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TIMBER DESIGN

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LIMIT STATES

Limit States are conditions beyond which a structure won’t be able to

fulfil its relevance.

Two types of Limit State:

1) Strength Limit State

- Stress nearly exceeds or exceeds strength

- Bending stress, compressive stress, etc.

**2) Serviceability Limit State
**

- Occupants starts to feel discomfort during the structures operation

- Deflection, vibration, etc.

First application is in reinforced concrete design. now employed in steel and wood ???????? ??????? ?????? ≤ ????????? ?????? ? ???????ℎ .Stress calculation is based on unfactored loads .Loads are magnified by load factors to account variability .STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Two design philosophies to satisfy strength limit state criterion: ASD and LRFD 1) Allowable Stress (Strength) Design (ASD) .Strength is adjusted using resistance factor (that is less than 1) .Widely used in steel and wood design ???????ℎ ??????? ?????? ≤ ?? 2) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) .Use of Factor of Safety (FS) in adjusting strength .

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE • Internation Building Code (IBC) defines service limits for buildings. • Mainly deflections (instantaneous and long-term) • Deflection calculation is based on unfactored loads ??????? ?????????? ≤ ??? ?????????? ?????? .

BASIC LOAD COMBINATIONS .

SAWN LUMBER vs GLUE LAMINATED TIMBER (GLULAM) Sawn Lumber – directly derived from trees Classification of sawn lumber by size: 1) Dimension Lumber – small member .2” to 4” in thickness (width) 2) Timber – large member . .at least 5” thick (width) Glue Laminated Timber – derived from laminated lumber plates -used when no available timber sawn lumber.

CLASSIFICATION OF SAWN LUMBER Dressed Lumber is surfaced to the standard net size. Rough Sawn Lumber is sawn to dimensions that are close to the standard net size (The rough sawn is 1/8” larger than the dressed size) Full-sawn Lumber is when the actual size is the same as the specified size .

DESIGN METHODS .

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN (ASD) Adjusted Design Stress Values: ?? ′ = ?? ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? For a design to be acceptable. the actual stress must be less than or equal to the adjusted design value: ′ ?? ≤ ?? where ?? ′ = Adjusted Design Stress ?? = Design Stress ?? = Actual Stress .

ADJUSTED ASD DESIGN VALUES ?? = load duration factor (ASD only) ?? = wet service factor ?? = size factor ??? = flat use factor ?? = incising factor ?? = temperature factor ?? = repetitive member factor ?? = column stability factor ?? = beam stability factor ?? = bearing area factor .

the factored member force must be less than or equal to the adjusted LRFD resistance: ?? ≤ ?? ′ . ?? Adjusted Design Stress Values: Factored Member Force: ??? ′ = ??? ? ?? ?? ′ = ??? ′ ? ? For a design to be acceptable. • To establish nominal design values in LRFD.LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD) • Code-specified factored loads are given sa subscript u to indicate the force is due to factored loads. reference design values are multiplied by a format conversion factor.

ADJUSTED LRFD DESIGN VALUES λ = time effect factor (LRFD only) ∅ = resistance factor (LRFD only) ?? = wet service factor ?? = size factor ??? = flat use factor ?? = incising factor ?? = temperature factor ?? = repetitive member factor ?? = column stability factor ?? = beam stability factor .

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES .

0 Roof Live Load 1.6) Impact 2. CD Dead Load 0. the stronger the wood member. “The longer a load acts on a wood member. the shorter load duration.” Governing ?? corresponds to the shortduration in the load combination ?? applies to all reference design values except compression perpendicular to grain and modulus of elasticity (E) Type of Load Load Duration Factor.33 (or 1.9 Floor Live Load 1. ?? Duration of Load is accumulated length of time a load is applied during the life of the structure.25 Wind or Seismic Load 1. the lower the strength of the wood member.DURATION OF LOAD. conversely.0 .

