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KISI-KISI UTS ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Tipe I kemungkinan bisa keluar


1. What is an ERP?
Enterprise Resource Planning Systems are the first generation of enterprise systems
meant to integrate data and support all the major functions of organizations.
ERP systems integrate various functional aspects of the organization as well as
systems within the organization of its partners and suppliers.
The goal of an ERP system is to make the information flow dynamic and immediate,
therefore, increasing its usefulness and value.
Another goal of ERP is to integrate departments and functions across an organization
into a single infrastructure that serves the needs of each department.
ERP solves the critical problem of integrating information from different sources and
makes it available in real-time.
2. Business process and ERP
A crucial role of ERP in business is to better position the organization to change its
business processes (a series of tasks or activities grouped to achieve a business
function or goal).
ERP software have hundreds of business processes built into the logic of the system
which may or may not agree with current processes of an organization.
When implementing an ERP system, organizations have two choices:
a. Change business processes to match the software functionality.
b. Modify the ERP software to match the business processes.
3. Benefit and limitation of ERP
a. System Benefit
- Integration of data and applications across functional areas e.g., data can be
entered once and used by all applications, thus improving accuracy and quality of
the data)
- Improvements in maintenance and support as IT staff is centralized
- Consistency of the user interface across various applications means less employee
training, better productivity, and cross-functional job movements.
- Security of data and applications is enhanced due to better controls and
centralization of hardware.
b. System Limitation
- Complexity of installing, configuring, and maintaining the system increases, thus
requiring specialized IT staff, hardware, and network facilities
- Consolidation of IT hardware, software, and people resources can be
cumbersome and difficult to attain
- Data conversion and transformation from an old system to a new one can be a
tedious and complex process.
- Retraining of IT staff and end users of the new system can produce resistance and
reduce productivity.
c. Business Benefit

Increasing agility of the organization in terms of responsidng to changes in


environment for growth and maintaining market share.
- Information sharing helps collaboration between units.
- Linking and exchanging information in real-time with supply-chain partners
improves efficiency
- Better customer service due to quicker information flow across departments.
- Efficiency of business processes are enhanced due to the re-engineering of
business processes.
d. Business Limitation
- Retraining of all employees with the new system can be costly and time
consuming
- Change of business roles and department boundaries can create upheaval and
resistance to the new system
4. Business Process Management
Business process management is the understanding, visibility, and control of business
processes.
BPM has a prescribed methodology that should be followed to help document
business processes and understand their use throughout the business.
Initial stage of BPM is to create an as-is process map that defines the current
process
Improved business processes may result in (that can be achieved through
implementing ERP system):
a. Improved customer satisfaction.
b. Reductions in cost.
c. Increased productivity by allocating resources to more value-added activities.
5. ERP life cycle
The key to a successful implementation is to use a proven methodology, take it one
step at a time, and begin with the planning and understanding the ERP life cycle.
ERP system implementations are very risky, and using a well-defined project plan
with a proven methodology will assist in managing those risks.
There must be a strong well-communicated need to make the change from the existing
information systems/applications to an ERP system
Traditional ERP Life Cycle phases
a. Scope and commitment stage (similar to investigation stage)
In addition to conducting the feasibility study, a scope of the ERP
implementation is developed within the resource and time requirement.
Characteristics of the ERP implementation are defined.
Develop a long-term vision for the new system and a short-term implementation
plan and top managements commitment.
Vendor Selection.
b. Analysis and design stage
A decision on the software is made and decide on consultants and SMEs.
Analysis of user requirements.

