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Indonesian Journal on Geoscience Vol. 2 No.

2 August 2015: 77-90

INDONESIAN JOURNAL ON GEOSCIENCE
Geological Agency
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources
Journal homepage: h�p://ijog.bgl.esdm.go.id
ISSN 2355-9314 (Print), e-ISSN 2355-9306 (Online)

The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales
In Kiliran Jao Subbasin, West Sumatra Indonesia
Edy Sunardi
Faculty of Geology, Padjadjaran University
Jln. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21 Jatinangor, Indonesia 45363

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Corresponding author: edysunardi@unpad.ac.id
Manuscript received: February 13, 2015; revised: April 2, 2015;
approved: June 01, 2015; available online: June 27, 2015

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Abstract - The lithofacies association, mainly lithology and depositional sequences of the Brown Shale Unit of
Pematang Group was studied based on recent fieldwork at Karbindo Coal Mine, in Kiliran Jao Subbasin,West Sumatra, Indonesia. The lower part of the Brown Shale Unit consists of coal and limestone facies which were deposited
in a marginal lacustrine area. The limestone was generated by evaporatic processes characterized by the presence of
primary calcite crystals. The upper part of the unit, from bottom to top, is composed of six facies associations, among
all: amalgamated massive thick bedded shales, interlaminated shales and siltstones, interbedded grey and red shales,
fossiliferous shales, massive thick bedded shales, and interlaminated shale and sandstone facies. Those facies were
deposited in a shallow to deep water lacustrine environment, characterized by their lithology compositions, sedimentary structures, and fossil contents. The unit has such as high content of reworked organic matters-bearing shales and
mudstones. Turbiditic sedimentary structures, gastropods, and bivalves are common.
Keywords: Brown Shale, lacustrine, lithofacies, Kiliran Jao Subbasin

How to cite this article:
Sunardi, E., 2015. The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales In Kiliran Jao Subbasin, West Sumatra Indonesia.
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience, 2 (2) p.77-90. DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.77-90

Introduction

Background
The studied area is located in Kiliran Jao
Subbasin, where PT Karbindo Abesyapradhi
coal mine occurs. It is located approximately
60 km to the east of the Ombilin Basin (PT BA
Ombilin), and south-southwest of Central Sumatra Basin (Figure 1). Lithostratigraphically, the
area consists of Pretertiary basement, Paleogene
sedimentary unit, and Holocene deposits, but the
study is more emphasized in the Pematang Group
of the Paleogene sediments (Figure 2). This basin
is a coal producing depression in Sumatra Island.
The main objective of this paper is to recognize
the lithofacies association, mainly to identify

lithology and depositional sequences of Brown
Shale Unit based on a recent fieldwork in Karbindo Coal Mine which is part of the Pematang
Formation as defined by some previous investigators (Aswan et al., 2009; Carnell et al., 2013;
Widayat et al., 2013).
The Pematang Formation was informally
divided into three lithological units consisting
of Lower Red Beds in the lower part, Brown
Shales in the middle part, and Upper Red Beds
in the upper part. Caughey et al. (1994, in De
Smet and Barber, 2005) stated that the Lower Red
Bed unit is composed of sandstones, shales, and
conglomerate, deposited in alluvial and fluvial
environments. The Brown Shale Unit mainly
consists of dark brown to black shales deposited

