,
Saudi Arabia, Libya, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh,
Azerbaijan, Sri Lanka, Iraq etc. The company has been successful in
meeting demanding customer's requirements in terms of complexity of
the works as well as technological, quality and other requirements viz.
extended warrantees, associated O&M, financing packages etc. BHEL
has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. The
company has been successful in meeting varying needs of the industry,
be it captive power plants, utility power generation or for the oil sector
requirements. Executing of overseas projects has also provided BHEL
the experience of working with world renowned consulting
organizations and inspection agencies. In addition to demonstrated
capability to undertake turnkey projects on its own, BHEL possesses the
requisite flexibility to interface and complement with international
companies for large projects by supplying complementary equipment

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and meeting their production needs for intermediate as well as finished


products. The success in the area of rehabilitation and life extension of
power projects has established BHEL as a comparable alternative to the
original equipment manufacturers (OEMS) for such plants.
1.2.8 TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION AND RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations, BHEL lays
great emphasis on the continuous up gradation of products and related
technologies, and development of new products. The Company has
upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in
house efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from
leading engineering organizations of the world. The Corporate R&D
Division at Hyderabad, spread over a 140 acre complex, leads BHEL's
research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product
range. Research and product development centers at each of the
manufacturing divisions play a complementary role. BHEL's Investment
in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. Products
developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8.6% to
the revenues in 2000- 2001. BHEL has introduced, in the recent past,
several state-of-the-art products developed in-house: low-NOx oil / gas
burners, circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers, high-efficiency
Pelton hydro turbines, petroleum depot automation systems, 36kV gasinsulated sub-stations, etc. The Company has also transferred a few
technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for
commercialization. Some of the on-going development & demonstration
projects include: Smart wall blowing system for cleaning boiler soot
deposits, and micro-controller based governor for diesel-electric
locomotives. The company is also engaged in research in futuristic
areas, such as application of super conducting materials in power
generations and industry, and fuel cells for distributed, environmentfriendly power generation.

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1.2.9 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE


The most prized asset of BHEL is its employees. The Human Resource
Development Institute and other HRD centers of the Company help in
not only keeping their skills updated and finely honed but also in adding
new skills, whenever required .Continuous training and retraining,
positive, a positive work culture and participative style of management,
have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce
leading to enhanced productivity and higher levels of quality.
1.2.10.HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
MANAGEMENT
BHEL, as an integral part of business performance and in its endeavor of
becoming a world-class organization and sharing the growing global
concern on issues related to Environment. Occupational Health and
Safety, is committed to protecting Environment in and around its own
establishment, and to providing safe and healthy working environment
to all its employees. For fulfilling these obligations, Corporate Policies
have been formulated as.
1.2.11. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
Compliance with applicable Environmental Legislation/Regulation.
Continual Improvement in Environment Management Systems to
protect our natural environment and Control Pollution.
Promotion of activities for conservation of resources by
Environmental Management.
Enhancement of Environmental awareness amongst employees,
customers and suppliers. BHEL will also assist and co-operate with the
concerned Government Agencies and Regulatory Bodies engaged in
environmental activities, offering the Company's capabilities is this
field.

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1.2.12. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY


Compliance with applicable Legislation and Regulations.
Setting objectives and targets to eliminate/control/minimize risks due
to Occupational and Safety Hazards.
Appropriate structured training of employees on Occupational Health
and Safety (OH&S) aspects.
Formulation and maintenance of OH&S Management programs for
continual improvement.
Periodic review of OH&S Management System to ensure its
continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness.
Communication of OH&S Policy to all employees and interested
parties.
The major units of BHEL have already acquired ISO 14001
Environmental Management System Certification, and other units are in
advanced stages of acquiring the same. Action plan has been prepared to
acquire OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management
System certification for all BHEL units. In pursuit of these Policy
requirements, BHEL will continuously strive to improve work particles
in the light of advances made in technology and new understandings in
Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Science Participation in
the "Global Compact" of the United Nations. The "Global Compact" is a
partnership between the United Nations, the business community,
international labor and NGOs. It provides a forum for them to work
together and improve corporate practices through co-operation rather
than confrontation. BHEL has joined the "Global Compact" of United
Nations and has committed to support it and the set of core values
enshrined in its nine principles.

2. STEAM TURBINES
2.1. Introduction: A steam turbine is a prime mover which converts
heat energy into mechanical energy. In a conventional steam turbines

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cycle, water is used as the working fluid. The water is heated in a boiler
by burning fuel. It evaporates into steam which is expanded in a turbine
where mechanical power is generated. The steam generated is of high
temperature and high pressure. The temperature is often in the 450 to
540 degrees centigrade range. The pressure ranges between 60 and 120
bar.

The essential parts of all steam turbines are similar, consisting of


nozzles through which steam flows and expands (dropping in
temperature and gaining kinetic energy) and the blades against which the
swiftly moving steam exerts pressure. The blades are mounted on rotor
drum, and an outer casing confines the steam to the turbine.
Both temperature and pressure fall as the steam passes through the
turbine. The greater the pressure drop, the more energy can be captured
from the steam. The more efficient power plants condense the steam
back to water at the end of the turbine.
The theoretical maximum efficiency of a steam turbine- based
power plant is determined by the difference between the temperature at

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which steam enters the high pressure turbine and the temperature at
which it exits the low pressure turbine. The greater the temperature
difference, the more energy can be extracted.

Steam turbines are finding greater use in process industries (like


steel and chemicals) producing large quantities of waste heat. The waste
heat produced can be used to generate steam as well as power. The
capital cost of such plants can be slightly higher but the generation of
power represents a useful by-product when the waste must be burnt in
any case.
Steam turbines can also be deployed advantageously in industries
with greater requirements of both steam and power. They are used in
cogeneration or combined heat and power applications where process
steam is also used in the turbine to generate electricity. This also results
in substantial improvements in overall process efficiency.

