You are on page 1of 9

1. to transmit power (e.g. lead screw) or
1. to act as fasteners

P

Root

MD
ED
mD

Crest

Major diameter, Minor diameter, Effective diameter, Pitch, Angle
Error in any of the five elements can cause rejection of the thread.

## Errors on major and minor diameters

- Interference with the mating thread
- Root section and wall thickness will be less
- Flank contact will be reduced
- The component will be weak in strength

## Errors on the effective diameter

- Interference between the flanks or general slackness
- Weakening of the assembly

Errors
Pitch Errors
Cause:

## Linear velocity of tool

Angular velocity of work

## Fig. Effect of pitch error

Errors
Pitch Errors
INCREASE IN
EFFECTIVE DIAMETER

In ABC,
AC p 2

BC Ed 2
Ed pcot
tan

## Ed 1.92p ( 55o for Whitworth thread)

Change in effective diameter is almost twice the value of pitch error

Errors
Angle Errors

Errors
Angle Errors

Major Diameter

->

Bench micrometer

## Ds = diameter of setting cylinder

Rs = micrometer reading on setting cylinder
Major diameter = Ds + (Rw - Rs)
Fig. Bench micrometer

## Major diameter of internal threads?

10

Minor Diameter
Steel Vee pieces interposed between the micrometer faces
Included angle of Vee < angle of the thread to be checked
Limitation:

## Only Whitworth and B.A threads can be measured

Other threads can be checked using projector or
microscope

## Fig. Minor diameter measurement with Vee pieces

11

Effective Diameter

## Effective diameter measurement

with two and three wires

12

3-Wire Method using Hand Micrometer
If a hand or bench micrometer is used
- Three wires
- Micrometer faces aligned parallel to the thread axis

13

2-Wire Method using Floating Carriage Diameter Measuring Machine
Two wires are enough

Procedure:
1.

cylindrical standard of
known dia. with wires.

2.

Accuracy of measurement
= 0.2 m

Photographic view

14

## Effective Diameter Calculations

Effective dia. = Diameter under wires + P value (2BC) = Du + P value
Effective dia. = Diameter over wires - C value (2GC) = Do - C
value
G

2 wire method
3 wire method

d
OF
d cosec
2 OA
OA OA
2
d (cosec 1)
AB OA - OB
2
p
CE
p cot
From CAE, tan
= 4 AC
AC AC
4
p cot d (cosec 1)
BC AC-AB

4
2
this is half the "P"value
p
"P" value cot d (cosec 1)
2
and
"C" value 2d "P" value
From OAF, sin

O
F

C
D

E
B

Du

De

Do

A
De = Effective dia.
Du = Dia. under wires
Do = Dia. over wires
DE = half pitch of thread
d = Dia. of wire

( 2p )

p
cot
2

15

## Best size wire diameter

Any wire can be used to measure the

O
Pitch line

## But errors in the angle or form of thread

can lead to incorrect estimation of
effective diameter with such a wire.

De

## For each pitch of thread, there is a

best size wire
Best size wire will have a diameter such
that it makes contact with flanks of the
Wires must be allowed free to adjust
themselves under the anvil pressure

## From OCB, cos

BC

OC

p
4
d

p
d sec
2
16

p
cot d (cosec 1)
2
p
p
cot sec (cosec 1)
2
2
p cos
1
1

"P" value

p 1 sin
.
2 cos

17

Pitch Gauges

18