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Annex A

(Normative)
Load Models for Classification and Assessment of Loadcarrying Capacity
(Replaces 'Models of Special Vehicles for Road Bridges')

A1.

Procedure for classification and load-carrying capacity
assessment

A1.1

Purpose and field of application
(1)P
This annex states the overall methodology for classification and assessment
of load-carrying capacity for existing road and path bridges, and the load models to
be used.
(2)
Together with the related supplementary rules set out in the Load and calculation rules for road and path bridges, this annex forms the basis of the administration of heavy transport vehicles with a total weight exceeding the limits stipulated in the Danish Road Traffic Act, with each bridge on the relevant road section or in
the relevant road network being assigned to a bridge class based on a load-carrying
capacity assessment, such bridge class being used in part for the establishment of
road networks for heavy transport vehicles, and in part for specific assessments of
passage possibilities for heavy-duty transport vehicles.
(3)
In addition, the rules provide the basis of signposting of weak bridges not
able to carry vehicles weighing up to the weight limitations stipulated in the Road
Traffic Act, i.e. with a total weight of up to 48 tonnes.
(4)
With the trial scheme for Huge Goods Vehicles (HGV), special HGVs have
been introduced with a total weight up to 60 tonnes, but with a greater length,
which, however, are only permitted to pass already designated sections where the
load-carrying requirement is automatically met.

A1.2

Types of load-carrying capacity assessments
(1)
Distinction should be made between the following types of load-carrying
capacity assessments:
1. Classification of bridges with the aid of scale-determined reference vehicles
called standard vehicles
2. Signage of weak bridges with the aid of 'limit vehicles' as defined in the
Danish Road Traffic Act
3. A direct load-carrying capacity assessment based on the current vehicle

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as more dangerous load situations may occur for general traffic than those that are part of a classification.2-1 below.3.2-1 Overall principle.(2) Also. a classification cannot immediately be assumed to constitute a sufficient safety verification of the load-carrying capacity. (3) The overall principle is shown in the Figure A1. classification and transport assessment 1 June 2013 2/16 . Thus. see section A2. Load-carrying assessment Figure A1.2. in the context of classification of large bridges with large widths of span a separate verification of load-carrying capacity ought to be performed for general traffic within the limits of the Danish Road Traffic Act.

1-1 and -2.2 Signposting of weak bridges (1) A load-carrying capacity assessment with a view to signage of weak bridges will be made on the basis of the 'limit vehicles' defined in the Road Traffic Act. (3) In addition. classes are calculated corresponding to the various passage types.2. (2) These standard vehicles also form the basis of a classification of heavy vehicles/transport vehicles. (3) In connection with the classification. (2) Direct assessment is used only in the context of conditional passage type 3.3. see section A3. see sections A1. Each overall structural element shall be regarded as a bridge in the bridge. transverse bulkheads. (4) Large bridges with a width of span of more than 50 metres shall be regarded as consisting of several bridges in the bridge.1 Classification (1) The load-carrying capacity assessment of existing bridges will. for example. see below regarding passage types. is normally made only in cases where a classification does not lead to the desired permission for passage. (2) Such an assessment will only be relevant if a classification has led to a normal passage class that is smaller than the passage corresponding to the upper curve in section A3. see Figure A2.2.3 Direct assessment (1) Direct assessment of the load-carrying capacity in relation to the actual vehicle requested to pass the bridge. see below. be made in the form of a classification using standard vehicles.2. slabs.3. direct assessment may be considered when the relevant vehicles differ significantly from the standard vehicles.1 and A2. Classification is thus an indirect method which is not based on real vehicles. hangers. An influence length should be assigned to the classes for the structural element instead of widths of span. in principle.A1. etc. for example if the relevant vehicle has larger axle load or significantly different axle configuration than the standard vehicles. A1. For each structural element up to 5 bridge classes are calculated. which reflect the degree of restrictions imposed on heavy transportation.2. A1. 1 June 2013 3/16 .2.