Map the differences between the current business process and the embedded
process in the ERP software.
Design a change management plan, a list of embedded processes, user interface
screens, and customizable reports in the ERP software.
Data conversion.
System conversion.
Training.
c. Acquisition and development stage
Purchase the license and build the production version of the software to be made
available to the end-users.
The tasks identified in the gap analysis are executed at this stage.
Change management team works with end-users on implementing the changes
in business processes.
Data team similarly works on migrating data from the old system to the new
system.
Finally, the ERP system needs to be configured with proper security.
d. Implementation stage Go Live
Focus is on installing and releasing the system to the end-users and on
monitoring the system release to the end-users.
System conversion (4 Phases)
- Phased.
- Pilot.
- Parallel.
- Direct Cut or big bang.
Feedback received from system usage needs to be funneled to the postimplementation team for ongoing system support.
e. Operation
- Handover or knowledge transfer is the major activity as support for the new
system is migrated to the help desk and support staff.
- Training of new users to the system as ERP modules are released.
- Managing of new releases of the software, installation of patches and upgrades.
- Managing the software contract with the ERP vendor
According to the staged system implementation model, the life cycle consists of four
phases :
f. Adaptation, is similar to system investigation
g. Acceptance, is similar to system analysis where user requirements are analyzed and
accepted by the team before proceeding to design and implementation
h. Routinization, is where the ERP system is either customized or business processes
are changed to assimilate the system in the organization
i. Infusion or maintenance, and evaluation phase gets started where recurring
problems are fixed and new features are sought for next implementation life cycle.

6. Operation and Post Implementation


Go-live is one of the most critical points in a projects success
An elaborate readiness checkpoint should be in place for Go-live to make sure steps
are not missed.

Infrastructure, development, configuration, conversion, testing, training,


communications, operations, command central, reporting, and users must be assessed
in the readiness process.
Readiness reviews need to be documented and communicated to the project team and
the company.
A detailed report needs to be available, along with an executive summary for senior
management.
The Go-Live Readiness Review and Status Report is often a table that shows the
status of each area at a glance, with the key activities that need to be completed agreed
to before going live.
The process for determining readiness consists of a series of meetings and discussions
on the status of each areas tasks and activities.
If the PMO sees a lot of RED items the first time through, it will help to focus the
project teams on what needs to be accomplished in the time period between the
assessment and Go-live .
The success of go-live lies with :
a. Stabilization, the time from Go-live to about 90 days after, or until the number of
issues and problems has been reduced to a small, manageable number
b. Postproduction support processes

7. Change Management
For major system implementation, the change management role is essential because it
prepares an organization for change to how its business is done
System failures often occur when the attention is not paid to change management
from the beginning stages.
A vision for CM needs to be articulated from the first stage and then revised,
monitored, and implemented on a constant basis.
SMEs and other internal users have the role of working with the team and to guide the
implementation team on all the activities of change management.
Support of the top management as well as skills of the change management team are
essential for successful implementation.
8. Business Process Reengineering
The case that current business processes will need to be changed to use the
functionality of an ERP sistem fully
It is best to make it clear to clients and users that processes will need to be changed,
adjusted, or adapted as the ERP system is implemented. A business process is a group
of activities or tasks that are coordinated for achieving a business goal.
9. ERPs role in integration
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are integrated, multi-module application
software packages designed to serve and support several business functions across an
organization.
ERP systems are typically commercial software packages that facilitate collection and
integration of information related to various areas of an organization.

ERP systems enable the organization to standardize and improve its business
processes to implement best practices for its industry.
In logical integration
ERP systems require organizations to focus on business process rather than on
functions.
ERP systems come with built-in processes for a wide variety of common business
functions.
An ERP system implements best practices via specific built-in steps for processing
a customer order in terms of:
a. order entry.
b. routing through departments.
c. communication of output to various parties.
In physical integration
Before installing the ERP system, an organization may have to upgrade or install
middleware or get rid of their legacy systems hardware and software.
Integration is also required at the Data level, Client level, and at the Application
level.
A good ERP implementation improves operational efficiency with better business
processes that focuses on organizational goals rather than on individual
departmental goals.
Improved efficiency with a paperless flow and electronic data interchange (EDI) or
business-to-business (B2B) commerce environment with partners.
10. Benefit and limitation of system integration
Benefits

Limitations

Increased Revenue and Growth

High Initial Set-up Costs

Leveling the Competitive


Environment

Power and Interdepartmental Conflicts (due to


the sharing of information)

Enhanced Information Visibility

Long-term and Intangible ROI (Usually several


years)

Increased Standardization

Creativity Limitations (Restricts Creativity and


Independence)

11. Why study enterprise system architecture?


Provide a foundation for both the functional and the technical needs of the
organization and adapt to future business challenges
The reason:
a. Help management and the implementation teams understand in detail the features
and components of the enterprise system.
b. Provide a visual representation of the complex system interfaces among the ERP
application and databases, operating systems, legacy applications, and networking.

