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Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential

Guillermo Saldaña, Elisa Luengo, Eduardo Puértolas, Ignacio
Álvarez, and Javier Raso

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of PEF for Improving Must Expression by Pressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of PEF for Improving Red Winemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Studies Conducted Applying PEF in Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Studies Conducted Applying PEF in Continuous Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of PEF for Improving Waste Recovery from Wineries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of PEF for Inactivation of Wine Spoilage Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross-References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Pulsed electric field is an innovative processing technology that may improve
different operations conducted in wineries. Wineries may take advantage of the
ability of PEF to inactivate microorganisms or to electroporate the cell membrane
of plant tissues improving extraction of compounds of interest from grapes but
also from residues generated by the wineries. Electroporation of white grapes by
PEF may improve the yield of must expression from white grapes. The
G. Saldaña (*) • I. Álvarez • J. Raso
Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de
Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
E. Luengo
School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
E. Puértolas
Food Research Division, AZTI, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain
# Springer International Publishing AG 2016
D. Miklavcic, Handbook of Electroporation,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-26779-1_155-1


Fermentation can be conducted by wild yeasts that are normally present on the grapes or fermentation tanks can be inoculated with commercial preparations of yeast to prevent unpredictable fermentations. This chapter provides an overview of the research conducted so far on applications of PEF in wineries remarking the most important challenges of the future application of PEF in the winemaking process. On the other hand. Winemaking of white and red wine diverges from the first processing steps when the grapes are taken into a winery (Fig. Keywords Pulsed electric fields • Wine • Extraction • Microbial inactivation • Juice expression • Polyphenolic compounds Introduction Grapes represent one of the most important fruit crop worldwide with an annual world production of around 70 million tons. juice. permeabilization by PEF of red grape skin cells permits reducing the duration of the maceration through vinification or to increase the color and concentration of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the wine without impairing its sensorial attributes. the capability of PEF to inactivate spoilage microorganisms preserving physicochemical and sensorial properties of must and wines may contribute to enhance the quality of wine by ensuring reproducible fermentations or by reducing or replacing the SO2 in winemaking. White wine is made by fermenting juice which is obtained by pressing white grapes. or raisins. Finally. Red wine is sometimes stored in oak barrels for aging for a period of time of weeks to months to provide some aromas and to obtain a smoother wine. and seeds) that undergoes fermentation together with the grape skin. fermentation is conducted from juice of red grapes obtained by long enough maceration with the grapes skins to obtain the characteristic color of this type of wines. called macerationfermentation. red wine is obtained from the must of red or black grapes (mixture of crushed grapes. Polyphenols contribute substantially to the quality of red wines because they affect their color. PEF pretreatments have potential for improving solvent extraction of polyphenols from winery waste. yeasts convert the sugars of the must into ethanol but also polyphenolic compounds are extracted from the grape skin.2 G. approximately 80 % of the grape production worldwide is dedicated to winemaking. skins. However. jams. phenolic compounds are also associated with the beneficial physiological effects deriving from moderate wine consumption. In this step. and aging behavior. Wine is a beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of the sugars of the juice of grapes by yeast. flavor stability. Although grapes may be processed into a variety of different food products such as grape juice. In the case of rosé wines. Saldaña et al. 1). Furthermore. .

During PEF processing. a pumpable product is passed through a treatment chamber . 1 Red and white winemaking steps Technological innovation represents a driving force to maintain and enhance the competitiveness of food industry.Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 3 Fig. Pulsed electric field (PEF) technology is an innovative processing technology with potential applications in wineries for different purposes. The development of innovations able to impact the market are increasingly attracting for wineries once they can improve wine quality and processing sustainability.

