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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

NEIGHBOURHOOD ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPROVEMENT PLAN (NEIP)
FINAL REPORT

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
On behalf of the team we would like to thank the US Consulate for giving us this research
grant. It has been an extremely enriching experience to interact with the team at the
consulate particularly from the support we received from Mr Jayesh C. Dadlaney, Mark
Nachtrieb, Traci L. Mell, Avari Behrooz and Ashwati Bharadwaj. We also take this
opportunity to thank Mr. Tandel, local corporator, Chunabhatti who showed great enthusiasm
and was always open for discussion. The research work could not have been possible
without the cooperation from MCGM officials particularly Mr.Anis Khan, Mr.Sandesh Matkar,
Mr.Sonawne, Mr.Saudagar, Mr.Kolte, Mr.Phunde and Mr.Katkade.
Sincere thanks goes to all the students from Kamla Raheja Vidhyanidhi Institute of
Architecture, ITM-Kharghar, Viva Architecture College, SNDT who formed part of our team
at various stages and brought in their enthusiasm and positivity. We also thank Charvi
Parikh from Me2Green for the collaboration on the project.

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

THE TEAM
SHRIYA BHATIA ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNER
Phone: +91-9892138011, Email: shriyabhatia@gmail.com
Shriya Bhatia is with EMC since April 2012 and is currently designated as Senior
Environmental Planner. Shriya holds a Masters degree in Environmental Planning from
CEPT University in Ahmedabad and a Bachelors degree in Architecture. She has also been
invited by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State, United States
of America for the International Visitors Leadership Programme, a professional exchange
programme themed on Mega Cities and Urban Planning.
Shriya has more than four years of working experience in Urban Environmental
Management, Urban & Regional Planning, Heritage Conservation and Environmental &
Social Risk Assessments for financial institutions and impact investor.
She was involved with strategizing and facilitating environment improvement and heritage
management activities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region while at the Mumbai Metropolitan
Region Environment Improvement Society (Supported by MMRDA) including; project
development, project appraisal for financial grants, monitoring and stakeholder consultation
for research, demonstration and awareness projects (2009 2012).
With experience in urban and regional planning, Shriya was involved with Inventorization of
Environmental Features in Greater Mumbai (2009-12) and Revision of the Regional plan of
the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) while working at MMR-EIS, 2009-12 (supported by
MMRDA). She has also been involved with heritage conservation community projects at city
and community level through the Development of a web-based heritage information system
for MMR and Preparation of an action plan for conservation of 5 heritage precincts in MMR.
Shriya has gained expertise in development of environmental and social risk assessment
frameworks as well as their implementation across various sectors like lending, investments,
infrastructure development and infrastructure advisory.
She has also been actively involved with development of the Environmental Safeguard and
Responsibility Framework for Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (2013).
She has also reviewed sustainable waste management business models in India for an ADB
sponsored project through consultation with stakeholders in the waste sector (2013). Shriya
has undertaken Social and Environmental Review of an Agro-processing Industry in India for
Grassroots Business Fund (Impact Investor).

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

SHEEMA FATIMA SOCIAL EXPERT


Phone: +91-8976819096, Email: fatimasheema@gmail.com
Sheema Fatima has more than eight years of work and teaching experience in Urban &
Regional Planning. She holds a Masters degree in Urban and Regional Planning from CEPT
University in Ahmedabad and a Masters degree in Geography from Delhi School of
Economics. She has also pursued a Post-graduate Diploma, Urban Planning and
Management (UPM), International Institute of Geo-information Science and Earth
Observation (ITC) from Enschede, Netherlands. She is currently working on her Ph.D in
School of Development Studies, TISS, Mumbai wherein she is making an enquiry into the
institutional mechanism of City Planning in Patna, Bihar, India. Her research interest lies in
the political economy of urban planning and was earlier associated as Assistant Professor
with School of Social Science and Policy, Center for Development Studies, Central
University of Bihar, Patna. At present she is a visiting faculty at Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi
Institute for Architecture and Environmental Studies (KRVIA), Mumbai and teaches Urban
Sociology.

