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Basic concept
Characteristics of sensory systems
The visual system
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent

stimulus energies from our environment. (from textbook)
In other words : the process of converting physical stimuli (light, sound, heat,
pressure, etc.) into the language of the brain (action potentials and neurotransmitter

Also known as “transduction”
Strongly associated with bottom processing : analysis strongly shaped by sensory

Important thresholds

How to measure sensation : present stimuli sometimes and test it on people, the first
time show it, the second time do not. You can used this on different concepts, like

eyes, nose, etc.
Absolute threshold : the smallest possible amount of a stimulus that can be detected
half (50%) of the time. Human with average vision can see the 20 miles of candle
when it lit. If you put 50%, you can still hear or see it, but if they put it under 50%, it
goes so fast, you don’t realize it since it came so quickly, but our brain still reacts to it

when it shows even though it’s so fast.
Difference threshold : the smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can
be detected half (50%) of the time. Doesn’t ask what’s the smallest amount, it asks
about the shift in between. For example, when people talking smaller to louder, so in
between the changes, it calls difference threshold.
20dB  volume of whisper
25 dB  whisper got louder
Human can detect dB between 20 to 25, which is 5 dB
But if it’s too loud like rock concert
140 dB and 145 dB
It also changes 5 dB but human usually doesn’t hear it since it’s too loud. And the
loud sound can damage part of your ear neurons.


The principle that to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a constant
minimum (rather than a constant minimum amount). Human can usually detect 2% or

1/50 of changes.
For example before we put 100 lb it can changes to 102 by 2 (changes) per 100 (how

much the lB it started with)
Another example, putting on earbuds and put it down little by little, and you can still
hear it until the sound is gone. It’s because of difference threshold.

Change Ganglion cells. and red sensors. so you ask your friend to turn the water off. Visual System  Basic components of the eye Iris.Sensory Adaption  if the stimulus detect the constant it doesn’t change.  Cones  Seeing in details  Color vision  Human has 3 different kinds of cones. It’s because the neuron in your brain still responding but less. green.  Usefull when it is dim light or the lighting is poor. 3. Where lights are projected. and goes to the eyes. Often highly adaptive  they can adjust. it changes the neurotransmitter in both of the cells. Example : eye vision in the theater. birds 3. 5 minutes later.  Retina  Inside back of your eye ball. yellow. it called Bipolar Cells (cells have 2 arms).  Rods  they response to neon. People are color blind because of this. but they don’t care much about color. will shrink if we see something to bright. Two theories of Color Vision  Trichromatic Theory  Blue Green.  Lens  Light structure sitting right behind of your iris. that hid the lens and will focus it on the back of your eyes. Lens. Retina Iris has a donut shape muscle inside which is a pupil. Sclera  white part of your eyes. For example : you get into a hot tub. Light comes it strikes the cell in the back and changes the voltage. because it gets tired. and red. The neuron that respond suddenly became “boring” and they respond less than the first time. you are in the hot tub and didn’t feel to hot eventhough the temperature is still the same. Eyes came from the pushing through from the brain. 2. green. dogs 2. Pupil can changes. travels to the bundle. . there are 2 kinds which are cones (pointy on the end and fewer) and rods (crop on the top). Photoreceptors  rensponse to light. It’s too hot. Pupil. Characteristics of sensory systems Sensory system are  selectives Human see 4. which are blue. A pupil is where light get through inside your eyes.

Review Important Points about Perception Object Perception Depth and Distance Perception Illusions I. • Example: recognizing the pattern of light that corresponds to the face of a friend Perception : making sense what you send. red-green. kind responses it.  After image  Opponent Process Theory Blue-yellow. Bottom up versus Top-Down . • Example: converting photons of light into nerve impulses • Perception: The process of integrating. has a great responses. and interpreting sensory information. Review • Sensation: The process of converting physical stimuli into the language of the brain. red do not response at all. 4. Ganglia cells do this. understanding. 3. 5. More mental. if green. 2. and black-white sensors. Like meaning. organizing. Optic nerve  sending information to the brain Blind spot Synesthesia : the perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense Sect way of perception PERCEPTION 1. Combine this three responses gets read by our brain on a particular color. Blue light hits blue con.

information from past experiences. rudimentary signals from a variety of sensory channels. you’d expect that most of the fibers going to the brain’s primary visual cortex would come from the retina. Monocular Depth Cues  Overlap/ Interp  Relative Clarity  stuff that is far look less clear  Texture Gradient  when things close to class we can see the details .Observations about visual processing from Surgeon & Author Dr. weak. sound. – are similar to each other (similarity). curves. scientists have found that only twenty per cent do. and produces a sensory experience full of brain-provided color. eighty per cent come downward from regions of the brain governing functions like memory. Atul Gawande • If visual sensations were primarily received rather than constructed by the brain. We see a friendly yellow Labrador bounding behind a picket fence not because that is the transmission we receive but because this is the perception our weaver-brain assembles as its best hypothesis of what is out there from the slivers of information we get.” -Atul Gawande in his article “The Itch”  Bottom Up Processing : Information processing that is strongly shaped by adding up the inputs of sensory receptors (sensations)  Top Down Processing : Information processing that is strongly shaped by higher level mental processes (such as expectations or beliefs)  perception 2. Perception is inference. and hard-wired processes. • Instead. or patterns (continuity/good continuation) Depth Cues  Monocular depth cues only require one eye  Binocular depth cues require two eyes • We also tend to perceive objects as more complete than they really are (closure). Important Points about Perception  Perceptual System often misperceive the world  Perceptions are strongly influenced by context  from touch  Perceptions are strongly influenced by beliefs and expectations 3. Object Perception  Object tends to pop out when we focused on it  It turns back if we see the objects as a background Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping • We perceive as belonging together objects that. Perception as Inference “The account of perception that’s starting to emerge is what we might call the “brain’s best guess” theory of perception: perception is the brain’s best guess about what is happening in the outside world. – are physically touching each other (connectedness). texture. – form continuous lines. The mind integrates scattered. – are close to each other (proximity).. and meaning.

