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Aquatics, Swimming and other water acts

SWIMMING

An activity that burns lots of calories, is easy on the joints, supports your
weight, builds muscular strength and endurance, and improves
cardiovascular fitness.
an individual sport and activity

History
Swimming has roots from prehistoric times, where cave paintings featured
early humans swimming across rivers. Human beings have been swimming
for millennia.
Stone Age cave drawings depict individuals swimming and there are written
references in the Bible and the Greek poems "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey"
dating back 1,500 to 2,000 years.
There are even Egyptian clay seals from 4000 BC showing four swimmers
doing a version of the crawl, and the most famous swimming drawings were
apparently found in the Kebir desert and were estimated to also be from
around 4000 BC.
First swimming book (1538)
- Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote The Swimmer
or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming.
Competitive swimming
1800 - Started in Europe mostly using breaststroke
1873 - John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming
competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native Americans.
Due to a British disregard for splashing, Trudgen employed a scissor kick
instead of the front crawl's flutter kick.
First modern Olympic games (1896 in Athens)
Swimming become part
1902 - Richard Cavill introduced the front crawl to the Western world.
1908 - the world swimming association, Fdration Internationale de Natation
(FINA), was formed. 1930 - Butterfly was developed
1952 - first it was a variant of breaststroke until it was accepted as a separate
style
The most popular swimmers
Mark Spitz is the biggest swimmer in the history
of swimming with 11 Olympic medals.
Matthew Nicholas Biondi is another great swimmer
in the swimming history winning 11 Olympic medals
including 8 golden medals.
Johnny Weissmuller is another talented swimmer
in the swimming history.
Ian James Thorpe is one of the most popular swimmers
with 9 medals including 5 golden.
Michael Fred Phelps holds 4 world records now. His
best events are Freestyle and Individual medley.
Kristin Otto is the famous swimmer , who won 6 golden medals
at her first participation in the 1988 Olympic games.
Jennifer Elisabeth Thompson is a great swimmer in world
swimming. She has won 12 medals participating in 4 Olympic games.
Functions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

As
As
As
As
As

livelihood
bathing
transportation
survival
recreation

6. As an exercise
7. As a sport
8. As a treatment or medication
Basic Skills in Swimming
1. Floating techniques
a) Jellyfish float tack position/compressed
b) Turtle float
- expands as thin as possible
c) Supine/Back position
d) Dead mans float/Prone
2. Breathing
3. Bubbling
4. Gliding
a) Kick glide kick then go
b) Flattered kick
c) Total leg work combination of first 2 glide
d) Arm pull propulsive, recovery phase (touch, pull, release)
5. Crawling front crawl, back crawl
6. Diving
- head first, feet first, water surface dive, duck dive, jack knife
dive
Basic position sitting, kneeling, standing
Equipments used
1. Swimsuit
The suit covers the skin for modesty. Competitive swimwear seeks to improve
upon bare human skin for a speed advantage. In 2009, FINA rules and
regulations were altered and suits made with polyurethane were banned
because they made athletes more buoyant. These rules also banned suits
which go above the navel or below the knee for men and suits which extend
past the shoulders or cover the neck for women [13]
2. Swim cap
A swim cap (a.k.a. cap) keeps the swimmer's hair out of the way to reduce
drag. Caps may be made of latex, silicone, spandex or lycra.
3. Goggles
Goggles keep water and chlorine out of swimmers' eyes. Goggles may be
tinted to counteract glare at outdoor pools. Prescription goggles may be used
by swimmers who wear corrective lenses.
4. Swim Fins
Rubber fins are used to help kick faster and build strength and technique, but
are illegal in a race. They also improve technique by keeping the feet in the
proper position while kicking.
5. Drag suit
Swimmers use drag suits in training to increase resistance.
6. Hand paddles
Swimmers use these plastic devices to build arm and shoulder strength and
refine pulling technique. Hand paddlesattach to the hand with rubber tubing
or elastic material. They come in many different shapes and sizes, depending
on swimmer preference or if a team has begun to taper.
7. Kickboard
A kickboard is a foam board that swimmers use to support the weight of the
upper body while they focus on kicking; helps build leg muscles. (Is usually
used during practice)
8. Pull buoy
Often used at the same time as hand paddles, pull buoys support swimmers'
legs (and prevents them from kicking) while they focus on pulling. Pull buoys
are made of foam so they float in the water. Swimmers hold them in between
the thighs. They can also be used as a kickboard to make kicking a little
harder.
9. Ankle bands
Improving balance will minimize the need for this kick to provide an upward,
instead of a forward vector, and in some cases completely corrects the kick.
Using an ankle band will have the immediate effect of turning off your kick,
which then forces you to make efforts to correct your balance. If you are