PRIYA

CHAVAN JOSHI - DISASTER MANAGEMENT EXPERT

Phone: +91-9833625340, Email: priya.m.chavan@gmail.com


Priya Chavan is an Architect, Urban Planner with over eight years of professional experience
in the field Urban and Regional Planning and Post-Disaster Planning.
She holds a Masters Degree in Planning with specialization in Housing from CEPT
University, Ahmedabad and a Bachelors Degree in Architecture Her work experience
includes a wide array of projects that require in-depth knowledge of physical planning, urban
policy & legislation and urban management.
Priya has worked in the capacity of project manager and team leader in various
organisations where she has worked in Ahmedabad and Bangalore. She now works as a
freelance urban planner and post-disaster planning consultant. In this capacity she has
worked with Jamsetji Tata Centre for Disaster Management and Eptisa Engineering
Services, Spain.
She has been actively involved in urban planning and land use studies and been part of the
team to work on the bus rapid transport system project as part of the Government of India,
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) and the World Bank funded
city development strategy project in Gujarat, apart from various other urban planning, urban
policy and urban environment projects.
Priya has also gained expertise in post disaster planning projects. She has successfully
completed the Planning for the Reconstruction of the Kosi Flood Affected Areas in Bihar,
India in the capacity of a Project Manager and has also worked as a researcher on the
Impact Assessment of Oxfam International Tsunami Disaster Risk Reduction and
Participatory Action Research Program. Her work in the Planning for the Reconstruction of
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

the Kosi Flood Affected Areas in Bihar has been greatly appreciated by the Government of
Bihar and UNDP and as a result the World Bank had agreed to fund our next stage of work
in Bihar. Her work has been submitted and accepted for the Innovation in Disaster, World
Reconstruction Conference organized by the World Bank and United Nations International
Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR).
Other than the above, she has also been involved in academics and research in the felid of
disaster management. She was assigned the responsibility of designing a course which
encompasses urban, rural and regional planning, disaster vulnerability and pre and post
disaster management for Jamsetji Tata Centre for Disaster Management.

CHANDERSHEKHAR KAUL URBAN PLANNER


Phone: +91-9833181018, Email: cskaul@gmail.com
Chandrashekhar Kaul is a multi-talented architect and urban planner with over 8 years of
experience in planning, designing, detailing, supervising and coordinating with multidisciplinary teams for the execution of various projects. He is familiar with client servicing,
contract negotiations, preparation of BOQs, zoning and planning issues, tracking project
performance and monitoring the team dynamics.
His experience of working as an Urban Planner on Environment Development Plans for
various villages/cluster of villages across different districts in the state of Maharashtra would
be very handy. He is current pursuing Post Graduate Programme in Infrastructure
Development and Management from NICMAR, Pune. He has also successfully completed
many planning related certificate courses from World Bank Institute.

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

CONTENTS
1

BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................. 8
1.1

Project Area ............................................................................................................ 9

1.2

Methodology ......................................................................................................... 10

DELINEATING THE NEIGHBORHOOD....................................................................... 11


2.1

Case Study: Review Of Community Plans ............................................................ 11

2.2

Preliminary meetings ............................................................................................ 14

2.3

Reconnaissance Survey ....................................................................................... 15

2.3.1

Housing Typologies ....................................................................................... 15

2.3.2

Open Spaces: ................................................................................................ 18

2.3.3

Market Area: .................................................................................................. 18

2.3.4

Industrial Area:............................................................................................... 19

2.3.5

Chunnabhatti Station: .................................................................................... 19

2.4

Identification of Stakeholders ................................................................................ 20

2.5

Project Team Building ........................................................................................... 20

2.6

Delineation of the project area .............................................................................. 22

MAPPING THE AREA.................................................................................................. 23


3.1

Preparation of base map ....................................................................................... 23

3.2

Team Building ....................................................................................................... 23

3.3

Mapping surveys ................................................................................................... 23

3.4

Generation of Maps .............................................................................................. 26

DATA COLLECTION ................................................................................................... 27


4.1

Development Plans/Maps ..................................................................................... 27

4.2

Infrastructure Information ...................................................................................... 28

4.3

Questionnaire Surveys .......................................................................................... 28

4.4

Project Proposals for the Area .............................................................................. 28

4.5

Population Estimation and Projection .................................................................... 29

4.5.1

Population of Mumbai (MCGM) ...................................................................... 29

4.5.2

Population of L ward ...................................................................................... 31

4.5.3

Estimating the Population of Corporator Ward 164 ........................................ 32

INTERACTIONS AND SURVEYS OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS .................................... 34


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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

5.1

5.1.1

Residents Survey ........................................................................................... 34