the grape pomace that have been in contact with the juice in the fermentation tanks are pressed to extract the remaining wine. On the other hand. Different . Irreversible electroporation of the cytoplasmatic membrane is an effective alternative to these pretreatments especially when the complete disintegration of cell membranes is not desired. leading to microbial death (García et al. remaining viable (reversible electroporation). The mass transfer phenomenon through cell membranes occurs in many operations of the food industry that aims at obtaining a given intracellular compound of interest. Application of PEF has been investigated over the last decades in different fields including improving different operations conducted in wineries. If the intensity of the electric field is not high enough or if the exposure to the electric field is sufficiently short. Application of PEF for Improving Must Expression by Pressing Extraction by pressing called also solid–liquid expression is an operation widely used in the wineries in the elaboration of different types of wine. intense electric fields or longer expositions can cause irreversible electroporation. and molds causes the loss of their selective permeability. heating. The applied external voltage generates an electric field whose strength depends not only on the voltage intensity but also on the distance between the electrodes. On the other hand. the cell membrane undergoes an electrical breakdown. Wineries may take advantage of the ability of PEF to electroporate the cell membrane of plant tissues improving extraction of compounds of interest from grapes but also from residues generated by the wineries and to inactivate microorganisms at temperatures not affecting the flavor and aroma characteristic of the wine. Applications of PEF in the food industry for improving mass transfer or for microbial inactivation are based on the irreversible electroporation of the cell membranes. When exposed to a sufficiently strong electric field. or enzymatic maceration is a common pretreatment step to improve mass transfer rates. However. the membrane can spontaneously return to its initial state. In white and rosé winemaking. Saldaña et al.4 G. 2006). The breakdown of the cell membranes by different techniques such as grinding. removing water from foods (drying) or introducing a given substance into the food matrix. The electroporation of the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria. which renders it permeable to molecules that are otherwise unable to cross it. playing an essential role in maintaining microbial homeostasis. after the fermentation of the red wine. This phenomenon is called membrane electroporation. The capability of PEF to inactivate vegetative cells of pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms at temperatures that avoid the harmful effect of heat on the organoleptic properties and nutrient value of foods is very attractive for the food industry which demands gentle methods for food decontamination. yeast. This chapter provides an overview of the research conducted on the main potential application of PEF in wineries. the microbial cytoplasmic membrane acts as a semipermeable barrier. grapes are pressed in order to separate juice. where it is subjected to short pulses (μs) of high voltage (kV).

This increment on the content of polyphenols could be of interest for obtaining white grape juice but probably not for the elaboration of white wine. pressing at moderate pressure is usually led in order to obtain low turbidity which depends on the content of solid particles in suspension and low concentration of color pigments. . When a progressive pressureincrease regime was applied. The promising results obtained at laboratory scale concerning to the expression of white juice should be confirmed at higher scale. however.75 kV/cm) increased the juice yield extraction by 24 % as compared with the untreated grapes (Praporscic et al. Juice extraction from white grapes is a critical step that has a large influence on the final quality of the white wine. the effect of PEF in juice expression of red grapes or in wine extraction from grape pomace after fermentation has not been assayed. Sauvignon. 2005). the effect of the previous electroporation of Chardonnay grapes on the juice extraction yield using two extraction regimes was investigated: constant pressure (0. it was observed that the application of the PEF treatment to the white grapes before pressing was more effective than the application of the PEF treatment to the grapes after a pressing period. The effect on the extraction yield and quality of white grapes juice after the application of PEF treatments before pressing of the grapes have been investigated. The electroporation of the cells of the three varieties investigated allowed to obtain a juice that had a lower turbidity and absorbance at 520 nm. A PEF treatment with pulses of duration in the range of milliseconds and a total duration of 0. In this case. In another study conducted with the same laboratory filter-press. the most remarkable PEF effect was the rise of polyphenol content of the must by 15 %. short pressing times are conducted to avoid juice browning by polyphenol oxidation. In order to obtain a high-quality juice for white winemaking. 2009). no significant effect on turbidity and polyphenol content was observed when the PEF treatment was applied to Chardonnay grapes before pressing at a constant pressure of 1 bar but juice yield increased by 18 %. 2005). Furthermore.25–1 kV/cm) before pressing or after a given pressing time was used to investigate the effect of electroporation on yield and characteristics of juice extracted from different white grapes (Muscadelle. A laboratory filter-press equipped with two electrodes that permitted applying moderate electric field strengths (0.Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 5 studies have investigated the effect of PEF on juice extraction of white grapes. The electroporation by PEF of the cells of the white grapes before pressing may permit obtaining a high amount of juice with a quality similar or improved with respect to the untreated grapes or perhaps to reduce the intensity and/or duration of pressurization maintaining extraction yields and improving the quality of the juice. and Semillon) (Praporscic et al. although white wine from juice obtained from PEF-treated grapes has not been produced.5–1 bar) and progressive pressure (increasing the pressure up to 1 bar) (Grimi et al. The light pressing conditions required for obtaining a high-quality white grape juice may be insufficient for the effective rupture of the membranes of the cells where the juice is enclosed. Working at a pressure of 5 bars.3 s at a low electric field (0.