2.2 TOWARDS HIGHER EFFICIENCY :

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More efforts are being made to improve the efficiency of steam


turbines. The areas are
1. Super critical technology advances aiming for 50 percent efficiency.
2. Renovating and Upgrading for more value for money.
3. Combined Heat and Power for low cost, more flexibility.
4. Steam turbines in Combined Cycle, a new market
5. Clean coal technologies FBC, PFBC, IGCC etc. to improve the
overall efficiency and to reduce the pollution level.
2.3 COMPOUNDING OF STEAM TURBINES:
Steam jet does maximum work with good economy when the
blade speed is just half the steam speed. Due to very large rate of
expansion, the steam leaves the nozzle at a very high velocity
(Supersonic, since the pressure ratio exceeds the critical pressure ratio
and the nozzle thus used is Converging Diverging) of about 1000
m/sec. Even though the rotor diameters are kept fairly small the
rotational speed of 30000 rpm may be obtained. Such high speeds can be
used to drive the machines only with a large reduction gearing
arrangement. In actual De-Laval turbine the velocity of steam leaving
the blade is also quite appreciable resulting in energy loss. This amounts
to as high as 10-12 percent of the steam.
One of the chief object in the development of steam turbines is to
reduce the high rotational speed of the rotor to practical limits. Several
methods are used to reduce this high rotor speed by absorbing the steam

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pressure or the steam velocity in stages as it flows over the rotor blades.
This is known as Compounding.
TYPES OF COMPOUNDING:
1. Velocity Compounding ( Curtis principle )
2. Pressure Compounding
3. Mixed Compounding
2.4 IMPULSE STEAM TURBINE:In impulse steam turbine, the overall transformation of heat into
mechanical work is accomplished in two distinct steps. The available
energy of steam is first changed into kinetic energy and this kinetic
energy is then transformed into mechanical work.
A nozzle is a passage of varying cross section area in which the
potential energy of the steam is converted into kinetic energy. The
increase of velocity of the steam jet at the exit of the nozzle is
obtained due to decrease in total heat content of the steam. The nozzle
is so shaped that it will perform this conversion of energy with
minimum loss.
To overcome the feasibility of manufacturing convergent and
divergent profile, the nozzle is made in two parts and the passage
between two adjacent blades is of nozzle shape.
When the steam flows through a suitably shaped nozzle from zone
of high pressure to one at low pressure its velocity and specific
volume will both increase.

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The equation of continuity


w=AV/v
Where w =Mass flow in Kg/sec
V =Velocity of steam in m/sec
A =Area of cross section in sq m
v =Specific volume in cubic m /Kg
The method of velocity staging is known as Curtis principle
2.5 DESIGN FEATURES OF BHEL STEAM TURBINES
BHEL, Hyderabad, one of four major manufacturing units of
BHEL family, is a pioneer in manufacturing of steam turbines in India.
Steam turbines for whole range of applications like cogeneration,
captive power, utility, drive and combined cycle plant applications are
being manufactured under continuing technical collaboration with
Siemens, Germany. BHEL is fully equipped to provide comprehensive
solutions to customers, encompassing system engineering, turnkey
erection and commissioning including civil works. BHEL, with over 38
years of experience and over 540 turbines, has perfected the art of steam
turbine building in a comprehensive range, covering every possible type
of application.
In industrial applications, production process and thus the steam
parameters and flows decide the turbine selection. This makes each
industrial turbine design an individual solution, with very special design
features. BHEL has provided specific solutions with built in reliability

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for a wide spectrum of industries using building block concept which is


being continuously improved.

2.6 Range of capacities & Parameters of Steam Turbines : The range


of parameters cover wide spectrum encompassing all requirements of
industry.
Power

Up to 150 MW

Inlet Pressure

4 ata to 140 ata

Inlet Temp

140 0 C to 540 0 C

Exhaust

Up to 55 ata

Condensing

Up to 0.05 ata

Speeds

3000 RPM to 15000 RPM

2.7 Types of steam turbines :

Extraction
Back Pressure
High pressure
ECM Rotor
Condensing
Low pressure
Double flow
Extraction Back Pressure
Extraction Condensing
Back pressure turbines
Double flow condensing

( E series )
( G series )
( H series )
( M series )
( K series )
( N series )
( W series )
( EG series )
( EK series )
( HG series )
( WK series )

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Straight non-condensing turbine (Back Pressure turbine)


The most simple steam turbine configuration is the straight noncondensing design. The output of the turbine is a function of the initial
steam conditions, the exhaust pressure, and the process steam demand.
The power production of this unit type is limited by the process demand.
Automatic Extraction non-condensing (Extraction back pressure turbine)
Industrial plants having steam demands at two or more pressure
levels can benefit from the use of these turbines. They provide the
flexibility to automatically respond to variations in steam demand at the
extraction and the exhaust.
2.8 Special features of steam turbines :

Building Block concept for optimum selection to suit any


application
Impulse / Reaction blading for better efficiency over a range of
loads
Individual design for optimum flow path
Standardized components with proven service record for high
reliability
Electronic governing system
Easy integration for cogeneration application
Wide choice of power & speeds to meet any specific
requirements
Base frame design for smaller ratings

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2.9 THE PARTS OF STEAM TURBINE


ROTOR
The rotor is the rotating part of the Turbine. The blading serves for
converting the thermal energy of the steam into mechanical energy. The
turbine rotor, as carrier of blades, transmits the mechanical energy
impulses on the running blades in the form of rotational energy to the
driven machinery.
The rotors are made of forging of alloy steel material. The moving
blades are mounted in the grooves made on the rotor. The turbine utilizes
moving and non-moving blades. Non-moving blades are either attached
directly to the turbine casing or else they are located in the carriers.
Short strips of metal, shrouding, are attached to the outer edges of the
non moving blades. This shrouding is used to assist in maintaining
rigidity of the blades. An impulse wheel at the admission end of the
rotor is equipped a different type of blading and serves as the regulating
stage or Impulse stage.
A tapped radial hole drilled into the stud of the front-bearing journal
is intended for housing the over speed monitor. Cams protruding from
the cylindrical surface of the stud at each side of the threaded hole
serves as a protection against excessive axial displacement of the rotor.

