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Flemings Hand Rules

Notebook #5- Revised

Laura Ramirez
December 7, 2016
RTE 141
Professor Yost

Fleming’s Hand Rule: A series of easily remembered aids to help with the relationship between
electricity and magnetism.

Fleming’s right-hand thumb rule states that if the right hand is used to grasp a conducting wire
with the thumb in the direction of the current flow, the fingers will indicate the direction of the
magnetic field lines of force surrounding the conductor. Fleming’s left-hand thumb rule does the
same for actual electron flow.

The strength of solenoids and electromagnets is determined by the number of loops (or turns)
of wire, the current strength, and the permeability of the core. If the fingers point in the
direction of current, the thumb will point toward the north pole.

Fleming’s right-hand generator rule states that if the thumb points in the direction the
conductor (or armature) is moving and the index fingers points in the direction of the magnetic
field lines of force field, then the middle finger will indicate the direction of the conventional
current. Fleming’s left-hand generator rule does the same for actual electron flow.

Fleming’s left-hand motor rule states that if the index finger points in the direction of the
magnetic lines of force field and the middle finger points in the direction of the conventional
current, the thumb will indicate the direction the conductor will move. This would be a righthand motor rule if the direction of actual electron flow is being considered.

Fleming’s left hand rule is also used in electric motors which are used in fans, mixers/blenders,
printers, etc.

Fleming’s Hand Rule for Electromagnetic Relationships
Fleming’s Hand
Conventional
Hand positions:
Rules:
Current Flow

Along a conductor

Thumb= conventional current
or electron flow
Fingers= magnetic field

Right-hand
thumb rule

Electron
Flow

Picture

Left-hand
thumb rule

http://www.sliderbase.com/spitem789-1.html

Solenoid and
electromagnet
poles

Thumb= direction of north
pole
Fingers= conventional
current or electron flow

Right-hand
thumb rule

Left-hand
thumb rule

http://www.slideshare.net/mangbud
/dasar-kelistrikan-15269688

Generator effect

Motor principle

Thumb= movement of
conductor on armature
Index finger= magnetic lines
of force field
Middle finger= current or
electron flow

Right-hand
generator
rule

Thumb= movement of
conductor on rotor
Index finger= magnetic lines
of force field
Middle finger= current or
electron flow

Left-hand
motor rule

Left-hand
generator
rule
http://physics503.oneschool.net/2008/06/force-oncurrent-carrying-conductor-in.html

Right-hand
motor rule
http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/
f/l/flemings%20left%20hand%20rule/source.
html#.V-GSXfkrLIU

Magnetism/
Electricity:

Definitions:
-Magnetism:
One of the
fundamental
forces.
-Electricity:
The result of
movement of
electrons;
also known
as electrical
energy.

Functions:
-When a charged particle is in motion, a magnetic force
perpendicular to the motion will be created.
-Concept of magnetism: The spinning of an individual
electron in the spin magnetic movement, and the
magnetic field created by the spin is orbit magnetic
moment (heavy arrows). Groups of atoms with most of
the magnetic moment force in a single direction form a
magnetic dipole or domain. When the magnetic dipoles
or domains are in a predominant direction, a magnet is
formed with an external magnetic field. When the
magnetic dipoles or domains are not predominant
direction, the object is not magnetized.
-Magnet: and object that exhibits a uniformly strong
magnetic field. The force fields that are created when
magnetic dipoles orient to create a magnet are called
lines of force, lines of flux, or magnetic field. The stronger
the magnetic field, the more lines of flux. The ends of a
magnet are defined as the north and south poles; lines of
force always flow from north to south outside a magnet
and from south to north within magnet. Lines of force
never interact. Flux density is determined both by field
strength and by the area in which the lines of flux are
located.
Magnetic flux= field strength/ area
-Magnets can be classified by the type of production as
natural, artificial permanent, and electromagnetic.
-Natural magnets: are created when iron oxide
(magnetite) remains in the earth’s magnetic field for
ages, slowly orienting the magnetic dipoles in the same
direction.
-Artificial permanent magnets: are manufactured from
steel alloy called alnico, composed of aluminum, nickel,
and cobalt.
-Electromagnets are temporary magnets produced by
moving electric current.
-Law’s governing magnetism: Repulsion-attraction, the
inverse square law, and magnetic poles.
-A generator is a device that converts mechanical and
electrical energy. Either AC or DC current can be
produced through the use of either slip rings or a
commutator ring.
-One complete turn of the generator armature represents
one cycle (1Hz). A device that is supplied with electrical
current to produce mechanical motion is called a motor.
-A transformer is used to change voltage through the use
of Ohm’s law. A capacitor is a device capable of
accumulating and storing electrical charge.

http://www.electronicstutorials.ws/electromagnetism/
magnetism.html

http://futurism.com/scientistscontrol-mice-using-magnets/

http://www.tpub.com/neets/bo
ok1/chapter1/1i.htm

Laws of Electromagnet:

Laws of Electrostatics:

-The laws governing magnetism are similar to the laws of electrostatic.
 Repulsion-attraction: Like poles repel; unlike poles attract. In addition, like lines of
force repel and unlike lines of force attract, when placed within each other’s force
fields.
 The inverse square law: The force between two magnetic fields is directly
proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them. Exactly as with electrostatics, as an object
gets further away, the influencing field decreases because of the increased area it
affects.
 Magnetic poles: Every magnet has two poles, a north and a south, as discussed
earlier. No matter how much a magnet is divided, even into individuals moving
electrons, both poles continue exist.
-The laws of electrostatics, magnetism, and gravity have so many similarities, physicist
have searching since the 1960s for a mathematical theory to relate the three forces into a
unified field theory.
These important laws many corollaries in physics are will be used again and again
throughout this book.
 Repulsion-attraction: like charges repel; unlike charges attract.
 The inverse square law: the force between two charges is directly proportional to
the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them.
 Distribution: Charges reside on the external surfaces of conductors and equally
throughout nonconductors.
 Concentration: The greatest concentration of charge will be on the surface where
the curvature is sharpest.
 Movement: Only negative charges move along solid conductors.