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The succesions are composed of constituents of Brown Shale Unit of the Pematang Formation (Figure 3). The study focused on lithological successions exposed as a working face at Karbindo Coal Mine area. Several researchers. Indonesia. (2014) concluded that the Eocene-Oligocene sediments in Kiliran Jao Subbasin was deposited in lacustrine to brackish environments associated with a coal deposition. Karbindo Abesyapradhi Location o 0 Lingga Islands G A S o INDIAN OCEAN 4 Ombilin Basin B I Siberut 2 Riau Islands hH R Batu Islands ulu O Nias o 2o O Banyak Islands Tig ap o F 2 4 o 106 o JAVA 108 E o Figure 1.Indonesian Journal on Geoscience. Widayat et al. 2 August 2015: 77-90 94 E 96 o 98 o ANDAMAN SEA 6 N o 104 o 106 o 108 E o o N 6 N o WEST MALAYSIA Arch North Sumatra Basin Meulaboh o 102 o Natuna Islands Asahan 4 100 o Simeuleu SOUTH CHINA SEA F Central Sumatra Basin R E R A C R igh A E 0o C Padang Jambi N N S D Bengkulu pun S 4o 6 S o o 94 E o 100 200 300 96 o 500 km 400 98 o 100 o 102 o 104 o Belitung JAVA SEA Lam IJ O 2 6 S 0 o Palembang gH A I South Sumatra Basin Bangka igh S L Mentawai Islands PT.e. 78 Methods The base map used is a topographic map of Sungai Lansat sheet scale 1:50. Carnell et al. weathering. that administratively belongs to Kemang Baru Subregency of Sijunjung Regency. lateral and vertical stratigraphic distribution. as well as environmental interpretation. from Bakosurtanal. (2009). The Brown Shale Unit is well exposed in the Karbindo Coal Mine area as an overburden rock formation overlying a coal seam. Moreover. The geology of this area has also been studied by Coster (1974). siltstones. and Iqbal et al. and structure determination. The locality map of the studied area situated in Kiliranjao Sub-basin. (2013).to coarse-grained sandstones. and Carnell et al. whilst the Upper Red Bed is composed of fine. The studied area is situated to the east of Padang. palynological investigation was also carried out to obtain the age and depositional environment. 2005). and fossils content). (2013). Petrographic studies and XRD analysis performed on lithologic samples are for the purposes of mineralogy composition. and claystones deposited in a fluviatile environment. diagnostic sedimentary structure. West Sumatra (modified from Barber. i.000. grain size. Aswan et al. The fieldwork was conducted to identify the lithological type and any general/special characteristics (mineral composition. Darman and Sidi (2000). The region has been regionally mapped by Silitonga and Kastowo (1995). . 2 No. West Sumatra. (1998). in a lacustrine environment. Vol. rock texture.

Fossiliferous shale facies (E) 79 .5 Menggala Fm.5 N4 Gravel. Calcareous Shale and Siltstone. NN 1 25. Calcareous Shale with Sandstone Interbeds and Minor Limestone Fine to Coarse Grained Sandstone. Amalgamated massive thick bedded shale facies (B) 3.5 16. The tectonostratigraphic chart of Central Sumatra Basin (after Heidrick and Aulia. F1 45 65 Greenish Gray Shale Sandstone and Siltstone Duri Event (Hiatus) 22. Sunardi) Pleistocene and Recent Pliocene 10. Argilite Figure 2.Y.8 Units Palani Group Forami. Coal and limestone facies (A) 2. Quartzite.3 N17 N16 N15 N14 Late N13 15. the Pematang Group is shown in a black circle).5 N12 N11 N10 N9 N8 N7 N5 NN 8 NN 7 F3 NN 5 NN 3 NN 2 Brownish Gray. Granite.8 NN 6 IJ O Early N6 NN 9 Minas Fm/Aluvium G Late 6.2 SW Lithology PreTertiary F0 Basement Pematang Group 2.6 NE Sihapas Group 5. NN 4 F2 Bekasap Fm. and Clay 13. sand. Conglomeratic Lake Fill/Upper Red Bed Coalzone Brown Shale Dark Brown Shale Lower Red Bed Red and Green Claystone and Fine to Medium Grained Conglomeratic Sandstone Greywacke. 1993. Results Lithofacies association succession developing in the observed Brown Shale Unit from lower to upper part shows a repetition of a sedimentation cycle that can be divided into facies association (Figure 3) as follows: 1.The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales In Kiliran Jao Sub-basin. West Sumatra Indonesia (E. Occasional Limestone Tolsa Fm. Interlaminated shale and siltstone facies (C) 4.Nanonifera plankton Structural Episode Barisan Compression Phase Faunal Zones Sag Phase M. Epoch BP Medium to Coarse Grained Sandstone and Minor Shale Gray.5 Rift Phase Eo-Oligocene 25. Bangko Fm. Interbedded grey and red shale facies (D) 5.