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Whenever such an inadmissible axial shift of the rotor occurs during the
operation of the turbine, either of the two cams will engage with the
lever of the emergency tripping device and thus induce shutting off the
steam supply.
A toothed wheel mounted by shrinking to the rear end of the rotor
permits in connection with a mechanical barring gear slow turning of the
rotor by hand in order to prevent warping.
Parts of steam turbine Rotor and mountings
A) Blading details
B) Front steam gland
C) Front oil gland
D) Front journal
E) Thrust collar
F) Over speed governor assembly
G) Toothed wheel
H) Rear steam gland
I ) Rear oil gland
J) Rear journal
L) Pinion for Hand barring wheel / Hydraulic barring wheel
M) Coupling

CASING

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The turbine casing is made of cast steel and is split horizontally,


the joint being level with the rotor axis. The turbine casing houses and
supports the turbine rotor, labyrinth seals, and bearings. The casing is
cast in two halves and bolted together with a metal to metal fit. The
casing of back pressure turbine is supported on separate bearing
pedestals with the support surface level with the rotor axis. This ensures
the position of the casing relative to the rotor always remains constant at
all operating temperatures. The radial blade clearance thus being
unchanged. In order to permit unrestricted horizontal expansion of the
casing without moving it out center.

GUIDE BLADE CARRIERS / DIAPHRAGMS


The diaphragm is fixed to the cylinder casing contains the fixed
nozzles and serves to confine the steam flow to the moving nozzles
fitted on the rotor.

EXHAUST HOOD
The exhaust hood is the portion of the casing, which collects and
delivers the exhaust steam to the condenser or exhaust pipe
CONDENSOR
The function of the condenser is to condense the steam leaving the
turbine, collect the condensate, and lower the turbine exhaust pressure.

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STEAM CHEST
The steam chest, located on the forward, upper half of the HP
turbine casing, houses the throttle valve assembly. This is the area of the
turbine where main steam first enters the turbine. The throttle valve
assembly regulates the amount of steam entering the turbine. After
passing through the throttle valve, steam enters the nozzle block.

BEARING PEDESTALS
Two bearing pedestals, one on the front end other on the rear end
supports the casing including the rotor.
BEARINGS

In order to support the weight of the turbine and to maintain radial


and axial alignment, two different types of bearings are used. They are
housed in the bearing pedestals.

A) JOURNAL BEARING
Journal bearings maintain the radial alignment of the turbine and
supports the weight of the rotor. Bearings are spherically seated allowing
for slight radial misalignment during installation only. They are located
on the forward and rear end of turbine rotor. The bearings are internally
lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, Copper and
antimony.
High pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide
lubrication. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles.

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B)THRUST BEARING
Thrust bearing is located in the front end bearing pedestal, and is
meant to take residual axial thrust present in the turbine which has not
been eliminated by balance piston as well as to the to maintain the axial
position of the rotor in the casing.
The thrust bearings are double acting, segment shoe, kingsbury
type, having the advantages of compactness and uniform pressure
distribution on all the thrust pads.
COUPLING
Transmits the torque from the turbines to the reduction
gears. The flexible couplings are designed so that any thrust created in
the turbines will not be transmitted to the reduction gears. They also
allow for slight radial misalignment and provide a means of
disconnecting the turbines from the main reduction gears.

GLANDS / SHAFT SEALS


The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and
grooves around the rotor and its housing which present a long, tortuous
path for any steam leakage through the seal.

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Glands with labyrinth seals are fitted at both ends where the shaft
passes through the turbine casing. The labyrinths consists of sealing
strips in the stationary part of the gland and grooves machined in the
shaft. The leaking steam is collected and returned to a low-pressure part
of the steam circuit.
CONTROL VALVES / GOVERNING VALVES
The control valves regulate the amount of steam flowing to the
turbine according to the load. The cones of control valves are suspended
from a beam. The beam is supported by two spindles which are raised
and lowered through a system of levers by a servomotor arranged
adjacent to the valves. The hanging distance of each control valve is
adjusted with reference to its valve seat on the beam, so that when the
beam is lifted, the valves open in a sequence and the steam is admitted
progressively to the various nozzle groups.

SERVO MOTOR
Servo motor is an activating mechanism for operating control
valves of a steam turbine. It mainly consists of two cylinders
A) Power cylinder
B) Pilot valve

28

GOVERNING SYSTEM
The most important and vital part of the steam turbine is governing
system. The main purpose of the governing system is to maintain
- Constant speed at variable loads.
- Constant speed at varying steam inlet parameters.
- Constant speed at varying extractions and exhaust steam
Parameters / Conditions

The selection of Governors based on process requirements

Speed / Frequency control


Back pressure control
Extraction pressure control
Extraction back pressure control
Boiler feed pump drive

The governing system should be simple in design, stable during


operation and highly reliable. The governing system consists of a
number of basic governing elements and protection. The reliability and
availability of the equipment depends on the type of governing system
selected. The speed governing elements are the speed sensor governor

29

with the proper transformer amplifier, servo motor and governing


valves.

Types of Governors used on steam Turbines


- Centrifugal fly weight governor (Mechanical governor)
- Hydraulic governors
A) Hydro- Mechanical Governor
B) Hydro- Dynamic Governor
- Electro- Hydraulic (Electronic Governor)
- Electronic control
HYDRAULIC BARRING DEVICE / TURNING GEAR
Steam turbines are equipped with turning gear to rotate the turbine
rotor after they have been shut down and while they are cooling. This
evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents
bowing of rotors. Large turbines are equipped with turning gear.
Turning gear:
A turning gear rotates the turbine rotor at slow speeds before startup and
just after shutdown. This minimizes the bowing of the rotor, that can
cause uneven temperature distribution in the covers and bases of the
turbine. The turning gear consists of an electric motor that gear drives
the turbine rotor.

