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Grade Level: 8th Grade

Subject/Topic: Describing Scatterplots

Small Group (

) Whole Class ( x )

Objectives/Outcomes: What do you want the students to learn? (Observable & Measurable)

The students will: (SWBAT know/do)

1. Students will be able to describe patterns in scatter plots.

Standards: Which Maine Learning Results, Common Core Standards or Provincial Standards

do these objectives support?

1. CCSS.Math.Content.8.SP.A.1

Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of

association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or

negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

Instructional Materials: What instructional materials or technology will you need?

1. white board and marker

5.

6.

Introduction: How do you plan to introduce the lesson and/or motivate the students?

Revised 5/19/15

Project several different scatter plots on the board ask students if they can interpret each one

and find different patterns (clusters, outliers, positive or negative association, or nonlinear

association) prompt them if needed

Negative association

Outlier

Procedures: How will the lesson develop or proceed? What steps will you follow? Include

questions you will ask and examples you will provide.

Present scenarios and work through them with the students.

1. Archaeopteryx is an extinct animal that possessed both scales and feathers and at one stage was

thought to be the 'missing link' between lizards and birds. Only six fossil specimens exist and

they vary greatly in size. As a result, there has been a lot of discussion about whether the fossils

all belong to one species or to different species. In order to help answer this question, data from

the length (cm) of the femur (a leg bone) was plotted against the length of the humerus (a bone in

the arm) on a scatter plot. Data were available for five of the specimens.

Comment: If the specimens belong to the same species and the differences are due to differences

in size because of age, then the points should show a positive (but not necessarily linear)

relationship. If any of the plotted points was an outlier from the bivariate pattern shown by the

other points, this might suggest (but not prove) that the point represented a specimen from a

different species.

UMPI College of Education Lesson Plan Format

Revised 5/19/15

a) no association indicates that five separate species are present

b) an outlier can be observed indicating the presence of two separate species

c) there is a strong positive association indicating that the specimens belong to one species

d) it is not possible to make any statement about the possible number of species present

from the data provided

2. Assets and Incomes for 20 US Banks (1973)

1969-1979 Assets and Liabilities of all Commercial Banks in the United States

Ask: Describe the association between income and assets for these 20 largest banks in the US:

a) positive

b) negative

Describe the form of the relationship:

a) linear

b) curved

c) seasonal

d) no association

How strong is the relationship?

a) no relationship

b) a bank's income can be predicted accurately from their assets

c) there is some relationship between assets and income for a bank

UMPI College of Education Lesson Plan Format

Revised 5/19/15

a) influential

b) outlier

c) mistake

d) a cluster

The data points (175, 36) (225, 50) and (270, 42) can be described as:

a) outliers

b) mistakes

c) irrelevant

d) influential

- they are in the same trend direction as the major cluster of points

3. Ask students what they think when asked, do taller people tend to have bigger hands?

- We will investigate this in our classroom where do we start?

Create a chart what should the chart include?

Measure each student's hand span (from tip of thumb to tip of pinky) how do we

make sure that the measurements are consistent? - one person measures inches of centimeters?

Create a graph

Answer question: do taller people tend to have bigger hands?

What is the relationship between handspan and height? - linear or nonlinear? Why?

After the chart is made, students will work on their own to complete the rest and hand it in at the

end of class.

Assessment/Check for Understanding: How will you measure if the students have met the

lesson objective?

Do taller people tend to have bigger hands? answers

Students will complete the quiz included below. They will need to add reasoning for their

answers and will be assessed more on their processing than their answers.

Now that we know how to identify and describe scatter plots and their data, tomorrow we will be

making predictions and analyzing data to solve our predictions.

materials, or assessment/check for understanding?

Prompt students during initial discussion if they don't speak up from their own observations

Revised 5/19/15

Sources:

http://www.uow.edu.au/student/qualities/statlit/module3/5.5correlation/UOW153443.html

https://www.illustrativemathematics.org/

Quiz:

The scatter plot below shows the relationship between the number of airports in a state and the

population of that state according to the 2010 census. Each dot represents a single state.

How would you characterize the relationship between the number of airports in a state and the

state's population?

- the variables are positively associated; states with higher populations tend to have

fewer airports

- the variables are negatively associated; states with higher populations tend to have

fewer airports

- the variables are positively associated; states with higher populations tend to have

more airports

- the variables are negatively associated; states with higher populations tend to have

more airports

- the variables are not associated

The function y = (1.3510 -6 )x+6.1 to model the relationship between the number of airports, y

and the population in a state, x.

How many airports does the model predict for a state with a population of 30 million

people?

46.6 airports

What does the number 6.1 that appears in the function mean in the context of airports vs

populations?

Revised 5/19/15

- the average number of airports in a state is 6.1

- the median number of airports in a state is 6.1

- the model predicts a population of 6.1 people in a state with no airports

- the model predicts 6.1 airports in a state with no people

- the model predicts that 6.1 states have no airports

- the model predicts 6.1 more airports, on average, for each additional person in a

state

- the model predicts 6.1 fewer airports, on average, for each additional person in a

state

- the number 6.1 cannot be interpreted in this context

What does the number 1.35 x 10 -6 that appears in the function mean in the context of

airports vs. populations?