3. When determining the class. The vehicle's class is defined as the largest of all the width of span classes. reduced speed.     Conditional passage. it is being used for large bridges. type 3: The standard vehicle A is the only traffic load on the bridge and drives in a specially designated lane (the least dangerous) and at a reduced speed (v = 10 km/h) Conditional passage. when they are subjected to a simply supported beam with the widths of span of 2.A1. as the class roughly corresponds to the total weight in tonnes of the standard vehicle. 1 June 2013 4/16 . but with reduced speed for standard vehicle A (v = 10 km/h) Conditional passage. e. 8. 2. 10. 40.3 Classification of vehicles – calculation of vehicle classes (1)P The classification system means that the relevant heavy transport vehicles shall be classified based on the same standard vehicles as are used as basis for classification of the bridges. 15. (4)P For each width of span. type 1: Standard vehicles A and B. 80.1 and other traffic load shall be placed within the carriageway. 4. see section A2. 2 classes are determined for the relevant vehicle. Type 3A is only relevant for bridges with at least two carriageways in each direction. 20.1 Passage types (1)P A distinction shall be made between different transit types: 1. 30.1-1 and -2. A1. 100 and 200 metres. The classes from 225 and upwards are primarily used for bridges with a width of span of more than 50 metres. (3)P Conditional passage means that one or more restrictions are imposed on the transport. The largest class for the relevant width of span is called the width of span class. see Figure A2. but with the bridge only being closed for other traffic in the in the direction of travel. driving in a special lane or limitations in the other traffic. 50.3. Typically. straight interpolation between the classes shall be used. (2) The standard vehicles represent 22 different classes from class 10 to class 500. 25. 6. 60.g.3. meaning within the existing lane Conditional passage type 2: Same as type 1. type 3A: Same as type 3. (3)P A vehicle class is determined by comparing moment and shear force from the relevant vehicle with moment and shear force of the series of standard vehicles. one for moment and one for shearing. typically motorway bridges. Normal passage Conditional passage (2)P Normal passage means that vehicles may freely pass the bridge without any form of restrictions.

(2) Assessment on the basis of classification:   (3) The maximum class of the transport is lower than the class of the bridge for the relevant passage types. it is a requirement that the transport class shall be lower than the class of the bridge for all the sub-elements. If a more refined load-carrying capacity assessment has been made with load-carrying capacity classes for the various elements of the bridge (typically large bridges). based on the influence lengths relating to the sub-elements. which is the only passage type used in connection with a direct assessment. Assessment on the basis of a direct assessment:  The load-carrying capacity of the bridge shall not be exceeded in any element in the conditional passage. of the bridge. alternatively type 3A.3. or.A1. respectively. As a point of departure one may use the maximum width of span class corresponding to the maximum and minimum width of span. 1 June 2013 5/16 .2 Conditions which shall be met in connection with the passage of transport (1)P A heavy transport may pass a bridge if the conditions in (2) and (3) have been met. type 3. normal or conditional.

The load track width is set at 3. A2. these shall be determined by way of check measurements. while vehicle B shall be placed in the second-most critical load track.1 Division of the carriageway area into load tracks (notional lanes) and numbering of load tracks (1)P The same rules shall be used as stated in section 4. see Figures A2.2 Load set-up. shall be placed in the most critical load track. load track 1. The uniformly distributed load shall not be placed outside the load tracks.2-2.0 metres a and b vary. load tracks. and the uniformly distributed load shall be placed in the other load tracks as well as in front of and behind the heavy vehicles as shown in the figure. Load set-up and load models A2. classification (1)P When classifying bridges. A. and the load tracks shall be numbered as stated herein.2-1 Definition of load lanes. but with a + b < 3 metres 1 June 2013 6/16 .2-1 and A2. load track 2. carriageways and traffic lanes.A2. (2) Where the width of the lane area and other geometrical parameters of importance to the position of the load are not known with certainty. a load model shall be used consisting of two standard vehicles and a uniformly distributed load.2. The heaviest vehicle. Figure A2.

type 3: The standard vehicle A is the only traffic load on the bridge and is placed in the most favourable lane and with reduced impact loading factor corresponding to reduced speed (v = 10 km/h) Conditional passage. (3)P placed. (2)P types. (2)P The vehicles shall always be placed in the middle of a load track and parallel with the direction of travel.2 Conditional passage (1) Conditional passage means that the position of the load is subject to restrictions. type 3A: The same as type 3. the load shall be considered as randomly A2. type 1: Standard vehicles A and B and other traffic loads shall be placed within the existing traffic lanes. Conditional passage type 2: The same as type 1. but with reduced impact loading factors corresponding to the reduced speed (v = 10 km/h) Conditional passage.     (3)P The following restrictions are linked to the previously mentioned passage Conditional passage. Conditional passage types 1 and 2 means that vehicles and the uniformly 1 June 2013 7/16 . in the most dangerous position for the structural part and the section subject to examination.Load tracks/ lanes Figure A2. but where the bridge is only closed for the other traffic in the direction of travel.2. The restrictions entail that higher load-carrying capacity classes are achieved for the bridge.2-2 Load position A2.1 Normal passage (1) Normal passage means that no restrictions are associated with the position of the vehicles and the load.2. When examining local effects.