GEAR BOX

30

To get the required RPM for the drive and to achieve optimum
efficiency.

2.10. CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF A BLADE


The blade can be divided into 3 parts:
The profile, which converts the thermal energy of steam into
kinetic energy, with a certain efficiency depending upon the profile
shape.
The root, which fixes the blade to the turbine rotor, giving a proper
anchor to the blade, and transmitting the kinetic energy of the
blade to the rotor.
The damping element, which reduces the vibrations which
necessarily occur in the blades due to the steam flowing through
the blades. These damping elements may be integral with blades,
or they may be separate elements mounted between the blades.
Each of these elements will be separately dealt with in the
following sections.
H.P. BLADE PROFILES
In order to understand the further explanation, a familiarity of the
terminology used is required. The following terminology is used in the
subsequent sections.

31

If circles are drawn tangential to the suction side and pressure side
profiles of a blade, and their centers are joined by a curve, this curve is
called the camber line. This camber line intersects the profile at two
points A and B. The line joining these points is called chord, and the
length of this line is called the chord length. A line which is tangential to
the inlet and outlet edges is called the bitangent line. The angle which
this line makes with the circumferential direction is called the setting
angle. Pitch of a blade is the circumferential distance between any point
on the profile and an identical point on the next blade.
CLASSIFICATION OF PROFILES
There are two basic types of profiles - Impulse and Reaction.
In the impulse type of profiles, the entire heat drop of the stage occurs
only in the stationary blades. In the reaction type of blades, the heat drop
of the stage is distributed almost equally between the guide and moving
blades. Though the theoretical impulse blades have zero pressure drop in
the moving blades, practically, for the flow to take place across the
moving blades, there must be a small pressure drop across the moving
blades also. Therefore, the impulse stages in practice have a small
degree of reaction. These stages are therefore more accurately, though
less widely, described as low-reaction stages. The presently used
reaction profiles are more efficient than the impulse profiles at part
loads. This is because of the more rounded inlet edge for reaction
profiles. Due to this, even if the inlet angle of the steam is not tangential
to the pressure-side profile of the blade, the losses are low. However, the
impulse profiles have one advantage. The impulse profiles can take a
large heat drop across a single stage, and the same heat drop would
require a greater number of stages if reaction profiles are used, thereby
increasing the turbine length. The Steam turbines use the impulse
profiles for the control stage (1st stage), and the reaction profiles for
subsequent stages.
There are four reasons for using impulse profile for the first stage:

32

a) Most of the turbines are partial arc admission turbines. The first stage
is action stage, the lower half of the moving blades do not have any inlet
steam, and would ventilate. Therefore, most of the stage heat drop
should occur in the guide blades.
b) The heat drop across the first stage should be high, so that the wheel
chamber of the outer casing is not exposed to the high inlet parameters.
In case of -4turbines, the inner casing parting plane strength becomes the
limitation, and therefore requires a large heat drop across the 1st stage.
c) Nozzle control gives better efficiency at part loads than throttle
control.
d) The number of stages in the turbine should not be too high, as this
will increase the length of the turbine.
There are exceptions to the rule. Turbines used for CCPs, and BFP drive
turbines do not have a control stage. They are throttle-governed
machines. Such designs are used when the inlet pressure slides. Such
machines only have reaction stages. However, the inlet passages of such
turbines must be so designed that the inlet steam to the first reaction
stage is properly mixed, and occupies the entire 360 degrees. There are
also cases of controlled extraction turbines where the L.P. control stage
is an impulse stage. This is either to reduce the number of stages to make
the turbine short, or to increase the part load efficiency by using nozzle
control, which minimizes throttle losses.
H.P. BLADE ROOTS
The root is a part of the blade that fixes the blade to the rotor or stator.
Its design depends upon the centrifugal and steam bending forces of the
blade. It should be designed such that the material in the blade root as
well as the rotor / stator claw and any fixing element are in the safe
limits to avoid failure. The roots are T-root and Fork-root. The fork root
has a higher load carrying capacity than the T-root. It was found that
machining this T-root with side grip is more of a problem. It has to be
machined by broaching, and the broaching machine available could not

33

handle the sizes of the root. The typical roots used for the HP moving
blades for various steam turbine applications are shown in the following
figure:

L.P. BLADE PROFILES


The LP blade profiles of moving blades are twisted and tapered. These
blades are used when
blade height-to-mean stage diameter ratio (h/Dm) exceeds 0.2.
LP BLADE ROOTS
The roots of LP blades are as follows:
1) 2 Blading:
a. The roots of both the LP stages in 2 type of LP Blading are T-roots.
2) 3 Blading:
a. The last stage LP blade of HK, SK and LK blades have a fork-root.
SK blades have 4-fork roots for all sizes. HK blades have 4-fork roots up
to 56 size, where modified profiles are used. Beyond this size, HK
blades have 3 fork roots. LK blades have 3-forkroots for all sizes. The
roots of the LP blades of preceding stages are of T-roots.

34

DYNAMICS IN BLADE
The excitation of any blade comes from different sources. They are
Nozzle-passing excitation: As the blades pass the nozzles of the
stage, they encounter flow disturbances due to the pressure
variations across the guide blade passage. They also encounter
disturbances due to the wakes and eddies in the flow path. These
are sufficient to cause excitation in the moving blades. The
excitation gets repeated at every pitch of the blade. This is called
nozzle-passing frequency excitation.
The order of this frequency =no. of guide blades x speed of the
machine. Multiples of this frequency are considered for checking
for resonance.
Excitation due to non-uniformities in guide-blades around the
periphery. These can occur due to manufacturing inaccuracies, like
pitch errors, setting angle variations, inlet and outlet edge
variations, etc.
For HP blades, due to the thick and cylindrical cross-sections and short
blade heights, the natural frequencies are very high. Nozzle-passing
frequencies are therefore necessarily considered, since resonance with
the lower natural frequencies occurs only with these orders of excitation.
In LP blades, since the blades are thin and long, the natural frequencies
are low. The excitation frequencies to be considered are therefore the
first few multiples of speed, since the nozzle passing frequencies only
give resonance with very high modes, where the vibration stresses are
low.
The HP moving blades experience relatively low vibration amplitudes
due to their thicker sections and shorter heights. They also have integral
shrouds. These shrouds of adjacent blades butt against each other
forming a continuous ring. This ring serves two purposes it acts as a
steam seal, and it acts as a damper for the vibrations. When vibrations
occur, the vibration energy is dissipated as friction between shrouds of

