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Chapter 27

Current and Resistance

Electric Current

charge through some region of space

The SI unit of current is the ampere (A)

1A=1C/s

27/10/2016

moving perpendicular

to a surface of area A

If Q is the amount of

charge that passes

through A in time t,

then the average

current is

I av

Q

t

varies with time, the instantaneous

current, I, can be found

I

dQ

dt

27/10/2016

Direction of Current

be positive or negative or both

It is conventional to assign to the current the

same direction as the flow of positive charges

The direction of current flow is opposite the

direction of the flow of electrons

It is common to refer to any moving charge as

a charge carrier

Charged particles

move through a

conductor of crosssectional area A

n is the number of

charge carriers per

unit volume

nA x is the total

number of charge

carriers

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carriers times the charge per carrier, q

which the carriers move

Q = (nA x)q

vd = x / t

Finally, current, Iav = Q/t = nqvdA

Conductor

represents the motion

of a charge carrier in a

conductor

small

direction are due to

collisions

The net motion of

electrons is opposite

the direction of the

electric field

27/10/2016

cont.

carriers slowly move along the

conductor with a drift velocity, vd

Changes in the electric field that drives

the free electrons travel through the

conductor with a speed near that of light

effectively instantaneous

final

switch to the light bulb in order for the light to

operate

The electrons are already in the light filament

They respond to the electric field set up by

the battery

The battery does not supply the electrons, it

only establishes the electric field

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Current Density

It is defined as the current per unit area

J = I / A = nqvd

This expression is valid only if the current density

is uniform and A is perpendicular to the direction

of the current

The current density is in the direction of the

positive charge carriers

Conductivity

E are established in a conductor

whenever a potential difference is

maintained across the conductor

J=E

The constant of proportionality, , is

called the conductivity of the

conductor

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Ohms Law

materials, the ratio of the current density

to the electric field is a constant that is

independent of the electric field

producing the current

Mathematically, J = E

Materials that obey Ohms law are said to

be ohmic

said to be nonohmic

nature

Ohms law is an empirical relationship

valid only for certain materials

27/10/2016

Resistance

across the ends of the conductor is

proportional to the current through the

conductor

The constant of proportionality is called

the resistance of the conductor

V

R

I

Resistance, cont.

1=1V/A

collisions between the electrons

carrying the current with the fixed atoms

inside the conductor

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Resistivity

resistivity:

=1/

( . m)

Resistance is also related to resistivity:

R

Resistivity

Values

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Summary

resistivity that depends on the properties of

the material and on temperature

The resistance of a material depends on its

geometry and its resistivity

An ideal conductor would have zero resistivity

An ideal insulator would have infinite

resistivity

Resistors

elements called

resistors

Resistors are used

to control the current

level in parts of the

circuit

Resistors can be

composite or wirewound

10

27/10/2016

Resistor Values

Values of resistors

are commonly

marked by colored

bands

resistores (cdigo de colores).

del valor de la resistencia.

El tercer color representa el potencial de diez del multiplicador

del valor de la resistencia.

El cuarto color es la tolerancia %

11

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12

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longitud de 10.0 cm y una seccin transversal de 2.0x10 -4 m2.

Repita el clculo para un cilindro de las mismas dimensiones

pero fabricado de vidrio y con una resistencia de 3.0x1010 .m

alambre de Nicromo de calibre 22, que tiene un radio de 0.321

mm.

Si se mantiene una diferencia de potencia de 10V de un

extremo a otro del alambre de Nicromo, Cul es la corriente

del alambre?

13

27/10/2016

An ohmic device

The resistance is

constant over a wide

range of voltages

The relationship

between current and

voltage is linear

The slope is related

to the resistance

Nonohmic materials

are those whose

resistance changes

with voltage or

current

The current-voltage

relationship is

nonlinear

A diode is a

common example of

a nonohmic device

14

27/10/2016

Resistance of a Cable,

Example

between the

conductors to be

concentric elements

of thickness dr

The resistance of

the hollow cylinder

of silicon is

dR

dr

2rL

Resistance of a Cable,

Example, cont.

thickness is

b

R dR

a

b

ln

2L a

This is fairly high, which is desirable

since you want the current to flow along

the cable and not radially out of it

15

27/10/2016

Ejemplo.

