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Success is a function of persistence and doggedness

and the willingness to work hard for twenty-two minutes
to make sense of something that most people
would give up on after thirty seconds.
--Malcolm Gladwell--

Research Methods and Analysis
APA Style Guide

Manuscript Structure

Title Page


APA Style
Defines the uniform use of the following
Punctuation and abbreviations
Table construction
Citation of references
Statistics presentation
APA's style rules and guidelines are set out in a reference book called:
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Serif typeface for the main text
Sans serif typeface for figure labels
Use double-space for the entire manuscript
Double-space after headers
Double-space reference list
Double-space figure and table captions

Each paragraph should be indented one-half inch

Text should be aligned to left-hand margin, and left
ragged at right margin


Pages must be numbered consecutively; starting at
page 1
References should begin on a new page at the end of
main text
Each table begins on a new page after the References
Each figure begins on a new page after the Tables
Each appendix begins on a new page

Heading Format

Heading levels should be used consecutively

Headings are used to systematically organize the
They help readers locate key points and follow the
development of the authors thoughts and position


It is important to cite the work of individuals, researchers
etc whose ideas, theories an/or findings have directly
influenced your work
This is important even when you are describing or
paraphrasing an idea that was initially
presented/documented by someone else
As you conduct your research take notes and keep track
of all sources of data, information, ideas etc. that you
include, use or are influenced by in your study
Sources cited in the text should be listed in the reference
list where each source is listed alphabetically

APA style uses author-date citation system
Slope fans and slope-leveed channel complexes are
deposited in 600 3000 ft of water (Wood, 2000)
Wood (2000) identified the water depth of slope fans and
slope-leveed channel complexes as 600 3000 ft of
In 2000, Woods study of the Columbus Basin revealed
that slope fans and slope-leveed channel complexes are
deposited in 600 3000 ft of water.


Citing References in Text

Citing References in Text

1. When citing more than one reference/previous work, the intext citation is listed alphabetically (same order as in
reference list at end of document)



Reference List
All citations should be documented in the reference
References should be listed in order by the authors
surname, or first name if there is more than one
author with the same name
Reference list should be formatted with hanging
indent paragraph
Reference list should be double-spaced

Reference List
Each reference in the list should contain

Author name/names
Publication Date
Title of work
Publication Data


Citing from the Web

When citing a source found online or in electronic
Ensure you are citing the most recent version
Include journal volume number and pages of the article
Include the DOI number : Digital Object Identifier this is
a permanent digital identifier given to an object of
intellectual property