c. Management can develop a better IT plan if the requirements for system


infrastructure, training, change management, and business process reengineering
are clarified.
The angles of ERP architecture
(1) the functional angle that defines the ERP modules that support the various
business functions of the organization and
(2) the system angle that defines the ERP architecture through the physical
components of hardware, software, and networking
12. ERP implementation life cycle
a. Adaptation, similar to system investigation
b. Acceptance, similar to system analysis where user requirements are analyzed and
accepted by the team before proceeding to design and implementation
c. Routinization, where the ERP system is either customized or business processes are
changed to assimilate the system in the organization.
d. Infusion, or maintenance and evaluation phase gets started where recurring problems
are fixed and new features are sought for next implementation life cycle.
13. ERP life cycle vs SDLC
a. Key differences

b. Cycle differences
14. ERP Implementation
a. Comprehensive
- Involves implementation of the full functionality of the ERP software in addition to
industry-specific modules.
- Requires a high level of business process re-engineering with major changes in the
business processes and customization of legacy systems.
b. Middle-of-the-Road

Involves some changes in the core ERP modules and a significant amount of
business process re-engineering.
- not as expensive as the comprehensive approach or as straightforward as the
vanilla approach
c. Vanilla
- Utilizes core ERP functionality and exploits the best practice business processes
built into the software.
- Business process re-engineering is eliminated.
- will have to simply align their business processes to the ERP system, rather than
modify the software. By eliminating or minimizing the required BPR, the projects
costs and time required for the implementation are minimized.
15. S/W and Vendor Selection
a. Vendor Research
- First step is to identify a short list of vendors who will help to shape business
requirements.
- Identifying and researching all aspects of a vendor package will assist companies
in determining the total cost of ownership.
- An exhaustive list of vendors is important for a successful implementation using
current web search engines.
- Ask department managers and subject matter experts for their input in vendor
selection.
- Including end-users will help with change management and also help to gain trust
for later in the implementation.
- Consider the following for vendor selection.
Other businesses using the vendor
The vendors financial position
The vendors implementation philosophy and support issues
The hardware and software infrastructure used to support the ERP
The vendors direction and currency of software
The vendors release and upgrade strategies
The vendors user-base involvement in defining future functional changes
The vendors development and maintenance resources
b. Vendor Analysis and Elimination
Office staff will need to evaluate functionality.
IT staff will evaluate the technology requirements.
Contract staff will need to evaluate the contract and pricing of the system.
No vendor will meet all requirements so vendor discussions and negotiations
should focus on the best fit for the business.
Develop and analyze the total cost of ownership (TCO).
16. Failure of ERP implementation
Failures are often caused by a lack of attention to the business processes and people
components. Both people involvement and process integration will need to be
addressed from the very early stages in the implementation plan. Staff must be
allowed to play a key role in the project from the beginning.

17. ERP Architecture


a. Three-tier Architecture
Most of the current ERP implementations follow a three-tiered architecture, which
consists of a Web tier, an application tier, and a data tier.
Limitations
- Can be very expensive and complex.
Benefits
- Scalability - Easier to add, change, and remove applications.
- Reliability - Implementing multiple levels of redundancy.
- Flexibility - Flexibility in partitioning is very simple.
- Maintainability - Support and maintenance costs are less on one server.
- Reusability - Easier to implement reusable components.
- Security - IT staff has more control system to provide higher security.
b. Web Services Architecture
Web-based architecture often described as a fourth tier where the Web tier is split
into Web Services tier and Web Browser tier.
The ERP systems focus on the Internet to provide a powerful new functionality for
Internet-based access and integration.
This functionality is primarily supported through the following Internet access
technologies:
- Web Server.
- ERP Portal.
- Back-end Server Integration.
- Browse Plug-ins or Applets.
BENEFITS
- Large numbers of end-users have access to ERP applications over the Web.
- Easily integrate ERP applications with existing systems.
- Server-centricNo complex, expensive client software installation.
- The server-centric architecture enables secure end-user access to ERP
application.
- Client-centricArchitecture has better response time because user requests are
mostly processed on the clients computer.
- Web-based architectures also allow better system-to-system integration.
Drawbacks
- Client-centric architectures lack security.
- Server centric is slower.
c. Service-Oriented Architecture
Also known as object-oriented architectures for Web platforms.
Breaks the business tier into smaller, distinct units of services, collectively
supporting an ERP functional module.
Allows message interaction between any service consumer and service provider.
A consumer from a device using any operating system in any language can use this
service
SOA is a software development model based on a contract between a consumer
(client) and a provider (server) that specifies the following:
- Functional description of the service.

