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Overview of the brazilian publications in analytical

chemistry
Sergio L. C. Ferreiraa*, Raildo M. de Jesusa,b, Dannuza D. Cavalcantea, Danilo Leãoa, Lindomar A. Portugala, Walter N. L. dos Santosc,
Neyla M. L. de Araujoa, Ana M. P. dos Santosa, Natacha C. F. Santosd
a)

Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Química, Grupo de Pesquisa em Química e Quimiometria, 40170-290, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, 45650-000, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.
c) Universidade do Estado da Bahia, 41195-001, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
d) Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - SEPN 509 - 70750-501, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.
b)

Abstract

*Corresponding author:
E-mail: slcf@ufba.br
Fax: 55-71-32355166.

1. Introduction

In this paper, Brazilian scientific production in analytical chemistry was researched. The
work searched 45 international journals that publish research in analytical chemistry.
The Web of Science database was used for data collection. The period studied was
from 1945 to November, 2009. This search revealed 4461 papers, 3582 being articles
(80.3%), 667 proceedings papers (14.9%), 102 notes (2.3%), 67 reviews (1.5%), and
43 letters, corrections, editorial materials etc. (0.9%). These publications resulted in
46,740 citations, with an average of 10.51citation per item and an H index of 65. This
number is the greatest among the countries in South America and also compared to
other countries including some of the European Community. This investigation shows
that the journals more frequently chosen by Brazilians for publishing their work are: Analytica Chimica Acta (11.7%) and Talanta (10.0%). The evaluation of the distribution of
the published papers for each Brazilian State showed that São Paulo leads the research
in Analytical Chemistry in Brazil. However, the States of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Santa
Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais also have an expressive scientific output
in analytical chemistry. Finally, it may be concluded that analytical chemistry research is
growing throughout most Brazilian regions. Some papers are randomly cited in order to
highlight some of the research in Analytical Chemistry performed by Brazilian groups.

Several papers have evaluated the evolution of the Brazilian analytical chemistry. One of the first was published
by Neves in 19841, discussing mainly the situation of the
area at the Universidade de São Paulo. Some publications were cited in order to characterize the research
lines of this institution. In 1985, Senise presented a general description of the area in Brazil and he identified
several research groups at 10 Brazilian universities of the
followings Brazilian States: Bahia, Ceará, Distrito Federal,
Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo2.
Another paper, published one decade later evaluated
quantitatively analytical chemistry developed in Brazil in
the period from 1974 to 1994. The search involved 18
analytical chemistry journals, and also included 2 general journals published by the Brazilian Chemical Society,
i.e., Química Nova and Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. This paper demonstrated that the publication
of analytical chemistry in this period was mainly done
in international journals3. De Andrade et al.4 presented
in 2004 an overview about the research on analytical
chemistry in Brazil. The authors observed great evolution
of this area and they suggested some possible routes for

Br J Anal Chem

the future of the area in Brazil4. These data were updated in 2008 focusing on the period from 2004 to 2007.
Relevant contributions performed by Brazilian analytical research groups were presented and criticized. This
paper included 303 references5. Finally, in 2009 a paper
was published showing that analytical chemistry in Brazil
is healthy and growing and is exerting a positive effect
on the economical development of the country6.
Actually, analytical chemistry is one of the major areas
of Chemistry in Brazil, with research groups working on
the following representative research topics:
Automation
It is one of the most consolidated research areas of
analytical chemistry in Brazil. Methods involving flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA)
and other flow systems have been proposed for the determination of inorganic and organic species employing
several instrumental techniques for detection7-21.
Chemometrics
The research activities involving chemometrics in Brazil