Figure A2.2-1 Position of standard vehicles for different passenger types (4)P Conditional passage type 3 means that the position of the load may be limited to the most favourable traffic lane for A. in the most dangerous position for the structural part and the section subjected to examination.2. conditional passage type 3A 1 June 2013 8/16 .2-2. As for type 3A.2-1. vehicle B and the uniformly distributed load are placed in the existing traffic tracks in the opposite direction of travel. see Figure A2.2.2.2-2 Position of vehicles. but with a + b < 3 metres Figure A2. see Figure A2.2. in the most dangerous position for the structural part and the section subject to examination. Classification – normal passage Classification – conditional passage in the most dangerous lane in the second most dangerous lane in other “whole” lanes a and b vary.distributed load are placed in the existing traffic lanes in parallel with the direction of travel.

the track width is 2.3 Separate verification for ordinary traffic load.1. (2)P For classes lower than or equal to 50.3-1. the examination may be limited to a fixed position of the most favourable traffic lane. A2. classification (1)P As vehicle A the standard vehicles shown in Figure A2.6 m. This load is inclusive of impact loading factors.3 Load models A2. vehicle B has the same class as A.3.8 m for classes greater than 100.3.3-1 Uniformly distributed load. For classes up to and including 100. large bridges (5)P As load.2 Evenly distributed traffic load.1 Vehicles A and B.3.3 Evenly distributed traffic load for separate verification. classification (4)P The uniformly distributed load is set at 2.0 Figure A2. The values stated include impact loading factors.4. uniformly distributed load as shown in the table below. see section A2.3. the load shall be considered as randomly placed within the existing traffic lanes. A2. shall be used. For classes larger than 50.(5)P When examining local effects in the conditional passage types 1 and 2. Uniformly distributed load [kN/m2] 50m < L ≤ 100 m 100m < L ≤ 1000 m L > 1000 m 4. in certain situations. (3)P The wheel pressure from the standard vehicle is distributed over a width of 600 mm across and a contact length in the direction of travel of 200 mm. may be more critical than the load incidences used in the classification. but it is 2. A2.3.5 kN/m2.0 2. Figure A2. large bridges 1 June 2013 9/16 . The size of the uniformly distributed load solely depends on the influence length and shall be placed in the entire width of the bridge.1-1 and -2 corresponding to the various classes are used. large bridges (1)P For large bridges with a width of span of more than 50 metres. vehicle B is maintained on class 50.89 + 111/L 3. In connection with conditional passage types 3 and 3A. which. a verification shall also be conducted for safety purposes of the load-carrying capacity for the load incidences with a normal traffic load.2.3. A2.3.

according to the following formula.0. type 1.3xqxLb ≤ 900 kN. For widths of span/influence lengths greater than 60 m.3. where hs is inserted in m. φ is set at φ = 1. 1 June 2013 10/16 .A2.3. the braking load shall be determined by way of interpolation.0xqxLb = 360 + 0. the dynamic factor is reduced as a function of the height hs of the earth fill. which shall be multiplied by the vehicle axle load. (2) For bridge lengths that are shorter than or equal to 10 m the braking load shall be calculated as 10% of the total weight of vehicle A.0. The braking force is expected to attack in the longitudinal direction on level with the carriageway. As for bridge lengths that are between 10 and 40 m. (3) In addition.0.0 for widths of span/influence lengths greater than 50 m.4 Braking load. straight interpolation is used between the two values. the braking load shall be taken into consideration in the verifying of normal passage and conditional passage.25 (60-L)/10 ≥ 1. respectively φ = 1.1x3.0 and φ = 1. (3) For soil-filled structural elements.0 + 0.25 for width of span of less than or equal to 50 m. φred = 1 + (φ . (4) For conditional passages where the speed has been reduced to v=10 km/h. straight interpolation is used between φ = 1. classification (1)P When examining the substructure and controlling the horizontal stability. For bridge lengths that are longer than or equal to 40 m.25 for widths of span of up to 50 m. (2) φ is set at φ = 1. In the intermediate interval. A2. and Lb [m] is the length subjected to a load in the direction of travel.1) x (6 . The braking force is expected to attack in the longitudinal direction on level with the carriageway. For speeds of between 10 km/h and 45 km/h.5 Impact loading factors (1)P Any addition of the dynamic impact to the static load from the vehicles shall be included in the calculation by means of an impact loading factor φ. φ is set at φ=1.hs)/6 ≥ 1. bridges with a width of span greater than 50 m shall be inspected with a braking load as: 360 + 0. where q is the uniformly distributed load stated in the table. the braking load shall be calculated as 40% of the total weight of vehicle A.

