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# Parts of Electric Circuit

Notebook #4- Revised

Laura Ramirez
December 7, 2016
RTE 141
Professor Yost

Parts of Electric Circuit

Ohm’s Law: Georg Ohm discovered by a mathematical relationship between the factors of current,
potential difference, and resistance that applies to all resistance circuits and is known as Ohm’s Law.-The
law describes the potential difference as the current along a conductor is potential difference.
Formula: V=IR or R=V/I or I=V/R
V stands for potential difference in volts
I stands for current in amperes
-These formulas are helpful to calculate the amount of power used in an electric circuit. The unit of power
is the watt.
-The amount of energy available in a circuit is determined by the current (amperage) and potential
difference (voltage), the watt is defined as 1 ampere flowing through 1 volt.
-Radiographic equipment capabilities can be measured by the power rating, usually by calculating the
greatest possible energy output.

Voltage/ Volt (V): the unit of potential difference.
-The force with which electrons travel can be described by the terms potential difference, electromotive
force (emf), and voltage (V).
-The technician definition of a volt is 1 joule (J) of work done on 1 coulomb of charge 1 volt= 1 joule/ 1
coulomb). A joule is the SI unit for both mechanical energy and work.
-It is often referred to as “electric potential” is a “per-unit-charge” quantity.
-As the current flows around the circuit, the potential difference is reduced because the closer the
electrons come to the deficient end of the circuit, the farther they are the excess end and the closer they
are to becoming part of the deficiency themselves.
-High voltage is extremely dangerous because there does not have to be an actual flow of current for the
potential difference to exist.
- Electrical circuit: a pathway that permits electrons to move in a complete circle from their source,
through resisting electrical devices and back to the source.
-Formula: V= U/Q

Current: The quantity, or number, of electrons flowing.
-It is useful to think of the measurement of current as the number of electrons flowing past the given point
per unit of time (per sec).
-The ampere is sometimes called the amp for short and is represented by the symbol A.
-It consists of the movement of 6.24x1018 electrons per second past a given point’ therefore, the technical
definition is one coulomb of electrical charge flowing per second (1 ampere= 1 coulomb/ 1 second).
-The milliamperage (mA) is found on nearly all x-ray machines and adjustment by the radiographer
operating the equipment will cause the number of electrons and number pf x-ray photons produced to
vary.

Resistance: the amount of opposition to the current in the circuit.

-As a result the unit of resistance is called ohm (Omega).
-Resistance and impedance are the terms used to describe current opposition.
-When the expression I/R is used, resistance of a DC circuit measured as conductance, AC
-The SI unit for conductance and admittance is the siemens, which represented by the symbol S
and is named after the English Electrical engineer Sir William Siemens.

Battery: a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

http://www.kehblog.com/2011/09/battery-guide.html

Capacitor: is a device capable of accumulating and storing an electrical charge.
- Work a little like a battery. Although they work in completely different ways, capacitors and batteries
both store electrical energy.
-Formula: C=Q/V

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

Diode: is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode.
Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or selenium.
- A device that blocks current in one direction while letting current flow in another direction is called
a diode. Diodes can be used in a number of ways. When the voltage on the cathode is higher than the
anode, the zener diode will break-down and current will flow from the cathode to anode.

http://www.electrical4u.com/diode-working-principle-and-types-of-diode/

Protective devices: items worn by the radiation worker to reduce exposure to radiation

Resistors: is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit
element.
- In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages,
bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses.
- The resistor's ability to reduce the current is called resistance and ismeasured in units of ohms
(symbol: Ω). If we make an analogy to water flow through pipes, the resistor is a thin pipe that reduces
the water flow.

http://www.itechsoul.com/find-value-of-unknown-resistor-with-resistor-color-code-calculator

Transformer: a device in which two coils are placed near one another without electrical connection.

http://philschatz.com/physics-book/contents/m42416.html

Switch: control consisting of a mechanical or electrical or electronic device for making or breaking or
changing the connections in a circuit

Symbols:
Ohm’s Law (omega): Ω
Voltage (volt): V
Ampere (amp): A
Milliamperage: mA
Resistance in ohms: R
Resistivity: ρ
Length in meters: L
Power in watts: P
Current in amperes: I