Grape skin consists of an external cuticle. Anthocyanins and tannins are responsible for the major sensorial characteristics of red wine. and affect red wine color acting as copigments of anthocyanins. The phenolic composition of wines is conditioned by the grape variety and by other factors that affect the berry development such as soil. Red grape skins are particularly rich in these phenolic compounds but also a part of the tannins of red wine proceeds from the seeds. geographical location. display antioxidant activity. and weather conditions. stilbenes have been also recognized as compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. On the other hand. bitterness. Different strategies have been developed in wineries to enhance the extraction of phenolic compounds during the fermentation-maceration step of red winemaking because of the large influence of these compounds in sensory and nutritional quality of red wine (Bautista-Ortín et al. the epidermis. Between nonflavonoid compounds. flavan-3-ols and flavonols). tannins are located into the vacuoles of hypodermal cells. 2006). Saldaña et al. Wine phenolic compounds can be divided in nonflavonoid (phenolic acids and stilbenes) and flavonoid (anthocyanins. Application of PEF for Improving Red Winemaking Red wine quality is strongly affected by the phenolic compounds which are responsible for the sensory characteristics such as color and taste and aging properties. Sacchi et al. and they also contribute to the development of red polymeric pigments during wine aging by association between anthocyanins pigments and other polyphenols especially tannins and phenolic acids. and the hypodermis. the winemaking practices also play an important role in the extraction of polyphenols from the grape skins. The monomeric forms of anthocyanins are mainly responsible for the red color of young red wines. The last group of flavonoids is flavonols that contribute to bitterness. The most traditional procedure for obtaining wines with high phenolic content is extending the maceration time for 3–4 weeks representing a period of time much longer than those . and white wine should be elaborated with the grape juice obtained from PEF-treated grapes to evaluate the influence of the treatment on wine quality. in vitro and in vivo studies have showed that some phenolic compounds of red wine have antioxidant properties which may play a positive role in human health including protection against cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Nichenametla et al. Flavan-3-ols (tannins) are a large family of polyphenolic compounds which are mainly responsible for the astringency. and structure of wines. It has been observed that during winemaking only about 40 % of anthocyanins and 20 % of tannins of the grape skins are transferred to the wine. While anthocyanins are located in the upper cell layers of the hypodermis. This limited extraction is a consequence of the low permeability of the cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes of the hypodermal cells to these compounds. On the other hand.6 G. 2007. 2005). The hypodermis is the layer closest to the pulp and is composed of several layers that contain most of the grape skin phenols.

The application of PEF to accelerate and/or increase the extraction of phenolic compounds during the maceration-fermentation step of red winemaking has been deeply investigated. flash-release.5–1 kV/cm) and treatment times in the range of 40–100 ms or higher electric fields (1–10 kV/cm) and shorter treatment times (100 μs-1 ms). some contradictory results attributed to the different nature and activities of the commercial enzymes preparations. extraction of polyphenols is improved by using different techniques that increases the permeability of the envelopes of the grape skin cells in order to facilitate their release such as thermovinification. 2012. Longer maceration time reduces the production capacity of the wineries or requires increasing the number of fermentation tanks to maintain productivity. On the other hand. However. it has been observed that the electroporation of the grape skin cells also improves the extraction of aromatic compounds (Delsart et al. 2005). In some of these studies. 2 Effect of PEF on the extraction of grape polyphenols after 1 h of maceration required for fermentation (1–2 weeks) or increasing the fermentation temperature. However. some problems have been identified when these enological practices are used. 2013). or the use of pectolytic enzymes.Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 7 Fig. . This electroporation can be achieved using moderate electric fields (0. Garde-Cerdán et al. some of these techniques require high energy consumption and may affect the quality of red wines. The use of commercially pectolytic enzymes that act on the wall of the grape skin cells is a widespread practice in the wineries to improve the color and aroma of wines. Conducting fermentation at higher temperature may cause stopping fermentation and loss of volatile compounds. However. grape freezing. and the presence of unwanted enzymes in the preparations such as β-glucosidase have been reported (Bautista-Ortín et al.