5.1.2

Shops and Establishments Survey................................................................. 34

5.1.3

Commuters Survey ........................................................................................ 34

5.1.4

Open Space Users Survey............................................................................. 35

5.1.5

Hawkers Survey............................................................................................. 35

5.1.6

Waste Managers Survey ................................................................................ 35

5.1.7

Kabadiwalas Survey ...................................................................................... 36

5.1.8

Rag Pickers Survey ....................................................................................... 36

5.2

Interaction with community.................................................................................... 34

Interaction with Key Institutions ............................................................................. 36

5.2.1

Local Corporator ............................................................................................ 36

5.2.2

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai ...................................................... 37

5.2.3

MMRDA ......................................................................................................... 37

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS ........................................................................................... 38


6.1

Land and Building Use .......................................................................................... 39

6.2

Public Spaces - Recreational/Open Spaces .......................................................... 47

6.3

Social Amenities ................................................................................................... 53

6.4

Social Nodes......................................................................................................... 57

6.5

Transportation and commuting.............................................................................. 62

6.6

Informal Economy: Hawkers and Street Vendors .................................................. 67

6.7

Shops and Establishments.................................................................................... 70

6.8

Sewerage and Sanitation ...................................................................................... 73

6.9

Solid Waste Management Chain ........................................................................... 77

6.11

Environment.......................................................................................................... 84

6.12

Snapshots of the Carbon Footprint ....................................................................... 88

6.12.1

Methodology for calculating the Carbon Footprint .......................................... 88

6.12.2

Snapshots of few cases ................................................................................. 88

6.13

Corporator Funding and Expenditure .................................................................... 92

6.14

SWOT ................................................................................................................... 96

PROJECT AND PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS ........................................................... 99


7.1

Greening and redesigning of open spaces ............................................................ 99

7.1.1

Shivaji Maidan ............................................................................................. 100

7.1.2

Open plot at tata nagar ................................................................................ 103


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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

7.1.3

manoranjan udyan ....................................................................................... 105

7.1.4

Hawkers zone at vacant plot behind fish market .......................................... 108

7.2

Creating public spaces in the process of redevelopment..................................... 111

7.3

Redevelopment of the station area ..................................................................... 112

7.4

Promoting pedestrianisation ................................................................................ 113

7.5

Mobilizing citizens into neighbourhood activities ................................................. 114

7.6

City Engage - An application for community engagement ................................... 118

7.7

Node developments ............................................................................................ 118

7.8

Creating a sustainable waste management systems........................................... 119

7.9

Other interventions to promote sustainable environmental practices ................... 123

Outcomes of the Project............................................................................................. 129


8.1

Knowledge Dissemination ................................................................................... 129

8.2

Empowering the Corporator ................................................................................ 131

ANNEXURE: .............................................................................................................. 132


9.1

QUESTIONNAIRES ............................................................................................ 132

9.1.1

Residents survey form ................................................................................. 132

9.1.2

Shops & Establishments Survey Form ......................................................... 137

9.1.3

Commuters Survey Form ............................................................................. 140

9.1.4

Hawkers Survey Form ................................................................................. 141

9.1.5

Kabbadiwala Survey Form ........................................................................... 144

9.1.6

Waste Managers Survey Form .................................................................... 147

9.1.7

Open Space Survey Form............................................................................ 148

9.1.8

Ragpicker Survey Form ............................................................................... 151

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

1 BACKGROUND
The city of Mumbai is also called the economic capital of the country and holds a largely
cosmopolitan cultural milieu. Over the years the social and economic character of the city
has changed from being labour intensive during 1930s to capital intensive production in
1990s and the recent change to being a global financial centre.
This transition of the city with its positives has created certain vulnerabilities too. Mumbai
has been witnessing environmental degradation like most cities due to haphazard
infrastructure development, inefficient service delivery, complacency and inaction of public
agencies. Although, Indian cities adopt urban planning tools such as; regional plans,
development plans and town planning schemes; these are often top driven, lack public
participation and remain long term plans that do not respond to the dynamic nature of cities.
It has resulted in poor implementation of these plans. Thus, community needs are
compromised, leading to unsustainable practices and environmental problems.
As such, a process of participatory plans needs to be initiated for environmental
improvement and sustainable growth at neighborhood level.
The project looks at developing a neighbourhood environment improvement plan (NEIP) as
a pilot for a local neighbourhood in Mumbai.