35

adjacent blades. For HP guide blades of Wesel design, the shroud is not
integral, but a shroud band is riveted to a number of guide blades
together. The function of this shroud band is mainly to seat the steam. In
some designs HP guide blades may have integral shrouds like moving
blades. The primary function remains steam sealing.
In industrial turbines, in LP blades, the resonant vibrations have
high amplitudes due to the thin sections of the blades, and the large
lengths. It may also not always be possible to avoid resonance at all
operating conditions. This is because of two reasons. Firstly, the LP
blades are standardized for certain ranges of speeds, and turbines may be
selected to operate anywhere in the speed range. The entire design range
of operating speed of the LP blades cannot be outside the resonance
range. It is, of course, possible to design a new LP blade for each
application, but this involves a lot of design efforts and manufacturing
cycle time. However, with the present-day computer packages and
manufacturing methods, it has become feasible to do so. Secondly, the
driven machine may be a variable speed machine like a compressor or a
boiler-feed-pump. In this case also, it is not possible to avoid resonance.
In such cases, where it is not possible to avoid resonance, a damping
element is to be used in the LP blades to reduce the dynamic stresses, so
that the blades can operate continuously under resonance also. There
may be blades which are not adequately damped due to manufacturing
inaccuracies. The need for a damping element is therefore eliminated. In
case the frequencies of the blades tend towards resonance due to
manufacturing inaccuracies, tuning is to be done on the blades to correct
the frequency. This tuning is done by grinding off material at the tip
(which reduces the inertia more than the stiffness) to increase the
frequency, and by grinding off material at the base of the profile (which
reduces the stiffness more than the inertia) to reduce the natural
frequency.

36

The damping in any blade can be of any of the following types:


a) Material damping: This type of damping is because of the inherent
damping properties of the material which makes up the component.
b) Aerodynamic damping: This is due to the damping of the fluid
which surrounds the component in operation.
c) Friction damping: This is due to the rubbing friction between the
component under consideration with any other object.
Out of these damping mechanisms, the material and aerodynamic types
of damping are very small in magnitude. Friction damping is enormous
as compared to the other two types of damping. Because of this reason,
the damping elements in blades generally incorporate a feature by which
the vibrational energy is dissipated as frictional heat. The frictional
damping has a particular characteristic. When the frictional force
between the rubbing surfaces is very small as compared to the excitation
force, the surfaces slip, resulting in friction damping. However, when
the excitation force is small when compared to the frictional force, the
surfaces do not slip, resulting in locking of the surfaces. This condition
gives zero friction damping, and only the material and aerodynamic
damping exists. In a periodically varying excitation force, it may
frequently happen that the force is less than the friction force.
During this phase, the damping is very less. At the same time, due to the
locking of the rubbing surfaces, the overall stiffness increases and the
natural frequency shifts drastically away from the individual value. The
response therefore also changes in the locked condition. The resonant
response of a system therefore depends upon the amount of damping in
the system (which is determined by the relative duration of slip and stick
in the system, i.e., the relative magnitude of excitation and friction
forces) and the natural frequency of the system (which alters between

37

the individual values and the locked condition value, depending upon
the slip or stick condition).
BLADING MATERIALS
Among the different materials typically used for blading are 403
stainless steel, 422 stainless steel, A-286, and Haynes Satellites Alloy
Number 31 and titanium alloy. The403 stainless steel is essentially the
industrys standard blade material and, on impulse steam turbines, it is
probably found on over 90 percent of all the stages. It is used because of
its high yield strength, endurance limit, ductility, toughness, erosion and
corrosion resistance, and damping. It is used within a Brinell hardness
range of 207 to 248 to maximize its damping and corrosion resistance.
The 422 stainless steel material is applied only on high temperature
stages (between 700 and 900F or 371 and 482C), where its higher
yield, endurance, creep and rupture strengths are needed. The A-286
material is a nickel-based super alloy that is generally used in hot gas
expanders with stage temperatures between 900 and 1150F (482 and
621C). The Haynes Satellites Alloy Number 31 is a cobalt-based super
alloy and is used on jet expanders when precision cast blades are
needed. The Haynes Satellite Number 31 is used at stage temperatures
between 900 and 1200F (482 and 649C). Another blade material is
titanium. Its high strength, low density, and good erosion resistance
make it a good candidate for high speed or long-last stage blading.

38

2.11. VARIOUS AUXILIARY EQUIPMENTS

DUPLEX FILTER
Duplex filters occupy a unique position within the filter industry. They
were created to enable operators to change contaminated filter elements
without shutting down an active system. Duplex filters are popular for
liquid and gas fuel applications.

SOLENOID VALVE
The solenoid valve is intended for installation in the pressure oil circuit
to the automatic trip gear. When operated, it will interrupt the oil flow in
that line. At the same time, the trip oil circuit will be connected to the oil
drain where by emergency tripping is released. The solenoid valve is
remote controlled electrically ie it is either operated from the control
room or by a protection device.

CHANGEOVER VALVE
The change over Valve limits the quantity of oil flowing to the
swing check valve during startup of the turbine.

