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PT PLN (PERSERO)

Electricity for a better Life

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel/Solar PV Hybrid System Training


Workshop

Overview of MiniGrid Solar PV / Diesel Hybrid


Systems
Markus Straslicka
Bali, Indonesia, 25 to 29 January
2016

Markus Straslicka. Tetra Tech.

Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel Generators


Solar Generation Intermittency
Optimizing System
Control and Communication Systems
Maintenance and Remoteness
Design and Simulation Tools
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Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and MicroGrids
Diesel Engine Set
New Types of Diesel Generators

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Definition of mini & micro grids.

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Dhybrid

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Definition of mini & micro grids.

The term mini-grid used for a wide spectrum of power systems of various sizes and complexity;
logically, with the increasing Solar PV system size, the operational requirements of mini-grids
change.
The International Energy Agency definition for mini-grid is a set of electricity generators and,
possibly, energy storage systems, interconnected to a distribution network, that supplies the entire
electricity demand of a localized group of customers.
Three main groups are generally accepted to distinguish micro and mini-grids of different sizes:
Micro-grids, simple grids in remote basic rural systems, providing low power for basic needs.
Isolated Mini-grids, grids on remote communities not connected to the main grid.
Urban/Industrial Mini-grids, grids powering scattered loads or sections of the main grid with
enough generation and distribution capacities to operate autonomously or connected to the
main grid, as a like a mining facility an adjacent town or a satellite grid area of a big town.

There is a clear development path across the different configurations showing the way
to increase capacity, service levels and stability.
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Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids

Diesel Engine Set


New Types of Diesel Generators
Solar Generation Intermittency
Optimizing System
Control and Communication System
Maintenance and Remoteness
Design and Simulation Tools

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
Diesel engine characteristics (efficiency versus loading factor,
minimum load, minimum operation time, etc.).
Max efficiency 38% Aprox.
Min. load 30% Aprox (kW not kVA).
Max time at min load, 1/3 of duty cycle.
Max time below min. load 2 hours.
Optimal load, > 50% to < 85%.
All values to be checked with genset
manufacturer.
Aver. lifetime, 50.000 h / 12 years.
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IEA

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
Diesel engine characteristics (efficiency versus loading factor,
minimum load, minimum operation time, etc.)
Finding Real Generator Load Capacity:
Measure the mechanical loads on the engine instead of the electrical load of the generation component.
It is not unusual that the real power (kW) might be lower than the measured load percentage (50%); as this
value generally based on the active load of the generation component (kVA), including real (kW) and
reactive power (kVAR).

Reactive power (kVAR) is magnetically induced from the rotor of the alternator, therefore, it is pure
electrical; on the other hand, the real power (kW) is initially produced by the mechanical component
(engine) in hp, and transferred to electrical power by the alternator. As a result, the engine hp or real
power (kW) are to be measured, instead of the pure electrical active power (kVA), to find out is effective
load in % on the engine component. In addition, the best practice and general recommendation is to avoid
running geneset below 30% load more than 2 hours, to prevent all the wide known mechanical issues, like
deposits forming on exhausts, turbos and cylinders, while decreasing oil life and increasing wear and tear
of cylinder heads, gaskets, etc.
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
Selection of sizing and number of diesel engines considering
system demand and load profile.

Min. load = 35% Dgen rating.


Max. load = 80% Dgen rating.
Spin reserve = max load + 20%.
Various Dgens of scaling sizes may be used to increase flexibility.
Coupling, Sync and dispatch controls recommended.

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
Spinning reserves vs Solar Component.
First approach:
Spinn Reserve in kW = Solar PV kWAC.
No additional controllers are needed.

Extending Solar PV ratio:


Setpoint according to specific load profile.
With Solar PV hybrid controllers, spin reserve can be extended to
cover the 60% of the optimal load of the gen.
Further increases are possible with additional improving elements.
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
Selection of sizing and number of diesel engines considering system demand and
load profile.
Sizing Approach for Dgen systems to allow for smooth solar PV hybrid integration:
Common Load Dispatching:
-

Two or more Dgens of equal capacity.


