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Philosophy Assignment


That is why he is dualist philosopher and he is one of the noteworthy dualist philosopher also. Whatever mind’s actions are.Mind-Body problem is an important problem in philosophy. According to Descartes. psychologists and other people but there are some major difficulties in the theory. every human being has mind and body. According to Ryle. there are some categorical mistakes in theory of Descartes. these actions are according to actions of body. there is relation between mind and body. In dualism. According to Descartes. Number of philosophers followed his theory but he also received criticism on his theory of dualism and his theory is based on his important and famous quote “I think therefore I am. Descartes was philosopher who said that mind and body are dependent on each other. He also said that there are number of errors. mind theory is an official theory and it has gained acceptance from philosophers.” This emphasize on merger of mind and body. The external half contains . conflicts and its principles are not sound. The dualistic mind theory of Descartes is predominant among modern philosophers as well as among laymen. These people think that these difficulties can be overcome without doing any changes or modifications in the basic concept of the theory. both mind and material things are part of it. He also said that thinking is not a physical process. On other hand Ryle criticized the theory of Descartes by presenting his theory of logical behaviorism. One of these half is external while the other is internal. According to Ryle. But Ryle raised a point by saying. According to Descartes no one can observe or know about others’ mental state or what is going on his mind. it is doubtful that infant and insane have mind. Only the person who is possessing is able to know about his thoughts. Ryle also criticized Descartes by saying that he had divided a person’s life in to two parts or halves.

He said that the whole theory is based on false principles. We can elaborate this using a real life example. He added that this mistake come or arise when mental life is supposed to be in one category but it in reality belongs to other.but most people don't "think" very well” So. if you guide a person to bank and that person never went to any bank before. According to that person bank is like other institutions but he is wrong. ATM room and all other sections but in the last if he ask you where is bank. According to Ryle. mind. He explained category mistake that these mistakes are made by people who have ability and who are competent to propose any idea or they can apply concepts. He emphasized on difficulties about the influence of mind on body of a person. activities or processes of mind. As John Chaffee said. He said that he wants to describe the actual principles of mind and body relationship and he want to rectify the false statements and principles of dualistic theory of Descartes. For example. For example. According to Ryle. Now this is a categorical mistake because he is mistakenly trying to fit bank in different category by thinking that bank is a separate building while it doesn’t belong to that category.Homo sapiens means "thinking man" . . the dualistic theory of Descartes is a metaphor. He is shown all the departments. Ryle explained this with number of example. there are some categorical mistakes in theory of Descartes. He said that there are not small mistakes which combined but it is one bigger mistake which he named as Category Mistake and this mistake is special mistake according to his views. all the states. Ryle said that they apply their concepts in areas which are irrelevant. “Everybody "thinks" . Ryle’s main aim is to prove the official theory false.things which are physical in nature like human body while internal half contains things which are not tangible or physical.

They can only judge that how one reacts while he or she is in pain. These all observations can be right and accurate but behaviorist doesn’t focus on the actual pain he is suffering because that pain lies to only that person who has hit himself. one is suffering with. The behavioral theory focuses on observable behaviors while the official theory emphasized on mind. one while walking hit his foot accidentally and this will cause pain also. So. Behaviorist will watch the behaviors that how that person is reacting by judging his facial expressions and also by judging his behaviors with others. They cannot access the pain. For example. . inner feelings and thoughts.Behaviorism belongs to physical behaviors which are also observable while the official theory includes that both mind and body are separate tings but are dependent on each other. I feel myself apart from the observable behaviors because these behaviors can only reflect the reaction of a person not what is actually going on his her mind.