39

2.12. VARIOUS MONITORING DEVICES , SAFETY AND


PROTECTIVE DEVICES
EMERGENCY STOP VALVE AND ITS TESTING DEVICE
The emergency stop valve is the fundamental shut-off organ in the
live steam line between steam generator and the turbine. The emergency
stop valve is provided at the steam inlet to turbine. It is directly mounted
on the casing with a view to reduce the quantity of steam entrapped
between the stop valve and the control valves. In the event of sudden
load throw off the more quantity of entrapped steam may tend to over
speed the turbine. It will be in the closed position when the turbine is at
standstill.
The emergency stop valve is equipped with a testing device which
permits checking of the valve spindle and piston rod for free movement
at any time without interfering with normal turbine operation.
SPEED MONITORING DEVICE
Convenience of operation or local site conditions of a turbine plant
sometimes warrant the accurate measuring or remote reading of the
turbine speed. To this effect, the speed will be measured by an
electromagnetic pick-up which does not require mechanical contact with
rotating parts. This signal may also be used as input for supplementary
governor and control equipment.
OVER SPEED GOVERNOR AND ITS TESTING DEVICE

40

The over speed governor mounted on the rotor. During the normal
operation when the turbine speed exceeds the rated speed approximately
by 10%, the turbine trips automatically. The tester of over speed
governor used to test the freeness of the OSG pin during normal
operation. The oil pressure at which the pin comes out shall be compared
with the test protocol.
TRIPPING DEVICE
In the event of a disturbance, the emergency tripping device serves for
admitting emergency trip oil. This causes closing of the valves and
separation of the turbine from the steam supply.
CASING EXPANSION MEASUREMENT
The device is used for measuring absolute displacement of the
bearing pedestal as a result of thermal expansion of the casing.
MEASUREMENT OF AXIAL DISPLACEMENT OF ROTOR
The thrust bearing forms the fixed point of the turbine rotor. An
axial displacements of the turbine beyond the given limits (bearing
clearances) can have serious consequences. The measuring unit operate
on the eddy-current principle.
VIBRATION MONITORING / VIBRATION PROBES
Vibration of a turbine while it is running originates from the
rotor and is transmitted to the external bearing housing through the
bearing oil film which has both spring and damping effects. Steam
turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in
their bearings. This condition monitoring can identify many potential
problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the
problems become serious

41

3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
The benefits of civilization which we enjoy today are essentially due to the
improved quality of products available to us. The improvement in the quality of
the goods can be achieved with proper design that takes into consideration the
functional requirement as well as its manufacturing aspects. This would
ensure a better product being made available at an economical cost.
Manufacturing involves turning raw material to finished products to be used
for various purposes. In the present age there have been increasing demands on
the product performance by way of desirable exotic properties such as
resistance to higher temperatures, higher operating speeds and extra loads. These
in turn would require a variety of new materials and its associated processing.
Also exacting working conditions that are desired in the modern industrial
operations make large demands on the manufacturing industry.
Further, the economics of the manufacturing operation is a very
important consideration. To be viable in the modern environment, a product has
to be competitively priced besides having the functional and aesthetic appeal.
Therefore, it is necessary for the engineer to give a proper thought to various
aspects of manufacturing.
Manufacturing process is a very fundamental subject since it is of interest
not only to mechanical engineers but also to those from practically every
discipline of engineering. A detailed understanding of the manufacturing process
is thus essential for every engineer. This helps him appreciate the capabilities,
advantages and also the limitations of the process. This in turn helps in the
proper design of any product required from him. Firstly he would be able to
assess the feasibility of manufacturing from his designs. He may also find that
there are more than one process available for manufacturing a particular product
and he can make a proper choice of the process which would require the lowest
manufacturing cost and would deliver the product of desired quality. He may
also modify his slightly to suit the particular manufacturing process he chooses.
Manufacturing Processes are classified into four categories

42

Casting Processes: Ex: Sand casting, die casting, centrifugal casting, precision
investment casting etc
Forming Processes: Ex: Rolling, press forging, wire drawing, sheet metal
operations etc

Fabrication Processes: It is a secondary manufacturing process. Ex: Electric


arc welding, gas welding, soldering, brazing etc

Material removal processes: It is also the secondary manufacturing process. It


is the expensive process. This process delivers good dimensional accuracy and
surface finish. Ex : Turning, milling, drilling, grinding etc
Importance of material removal process:
These are also the secondary manufacturing processes where the
additional unwanted material is removed in the form of chips from the blank
material by harder tool so as to obtain the final desired shape. Material removal
is normally the most expensive manufacturing process because more energy is
consumed, and also a lot of waste material is generated in the process. Still this
is widely used because it delivers very good dimensional accuracy and good
surface finish. It also generates accurate contours. Material removal process are
also called machining process.
Various processes in this category are:

Turning
Milling
Drilling
Grinding etc

All the manufacturing processes have been continuously developed so as


to obtain better products at a reduced cost. Of particular interest is the
development of computers and their effect on the manufacturing processes. The

43

advent of computers has made a remarkable difference to most of the above


manufacturing processes. They have contributed greatly to both automation and
designing the process.
4. TURBINES, COMPRESSORS AND GAS TURBINES 201 SHOP
It is the biggest shop floor with plinth area of 35,500 sq-m. The various
products manufactured in this shop floor are

1) Steam turbines:
a) Industrial set

2.5 MW and above up to 60 MW

b) Utility sets

60 MW and above up to 120 MW

2) Gas turbines:
a) Frame - 1

( 5 MW )

b) Frame - 3

( 10 MW )

c) Frame - 5B

( 25 MW )

d) Frame - 6B

( 37 MW )

e) Frame - 9E

( 123 MW )

f) Frame - 6FA

( 70 MW )

e) Frame - 9FA

( 240 MW )