Aglianico. the anthocyanin content (AC). respectively. The different effect of PEF on the extraction of polyphenols for different grape varieties has been explained in terms of polyphenol extractability that depends on grape maturity. 2013a. (2008) (Fig. 2). and 24 % higher. Studies Conducted Applying PEF in Batch The potential of PEF for improving extraction of polyphenols during red winemaking was reported by first time by López et al. and TPI in the final wine. thermovinification. Syrah. no significant effect of the PEF treatment was observed in the other physicochemical properties of red wine. an intense electroporation of the skin cells may promote a very intense release of phenolic compounds that precipitate rather than keep stabilized in the wine. and scavenging activity of the samples during fermentation. 1 ms) intensity were found to be the most effective pretreatments in terms of phenolic extraction and energy consumption (El Darra et al. 6. A signifficant improvement in the release of phenolic compounds was observed when grapes were previously treated by PEF (Fig.5 kg has been reported for different varieties of grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon. France. These authors used a batch parallel electrode treatment chamber to apply to the PEF treatments and the effect of the treatment was evaluated along the maceration-fermentation time in 0. 2013a. Results obtained showed that the pretreatment of the grapes of the variety Cabernet Franc by ultrasound. These first results indicated that electroporation of the grape skins preceding the maceration step could contribute to reduce the duration of the maceration during vinification or to increase the CI.8 G. Lebanon. The potential of PEF for improving red winemaking has been also compared to other innovative treatments such as ultrasound and common technologies used in wineries to improve phenolic extraction such as the addition of enzymes and thermovinification treatments (El Darra et al. On the other hand. Similar effects of PEF treatment applied in batch treatment chambers of parallel electrode with a capacity from few grams to 4. Generally the PEF treatments were more effective at higher electric field strengths. 2). Merlot. color intensity. cell morphology.5 L flask containing 150 g of Tempranillo grape skins. 100 ms) and higher (5 kV/cm. 2016). Saldaña et al. Mazuelo. than in the control sample. and the total polyphenol index (TPI) at the end of the fermentation of red wine that contained skins treated at 10 kV/cm. and Italy. and composition of the skin cell wall. The improvements obtained by application of PEF treatments are dependent on the intensity of the treatment and on the grape variety. the PEF treatments of similar total specific energy (around 50 kJ/kg) applied at moderate (0. 26 %. However. AC. and Piedirosso harvested in different countries such as Spain. b). These results indicate that for some grape varieties. Graciano.7 kJ/kg were a 23 %. b. Results obtained suggest that the electroporation of the cells of the grape skin was more useful in those situations in which the extraction of phenolic compounds from the grape skins are more difficult. although in some varieties such as Graciano the most suitable treatment was the lowest intensity applied (in the range of 2–10 kV/cm) and in Cabernet Sauvignon it was an intermediate intensity (5 kV/cm). The color intensity (CI). and PEF improved polyphenol extraction (anthocyanins and tannins content). Similar .8 kV/cm. Grenache.