1-1 Standard vehicles to and including class 200 1 June 2013 11/16 .3.Class Axle configuration Axle pressure in tonnes and axle distances in m Track width m Figure A2.

500 1 June 2013 12/16 .1-2 Standard vehicles. classes 225 .Class Track width m Axle configuration Axle pressure in tonnes and axle distances in m Figure A2.3.

3.6 Vehicles. the 'limit vehicles' defined in section A3 shall be used for vehicles A and B shall be used in such a way that vehicles within the same standard signage type are placed in the most critical position. (3) Alternatively.14 x inflation pressure.3. and. the following data shall be provided for the relevant vehicle:         The number of axles Wheel bases Axle load Track width Number of wheels per axle Distances between wheels in the transverse direction Tyre pressure Tyre width (2) The wheel pressure shall be distributed on a rectangular pressure area with the width being equal to the tyre width b and a contact length in the direction of travel that can be determined as L=H/ (bxK).4. and K is the contact pressure which may be set at K=1.5. 1 June 2013 13/16 . where H is the wheel pressure. (2)P An impact loading factor shall be calculated in accordance with section A2.7 Direct assessment (1)P In the calculation of the load-carrying capacity of a bridge with respect to the impact exerted by the relevant vehicle.3.3. if relevant.A2. signposting of weak bridges (1)P As vehicle load. A2. a braking load shall be determined in accordance with section A2. the signposting may be determined based on the curves drawn up in A3 with a starting point in the calculated bridge class.

the Danish Signage Order Weight limit 32/48 C31 Total weight C32 Total weight of the train of carriages 32 tonnes 48 tonnes 24/32 C31 Total weight C32 Total weight of the train of carriages 24 tonnes 32 tonnes 24/10 C31 Total weight C35 Axle load 24 tonnes 10 tonnes 12/8 C31 Total weight C35 Axle load 12 tonnes 8 tonnes 8/5 C31 Total weight C35 Axle load 8 tonnes 5 tonnes (3) The 'limit vehicles' have been classified so as to allow for a determination of which signage is required for weak bridges based solely on bridge class. cf.1 and correspond to the following signposting: Description Signage. a number of 'limit vehicles' has been introduced that accurately reflect the limits defined in the Act for vehicles on road sections with or without weight limit signage. the standard signposting is determined by comparing the class with the limit curves shown in Figure A3. Note: Bridges that. If the bridge class is known.1-1 and -2. Therefore. Signposting of weak bridges (1) The provisions set out in the Danish Road Traffic Act and any related executive orders cannot immediately be described by the standard vehicles shown in Figure A2.2.A3. before the 1 July 2011 were classified as Class 50 or above in normal passage. 1 June 2013 14/16 . (4) The statutory provisions and required signposting may also be examined by way of a direct assessment of the impact of the 'limit vehicles' compared to the loadcarrying capacity of the bridge. (2) The 'limit vehicles' used are shown in Figure A3. may – without further notice – be presumed as having enough load-carrying capacity as regards the regulations in the Danish Road Traffic Act of 1 July 2011.3.

12/8 - Grænsekøretøjer med maksimal totalvægt og akseltryk svarende til standardafskiltning type .8/5 - Figure A3.24/32 - Grænsekøretøjer med maksimal totalvægt og akseltryk svarende til standardafskiltning type .Grænsekøretøjer med maksimale totalvægte og akseltryk og med minimale mellemakselafstande svarende til færdselslovens bestemmelser Grænsekøretøjer med maksimale totalvægte og akseltryk svarende til standardafskiltning type .24/10 – Grænsekøretøjer med maksimal totalvægt og akseltryk svarende til standardafskiltning type .32/48- Grænsekøretøjer med maksimale totalvægte og akseltryk svarende til standardafskiltning type .1 ‘Limited vehicles’ 1 June 2013 15/16 .

the Danish version will prevail. In the event of any discrepancy or shortcomings in the translation. At any time the Danish versions of Road Standards (Vejregler). Tender Specifications and National Annexes is to be regarded entirely as a service. Tender Specifications and National Annexes are those in force.2 Classes of width of span corresponding to the requirements of the Danish Road Traffic Act as well as the standard signage types used.Class Width of span [m] Figure A3. DISCLAIMER The translation into English of Road Standards (Vejregler). 1 June 2013 16/16 .