75

1. These procedures have been established using separation techniques such as solid phase extraction (SPE). Atomic Spectroscopy. chronoamperometry. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Separation journals Chromatographia. if we consider concentration and separation procedures there are several Brazilian research groups developing procedures for determination of inorganic and organic species in a plethora of sample types. and other more recent techniques. Natacha C. procedures using ultrasound are also being investigated and several important contributions are described. however. A total of 45 selected journals in analytical chemistry were selected as listed below.Sergio L. Journal of Analytical Chemistry. conductometry. liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). de Jesus. polarography. The papers listed show part of the contribution of Brazilian groups in this research line. Br J Anal Chem . Spectrochimica Acta Part B and Spectroscopy Letters. Cavalcante. dos Santos. Developments with various electroanalytical techniques. 76 Recently. Raildo M. and related techniques have been reported122-150. Systems involving microwave-induced combustion have also been developed. Instrumentation Several Brazilian groups in analytical chemistry have research activities involving the development of apparatus and low-cost equipment employing different detection techniques151-161. frequently associated with spectroanalytical techniques74-80. dos Santos. Analytical Letters. such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Separation techniques Chromatography in all its various form is intensely developed and used in Brazil. Journal of Separation Science and Separation Science and Technology. Lindomar A. such as petrochemical. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Methodology 2. chronocoulometry. Sample preparation Brazilian groups have leadership in this area. for Bahia: Bahia or BA. Ferreira. P. particularly for total inorganic analysis based on microwave-assisted procedures. cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). Research involving conventional techniques. and co-precipitation. Papers were published about multivariate designs and optimization. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Spectroscopy journals Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. Ana M. Analytical Chemistry. Spectroanalytical methods There are many active groups in spectroanalysis in Brazil. Danilo Leão. L. potentiometry. Chemia Analityczna. Dannuza D. 2. cloud point extraction (CPE). There are several consolidated research groups in a number of Brazilian States. foods and pharmaceuticals. a book was edited emphasizing recent contributions in sample preparation strategies131. HRC-Journal of High Resolution Chromatography. Selected analytical chemistry journals and its classification General Journals Analyst. which extensively use separation techniques51-73. Current Analytical Chemistry. The cited papers highlight some recent developments on this-topic81-127. Search for each Brazilian State was done using the name of the state and its abbreviation as keywords. in recent years it can be observed that researchers of several other Brazilian states are working on related topics. de Araujo. Bibliographic search This search was performed employing the Web of Science database. Canadian Journal of Analytical Sciences and Spectroscopy. Electrophoresis. high resolution-continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-AAS) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Journal of Chromatographic Science. Portugal. Additionally. Microchemical Journal. for instance. Microchimica Acta. Journal of Hazardous Materials. such as amperometry. F. and include knotted reactor systems. Quimica Analitica. Electroanalytical journals Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. L. classification and calibration. as well as the development of new chemometric methods22-50. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. Electroanalytical methods Electroanalytical chemistry is one of the most traditional sub-areas in Brazil and several research groups are developing new applications. inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Neyla M. C. hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG AAS). Walter N. voltammetry. Journal of Chromatography A. Additionally. electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). for example. Analytica Chimica Acta. are exhaustively used and some recent applications and developments can be seen in the cited papers81-120. Analytical Sciences. This area has a huge impact in analytical laboratories in chemical industries for quality control and there are companies in different areas. Talanta and Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry. Electroanalysis and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. Santos started in São Paulo State.

9%).gov. involving the 45 chosen journals as “publication name” and Brazil as “address”. Year Figure 1. 194 papers were published and 74% of these (144 papers) had authors from São Paulo State. editorial material etc.0%). (0. 82% (19 papers) originated from São Paulo State. which became one of the greatest examples of free access to scientific publications provided by government funds [165]. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry. Finally. several other actions were taken to increase research funding in Brazil. being 3572 articles (80. This search revealed 4461 papers. 66 reviews (1. 3. an average of citation per item of 10. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry and Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 384 papers were published. Journal of Chemometrics. Automation journals Journal of Automated Methods & Management in Chemistry. some government actions have contributed decisively in the last 30 years to this strong development. In 1998. Results and Discussion The publication of analytical chemistry in Brazil The Web of Science was searched from 1945 to November. must be pointed out.5%). The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) has been applying large volumes of resources in research and development in all areas of Brazil. These data also demonstrated Br J Anal Chem Year Figure 2.Overview of the Environmental Chemistry journals Atmospheric Environment. 102 notes (2. Figure 2 shows that the number of citations increases geometrically every year. corrections. The search was performed using the same journals as “publication source” and for 77 . The publication of analytical chemistry in each Brazilian State was also evaluated. which established Chemistry and Chemical Engineering as priority areas for research funding. The influence that the creation. Others journals Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. and 56% (214 papers) originated from São Paulo State. All these numbers confirm that publication is growing throughout the country. Of these. 667 proceedings papers (15. 2009. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. Evolution of the number of papers published in the last 20 years.br) allowed easy access to information throughout the country. In 1998.periodicos. It can be seen that publication in analytical chemistry in Brazil is growing every year.740 citations. of the strategic program named PADCT (Action Program for Scientific and Technological Development).3%). in 1984. brazilian publications in analytical chemistry that the publication of review papers for Brazilian groups should be incremented taking into account their importance in the literature. This evolution is a consequence of research funding by federal and state agencies. Particularly.capes.51 and an H index of 65. These publications led to 46. and 40 letters.3%). Evolution of the number of citations of the papers published of the selected journals. Figure 1 shows the number of published items for the last 20 years. In 2008. Journal of Automatic Chemistry and Laboratory Robotics. the creation of the “Portal da CAPES” (www. In 1988 23 papers were published in the selected journals.