- Input requirements and output specifications.


- Precondition environment state before service can be invoked.
- Post condition environment state after service has been executed.
- Error handling when there is a breakdown.
Benefits
Business-level software services across heterogeneous platforms.
Complete location independence of business logic.
Services can exist anywhere (any system, any network).
Loose coupling across application services.
Granular authentication and authorization support.
Dynamic search and connectivity to other services.
Enhances reliability of the architecture.
Reduces hardware acquisition costs.
Accelerates movement to standards-based server and application consolidation.
Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies.
Provides the ability to build composite applications.
Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs.
Provides truly real-time decision-making applications.
Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an
enterprise.
Business Value Benefit
Increases the ability to meet customer demands more quickly.
Lower costs associated with the acquisition and maintenance of technology.
Empowers the management of business functionality closer to the business
units.
Leverages existing investments in technology.
Reduces reliance on expensive custom development.
Drawbacks
SOA implementations are costly and time-consuming.
Requires complex security firewalls in place to support communication between
services.
Performance can be inconsistent.
Requires enterprise-level focus for implementation to be successful.
Security system needs to be sophisticated.
Costs can be high because services needs to be junked very often.
d. Cloud Architecture
Cloud computing is basically a software service provided over the Internet,
securely, by a service provider on a monthly or yearly lease.
Companies leasing CC services save money by replacing their purchased software
that requires a license fee per seat.
Some cloud computing providers also let you build your own applications using
their engines and then they would host those applications for you as part of the
service.
The cloud computing platform provides a great alternative for organizations that do
not want to:
a. Purchase, install, or maintain software applications.
b. Worry about security, privacy and legal issues associated with data storage.

The cloud computing platform is risky for organizations as it forces them to rely on
external vendors for reliability, security, and continuity of enterprise applications.
Benefits
- Pay for subscription, not for licenses and upgrades.
- Reduced capital and operating expenditures for IT equipment and support
personnel.
- Accessed from everywhere, as long as you have an Internet connection.
- No need to install anything on the users computer.
- Dynamic scalability available on demand.
- No maintenance fees for software or hardware.
- Promotes green computing environment as servers in cloud run on clean energy.
- Guaranteed reliability.
Drawbacks
- Data security.
- Vulnerability.
- Possible conflict of interest, if the company who stores your applications
decides to create a similar application to what you created on their servers.
- Not suited for all highly competitive industries like biotech where intellectual
property cannot be protected easily.

Tipe II buat bahan tambahan aja


1. Component of ERP, why is the complexity involved in implementing the ERP?
ERP has 5 key components which are hardware (IT), software (IT), database (integration
of data), people (the most challenging process to implement SAP chaging habit), and
process/network. These components must work together seamlessly for the
implementation to be successful. ERP systems are also continuously changing and
evolving to provide the organization with a new way of looking at business processes
and decision making. Organizations which the size and impact are huge, are continuously
changing to match their environments as well. Thats why system implementations are
generally very complex, time consuming, and resource intensive and increases
complexity. Therefore, before implementing ERP, an organization has to plan and
understand the life cycle of the system.
2. Why is the integration of data could help organization better?
The integration of data helps an organization to better meet the demands of a fast and
dynamic business world. This means data can be entered once and used by all aplications
in the organization, improving accuracy and quality of the data.
3. Give the example of how IT change the IS!
IS have changed as IT has changed. System models have moved from centralized to
decentralized, and finally to the current state. As the models have changed, so also have
the needs of organizations. The availability of ERP systems provides for integrated data
and business processes, thereby creating opportunities for organizations to expand and
change as their business changes. IT system also helps in automating process which will
change the business process