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

1.1 Project Area


The project looks into the
area of Chunnabhatti, 164
Electoral ward, located
within L ward of Municipal
Corporation of Greater
Mumbai. The delineated
area for the project is 164
electoral ward located in
south of L ward and on the
northern edge of F/North
Ward. Chunnabhatti, is a
transitional neighborhood in
Mumbai with a transit node
and close to Bandra Kurla
Complex, located on the
Eastern Express Highway.
Chunnabhatti has a station
area, a market and was
home to the first cotton mill
in Mumbai, i.e. Swadeshi
Mill in 1886.
It has new redevelopment
projects of reliance and
MHADA,
mill
workers
chawls, a street with hawkers and commercial establishments and slum areas.

Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

1.2 Methodology
The methodology for the project is illustrated below;

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

2 DELINEATING THE NEIGHBORHOOD


2.1 Case Study: Review Of Community Plans
As part of the literature review, case studies of community planning processes in the Unites
States of America were undertaken. It was noted that the lowest level of planning in the US
is at the community level. There are multiple stakeholders involved in Community level
planning in the US unlike in India which include; communities themselves, governments,
Non-profits, private agencies, and partnerships amongst them. Community planning projects
range from; providing affordable housing, to reviving local economies through brownfield
development, placemaking exercises, creating community spaces such as parks,
transportation planning efforts such as promoting cycling with bicycle tracks, developing
community centres and adaptive reuse projects.
Some of the examples for community planning in the US led by various agencies include the
following; High Line at New York, Downtown Project at Las Vegas, Menomonee River
Valley Restoration and development, Urban Ecology Center at Milwawkee, United States
Department of Housing and Urban Development,
Menomonee Valley Partners, Inc. is a nonprofit organization serving as the lead agency in
the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley Industrial Site, the largest green
infrastructure project in Metro Milwaukee and a key example of the sustainable
redevelopment of an underutilized, contaminated industrial site. The sites green features
include a 28-hectare stormwater park with recreational trails that is expected to treat 100
percent runoff from adjacent industrial and commercial areas. The site has also led to the
creation of 4,200 family-supporting jobs, 83,000 square meters of green buildings and
installation of 18 hectares of native plants.
Menomonee River Valley Industrial Site, Milwaukee

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Urban Ecology Center, is a neighborhood-based, environmental education, nonprofit


community center that transformed an area laden with violent crime and the drug trade into a
safe, family-friendly recreational haven.
Urban Ecology Centre, Milwaukee

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community


Planning and Development works to foster viable communities by promoting integrated
approaches that provide decent housing, a suitable living environment, and expand
economic opportunities for those of low and moderate income. CPD also encourages the
empowerment of local residents by helping to give them a voice in the future of their
neighborhoods; stimulate the creation of community-based organizations; and enhance the
management skills of existing organizations so they can achieve greater production capacity.
CPD representatives will explain how HUD assists cities, states and community groups with
social and economic development. The agencys green initiatives may also be addressed.
The High Line Park in New York is a 1.45-mile-long (2.33 km) New York City linear park
built on a section of a disused New York Central Railroad spur called the West Side Line.
Inspired by the 3-mile (4.8-kilometer) Promenade plante, a similar project in Paris
completed in 1993, the High Line has been redesigned and planted as an aerial greenway
and rails-to-trails park.
High Line Park, New York

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Active Transportation Allianceis a nongovernmental organization focused on increasing


and improving the bicycling, walking and public transit environment in Chicago. They have
undertaken public transit policy initiatives, bicycling and pedestrian-friendly street initiatives
and transit-oriented development sites.
Downtown Project is an initiative by Zappos.com CEO Tony Hsieh to revitalize downtown
Las Vegas and turn it into a community-focused, densely-populated urban core; through
$350 million of business investment, land purchases and construction of co-working spaces,
it is an on-going case study on private sector urban redevelopment efforts.
Container Park, Downtown, Las Vegas