it was observed that the PEF treatment did not affect the HPLC profile of the wine after alcoholic fermentation (López et al.67 kJ/kg) was 48 h shorter. 150 μs. and thermovinification. 100 ms).7 kV/cm. The effect of treating the grapes by PEF before red wine vinfication on the organoleptic characteristics of the wine by sensory evaluation has been also evaluated (Delsart et al. Similar results were observed when it was compared after 6 month of bottling the concentration of monomers and dimers of flavan-3-ols analyzed by HPLC in wines obtained from untreated and PEF-treated grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon (Delsart et al.Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 9 conclusions were obtained when it was compared to the effects of different pretreatments of the Cabernet Sauvignon variety grapes with PEF. Wine was elaborated in tanks of 80 l. 2016). Studies Conducted Applying PEF in Continuous Flow The implementation of the PEF technology for improving red winemaking requires the application of the treatments in continuous flow. Continuous flow process permits to process big amount of grapes to perform the maceration-fermentation step and obtaining the required quantity of wine to be able to evaluate if the benefits observed in the studies conducted in batch at laboratory scale are maintained during wine aging. the diffusion of these compounds was lower and the wines were more aromatic and fruity suggesting that PEF treatments promote an additional diffusion of aromatic compounds from the skin cells. the wine at the .5 and 0. The PEF treatment allowed to obtain a new profile of red wine in terms of color attributes and polyphenol content without addition of additives such as enzymes and requiring less energy consumption (48 kJ/kg) compared to thermovinification (418 kJ/kg) (El Darra et al. 3. the diffusion of tannins to the wine was probably excessive. enzymes. and in order to evaluate the potential of the PEF technology for reducing maceration time. 2009) and after 6 months of bottling (Delsart. 2013) indicating that the enhancement in the extraction of anthocyanins by PEF was not selective for any specific anthocyanin molecule. A panel of professional testers preferred Merlot wine obtained by grapes treated by PEF at 0. Although the maceration time for wine obtained from Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes treated by PEF (5 kV/cm. 2013). In studies in which the anthocyanins were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). the grape skins were separated from the fermenting must after 96 h while in the control the grape skins were in contact with the fermenting must until the end of fermentation (144 h).7 kV/cm for 40 ms than control wine or wine obtained by grapes after an intense PEF treatment (0. et al. in the case of less-intense PEF treatments. (2010b) using Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes. The feasibility of processing red grape by PEF in continuous flow (118 kg/h) using a colinear treatment chamber and the influence of the PEF treatment on the evolution of chromatic parameters and phenolic content during winemaking and aging in bottle and in oak barrels were investigated by Puértolas et al. While after applying the most intense treatment. 2012).

The better chromatic characteristics and higher polyphenolic content obtained from the PEF treatment after the fermentation process remained or even increased during aging in American oak barrels for 6 month and their posterior storage in bottles for 8 months (Puértolas et al. Results of a sensorial evaluation indicated that PEF wine did not have any strange taste or off-flavors that could be caused by the PEF treatment. Grenache) during two vintages has been also studied (López-Giral et al. and benzenoid compounds. end of the alcoholic fermentation presented higher CI. respectively. and 10 % higher. 2010b). Trials conducted in a small winery in which 6000 kg of grapes of Grenache variety were PEF treated (4. the CI. This investigation not only confirms that the PEF effect depends on the grape variety but also that grape physicochemical composition. Therefore. Studies conducted by the same research group demonstrated that in the three varieties. The effect of PEF applied in continuous flow (400 kg/h) on improving the phenolic compound extraction from three grape varieties (Graciano. After 4 months. the most abundant glycosylated form of this molecule (piceid) in grapes. antidiabetic. and TPI.3 kV/cm. β-ionone. AC. neuroprotective. 2013). 3). 2014). Wine obtained from PEF-treated grapes with a maceration time . Resveratrol is one of the most widely investigated phenol in wines due to the beneficial properties attributed to this compound such as cardioprotective. 2013). The improvement in the extraction of polyphenols from the grapes treated by PEF was more important when the concentration of phenolic compounds in the skins was lower. The PEF treatment enhanced the aromatic composition of Grenache wine by increasing the quantity of monoterpenoids.10 G. However. and TPI than the control wine. that it was different for each vintages. and antiaging activities. of the wine obtained from PEF-treated grapes. 2015). than in the control wine (Fig. 60 μs) using a colinear treatment chamber at a flow of 1900 kg/h confirmed results obtained at laboratory and pilot plant scale (Luengo et al. Tempranillo. The enhancement of the aromatic characteristics of the wine by PEF previously observed for the wine of Merlot variety in experiments conducted in batches was confirmed for the wine of the Grenache variety obtained from grapes treated by PEF in continuous flow by analyzing the volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS). 18 %. Resveratrol is a polyphenol belonging to the stilbene family. the treatment of the grapes by PEF increased the stilbene content including resveratrol and piceid in the must up to 200 % in Tempranillo. On the other hand. AC. 60 % in Greneche. indicating that the PEF treatment did not produce a selective effect on the extraction of any specific polyphenol. influences PEF effect. Differences between wine obtained from PEF-treated and PEF-untreated grapes were also observed after aging the wine in bottle. total esters. anticancer. the application of the PEF technology in the wineries for improving extraction of polyphenols would be particularly interesting in those vintages in which the concentration of these compounds in the grape skins is poor. were 27 %. the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano wines was not improved by treating the grapes by PEF (López-Alfaro et al. Saldaña et al. and 50 % in Graciano (López-Alfaro et al. no differences were observed in the HPLC polyphenolic profiles of both wines.