G: Interlaminated shale and sandstone facies. very fine-grained or micritic. The thickness of this facies is about 6. the limestones are mainly supported by calcite crystalline and containing 80 organic matter laminae. Vol. Interlaminated shale and sandstone facies (G) Coal and Limestone Facies (A) Coal and limestone facies (Figure 4) comprise several coal beds tending to show thinning upward. Microscopically. A: Coal and limestone facies. The coal beds are black. The thickness of limestone beds ranges from 3 cm to 1 m. vitreous. occasionally filled by pyrites. often contain thin layers of carbonaceous matter. 2 August 2015: 77-90 G F A E G D B A IJ O C Figure 3. the limestones are light brown in colour. Interlaminated Shale and Siltstone Facies Association (C) Interlaminated shale and siltstone facies association (Figure 7) contains tight laminations . massive (almost structureless) beds of shales. and contain sandy silty matters. 6. The photograph of outcrop of the Brown Shale lithofacies association in the Karbindo Coal Mine. Massive bedded shale facies (F) 7. The coal beds are occasionally intercalated by limestones or interbedded with limestones. carbonaceous. conchoidal fractured and jointed with face and butt cleats. D: Interbedded grey and red shale facies. B: Amalgamated massive-thick bedded shale facies.Indonesian Journal on Geoscience. hard.amalgamated aggradational thick. In general. The shales are dark brown. 2 No. which is consistent with the result of XRD analysis indicating that the limestones are mostly composed of calcite minerals (Figure 5). Amalgamated Massive Thick Bedded Shale Facies (B) Massive facies (Figure 6) is characterized by interbedded . calcareous. F: Massive-thick bedded shale facies.5 m. C: Interlaminated shale and siltstone facies. The limestones also consist of several beds intercalated within or interbedded with coals. E: Fossiliferous shale facies. occasionally forming discontinuous and continuous parallel laminations.

The thickness of this facies is about 20 m. 81 .and sandy-calcareous shales. it shows wavy laminations of calcite.The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales In Kiliran Jao Sub-basin. iron oxide. and carbonaceous shales. 2000 1500 1000 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) (%) <Peak Data/ Entry Peak> 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 (%) <Card Data> A 400 um 100 80 60 40 20 0 CaCO3 10 20 30 40 50 (5-0586) 60 (deg) Figure 5. Mineralogy data record. and quartz (Figure 8B). Xnicol). and carbonaceous matters (Figure 8A). Photomicrograph of crystalline limestone supported by calcite and contains organic matter laminae (P 10. B. a few limestone wedges out into coal seams. Sunardi) m Lith M S F M C G P C Facies 20 18 16 10 8 6 4 2 IJ O 0 G 12 Coal and Limestone Facies 14 (cps) Figure 4. siderite. West Sumatra Indonesia (E. a result of XRD analysis of limestone showing the rock contains only calcite (CaCO3). X-RD analysis result indicates that the rocks are composed of calcite. (<1cm) formed by silty. Microscopically. kaolin. mud or clay. A. Photograph of interbedded coals and limestones showing the repetition of thickening and coarsening upward cycles.

Photograph of interlaminated shale and siltstone facies association containing shales.Thick Shale Facies 28 G 26 24 22 20 IJ O Figure 6. cm 165 Lith M S F M C G P C Facies 164 162 160 156 154 152 150 Interlaminated Shale and Siltstone Facies 158 148 146 144 Figure 7.Indonesian Journal on Geoscience. Photograph of thick bedded calcareous and carbonaceous silty-sandy dark brown shales of massive shale facies association. Vol. calcareous sand. 82 . and calcareous siltstones. 2 August 2015: 77-90 m 41 Lith M S F M C G P C Facies 40 38 Interlaminated Shale and Siltstone Facies 36 34 32 30 Massive . 2 No.