Load is shared between the units or shifted according to schedule.
Without additional controller it can accommodate Solar PV up to average spin reserve (20%).
Additional Hybrid controller will be required for higher Solar PV participation.

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
Selection of sizing and number of diesel engines considering system demand and
load profile.
Sizing Approach for new Dgen systems (no low load type) to allow
for smooth solar PV hybrid integration and automatic load sharing:
Flexible Load Incremental Dispatching:
-

Peak load = 60% biggest gen load capacity.


Small gen 70 % load = 40 % load of the next size gen.
Biggest gen size = small gen + next gent + 25% = redundancy.
Gens are dispatched based on load (time/load control
algorithm).
Hybrid control system would be required to adjust automatically
PV output to maximum available output window, covering up to
80% of optimal load + spin reserve.
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pwc

Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel


Generators

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
New types of diesel. Low Load & Variable Speed Diesel Gensets.
Multiple technologies available.

Decoupling of engine / alternator (magnetic, CVT, hydraulic).


Alternator acts as flywheel.
Engine is kept pressurized and pre heated.
Engine can ramp up from stop in a few seconds.
Upgradable and modular. Different sizes and variations.
Integrated control system and switchgears (PnP).
Most allow for straight integration with Solar PV Hybrid systems.
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems

Maximum response capacity of a Low Load Dgen with integrated hybrid controller.

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
New types of diesel engines . Low Load & Variable Speed Diesel
Gensets.
Some manufacturers and retrofits:

CAT.
HATZ.
Danvest.
Cummings.

ABB Power Corp.


Bradford. (New & Retro)
Marsh Creek. (Retro)
CVT Corp. (Retro)

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Diesel engine set
New types of diesel engines (low load engines, variable speed
engines, etc.).

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Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel Generators

Solar Generation
Intermittency
Optimizing System
Control and Communication System
Maintenance and Remoteness
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Design and Simulation Tools

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Solar PV system
Power generation variability and timing factors

Good overall predictability.

Generation vs available radiation is linear and steady.

Daily generation cycles have a smooth increase and decrease.

Main disruption factor are cloud events.

Generation variation can be very steep when the cloud event is influencing
the ambient temperature.

Advanced weather forecasting tools aimed to forecast quick transitioning


cloud events.

On tracking systems wind events also influence the generation.


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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Solar PV system
Power generation intermittency and timing factors
Optimizing mix of solar PV system and diesel
generation set
General approaches to maximizing solar PV output and
maintain power system stability (voltage and frequency)
Consideration of energy storage

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Solar PV system
Power generation variability and timing factors

Dispersion and multiplicity of systems reduce variability on the grid:

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Nrel

Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel Generators

Optimizing System To
Maximize Solar PV
Penetration
Control and Communication System

Maintenance and Remoteness


Design and Simulation Tools

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Solar PV system
Optimizing mix of solar PV system and diesel generation set.
Basic approach:
Solar AC = Spin Reserve.
Inverters with adjustable grid synchronization values.
No additional controllers required.

Dgen with electronic governor:


Solar AC = Spin Reserve + 50% Dgen Optimal Load Range.
Inverters with adjustable grid synchronization values.
Additional controllers recommended.
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Solar PV system
Optimizing mix of solar PV system and diesel generation set.

High Penetration:

Solar AC = 100% Dgen Optimal Load Range.


Inverters with adjustable grid following values.
Dgens with electronic governor / ramp control.
Hybrid System controller required.

Full Penetration Hybrid System:

Solar AC > 75% Dgen Total Capacity.


Inverters with adjustable grid following values.
Low Load Dgens or Batteries > 40% Dgen Capacity during 90 mins.
Hybrid System controller required.

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
General approaches to maximizing solar PV output and
maintain power system stability (voltage and frequency).
For All Grids:
Load profiles, available generation capabilities and feeders capacity
should be fully assessed and information updated.
Mapping or clear reference of areas where is available capacity to
accommodate Solar generation.
Define power quality tolerances and grid fluctuation support parameters.
Inverters tolerances and synchronization parameters should be fully
adjustable within the power quality and grid support limits defined.

