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Screw Thread Measurement

Screw Thread
Screw threads are used either
1. to transmit power (e.g. lead screw) or
1. to act as fasteners

Thread Terminology
P

Root

MD
ED
mD

Crest

Forms of Thread

Errors in Threads
Major diameter, Minor diameter, Effective diameter, Pitch, Angle
Error in any of the five elements can cause rejection of the thread.

Errors on major and minor diameters


- Interference with the mating thread
- Root section and wall thickness will be less
- Flank contact will be reduced
- The component will be weak in strength

Errors on the effective diameter


- Interference between the flanks or general slackness
- Weakening of the assembly

Errors
Pitch Errors
Cause:

Linear velocity of tool


Angular velocity of work

R being incorrect or not maintained constant throughout

Fig. Effect of pitch error

Errors
Pitch Errors
INCREASE IN
EFFECTIVE DIAMETER

Fig. Effect of pitch error

In ABC,
AC p 2

BC Ed 2
Ed pcot
tan

Ed 1.92p ( 55o for Whitworth thread)


Change in effective diameter is almost twice the value of pitch error

Errors
Angle Errors

(a) With no angle error

(b) Interference caused by angle error

Errors
Angle Errors

Fig. Effective diameter equivalent of angle error

Screw Thread Measurement


Major Diameter

A good quality hand micrometer is enough

For greater accuracy and convenience

It uses constant measuring pressure

->

Bench micrometer

Ds = diameter of setting cylinder


Rs = micrometer reading on setting cylinder
Rw = micrometer reading on Work piece (Thread)
Major diameter = Ds + (Rw - Rs)
Fig. Bench micrometer

Major diameter of internal threads?


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Screw Thread Measurement contd


Minor Diameter
Steel Vee pieces interposed between the micrometer faces
Included angle of Vee < angle of the thread to be checked
Limitation:

Only Whitworth and B.A threads can be measured


Other threads can be checked using projector or
microscope

Fig. Minor diameter measurement with Vee pieces

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Screw Thread Measurement contd


Effective Diameter

Effective diameter measurement


with two and three wires

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Screw Thread Measurement contd


3-Wire Method using Hand Micrometer
If a hand or bench micrometer is used
- Three wires
- Micrometer faces aligned parallel to the thread axis

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Screw Thread Measurement


2-Wire Method using Floating Carriage Diameter Measuring Machine
Two wires are enough

Procedure:
1.

Reading is taken on a
cylindrical standard of
known dia. with wires.

2.

Comparative readings are


then taken on the thread.
Accuracy of measurement
= 0.2 m

Photographic view

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Effective Diameter Calculations


Effective dia. = Diameter under wires + P value (2BC) = Du + P value
Effective dia. = Diameter over wires - C value (2GC) = Do - C
value
G

2 wire method
3 wire method

d
OF
d cosec
2 OA
OA OA
2
d (cosec 1)
AB OA - OB
2
p
CE
p cot
From CAE, tan
= 4 AC
AC AC
4
p cot d (cosec 1)
BC AC-AB

4
2
this is half the "P"value
p
"P" value cot d (cosec 1)
2
and
"C" value 2d "P" value
From OAF, sin

O
F

C
D

E
B

Du

De

Do

A
De = Effective dia.
Du = Dia. under wires
Do = Dia. over wires
DE = half pitch of thread
d = Dia. of wire
= semi-angle of thread

( 2p )

"C" value d (cosec 1)

p
cot
2

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Best size wire diameter


Any wire can be used to measure the
effective diameter of a thread

O
Pitch line

But errors in the angle or form of thread


can lead to incorrect estimation of
effective diameter with such a wire.

De

For each pitch of thread, there is a


best size wire
Best size wire will have a diameter such
that it makes contact with flanks of the
thread on the effective diameter.
Wires must be allowed free to adjust
themselves under the anvil pressure

From OCB, cos

BC

OC

p
4
d

p
d sec
2
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p
cot d (cosec 1)
2
p
p
cot sec (cosec 1)
2
2
p cos
1
1

2 sin cos sin cos

"P" value

p cos 2 1 sin p sin 2 sin

2 sin cos 2 sin cos


p 1 sin
.
2 cos

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Pitch Gauges

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