B: bottling. anthocyanin content (b). and index of total polyphenols (c) during vinification and maturation of untreated and PEF-treated Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. B4: after 4 months of aging in bottle (Adapted from Puertolas et al. EAF: end of alcoholic fermentation.Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 11 30 Colour intensity 25 20 15 10 5 0 EAF EMF B 4B EAF EMF B 4B EAF EMF B 4B 1400 Anthocyanin (mg/L) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Total polyphenol index 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fig. 2010a) . EMF: end of malolactic fermentation. 3 Evolution of color intensity (a).

5 % higher. about 60 % of anthocyanins and 20 % of tannins of the grape skin remain in the skin. In the last years. but in red winemaking. the application of a PEF treatment at lower electric field strength (1. The application of PEF treatment (3 kV/cm. grape pomace has been recognized as a valuable source of good and cheap phenolic compounds. Application of PEF for Improving Waste Recovery from Wineries Winemaking is currently one of the most important agricultural activities in the world that generates a big amount of wastes such as grape pomace.5 %. considerable effort has been conducted to valorize winery waste for extracting polyphenols to be used as food colorants of natural origin or dietary supplements due to their antioxidant properties. in recent decades. the pomace consists of these solids that have been in contact with the fermenting must. 30 pulses. In white and rosé winemaking. the solid fraction that remains after pressing. After 7 days of maceration. A sensory analysis revealed that the wine obtained from PEF-treated grapes with a maceration of 7 days was more significantly preferred (95 % CL) than the control wine obtained with a longer maceration time (14 days). During red winemaking. In the case of extraction of polyphenols from the skin of a white grape variety (Chardonnay). Results obtained in the studies conducted to evaluate the potential of PEF for improving red winemaking indicate that the low energy consumption (0. However. However. and IPT of the wine obtained from grapes treated by PEF were 12. The potential of PEF for enhancing extraction of polyphenols enclosed in skin or seed cells by conventional solvent extraction that is the technique generally used at industrial scale for extracting bioactive compounds from plant matrices has been studied. 25 % and 23. These results confirm the potential of PEF to obtain wine with a sufficient concentration of polyphenolic compounds with moderate maceration times. AC. 2008). than in wine obtained from untreated grapes after 14 days of maceration.3 kV/cm) but with a . The antioxidant activity of the extracts was fourfold higher for the samples treated by PEF. respectively (Corrales et al. 10 kJ/kg) to the grape skin waste of the Dornfelder variety enhanced the total phenolic content and the anthocyanin concentration in a mixture of ethanol and water (50/50 v/v) heated at 70  C by 100 % and 17 %. Grape pomace has been traditionally used as a soil conditioner or as a feed for animals. respectively. the CI. Saldaña et al.12 G. of 7 days was compared with wine obtained from untreated and PEF-treated grapes with the current maceration time used in the winery (14 days). after 14 days of maceration no significant differences were observed between the control wine and the wine obtained from grapes treated by PEF for these three indices.4–6. the seeds and skins of grapes are pressed to obtain the must to be fermented.7 kJ/kg) and the short processing time (<1 s) required for the electroporation of grape skin cells are key advantages of this technology for obtaining wines with a higher content of polyphenolic compounds and with better chromatic and sensorial characteristics and for reducing the time duration of maceration during vinification.