3) Centrifugal Compressors:
a) Horizontal split type
b) Vertical split type

44

CDC

4.1 LAYOUT OF TC&GT SHOP

AREA UNDER
CONSTRUCTION

HEAVY M/C SHOP

BLADE SHOP

STEAM TURBINE
ROTOR SHOP

GAS TURBINE
WHEELS ASSLY

MEDIUM M/C SHOP


GT FR5 / FR6 TEST

GT ASSLY

HEAVY M/C
SHOP

HEAVY M/C SHOP


GANG WAY

ESTEAM TURBINE TEST PIT

FR9 TEST

HEAVY M/C SHOP

BLADE SHOP

SHOP FLOOR OFFICES

BED

120 MW STEAM
TURBINE ASSLY

STEAM TURBINE
ROTOR SHOP

LIGHT M/C
SHOP

IMPELLER
SHOP

MEDIUM M/C SHOP

STEAM TURBINE
REGULATION ASSLY
GAS TURBINES M/C SHOP
GT
5 AXIS

M/C

BUCKETS
SHOP

POWER
ROOM

OPEN YARD

OPEN YARD

MATERIAL STORAGE

MATERIAL STORAGE

COMPRESSOR ASSLY

STORES

GANG WAY

COMPRESSORS TEST
PIT

( MAIN ENTRANCE )

BED / PIPING ASSLY

45

4.2 TC& GT PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES


TC&GT Production activities are divided in various shops
according to the size and nature of operations carried out. Bay wise
explanation is given from East end to West end. The various shops are
Bay - 0
MAINTENANCE AND SERVICES DEPARTMENT

46

The maintenance and service department is located in the N-E


corner of the shop. Maintenance and services of all the machinery
located in the shop is executed by this dept. There are three sub
departments 1.Mechanical maintenance 2.Electrical maintenance 3.
Electronics maintenance
QiQihar CNC horizontal boring machines 2 nos (China make)
These machines are located in the North-East corner of the bay.
Steam turbine casing machining (Upper and lower) is carried out on
these machines. Fir tree blade root machining on steam turbine rotor is
carried out on this machine by using the CNC program and indexing
head. The machine is retrofitted with Sinumerik 840-D CNC system.
Including the fir tree root machining on steam turbine rotor.
Tacchi CNC lathes 2 nos ( Italy make )
The machines are located in the middle of the bay. Steam turbine
rotor machining is carried out on these machines.
PARTING PLANE SCRAPING AND BLUE MATCHING
PRESSURE TESTING
STEAM TURBINE 120-150 MW ASSEMBLY SHOP
Utility or power sets of 120-150 MW, with the proven design
covered under non testing range, are assembled in this area. There are
two modules in this turbine
a) HP/IP module
b) LP module
The total turbine is manufactured in all respects and
assembled as modules to check the quality requirements and clearances
then the turbine is sent to the customers site as separate modules. There
at customers site the total turbine is assembled and tested.

47

QiQihar heavy duty CNC Lathe ( China make )


This machine is located in the NorthWest corner of the bay. The
machine under erection. Steam turbine rotor machining is carried out on
this machine.
Bay 1
Heavy Machine Shop
Machining of heavy parts of steam turbine, gas turbine and
compressors like casings ( inner and outer ), exhaust hoods, guide blade
carriers, front and rear bearing housings, LP modules valve blocks etc
are carried out in this bay. Machining of heavy rotors, drilling, reaming
of Coupling holes on turbine rotor and load coupling of gas turbine also
carried out in this shop.
INNSE horizontal CNC machine ( Italy make )
This machine is located in South-East corner of the bay. This
machine is provided with Sinumerik 840C - 4 axis CNC system
Mario Carnaghi Gantry type milling and drilling machine ( Italy make )
Rough machining of heavy turbine casings are carried out on this
machine. Both top and bottom casings can be placed side by side on the
table with the parting plane up for machining
Gas turbine assembly
Fr5 and Fr6 turbine rotor, compressor rotor and unit rotors are
assembled here.
Gas turbine Rotor Balancing machine 2 nos ( Germany make )
The main parts of a gas turbine rotor are Compressor rotor and
Turbine rotor. Both together the rotor is called Unit rotor. The rotors are

48

assembled and balanced individually after machining before lowering


into the gas turbine casing.
Tacchi heavy duty CNC lathe ( Italy make )
Machining of heavy duty steam turbine rotors and gas turbine
rotors are carried out on this machine. The max weight carrying capacity
of the machine is 80 T. This machine is provided with Sinumerik 840 D
CNC system.
Tos-Kurim Gantry type milling and drilling machine ( Czecholsovakia
make )
Rough machining of Light weight turbine casings are carried out
on this machine. The casings are mounted and fixed on suitable supports
and all the 5 planes machining is carried out on the machine. Both top
and bottom casings can be placed side by side on the table with the
parting plane up for machining.
Conventional horizontal boring machines 4 nos
All the four machines are located in the western part of the bay.
Bay 2
Heavy machine shop
Machining of peripheral details, drilling and grinding of parting
planes of casings are carried out in this shop.
Heavy duty plano grinding machine (Czecholsovakia make)
The machine is located in the North-East corner of the bay. Parting
plane grinding operation is carried out with segmental grinding unit for
casings on this machine.

49

Mitsubishi Horizontal boring machine ( Japan make )


Fir tree blade root machining on steam turbine rotor is carried
out on this machine by using the fir tree root attachment, indexing head
and CNC program together. The machine is retrofitted with Sinumerik
840-D CNC system.
Dorries Veritical CNC lathe ( Germany make )
Finish machining of casings bores including guide blade grooves
are carried out in vertical position on this lathe. The machine with
Fanuc-10 CNC system.
Skoda Horizontal boring machine (Czechoslovakia make)
Machining of combustion bores on gas turbine casings, peripheral
details on steam turbine casings are carried out on this machine. The
machine is provided with Sinumerik 840-C CNC system.
Skoda Vertical CNC lathe (Czechoslovakia make)
Finishing machining casings including guide blade grooves are
carried out in vertical position on this lathe. The machine is provided
with 840-C CNC system.
Bay 3
Blade shop
Machining of moving blades ( HP and LP ), guide blades
compressor blades, spacers required for steam turbine and gas turbines
are carried out in this shop. Polishing operation on all the blades and
precision forged blades are also carried out in this shop. Special purpose
machines like multiple spindle copying are available in this bay. High
precision tool and cutter grinder with 5 axis movement is existing in this
bay.
Bay 4
Steam Turbine rotor Shop:

50

Machining and assembly of Steam turbine rotors up to 120 MW is


carried out in this shop. Blades assembly and other mountings are fitted
to the rotor in this bay. After completion of rotor assembly, the rotor is
sent for balancing then handed over to the main assembly.