4. What is the benefit and limitation of ERP system?


e. System Benefit
- Integration of data and applications across functional areas e.g., data can be
entered once and used by all applications, thus improving accuracy and quality of
the data)
- Improvements in maintenance and support as IT staff is centralized
- Consistency of the user interface across various applications means less employee
training, better productivity, and cross-functional job movements.
- Security of data and applications is enhanced due to better controls and
centralization of hardware.
f. System Limitation
- Complexity of installing, configuring, and maintaining the system increases, thus
requiring specialized IT staff, hardware, and network facilities
- Consolidation of IT hardware, software, and people resources can be
cumbersome and difficult to attain
- Data conversion and transformation from an old system to a new one can be a
tedious and complex process.
- Retraining of IT staff and end users of the new system can produce resistance and
reduce productivity.
g. Business Benefit
- Increasing agility of the organization in terms of responsidng to changes in
environment for growth and maintaining market share.
- Information sharing helps collaboration between units.
- Linking and exchanging information in real-time with supply-chain partners
improves efficiency
- Better customer service due to quicker information flow across departments.
- Efficiency of business processes are enhanced due to the re-engineering of
business processes.
h. Business Limitation
- Retraining of all employees with the new system can be costly and time
consuming
- Change of business roles adn department boundaries can create upheaval and
resistance to the new system
5. What is the impact of organization structure on IS?
Organization structure creates the infrastructure to support the implementation of
decisions. To be successful in implementing an ERP system, an organization and its
management must clearly understand the implementation process.
6. Describe the type of functional silo in organization!
a. Horizontal silos

The POSDCORB (Planning,


Organizing, Staffing, Directing,
Coordinating, Reporting and
Budgeting) categorization by
Luther Gulick led to a set of
formal organization functions
such as control, management,
supervision, and administration starting in late 1930s.
Classification of organizations into departments like Accounting and Human
Resources, reflects the breaking of complex tasks into smaller manageable tasks
that could be assigned to a group of people who could then be held responsible.

b. Vertical Silos
- Organizations also divided roles in hierarchical layers from strategic planning to
management control and operation control.
- CEOs and Presidents plan long-term strategy, midlevel management focuses on
tactical issues and on the execution of organizational policy whereas the lowerlevel management task is to focus on the day-to-day operations of the company.
- As organizations get big and complex they tend to break functions into smaller
units and assign staff the responsibility for these activities allowing them to
manage complexity as well as specialize in activities that enhance productivity
and efficiency.
7. Why is system integration is important for organization?
Because if the system is not integrated then will creates silos. These systems cannot share
data and therefore requires users to access multiple systems to integrate the data
manually. As a result, the chance increases for data errors and inconsistencies. These
systems make it very difficult for organizations to be customer-centric because data
cannot be assimilated from different functional areas to address customer needs.
8. What is the role of ERP in system integration?
Logical Integration
a. ERP systems require organizations to focus on business process rather than on
functions.
b. ERP systems come with built-in processes for a wide variety of common business
functions.
c. An ERP system implements best practices via specific built-in steps for processing a
customer order in terms of:
- order entry.
- routing through departments.
- communication of output to various parties.
Physical Integration
a.
Before installing the ERP system, an organization may have to upgrade or install
middleware or get rid of their legacy systems hardware and software.
b.
Integration is also required at the Data level, Client level, and at the Application level.

c.

A good ERP implementation improves operational efficiency with better business


processes that focuses on organizational goals rather than on individual departmental goals.
d.
Improved efficiency with a paperless flow and electronic data interchange (EDI) or
business-to-business (B2B) commerce environment with partners.
9. Describe the enterprise system modules & architectures!
a. ERP Modules
- The key role of an ERP system is to provide support for such business functions as
accounting, sales, inventory control, and production.
- ERP vendors, including SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft, etc. provide modules that
support the major functional areas of a business.
- The ERP software embeds best business practices that implement the
organizations policy and procedure via business rules.
Production
Helps in the planning and optimizing of the manufacturing capacity, parts,
components, and material resources using historical production data and sales
forecasting.
Purchasing
Streamlines the procurement process of required raw materials and other
supplies.
Inventory Management
Facilitates the processes of maintaining the appropriate level of stock in a
warehouse.
Sales and Marketing
Implements functions of order placement, order scheduling, shipping, and
invoicing.
Finance
Can gather financial data from various functional departments and generate
valuable financial reports.
Human Resource
Streamlines the management of human resources and human capitals.
Miscellaneous Modules
Nontraditional modules such as business intelligence, self-service, project
management, and e-commerce.
b. ERP Architectures
ERP system architecture is organized in layers or tiers to manage system
complexity in order to provide scalability and flexibility.
Three-layer architecture (the most reliable, flexible, and scalable architecture) is
the most prevalent today and includes:
1. Web Servers.
2. Application Servers.
3. Database Servers.
10. List the various type of ERP architecture with its benefits!
a. Web Base- users can access the applications via internet.

