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of Rights (itself already an improvement over the US Bill of Rights). The present Philippine Bill of Rights is, in turn, an improvement over 1973. These are the changes (reflected in the indicated sections of Article IV, 1987):
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Only the judge (no other responsible officer) may issue warrants for which he or she must personally determine probable cause. (Sec 2) Necessity for a law to prescribe when public safety or order requires violation of privacy of communication. (Sec. 3(1)) Freedom of expression in addition to the freedoms of speech, press, assembly and petition. (Sec 4) Liberty of changing abode in addition to liberty of abode and travel. Necessity for a law to prescribe the limits. (Sec 6) Addition of government research data in the access to official records. (Sec 7). The expansion of freedom of association as a right of the people and as including unions for those employed in the public and private sectors. (Sec 8) Moving down from Section 2 to Section 9 in the hierarchy the eminent domain clause (just compensation for the taking of private property for public use). Addition of quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance to free access to the courts. (Sec 11) Addition of the qualifications ‘competent’, ‘independent’ and ‘preferably of his own choice’ to the right to counsel which is to be provided even if the person cannot afford one. No waiver of rights except in writing and with counsel. (Sec 12(1)) Addition of prohibitions on torture, secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado or other similar forms of detention. (Sec 12(2)) Legal provision for penal and civil sanctions for violations and compensation and rehabilitation of victims. (Sec 12(4)) Release on recognizance as alternative to bail. Right to bail not impaired by suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. (Sec 13) Removal of insurrection and imminent danger as grounds for the writ suspension. (Sec 15) No detention solely for political beliefs (Sec 18(1)) Replacement of ‘unusual’ by ‘degrading or inhuman’ as qualifications of prohibited punishment. Abolition of the death penalty unless Congress provides so for heinous crimes. (See 19(1)) Legal provision against physical, psychological or degrading punishment of prisoners and against substandard penal facilities. (Sec 19(2))
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the right of all the people to human dignity (Sec 1) the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike; security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage; participation in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits; just share in the fruits of production (Sec 3) the right of enterprises to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and growth (Sec 3) the right of farmers and regular farm workers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till; and of irregular farm workers to receive a just share of the fruits thereof (Sec 4) the right of small landowners to reasonable retention limits under an agrarian reform program (Sec 4)
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the rights of farmers, farm workers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers’ organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the agrarian reform program (Sec 5) homestead rights of small settlers (Sec 6) the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands (Sec 6) the rights of subsistence fishermen to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources; and of fish workers to receive a just share in the enjoyment of these resources (Sec 7) the rights of small property owners (Sec 9) urban or rural poor dwellers not to be evicted except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner; no resettlement without adequate consultation (Sec 10) the right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making (Sec 16) Article XIII, Section 17(1) also created the Commission on Human Rights which is mainly concerned with civil and political rights (Sec 18(1)).
Next comes Article XIV on Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports. Found here are the following: (sections indicated)
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the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels (Sec 1) academic freedom in all institutions of higher learning (Sec 5(2)) the right of every citizen to select a profession or course of study (Sec 5(3)) the right of teachers to professional advancement (Sec 5(4)) the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations (Sec 13) the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions (Sec 17)
Then, there is Article XV on the Family. Found here are the following: (sections indicated).
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the right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood (Sec 3(1)) the right of children to assistance and special protection (Sec 3(2)) the right of the family to a family living wage (Sec 3(3)) the right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them (Sec 3(4))
Finally, to round it out, we go back to Article II on Declaration of Principles and State Policies. Found here are the following: (sections indicated)
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The State guarantees full respect for human rights (Sec 11) the natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth (Sec 12) the fundamental equality before the law of women and men (Sec 13) the right to health of the people (Sec 15) the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology (Sec 16) the rights of workers (general) (Sec 18) the rights of indigenous cultural communities (general) (Sec 22) equal access to opportunities for public service (Sec 26)