SRM200 Heavy duty lathe:


SKODA-SUT160 CNC lathe ( Czechoslovakia make )
KARATS CNC lathe ( Japan make ) :
Sealing fins drawing machine :
Sealing fins required for steam turbine rotor, casing and the
carriers are drawn to the required diameter with wire drawing machine
by repeatedly passing the wire through the machine from bigger
diameters to smaller diameters. Hardened rollers are used for rolling the
fins on this machine. The machine is motor driven.
LP drilling Machine :
LP ( low pressure ) moving blades of fork root type are drilled and
reamed along with the rotor on this machine. A fixture is used for
holding the blade while drilling and reaming. A taper pin is hammered
through the reamed hole and the extra material is turned off on lathe.
Frequency test, for vibration analysis, is carried out for each blade while
fixing the blade to the rotor
A-Wheel drilling Machine (Impulse blade drilling machine)

51

Impulse blades, of fork root type, are drilled and reamed along
with the rotor on this machine. A fixture is used for holding the blade
while drilling and reaming. A taper pin is hammered through the reamed
hole and the extra material is turned off on lathe.
Bay 5
Impeller shop
The shop is located in the east side of the bay. Centrifugal
impellers required in the compressor are processed in this shop. The two
different methods used for the manufacture of impellers are
a) External welding b ) Internal welding . The shop also process the
fabrication of small items and welding works required by other shops.
Two stress relieving furnaces are also available in this bay.
The important machinery available in this bay are SBCNC-60,
Two spindle 3D CNC milling machine, Automatic TIG welding
machine.
SBCNC-60 machine :
All the initial and final machining of the impellers up to dia 600 is
carried out on this machine. The CNC system with the machine is
Hinumerik 2000.
Two spindle 3D CNC machine :
All the two dimensional and three dimensional vanes machining on
impeller blanks are carried out on this machine. The machine is capable
of machining vanes on two impeller blanks at a time simultaneously.
The machine is provided with Sinumerik 840-D CNC system.
Light Machine shop:
The shop is located in the middle of the bay.Light weight and
critical components required in the steam turbine, gas turbine and

52

centrifugal compressors are processed in this bay. Special machines


available in this shop are Centre less grinding, Thread rolling and High
speed threading.
Gas turbine wheel assembly:
The axial flow compressor rotor of gas turbine consists of no of
wheels stacked together as assembly. The blades are fitted in to the
wheels and the blade tip diameters are ground to the size on the special
type blade tip grinding machine. The wheels are balanced individually
on balancing machine.
OKK Horizontal machining centre :
Machining of blade root, precision boring operations of steam
turbine components are carried on this machine.
Bay 6
Medium machine shop
Medium size and critical components required in the steam
turbine, gas turbine and centrifugal compressors are processed in this
bay. Items like diaphragms, carriers, end covers and compressor shafts
are processed on Horizontal and vertical CNC machines.
EDM Machines:
Bay 7
GAS TURBINE MACHINE SHOP
Machining of gas turbine parts like wheels, casings, forward shaft,
aft shaft, distance piece etc are carried out in this bay. The important
machines in this bay are OM16, OM-40 CNC vertical lathe. Thickness
grinding for compressor wheels are carried out on surface grinding
machine

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REGULATION ASSEMBLY :
CROSS BAY
This bay is located west end of the shop.
CDC ( Central dispatch cell ) :
The various turbine assemblies are separated after testing and sent
to the customer after verification of item credit card (ICC). The
connecting parts also sent to the customer. The parts are protected with
non corrosive paints and grease. Suitable wooden packings are used
while transporting.
Fr9 Gas turbine Test Bed:
Fr9 gas turbine is tested for its no load performance test on this
bed.
Steam Turbine main assembly:
After receiving all the major items like casings, Rotor , Front
bearing pedestal, rear bearing pedestal, exhaust hood and regulation
items etc from machine shops and assemblies the turbine is assembled in
the bay and tested.
Functional test bed:
Individual turbine auxiliaries, Assemblies are tested for their
performance on this bed before mounting them on turbine for testing.
Steam turbine test bed:
Performance of the turbine like vibration, performance of
governor, over speed governor and other protective equipments are
tested on this bed.

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Fr5, Fr6 Gas turbine test bed:


Fr5 and Fr6 gas turbines are tested for its no load performance on
this bed after final assembly
5- Axis CNC machine ( Swiss make )
This machine is located in a separate building which is in the south
end of the main block. It is the first 5 Axis CNC machine procured to
manufacture three dimensional (3D) impellers. The co-ordinates
required for CNC program, for all the five Axes continuous tool
movement, is generated externally on Max AB soft ware and fed to the
machine.
Buckets and nozzles shop
Nozzle segments and buckets required for gas turbines are
produced by the investment casting method. The material is very hard to
machine. The Pine tree root, shroud details are ground on special
purpose grinding machines. The abrasive wheels of the grinding
machines are first shaped to the required shape and accuracy with the
CNC program then the wheels are used for grinding the root and shroud
details of the buckets.
Electro discharge machines:
Electro discharge machining (EDM) operations required on
Shrouds and nozzle segments are carried out on these machines.
Coordinate measuring machine (CMM):
Measurement of profiles on vanes of 3D impeller and blades are
carried out in this machine.
Compressor bay
Compressors Assembly:

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After receiving all the major parts like casings, rotor etc the
compressor is assembled and tested.
Over speed test pit:
Each impeller is spin tested at 115% MCS to check its mechanical
soundness.
Balancing Machine:
Bare compressor shafts and along with impellers also balanced on
this machines.
Compressors Test bed:
The assembled compressor along with drive turbines are tested for
its performance.