b. Web Tier a web based self-service portal allows users the ability to access and
analyzeinformation through their web browser.These portals allow viewing from
many independentsystems.
c. Data Tier the data tier focus on the structure of all organizational data and its
relationships withinternal and external customers
d. Application Tier this tier is where data is entered and shared with
other components of thesystem.It shields the business users from
the inner workings of an ERP system, but stillprovides the
information relevant to their job and business process.
11. What is SOA and its impact on ERP system?
Also known as object-oriented architectures for Web platforms.
Breaks the business tier into smaller, distinct units of services, collectively supporting
an ERP functional module.
Allows message interaction between any service consumer and service provider.
A consumer from a device using any operating system in any language can use this
service
Separates the service providers drom the service consumer by making them sign a
service-level agreement contract that specifies how the consumer requests the service
and what information and services will be provided by the provider.
SOA include faster application development and reuse of siftware modules.
12. What is SDLC and list the problem and alternative!
The process of developing new information systems is often called the system
development life cycle. It basically includes a systematic process of planning, designing,
and creating an information system for organizations. Even though the process of
developing a system for individual or personal use can be simple, the task can become
very complex when the system has to support thousands of business processes for several
hundred users both inside and outside an organization. For complex systems
development projects (e.g., ERP), it is often better to have a structured methodology to
avoid mishaps and coordinate the design and development tasks properly among the
members of a large systems development team.
13. What is the key issues in ERP implementation strategy?
The ERP life cycle has variations from the SDLC process. The key reason is that
organizations buy ERP as prepackaged software, and then have to customize them as well
as change their companys business processes.
14. Describe the ERP implementation cycle!
a. Focus is on installing and releasing the system to the end-users and on monitoring the
system release to the end-users.
b. System conversion (4 Phases)
Phased, gradual movement of the company from the existing legacy system to the
ERP implementation, take significant amount of time
Pilot, a small version of the final system.

Parallel, ERP system is implemented and used in conjunction with the legacy system
Direct Cut or big bang, highest-risk approach, moves from the legacy system
directly and immediately to ease the ERP system.
c. Feedback received from system usage needs to be funneled to the postimplementation team for ongoing system support.
15. List and describe the rapid implementation methodologies!
In a rapid ERP life cycle, once a company commits to the implementation, employees are
empowered to make the decisions to keep the project moving forward. Consultants play
an important role in rapid implementation of ERP systems. They provide different

methodologies and techniques for rapid or accelerated implementation. This is an area


where the use of experienced consultants can best be leveraged as they bring knowledge
of techniques and approaches that have worked well with other organizations. Scripts and
wizards provided by consultants can help automate some of the more common tasks that
occur during an implementation. These include migration of data, identification of
duplicate data, and other standard tasks.

16. List the differences in SDLC and ERP Life Cycle!

17. What is the role of people in the ERP life cycle?


18. What is the role and importance of the PMO & Project organization to a successful ERP
implementation?
19. Describe the components of project organization with the roles and responsibilities of
each!
20. How is the ERP components work together to support business?
21. Do we need third party products in ERP system? Why?
22. Describe the impact of ERP implementation on platform components such as data
security, system reliability & sustainability!
23. What is the difference of chocolate and vanilla implementation on the system &
company in short term & long term?
24. Describe the initial steps in the purchase and implementation of ERP system!
25. What is the total cost of ownership?
26. Why the initial steps in purchasing ERP is critical to the change management process?
27. Describe the steps in negotiating a contract with a vendor!
28. What is the component of successful Go-Live?
29. Describe how to track and address problem on a daily basis!
30. What is the importance of training and knowledge transfer?