Mudstones are reddish brown. and they occasionally 83 . The sandstones are calcareous. Interbedded Dark Grey Shale and Red Mudstone Facies (D) Interbedded dark grey shale and red mudstone facies (Figure 9) are almost similar to the underlying interlaminated shale and sandstone facies. and calcareous. The thickness of the fossiliferous fossils on the section is 13. The shales and mudstones are dark brown to black. B.. A. This facies consists of interbedded dark brown . calcite.. containing abundant organic matters. commonly contain abundant organic content. carbonaceous. and claystones. Mineralogy data record of interlaminated shale. This facies is mainly composed of interbedded amalgamated massive thick bedded shales and mudstones intercalated by sandstones. to very thin forming part of sedimentary structures. Fossiliferous Shale Facies (E) The fossiliferous shale facies (Figure 10) overlies the massive shale facies with a gradual contact. Sunardi) 2000 1000 0 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) 50 60 (deg) (%) <Peak Data/Entry Peak> 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 400μm A 100 80 60 40 20 100 80 60 40 20 100 80 60 40 20 100 80 60 40 20 0 CaCo3 (5-05806) SiO2 (46-1045) G (%) <Card Data> 400μm Al2Si2O5 (OH) 4 (29-1488) FeCo3 (29-0696) B 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) IJ O Figure 8. grey . thin. (2009) stated that the fossils comprised Brotia sp.(CPS) The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales In Kiliran Jao Sub-basin. and Paludina sp. Massive Thick Bedded Shale Facies (F) Massive thick bedded shale facies (Figure 11) conformably overlies the fossiliferous shale facies. and red shales containing rich angular fragments (1-2 cm) of gastropods and minor bivalve mollusks (up to 4 cm in diameter). kaolin. Thiara sp. quartz. calcareous and carbonaceous. The claystones are white. amalgamated massive thick bedded shales intercalated by broken white clay and red mudstones. siderite. It comprises homogeneous. The thickness of shale beds ranges from 30 cm to 1. Aswan et al.15 cm thick. X-nicol). and siderite. and carbonaceous matters (P20. West Sumatra Indonesia (E.5 m. The differences are on the less sedimentary structure development. dark grey to black in colour.greenish grey. 5 . Photomicrographs indicating interlamination of clay or shale. The shales are dark brown. a result of XRD analyses containing calcite. occasionally forming graded bedding structure-like. very fine to fine-grained.5 m. siltstones. calcareous. and often show very thin graded bedding structures. Those fossils are commonly concentrated in the bottom of the layer and more scattered in the upper part of the beds. The siltstones are grey and commonly present as a laminated body.black shales.

Photograph of interbedded calcareous shales and sandstones. Vol. Photograph of fossiliferous red and dark grey shales showing graded bedding and parallel lamination structures rich in fragments of gastropods. The sandstones show graded bedding and load cast structures. Interbedded thick shales and very thin-laminated white claystones occur. 2 August 2015: 77-90 cm 62 Lith M S F MC G P C Facies 60 58 Interbedded Grey and Red Shale Facies 56 54 52 50 G 48 46 44 42 41 IJ O Figure 9. 2 No. Lith MS F MCG P C Facies cm 81 Flooding Surface 80 78 74 72 Fossiliferous Shale Facies 76 70 68 66 64 62 Figure 10. 84 .Indonesian Journal on Geoscience.