Calcule las resistencias de los conductores de un cable coaxial

cuyos datos son los siguientes:

Radio del conductor interno: a= 0.5 cm

Radio del conductor externo: b= 1.75 cm

Longitud: L= 15.0 cm

Material del conductor externo: Silicio

Material del conductor interno: Cobre

Electrical Conduction

A Model

description of the

motion of free

electrons in a

conductor

The motion is random

There is no net

displacement after

many collisions

The drift velocity is

zero

16

27/10/2016

Conduction Model, 2

An electric field is

applied

The field modifies

the motion of the

charge carriers

The electrons drift in

the direction

opposite of E

Conduction Model, 3

Assumptions:

is independent of its motion before the

collision

The excess energy acquired by the

electrons in the field is lost to the atoms of

the conductor during the collision

The energy given up to the atoms

increases their vibration and therefore the

temperature of the conductor increases

17

27/10/2016

Conduction Model, 4

F = qE

From Newtons Second Law, the

acceleration is a = F / me = qE / me

resistivity of a conductor varies

approximately linearly with the

temperature

o [1 (T To )]

temperature To

To is usually taken to be 20 C

is the temperature coefficient of resistivity

18

27/10/2016

Temperature Variation of

Resistance

uniform cross sectional area is proportional to

the resistivity, you can find the effect of

temperature on resistance

R = Ro[1 + (T - To)]

temperatura al determinar el cambio en la resistencia de un

conductor, est hecho de platino y tiene una resistencia de

50.0 a 20.00C. Cuando se le sumerge en un recipiente que

contiene indio fundido, su resistencia aumenta a 76.8 .

Calcule la temperatura a la que se encuentra el indio fundido.

19

27/10/2016

Graphical View

is nearly proportional to

the temperature

A nonlinear region always

exists at very low

temperatures

The resistivity usually

reaches some finite value

as the temperature

approaches absolute zero

Residual Resistivity

zero is caused primarily by the collisions

of electrons with impurities and

imperfections in the metal

High temperature resistivity is

predominantly characterized by

collisions between the electrons and the

metal atoms

20

27/10/2016

Semiconductors

Semiconductors are

materials that exhibit a

decrease in resistivity

with an increase in

temperature

is negative

There is an increase in

the density of charge

carriers at higher

temperatures

Superconductors

A class of materials

and compounds whose

resistances fall to

virtually zero below a

certain temperature, TC

temperature

as a normal metal

above TC, but suddenly

drops to zero at TC

21

27/10/2016

Superconductors, cont

chemical composition

pressure

molecular structure

superconductor, it persists without any

applied voltage

Since R = 0

Celsius

-139

-185.15

22

27/10/2016

Superconductor Application

An important

application of

superconductors is a

superconducting

magnet

The magnitude of the

magnetic field is

about 10 times

greater than a normal

electromagnet

Used in MRI units

Electrical Power

Assume a circuit as

shown

As a charge moves

from a to b, the

electric potential

energy of the system

increases by QV

in the battery must

decrease by this

same amount

23

27/10/2016

Electrical Power, 2

resistor (c to d), the system loses this

electric potential energy during

collisions of the electrons with the

atoms of the resistor

This energy is transformed into internal

energy in the resistor

motion of the atoms in the resistor

Electric Power, 3

so its increased temperature will result in a

transfer of energy by heat into the air

The resistor also emits thermal radiation

After some time interval, the resistor reaches

a constant temperature

by the output of energy by heat and radiation

24

27/10/2016

Electric Power, 4

potential energy as the charge passes

through the resistor is equal to the rate

at which the system gains internal

energy in the resistor

The power is the rate at which the

energy is delivered to the resistor

I V

can be found:

V2

I V I R

R

Units: I is in A, R is in , V is in V, and

is in W

2

25

27/10/2016

have resistance

Power companies

transmit electricity at

high voltages and

low currents to

minimize power

losses

Las compaas

elctricas buscan

minimizar la potencia

transformada en

energa interna en las

lneas y maximizar la

energa entrega al

consumidor.

elevadas y bajas diferencias de potencial o bajas corrientes y

elevadas diferencias de potencial; siendo esta ultima la mejor

opcin (por economa).

26

27/10/2016

econmico usar alambre con mayor resistencia, por lo que

considerando este valor elevado de R, la manera de reducir la

perdida es manteniendo una corriente I lo mas baja posible, por

lo que se deber transferir la energa a un voltaje elevado.

Preguntas.

Considerando dos bombillas (una de 30W y otra de 60W), a las cuales se les

aplica la misma diferencia de potencial. Cul de los enunciados es cierto?

a) La bombilla de 30W usa una corriente mayor y tiene una resistencia

mayor.

b) La bombilla de 30W tiene la mayor corriente, pero la resistencia mayor

corresponde a la bombilla de 60W.

c) La bombilla de 30W tiene la mayor resistencia pero al de 60W tiene la

corriente ms grande.

d) La bombilla de 60W tienen la corriente mayor y la resistencia mayor.

27

27/10/2016

figura, clasifique los valores de corriente

en los puntos a-b, c-d y e-f, de mayor a

menor.

120V a un alambre de Nicromo que tiene una resistencia total de 8.00.

Determine la corriente que pasa por el alambre y la potencia nominal del

calentador.

240V?

28

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