WET SERVICE FACTOR.8 0.0 **when ?? ??? ≤ 750 psi. ???? Sawn Lumber 0.0 0. 16% for glulam Sawn Lumber Glulam ?? Moisture Content (%) Moisture Factor. CM ≤ 19 (S-dry) 1.97 0. S-dry condition –maximum moisture content of 19% for sawn lumber. ?? = 1. the strength of the wood decreases.833 *when ?? ??? ≤ 1150 psi.53 0.73 0. ?? = 1. ?? As moisture increases.0 > 19 See table below ≤ 16 (S-dry) 1.85* 1.8** 0.0 > 16 See table below ?? ?? ??⅃ ?? ?.875 0.67 0.0 .9 Glulam 0.8 0.

there becomes a large deviation between the predicted (theoretical) behaviour to the actual behaviour .Applicable only to sawn lumber (dimension lumber and timber) .SIZE FACTOR.Strength decreases as the wood cross section dimension increases . ?ℎ??? ? ?? ?? ??) ? 12 1 ?? = ( )9 ≤ 1.For ?? .0 (??. ?? and ?? only Formula is applicable only for timber: 300 1 ?? = ( )9 ≤ 1.As the size of the wood increases.0 (??????ℎ. ?ℎ??? ? ?? ?? ???ℎ) ? d = depth of beam . ?? .

SIZE FACTOR. ?? Size Factors for Dimension Lumber: .

??? • Applies when dimension of lumber from 2” to 4” thick is subject to weak axis bending. ?? may be increased by multiplying this factor Width (depth) Thickness 2” and 3” 4” 2” and 3” 1. • When loaded in the weak axis.05 8” 1.10 1.10 1.00 - 4” 1.15 1.FLAT USE FACTOR.15 1.20 1.05 6” 1.0 5” 1.10 .05 10” and wider 1.

?? • Applies when temperature exceed 660C for long periods • Is used to reduce reference design values if prolonged exposure to higher than normal temperatures are encountered in a design situation • ?? = 1.0 is normally used in the design of ordinary wood frame buildings .TEMPERATURE FACTOR.

9 2 ??? ?′? − 0. ?? • Applicable only to bending stress design value • Used to prevent buckling of the compression edge of beam • If depth is equal or less than the width.BENDING STABILITY FACTOR. the beam stability factor is given by: ??? 1+ ?′? ?? = − 1.95 . ?? = 1. ?? = 1.0 • For d>b.0 • If beam is supported at the ends against rotation and along the entire compression edge against lateral displacement.9 ??? 1+ ′ ?? 1.

floor. the reference ?? may be multiplied by a repetitive member factor. . For all other framing systems. or wall sheathing. 1.00. (2) members spaced not more than 600 mm. (3) members connected together by a load-distributing element such a roof. 1.15. For a repetitive member system.REPETITIVE MEMBER FACTOR. ?? A repetitive member system is defined as one that has (1) three or more parallel members of Dimension Lumber.

0 about the axis where bracing is provided • Be discussed in detail in the Column Design Lecture . ?? = 1.COLUMN STABILITY FACTOR. ?? • Accounts for the buckling stability of columns • For fully braced column.

BEARING AREA FACTOR.375 ?? = ?? ?? = (??????ℎ) ?? ?? where ?? is the length of bearing . ?? Accounts for the increase in allowable stress at interior supports Applicability conditions: • Length of bearing along the grain is less than 6” (150mm) • Not nearer than 3” (75mm) from member end • Applied to compressive stress perpendicular to grain ?? + 10 ?? + 0.

80 0.INCISING FACTOR.80 0.80 0.95 0.80 . ?? • Factor is applied when wood has incisions for penetration of preservatives The following factors shall be used as follows: ?? E ?? ?? ?? ??(???) 0.

? and ???? E = reference modulus of elasticity.MODULI OF ELASTICITY OF SAWN LUMBER.66 factor of safety of E ???? ? = 1. derived by applying 1.66 . is used in determining beam and column stability factors. is used in calculating deflection ???? = reduced modulus of elasticity.

?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ?? ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ?? ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ??⊥ ?? ? ✓ ?? ?? ?? ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ .

and exposed to normal temperature conditions. subject to governing load combination of dead and roof live load. determine all the adjusted values .EXAMPLE: Given a 2 x 10 Agoho (80% stress grade) wood member that is fully braced laterally.

and they directly support the roof sheathing. . The members are braced. Wood specie is Yakal at 63% stress grade. The moisture content is less than 19%.EXAMPLE: Roof rafters are 50 mm x 200 mm (2’’ x 8”) at 0. Normal temperature conditions apply. Bending will be about the strong axis of the cross section.60 m o.c. Determine the allowable design stress.

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