Sunardi) show parallel laminations formed by carbonate grains. Based on XRD analysis. these claystones are composed of kaolin. 85 . 123 Lith M S F M C G P C The claystones are broken white in colour.The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales In Kiliran Jao Sub-basin.Thick Shale Facies 116 102 (cps) Figure 11. and calcite. containing iron oxides and also pyrites. B. The sediments are interbedded shales and calcareous sandy laminations. 1500 1000 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) (%) <Peak Data/ Entry Peak> 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 (%) <Card Data> A 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 80 60 40 20 0 CaCO3 SiO2 (5-0586) (46-1045) Al2Si2O5 (OH)4 (14-0164) B 10 20 30 40 50 60 (deg) Figure 12. quartz. Petrographically. Photomicrographs of fissility or parting on shale composed of muddy and organic matters. calcite. West Sumatra Indonesia (E. Photograph of massive shale facies containing rich organic matter. less than 1cm -20 cm thick. several shales show good parting or fissility features (Figure 12A). Facies 122 120 118 112 110 108 106 IJ O 104 G 114 Massive . Broken white claystones consisting of kaolinite. A. graded bedding structure.

and graded bedding sedimentary structures. composed of carbonates. On the basis of lithology and their sedimentary structures.very thin bed of mudstones. it can be suggested that the limestones were deposited in a freshwater environment. Vol. silty. carbonaceous sandy. 2 August 2015: 77-90 siderite. those rocks predominantly consist of mudstones and shales which do not show fissility parting. and clay matrix indicating the rocks are feldsphatic wacke (Figure 14). The thickness of this facies in the measured section is approximately 60. it is very difficult to determine the age of coal and limestone facies in this area because there are no index fossil for the age determination. Generally. wavy-ripple. and siltstones. the presence of (?) Florschuetzia trilobata in Lithofacies A suggests that the age of the sample probably ranges from Eocene to Oligocene. However. sandstones. muddy calcareous and carbonaceous matters. and parallel and ripple laminations. organic matters. muddy matters. and pyrites. The amalgamated shale facies (Lithofacies B) was deposited in a low energy and deeper water IJ O G Interlaminated Thin Bedded Shale and Siltstone Facies (G) The interlaminated thin bedded shale and siltstone facies (Figure 13) are present as the uppermost facies in the section. iron oxides. They contain parallel lamination structures and slump features. The thickness of this facies is about 81.Indonesian Journal on Geoscience. sandy. Petrographically. silty. carbonate.50 m on section. The limestone facies was deposited in a stagnant water in pool or depression and or swampy environment underwent evaporation during a long period of dry season or airy condition producing evaporation minerals such as calcium carbonate (calcite). 86 . This is supported by the presence of brackish water polen of Dicolpopollis sp. slump. Those rocks are composed of shally. the facies contains tight or very closed laminated forming repetition of parallel. Sandstones are fine-grained composed of grains of feldspar. 2 No. On the basis of those data. Discussion cm 186 Lith M S F M C G P C Facies 184 182 178 176 174 172 Interlaminated Shale and Siltstone Facies 180 170 168 166 165 Figure 13. Load cast and parallel lamination occur within calcareous.5 m.to fine grained sandstones and mudstones showing repetition of gradedbedding. Photograph of interbedded very fine . and quartz (Figure 12B). consisting of interlaminated . the coal facies was deposited in a freshwater to brackish swampy mire. shales. Lithologically.