00 . Brazil and Sao Paulo or Brazil and SP).4 59 66 30 Rio de Janeiro 493 5.00 Figure 4 .2. Santa Catarina. Table I.1. This demonstrates that most of the papers were published in journals with impact factors varying from 3 to 4 (38%.Sergio L.0 33 10 4 Santa Catarina 264 3.9 7.Classification of the selected journals in terms of im- pact factor The distribution of the 4461 papers. C. Figure 4 shows the classification of these papers in terms of impact factor of the selected journals. the efficient and continuous support of the São Paulo Research Foundation (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.99 5.2. However.00 .00 .00 . considering the impact factor of the 45 selected journals.99 2. The number of universities and research centers developing research in analytical chemistry in this state justify these results.6. these fellowships have two categories which are: Researcher 2 and Researcher 1.3 16 2 1 Paraíba 74 685 9. Raildo M.340 722 919 6. de Araujo. Moreover. for Sao Paulo.99 1.99 3.99 5. Danilo Leão.99 2. average citations per item published and H index (see Table I).4. It can be seen that most of the journals have impact factors between 2 and 3 (28%). Walter N.9 12. Ferreira. dos Santos. from bottom to top. the total number of fellowships awarded was 11.00 .99 4.059 10. Rio Grande do Sul.g.00 . L.1 4 0 0 Paraná Maranhão Pernambuco Ceará Alagoas Pará with CNPq* with CNPq* * Data collected in March. Natacha C. Scientific production of Analytical Chemistry in some Brazilian States State Number Number Citation of of per H index Total of Category I researchers researchers Papers Citations papers São Paulo 2. Ana M. it can be concluded that 70% (3148 papers) of the publications were in journals with impact factors greater than 2. 2009. respectively.3 31 10 4 Rio Grande do Sul 404 3.6 28 6 2 Minas Gerais 261 1.068 11. It can be observed that São Paulo has the largest fellowship number among the Brazilian states.6. FAPESP) has contributed to the dissemination of research in this State.028 7. 3% 3% 12% 18% 38% 26% 0. Santos address the state name and state abbreviation (e. being that the category 1 has classification of 1D. Data were collected for number of papers. Finally.605 11. Bahia.724 14. number of citations.00 .456.00 19% 18% 24% 29% Figure 3 .2 20 11 0 195 58 111 1.7 4.4 8.1.00 . Neyla M. 1B and 1A. CNPq in 1976 established a fellowship program for researchers from all areas of science.1 11 0 0 40 27 15 188 131 114 4.4. L.3. Actually. 2009.99 1.612 6. Portugal. P. Journals with impact factors from 3 to 4 and from 1 to 2 published 23 and 22% of the papers. Minas Gerais and others also have a significant publication in analytical chemistry from Brazil.0.3 17 17 16 5 2 2 0 0 0 Distrito Federal 76 708 9. 1710 papers).00 .0. In March. dos Santos.00 .99 4. Lindomar A.6 8 7 7 2 0 1 0 0 0 Rio Grande do Norte 13 47 3. 5% 5% 0. de Jesus.6 3 1 1 Amazonas 7 57 8. it can also be seen that Rio de Janeiro.5 24 15 4 Bahia 266 3. Figure 3 shows the classification of these journals in terms of impact factor. with 604 for chemistry and 142 for analytical chemistry. These results demonstrated clearly that São Paulo State leads the research in analytical chemistry in Brazil. The number of citations and H index of these states clearly support this fact.764 31. Table I also shows the distribution of fellowship by Brazilian state.3 15 4 1 Mato Grosso 44 444 10.3. Another investigation evaluated the distribution of the papers published in Brazil in the 45 selected journals.00 .99 3. F. Cavalcante. considering the scientific production of the re- 78 searchers.00 .Classification of the papers published in terms of impact factor of the selected journals Br J Anal Chem . was also evaluated. 1C. Dannuza D.