the polyphenol extraction was conducted in a mixture of ethanol and water (50/50 %) at different temperatures (20–50  C). A PEF treatment at 20 kV/cm for 20 ms increased the polyphenol extraction yield more than three times in water and more than four times in ethanol (30 %) after 60 min of extraction at 50  C.2 kV/cm. After the application of the treatment. The primary fermentation that occurs in winemaking is bring about by the yeast . For example. 2015). for future industrial implementation the current studies that have been only focused on the improvement of the extraction yield should be complemented with additional investigations to demonstrate other potential benefits derived from the electroporation of the cells such as reducing or avoiding the use of organic solvents and reducing energy consumption by shortening the extraction time and/or decreasing the extraction temperature. Grape seeds are the most studied and exploited residues from the wineries due to the amount of these residues generated in each harvest (38–52 % of grape) and its high content of phenols. The improvement in the polyphenols extraction by the application of a PEF treatment to the grape seeds was more remarkable when the extraction temperature was increased until 50  C in presence of ethanol (30–50 %).3 g/cm3) on PEF efficiency (Brianceau et al. this treatment increases the extraction of total anthocyanins in the range of 5. at 20  C the total quantity of additionally extracted polyphenols increased by 15 %. Different pressures (0–10 bars) were applied to the skin of grapes of Dunkelfelder variety after maceration-fermentation in order to assess the effect of the density (0. 18 kJ/kg) was obtained when the density of the grape pomace was 1.9 % (20  C). PEF remarkably increased the extraction yield of total anthocyanins up to 22 % and 55 % in comparison with US and HVED. Studies conducted have demonstrated that PEF pretreatments have potential for improving solvent extraction of polyphenols from winery waste.8 % (50  C) to 18. 2015).Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 13 higher specific energy (120 kJ/kg) increased the concentration of polyphenols by 10 % after 60 min of extraction at 20  C in water (Boussetta et al. respectively. However. The electroporation by PEF of the cells of the grape seed of Pinot Meunier required higher electric field strengths (8 to 20 kV/cm) than those required for electroporation of the skin grape cells (Boussetta et al. The effect of PEF (13. The highest efficiency of the PEF treatment (1.3 kV/cm. up to 564 kJ/kg) on the recovery of anthocyanins from fermented pomace of the same grape variety was compared with other alternative physical techniques such as ultrasound (US) and high-voltage electrical discharges (HVED) (Barba et al. Under these optimal processing parameters. 2009). Application of PEF for Inactivation of Wine Spoilage Microorganisms Winemaking is inherently a microbial process wherein components of the grape are transformed by yeast and bacteria into flavor and aroma characteristics of the wine.0 g/cm3 that was attained by compression at 2 bars.6–1. 2012). the PEF treatment increased the extraction of total polyphenols regardless of the extraction temperatures. On the other hand. mainly flavonols and tannins.

In order to assure correct fermentation completion. Fermentation can be conducted by autochthonous or native yeasts which are originally present in the must or by commercial active dry preparation of a yeast strain with key enological properties. the SO2 concentration could be reduced to safer levels or even eliminated. However. The potential of PEF technology to control wine spoilage microbiota such as Dekkera anomala.” “animal. Saccharomyces (S. acetic acid bacteria are able to spoil the wine by ethanol acidification.14 G. 2008). generally a second fermentation occurs in which lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid during malolactic fermentation. Lactobacillus plantarum. These authors demonstrated that when grape must was treated by PEF before fermentation. Autochthonous or native fermentations can be at high risk for the development of off-odors or incomplete fermentations. and there is a worldwide trend to reduce SO2 levels in wine due to its possible negative effects in the health of consumers with a special sensitivity (Puértolas et al. In the elaboration of red wines and white wine with aging step. Similarly to other food industries. Dekkera bruxellensis. Several studies have demonstrated that PEF is an effective technology to inactivate bacteria and yeast in must and wine. bayanus are commonly found in wine fermentations) that metabolizes the sugars producing ethanol. sulfur dioxide is added to prevent the growth of non-Saccharomyces yeast and bacteria that are more intolerant to this compound than Saccharomyces. lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the alteration named “piqûre lactique. Yeasts were more PEF sensitive than bacteria.” and yeast from the genus Brettanomyces are involved in the formation of unpleasant odors in the wine which are described as “leather. microbial populations should be reduced to avoid post-fermentation processes that may negatively affect the wine organoleptic characteristics. When both fermentation processes are finished. 2009). respectively. the development of spoilage microorganisms is one of the most important problems causing great economic losses in wineries. The application of PEF as an alternative to the addition of SO2 as antimicrobial compound was investigated using Parellada white grape variety (Garde-Cerdán et al. For example. . the microbial sensitivity to SO2 varies considerably between strains of microorganisms. PEF treatments together with the inoculation of a starter strain of yeast could lead to obtain a reproducible fermentation of must without modifying significantly the composition of volatile compounds responsible for the typical flavor of wines through alcoholic fermentation and aging of white wine. The growth of undesirable yeast and bacteria may impair the development of the inoculated yeast added to the must for alcoholic fermentation and may also produce important sensorial changes in the wine.” and “horse sweat. the addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the common practice used in wineries to decrease the risk of microbial spoilage during the winemaking process.” As thermal process may cause undesirable effect on wines. Saldaña et al. 2009). At 29 kV/cm. and Lactobacillus hilgardii has been investigated in must and wine (Puértolas et al. cerevisiae and S. a treatment of a specific energy of around 150 kJ/kg and 186 kJ/kg was required to inactivate 3 log10 cycles the population of the two Dekkera strains and the two Lactobacillus strains.