The presence of calcite. The interlaminated shale and sandstone facies (Lithofacies G) was deposited in deep water but more proximal than the massive thick bed shale facies. IJ O environment compared to the coal and limestone units. It was probably deposited during a long period of wet season causing shoreline of lake moved landwards and suspended influx sediments filled the basin. Thus. which are probably as turbidity structures. The facies is characterized by the presence of sedimentary structures such as graded bedding. Photomicrographs of feldsphatic wacke composed of clay minerals. X-nicol). and slump laminations. The interlaminated shale and siltstone facies (Lithofacies C) was deposited in a shallow water lake with low oxygen and low acidic condition indicated by the presence of siderite (FeCaCO3) and also tight wavy . usually formed by density or turbidity currents. ripple-wavy. current ripple lamination. the base of water should be a shallow water environment. Although the environment was in deep water. load cast. parallel. lime mud. The arrangements of the seven lithofacies which are denoted from A to G are associated within a facies-belt model as illustrated in Figure 15. current ripple. Due to the sequence of beds showing aggradation stacking pattern. The fossiliferous shale facies (Lithofacies E) was deposited in a deep water environment characterized by the presence of gastropods fragments. The constituent of the rocks was probably derived or reworked from land or shallower environments. which were probably transported by density current from a beach or shallower environment. it suggests that during their deposition the rate of subsidence is equivalent to this of rate influx sediments. parallel lamination. parallel. load cast. Whereas the thick 87 . The calcite. The massive thick beds of shale facies (Lithofacies F) was accumulated in deep water characterized by the presence of graded bedding. and slump lamination sedimentary structures which were usually formed by density current. Sunardi) G Figure 14. kaolin. The presence of tight wavy-ripple sedimentary structures indicates that the structure formation was influenced by a wave activity blown by the wind. and organic matters (P10.current ripple lamination structures. and quartz minerals in the rock suggests those minerals were probably transported from fluvial and marginal lake sediments. and slump structures.The Lithofacies Association of Brown Shales In Kiliran Jao Sub-basin. quartz and kaolin were transported away from the land. carbonate grains. The thickness of this massive thick shales and siltstones is about 29. accumulated in deep water characterized by the presence of sedimentary structures consisting of graded bedding. and slump laminations. beds of shale were deposited in suspended ways in low energy condition. this facies was accumulated more proximal than the dark grey shale and red mudstone facies. K-feldspar. West Sumatra Indonesia (E. The environment is more distal than this of fossiliferous shale facies.5 m. The sedimentary structures developed in interbedded grey and red shale facies (Lithofaces D) are commonly in small scales comprising graded bedding.

Facies E representing a biogenic facies was deposited on the edge of lake-offshore. Two lithological units of the Pematang Formation are exposed. respectively. Facies D represents a deep-offshore lake. 1987). which then extending into a deep-lake basin-plain. The association of peat and freshwater limestones might be formed under this situation. where in this environment turbidity current can occur caused by a hyperpycnal flow. lacustrine depositional system. Facies F and G represent a 88 distal and proximal lacustrine turbidite. where the lake level fluctuations can occur during dry and wet seasons. then the lake shore. Facies B and C represent the lowgradient lake shore environments characterized by the presence of wavy cross-stratification. The facies-belt. The lithofacies association developed in the Brown Shale Unit from lower to upper part shows a repetition of sedimentation cycles divided into . Facies A represents shallow-lake marshes. Thiara sp. Conclusions Recent fieldwork points out that the Tertiary lithostratigraphic units exposed in the Karbindo Coal Mine and its surrounding areas are probably part of the Pematang Formation as defined by previous investigators. Freshwater gastropoda (mollusca) p Dee sin -ba lake n plai G E i ustr -lac al oxim idite urb ne t cu al-la Dist e strin idite turb F Rhythmites and Laminites IJ O Rhythmites and Laminites Figure 15. Paludina sp. namely the Lower Red Bed and Brown Shale. 2 August 2015: 77-90 C lake shes t) r a -m udfla llow Sha utrine m l (Pa A D t dien -gra Low shore lake e Lak hore offs n argi em Slop B Pr G Brotia sp. Those two facies are characterized by the laminite deposits. It provides the valuable information to support exploration activities regarding hydrocarbon source rocks. 1991) at the shallowest part of the system. 2 No. Kiliran Jao Subbasin.Indonesian Journal on Geoscience. most likely formed when the lake level rose accompanied by a very low sediment supply. and the deeplake basin-plain at the deepest part of the system. Vol. The entire lithofacies are considered to represent a lacustrine depositional system started from a shallow-lake marshes or palustrine mudflat (Platt and Wright. lake offshore (Cabrera and Saez.

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