49 Analytical Chemistry 99 2.56 87 17 151 8.51 65 Argentina 1 427 16 620 11. spectroanalytical methods and separation methods.50 Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (JEC) 284 6. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry (6. A refinement of the search involving the publication in analytical chemistry in Brazil based on institutions was also performed. Analytical Biochemistry.16%).61%). Br J Anal Chem of Brazilian publications in Analytical Chemistry A comparison between Brazilian publications in Analytical Chemistry and the publications of some other countries was performed using the 45 selected journals.56 87 Turkey 2 722 25 133 9.00 Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 71 1. The increase in the number of papers published and also in the cumulative citations clearly observed in the 79 . These results also demonstrated that there is a balance between publication in major sub-areas.39 Comparison Spectrochimica Acta Part B .67 Spectroscopy Letters 114 2. Table II.98 Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry (JRNC) 290 6.16 Journal of Chromatography a 217 4. It can be seen that Brazil has a good performance in publication. The Brazilian journals Química Nova and Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society (JBCS) were not included in this search because both publish papers in all areas of chemistry.56 Microchemical Journal 111 2. Distribution of the papers among the selected journals brazilian publications in analytical chemistry but these journals are also used exhaustively by Brazilian researchers from other areas and.22 Analytical Sciences 92 2. they were not included among the selected journals.18 44 South Korea 2 966 27 682 9.61 Talanta 445 9. including its several institutes.55 138 Portugal 1 838 18 955 10. these results confirm the good performance of the Brazilian publications in analytical chemistry.19 35 Costa Rica Egypt Final Remarks This paper studied the Brazilian publications in analytical chemistry considering the 45 main journals of this area. The Universidade de São Paulo (USP). 23 49 South Africa 1 128 12 609 11. Again. consequently. i.02 30 Venezuela 462 5 695 12. Electrochimica Acta.37%). Talanta (9. and Analytical Letters (5. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (6.88 7 2 170 15 598 7. Number Paper % Analytica Chimica Acta 518 11. Once again.07 Chromatographia 127 2.Overview of the Table II presents the top 20 journals more frequently accessed by Brazilians groups for publication of their papers.75 13 Chile 526 5 273 10. Scientific production of Analytical Chemistry in Brazil and other countries Number Paper Number of Citations Citation per Brasil 4 461 46 740 10. Food Chemistry. but surely there is room for growth and improvement its overall quality. Results are shown in Table III.85 Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 119 2.23 Atmospheric Environment 137 3.e.70 Electroanalysis 144 3. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry are journals that are frequently used for publication of analytical chemistry papers by Brazilians. has obviously the greatest number of publications.Atomic Spectroscopy 190 4.65 48 of papers H Index Uruguay 75 581 7.02 Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 89 2. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.86 Journal of Hazardous Materials 196 4.59 Journal of The 5 most used journals are: Analytica Chimica Acta (11.37 Analytical Letters 230 5.31 47 Australia 4 267 70 658 16.33 54 Australia 4 267 70 658 16. This demonstrates the participation that these institutions have in the training of human resources in analytical chemistry in Brazil. The results demonstrated the evolution of this subarea of chemical sciences in practically all of the country. Table III.33 34 Canada 8 481 182 754 21.26 and other countries Analyst 165 3. Institute of Chemistry in São Paulo.06 Country Journal of Liquid Chromatography & related technologies 90 2.50%). Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Institute of Chemistry in São Carlos and Department of Chemistry in Ribeirão Preto. The Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) has also a great contribution for Brazilian analytical chemistry. a prevalence of the São Paulo State in publication of papers can be seen. Water Research.98%). such as eletroanalytical methods.. CENA.

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