- the median number of airports in a state is 1.35 x 10-6

- the model predicts 1.35 x 10 -6 airports in a state with no people

- the model predicts 1.35 x 10 -6 people in a state with no airports

- the model predicts 1.35 x 10 -6 states have no airports

- the model predicts 1.35 x 10 -6 more airports, on average, for each additional

person in a state

- the model predicts 1.35 x 10 -6 fewer airports, on average, for each additional

person in a state

- the number 1.35 x 10 -6 cannot be interpreted in this context

Fill in the following newspaper headline based on this relationship:

On average, a state in the contiguous 48 US states has 1 additional airport for

every

700 thousand

additional people.

Revised 5/19/15

Group Size: Individual ( x )

Small Group (

) Whole Class ( x )

Objectives/Outcomes: What do you want the students to learn? (Observable & Measurable)

The students will: (SWBAT know/do)

1.Students will be able to make predictions based on information presented and then analyze the

data that is presented to explain the relationships between the variables.

Standards: Which Maine Learning Results, Common Core Standards or Provincial Standards

do these objectives support?

1. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative

variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and

informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

Instructional Materials: What instructional materials or technology will you need?

1. projector and computer

4.

2.

5.

3.

6.

Introduction: How do you plan to introduce the lesson and/or motivate the students?

(Attention Getter, Review, and/or Preview) Explain your purpose.

If I asked you if there is an association between the weight of an animal's body and the weight of

an animal's brain, what do you think the answer would be? We're going to use a chart to create a

scatterplot and analyze the data to answer our question.

Take out a piece of paper and at the top, write down your prediction for the outcome of our

question. Do you think it will be linear/non linear, positive/negative, will there be any outliers?

Etc.

Project the chart (included below) onto the board so all students can see it.

Procedures: How will the lesson develop or proceed? What steps will you follow? Include

questions you will ask and examples you will provide.

Now that you have the data, make a scatterplot on your own and answer the following questions:

a) Do there appear to be any outliers in this data? Which animals appear to be outliers?

UMPI College of Education Lesson Plan Format

Revised 5/19/15

b) Removing the outliers from the data set, make a new scatterplot of the remaining animal

body and brain weights.

c) Does there appear to be a relationship between body weight and brain weight? If yes,

write a brief description of the relationship.

d) Draw a line into the data. Attempt to place your line so that the vertical distances from

the points to the line are as small as possible.

e) How well does your line appear to fit the data? Explain.

When all students are finished, go over the entire scenario with the class.

a) there appear to be two outliers. The outliers are the African Elephant and the Asian

Elephant. The points corresponding to these two animals are very far away from the rest of the

data.

b) show a copy of a scatterplot without the outliers

c) yes, there appears to be a relationship between body weight and brain weight of animals.

The relationship looks roughly linear and the relationship is positive. Larger brain weights tend to

be paired with larger body weights.

d) show a copy of a line drawn through (where it fits best)

e) the line fits the data fairly well although the human has a brain weight that is very large

given the body weight.

Project the above scatterplot on the board, large enough for everyone in the class to see. Ask the

students if they can identify what the scatterplot is showing. - the lengths and widths of eggs of

some American birds.

What predictions can you make about the birds? - larger eggs come from larger birds

Work through the first question with the students, and then have them work on the rest on their

own.

a) A biologist measured a sample of one hundred Mallard duck eggs and found they had an

average length of 57.8 millimeters and average width of 41.6 millimeters. Use an x to mark a

point that represents this on the scatter diagram.

b) What does the graph show about the relationship between the lengths of birds' eggs and

their widths?

c) Another sample of eggs from similar birds has an average length of 35 millimeters. If these

bird eggs follow the trend in the scatter plot, about what width would you expect these eggs to

have, on average?

UMPI College of Education Lesson Plan Format

Revised 5/19/15

d) Describe the differences in shape of the two eggs corresponding to the data points marked

C and D in the plot.

e) Which of the eggs A, B, C, D, and E has the greatest ratio of length to width? Explain how

you decided.

Go through the answers with the students as everyone has finished.

a)

b) There seems to be a positive linear relationship between the length and width of the eggs.

c) the line below appears to fit the data fairly well:

Since it passes through (0, 0) and (50, 36), it's slope is

= 0.72, so the equation of the line is

y = 0.72x

If x = 35, then our line would predict that y = 0.72 x 35 = 25.2. So we would expect the width of

these eggs to be, on average, about 25mm. *Answers using different lines can vary up to 1mm

either direction

d) Without reading off precise numerical values from the plot, we can see that eggs C and D have

very nearly the same width, but egg D is about 12 millimeters longer than egg C.

e) First, we note that egg E certainly has a higher length-to-width ratio than C or D, since it is

both longer and narrower. Similarly, E has a higher ratio that B because it is significantly longer,

and only a tad wider. It Is harder to visually identify the difference between A and E, we compute

36

their respective length-to-width ratios numerically, which

50 turn out to be approximately 1.3 for A

and 1.6 for E. So E has the greatest ratio of length to width.

Assessment/Check for Understanding: How will you measure if the students have met the

lesson objective?

Students will turn in their papers that they worked on in class and assessment will be done on

their answers and participation in class discussion.

Revised 5/19/15

What other things are you curious about that could be recorded and assessed through the use of

scatterplots? What types of questions do we need to ask when forming a question so that it can be

accurately measured? What questions do we need to ask when analyzing data to form

conclusions?

Accommodations/Differentiation: What modifications could you make to lesson procedures,

materials, or assessment/check for understanding?

Assist students as needed through their work instead of waiting until everyone is finished to go

over the problems.

Revised 5/19/15

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