successful in discovering these, then the ankle band has done part of its job.
[14]

10. Snorkel
A snorkel is a plastic device that helps swimmers breathe while swimming.
This piece of equipment helps the swimmer practice keeping his or her head
in one position, along with training them for the proper breathing technique
of breathing in through the mouth and out the nose. This technique is the
opposite of a common runner's breathing pattern, which is in the nose and
out the mouth.
Different Strokes
1. Butterfly Stroke: it is the toughest and the most exhausting swimming
stroke, encompassing windmill like arm movements and dolphin kick. While
performing this stroke competitively, the swimmer should avoid underwater
swimming.
Hands pull down, lower legs pushes down, toes pointed
Arms pull wide, head looking forward
Legs push up, hips push down, hands move in under shoulders

Legs continue upward movement, hips push down, hands move in


under body, head comes up out of water
Legs begin downward movement, hands push back at side of hips,
head clears water
Arms begin recovery over the water, head thrust forward to breathe
Arms come over straight and wide, face down in water
Hands enter in front of shoulder to repeat action
2. Breast Stroke: this is one among the different swimming strokes that
involves arm movements on the front side, from your head to shoulder level.
It is the frog kick that can be associated with this stroke. The swimmer
should keep his/her head above the water surface, while carrying out this
swim stroke.
Body is streamlined but at a small angle, eyes look forward and down
Arms pull to side back and down, hands stay in front of shoulders \
Breathe out and take a breath quickly
As the arms complete their action, the legs are drawn up
As arms push forward legs drive back with feet turned out

Some swimmers find it restful to hold a short glide before the next
stroke
3. Freestyle (Front crawl): flutter kick and alternating over arm
movements are the features that characterize crawl-swimming stroke. While
doing crawling, the swimmer has to keep his head in the water, alternating
the face side.
Body flat, eyes look forward and down
Hand enters the water just inside shoulder line. Arm pulls down an
back with elbow bent, body rolls
Arm recovery is an easy, relaxed action with the elbow higher than the
hand
Arm pushes back, head starts to turn ready for breathing
Head turns to side, breathe out and in quickly
The face turns back into the water as soon as the breath is taken
4. Backstroke: this stroke involves alternate over the head arm movements
and
flutter kick.
Little finger enters water first, the arm is straight
When the arm is at shoulder level the elbow bends, arm pulls
sideways, body rolls
Aim for a flat body position, with head back and eyes looking upwards
The arm and leg actions are continuous
Breathe out as one arm recovers and in as the other recovers
The recovering arm points straight up

5. Dog paddle: it is one of the simplest swimming strokes, making use of


modified flutter kick. In dog paddling, your forward motion takes place with
your arms underwater.
Flotation device
1. Vest
2. Personal Flotation Device
3. Ring buoy
4. Leg buoy
5. Kick board
6. Interior (Salbabida)
7. Noodles Tube
8. Rescue Cad
9. Rescue Tube
Rescue
Rescue methods:
1. Reach/Reaching Assist
a) Reaching Assist one man carry
b) Wading (Group) walking in the water
2. Throw/Throwing Assist (Rope)
a) Heaving line
b) Heaving jug throw
c) Ring buoy and line
3.
Go/ Go Assist
a) Collar toe
b) Wrist toe
c) Neckline
d) Crossed chest carry
e) Crossed arm pull