Illusions States of Consciousness 1. If you fall asleep 5 minutes later. it takes all your waking hour. for older people 8 hours a day. you see houses that you past move farther away. Sleep debt  If your body owes so much sleep. how tired you are. Circadian Rhythms  rhythms that last about a day.  Relative motion  if you’re taking a bus. Sleep Myths (or at least half-truths)  We sleep to rest our brain  We sleep to rest our bodies . artificial light can stretch your clock longer.  Retinal/ Binocular Disparity  same things looking different at each eyes. like you’re getting up to get that meal. Its called MSLT. Relative height  In many situation the further up the image. So if this region of brain   went down. they hate when it got shortened like  jet lag. human will not function properly. Introduction 2. so they’ll wake up and sleep all day. How do we know SCN that is important? If you put it inside the SCN it will blew up. the farther away the stuff from you. 3. 10 hours for young adult. but the buildings are as if travelling with you  Linear Perspective  converge in the distance  Light and shadow  colors (dan bayangan) Binocular Depth Cues  Convergence  eyes have to turn in to keep looking at things that you’re seeing. Sleep  How to measure sleep  sleep deprive  how quickly you fall asleep. it’s called deep sleep. Zaitgebers (free running). Set your meal. they will wake up and sleep. What regulates this rhythms  SCN (long name : Suprachiasmatic Nucleus) (small cluster neuron inside that moves like a clock). Need 10 hours sleep a day to not fall asleep in   that 20 minutes sleep test. Exposure yourself to the sun light. How brain create a depth. This clock run long. Jet lag Why people hate Monday “Grumpy Monday”  social jet lag. People tends to be obese if they did this regularly. Run long in a certain circumstances.

REM sleep Sleep  altered ways of consciousness Sleep depth and circadian clock Measuring Sleep  EEG & brain waves In REM sleep we can’t sleepwalking. deep. Why do we sleep?     Protection Restoration  myths and half truth Growth  human growth happened at night Memory Enhancement . people will try to catch up the REM sleep that they’re lost. There is an example where people’s jump off the window because of that. Sleepwalking happened in Stage 3&4 sleep REM Rebound Effect  eliminate a lot of REM. eventhough there are some part that is paralyze. If you try to decrease people REM sleep. Sleep is a unitary state (all sleep is the same)  Sleep is primarily a function of the environment (sleepy/boring places put you to sleep) Light.

cortex’s) attempt to interpret random signals from the lower brain. Introduction Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov from Rusia  Collected dog’s saliva  Dog’s really want to eat when there is food. Conditioned  you must teach it or it won’t be there otherwise. Lupus Drug  immunity suppressing (the rest on the notes) Limitations : the unconditioned response is usually stronger than the conditioned response Classical extinction Bacteria (US)  nausea (UR) . It’s inheritance. Unconditioned  you don’t have to teach it.DREAMS  Dream Theories  Freudian Dream Theory : dreams allow unconscious symbolic wish fulfillment  some things can represent sex but it’s not in your dream. because the nervous system already take care of it.  This Freud theory has never been proven and lack of evidence  Activation Synthesis Theory : dreams represent the higher brain’s (celebral.  Lower part of brain turn on and kind shower on the higher part of the brain to make sense of it all. it’s already there. it also really want to eat when they guy who usually gave the dog’s food showed up stimulus and responses. so your dream is kind of protecting your mind. Applications Little Albert. What’s the conditioned stimulus? Teach the responses is salivates again. Undiagnosed sleep disorder LEARNING i. ii.

Operant Conditioning Basic Concepts Thorndike  do studies with cat. Skinner  consequences. But then after     iv. time. At first the cat didn’t know what’s going on. and the cat have to get out of the box to get some food. the cat know how to because it knows the sequences THE LAW OF EFFECT Behaviors followed by good consequences are more likely to happen in the future Behaviors followed by bad consequences are less likely to happen B. how consequences affect our voluntary behaviors There are 2 consequences : Reinforces (more likely) *positive reinforcement  giving you cash *negative reinforcement  avoid the cash Punishments (less likely) *response cost (punish by taking something that you like) *aversive (introduce something that you didn’t like) Cognition and Learning Observational Learning .Food  nausea iii.F. v. Put the cat in the box.