reduce the maceration time during red winemaking. and synthesis of proteins. lactic acid bacteria. inactivation of spoiling microorganisms by PEF may contribute to improve the wine quality by assuring reproducible and correct fermentation completion or by reducing or replacing the use of SO2. and acetic acid bacteria associated with winemaking. the promising results obtained for other applications at laboratory scale should be validated in industrial tests. On the other hand. studies on the effect of the PEF treatments on the sensory properties of wine should be conducted before application of the technology in the wineries. (2015).64 to 4. The inactivation obtained was highly dependent on the microorganism investigated. Reduction of fermentation time may be of interest in the wineries in order to avoid growth of undesirable microorganisms and to improve its productive capacity. the potential of the PEF technology for inactivating microorganisms in must and wine at lower temperatures than those required in thermal processing has been demonstrated. While some of these applications such as improving polyphenols extraction during red winemaking have already been evaluated in wineries. The improvement of fermentation by application of PEF treatments at low electric field strength (0.1 and 6 kV/cm) to the yeast population before inoculation is other potential application of the technology in wineries. the level of inactivation obtained varies from 0. this technology may contribute to valorize winery waste by improving extraction polyphenols to be used as food colorants of natural origin or dietary supplements. These results support that establishing the treatment conditions for any industrial specific application will require validating the process with the microorganisms of concern. Finally.94 log cycles. Research conducted has demonstrated that a pretreatment of grapes by PEF may increase the must expression yield. A positive impact of PEF treatment of S.Pulsed Electric Fields in Wineries: Potential Applications 15 Considering the normal variation in concentration of these spoilage microorganisms in must and wine. Four different PEF treatments in continuous process were tested in a continuous-flow system for inactivating 25 species of yeast. and the easy implementation of the treatment . Conclusions One of the most investigated application of PEF technology in the last years has been the use of this technology for improving different operations conducted in wineries. Although. consumption of sugars. The most complete study on inactivation of wine-associated microbiota by PEF was conducted by González-Arenzana et al. the availability of PEF generators with sufficient power to meet the production capacity of the wineries. and increase the color and concentration of polyphenolic compounds in red wine without impairing sensory attributes. Overall. cerevisiae yeast on the fermentation process of wine has been observed in terms of mass losses. this inactivation could be enough to avoid the contamination of the processing contact surfaces and controlling the development of alterations during the wine aging in barrels and storage in bottles. The low energy consumption of the PEF for the applications in wineries.

Fig. Saldaña et al. Acknowledgment This work has been supported by the European Commission (635632FieldFOOD-H2020-SFS-17-2014). 4 Integration in a winery of a PEF treatment chamber to process grapes before macerationfermentation chambers into the existing processing lines of wineries should contribute to become PEF in a viable technology in the wineries (Fig.16 G. 4). Cross-References ▶ Application of Pulsed Electric Energy for Grape Wastes Biorefinery ▶ Basic Concepts of High Voltage Pulse Generation ▶ Electric Field Distribution and Electroporation Threshold ▶ Electroporation and Electropermeabilization ▶ Energy and Cost Analyses of Pulsed Electric Field Applications ▶ High-Voltage Electrical Discharge Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Seeds ▶ Impact of Pulsed Electric Field Treatment on Must and Wine Quality ▶ Industrial Pulsed Electric Fields Systems ▶ Large-Scale Pulsed Electric Field Treatment Devices: Overview of Commercially Available Equipment ▶ Optimization of Pulsed Electric Field Treatment Chamber ▶ Process Design. Improvement and Integration of Pulsed Electric Field ▶ Pulsed Electric Field Treatment for Beverage Production and Preservation ▶ Pulsed electric field treatment for fruit and vegetable processing ▶ Pulsed Electric Fields Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Grape Pomace .

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