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems

General approaches to maximizing solar PV output and maintain


power system stability (voltage and frequency).
Mini & Micro Grid Specific:

Power factor of inverters should be dynamically adjustable.


Instantaneous output should be dynamically adjustable.
Active Power Control & Remote Management, when needed.
VAr sharing over parallel diesel engines operating in hybrid solar environment concerns and
traditional limitations are actually solved by modern inverters by incorporation of the dynamic
adjustment of power factor.

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Storage Options to Maximize Solar Component.

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Consideration of energy storage:

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Consideration of energy storage:
Two main applications:
Solar Variability Support / Time shifting, to increase solar
penetration (Micro/Mini grids or in utility scale, ae, Puerto Rico
last plants to be build).
Main supply source in an off-grid system or in micro/mini grids
without Dgen participation.

Economic implications are key criteria.


Actual cost of market available technologies ranges from
350 to 550 $ per kWh.
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Consideration of energy storage:
Main technologies market available:

Lead/Acid, mainly gel based, solar specific application (up to 80%


discharge cycles).
Nickel & NaS types, REE specific application, widely available in
containerized solution, ready to PnP.
Capacitor banks (DLC), widely used, can compensate for very short
but repetitive fluctuations.
Electrolyte circulation type (flow batts, redox, zinc) very close to full
market reliability.
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Consideration of energy storage:

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Sandia

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Consideration of energy storage:

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Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel Generators


Solar Generation Intermittency

Optimizing System

Control and Communication


Systems
Maintenance and Remoteness
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Design and Simulation Tools

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system
Dgen
Governor

Dgen
Data Unit
Meteo
Station

Dgen
Governor

Dgen
Data Unit

Solar
Inverter

Solar PV

Hybrid System

In-Out
Data Unit

Management
Unit

LOAD
Data Unit

Solar
Inverter
Telecom
Module

SCADA
Local / Remote

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system
Dgen
Governor

Dgen
Data Unit
Meteo
Station

Dgen
Governor

Dgen
Data Unit

Solar
Inverter

Solar PV

Hybrid System

In-Out
Data Unit

Management
Unit

LOAD
Data Unit

Solar
Inverter
Battery
Battery
Inverter

Telecom
Module

SCADA
Local / Remote

In-Out
Data Unit
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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Overview of integrated communication and control
systems of diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system

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Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel Generators


Solar Generation Intermittency

Optimizing System
Control and Communication System

Maintenance and
Remoteness
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Design and Simulation Tools

Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Maintenance and remoteness consideration

Solar PV Section:
Panel cleaning.
Landscaping.
Electrical scheduled testing.
Dgen Section:
Usual Ggen maintenance program according to life cycle.
Hybrid Controller:
Remote data and communication integrity constant checking (system).
Capacity building:
Initial and recurrent training. Manual dispatching procedures.
Spare parts:
Solar PV Section, small percentage of installed elements.
Dgen, as by maintenance program by manufacturer.
Hybrid, Backup telecommunication option, software and programming backups.
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Presentation Topics
Definition of Mini- and Micro-Grids
Diesel Engine Set

New Types of Diesel Generators


Solar Generation Intermittency

Optimizing System
Control and Communication System
Maintenance and Remoteness

Design and Simulation Tools

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Overview of Mini-Grid Solar PV/Diesel Engine Hybrid


Systems
Tools/software available for analysing and optimizing
diesel engine/solar PV hybrid system.

Preliminary feasibility study and general dimensioning:


RETScreen, SAM
Economic considerations:
HOMER
Detailed technical configuration:
PV-SPS, PV*SOL, Pvsyst.
System analysis:
Hybrid2, PV-DesignPro
Detailed research :
TRNSYS, MATLAB/Simulink.
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Thank You
Markus Straslicka
markus.straslica@tetratech.com

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