Project for Public Spaces is a nonprofit planning, design and educational organization
dedicated to helping people create and sustain public spaces that build stronger
communities. It has assisted communities, private agencies, corporates in developing variety
of public and community spaces such as; streets, transit nodes, public markets, parks,
squares, waterfronts, public buildings, downtowns and campuses. One of the examples
includes; Burnside Park in Rhode Island.
Burnside Park, Providence, Rhode Island
Southwest Airlines and Project for Public Spaces partnered with the Downtown Providence
Parks Conservancy and the City of Providence to expand family friendly activities in
Burnside Park, located in the heart of downtown Providence in Greater Kennedy Plaza.
Based on a series of community-led Placemaking efforts, an Imagination Center was
developed, a fun destination that brings people together for activities like story-time, arts and
crafts workshops, interactive play, live performances, and more. The Center is surrounded
by colorful picnic tables, planting beds, and a wooden deck and includes book carts,
beanbag seating, and an Imagination Playground play set.
These Placemaking activities in Burnside Park support the City of Providences broader
efforts to transform its entire downtown into a lively economic and cultural center through the
development of exceptional public spaces.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

2.2 Preliminary meetings


Since the idea of the community planning process is to work with the local community along
with the local administration a meeting with the local councilor was arranged. In the meeting
the councilor was briefed about the project and its objectives. The Ward Corporator, Mr.
Tandel showed great enthusiasm for such a participatory exercise and assured of his
complete support for the same. Mr. Tandel helped us formulate planning proposals which
could be implemented for the betterment of the Chunabhatti ward area. A series of
discussions with local residents assisted in establishing the context of the area and helped
us develop perspective at each stage of the project.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

2.3 Reconnaissance Survey


An initial process was started with a walk in the study area and some conversations. It
helped in the identification and demarcation of boundary for the purpose of community
planning. Key observations are noted below;
2.3.1

Housing Typologies

The delineated project area showcased three broad categories of housing typology based on
the socio-economic status of the residents/citizens

2.3.1.1 Formal Private Residential Schemes


Within this typology of housing, are residential societies and cooperative societies developed
by private builders and sold in the open market.
Formal Private Residential Schemes

2.3.1.2 Reliance Housing


This housing is developed by Reliance industries for its workers. This land was developed as
part of the mill land development schemes prevalent in the city, under which part of the land
can be sold/leased in the open market for real estate development. Reliance industries have
developed residential facilities for their staff, working in its various industries.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Reliance housing for employees

2.3.1.3 MHADA Housing


Maharashtra Housing & Area Development Authority (MHADA) is an apex public body
constituted under MHAD ACT 1976, established in 1977 under Housing Department
Government of Maharashtra. Its function is to integrate and create new housing solutions so
as to provide a comprehensive and coordinated approach to the problems of housing.
Within the project area, MHADA has developed affordable housing to be sold in the open
market through a lottery system. This cooperative society is called Dev-Ratna Society.
Adjoining this scheme, MHADA has developed a residential scheme to house the Mill
Workers.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Mill workers MHADA housing and Dev Ratna MHADA housing

2.3.1.4 Mill Workers Settlements


The project areas once housed the Swadeshi Mills which closed down during the 1980s
when nearly 250,000 workers and more than 50 textile mills went on strike in Mumbai. The
mill workers were provided housing on the lands adjoining the mills by the mill owners. Post
the strike, the workers remained/ stay put on the lands and over the years these settlements
have expanded as families have multiplied. A substantially large chunk of land in the project
area is mill workers settlement.
The settlement is characterized by chawl development and individual two storied tenements.
The premises though small and belonging to the lower economic rung are well kept and
managed.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Mill workers chawl and individual houses

2.3.1.5 Slums
The northern part of the project area is the Qureshi Nagar Slum. It is predominantly occupied
by the Muslim community. The residents are mostly involved in butchery and extracting
animal fat. This area is characterized by the sub-standard housing with no infrastructure
facilities for drainage, thus creating unhealthy living conditions.
2.3.2

Open Spaces:

The project area has three large open green areas. They are namely,
ChatrapatiShivajiKridangan, BMC garden and ManoranjanUdyan. Other than these, small
open spaces are developed within the formal housing areas. In the mill workers settlement
area, individuals have created small patches gardens/ kitchen gardens.
Manoranjan Udyan and BMC Garden

2.3.3

Market Area:

2.3.3.1 Formal Markets


All main roads, i.e. the V N PuravMarg, Swadeshi Mill Road and Hill Road have
neighbourhood level retail shops. The typical characteristics are that the ground floor is used
as a shop and the first floor is used as a residence. However the V N PuravMarg, i.e. the
main road leading to the station is the main market area within the project area.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Formal market areas

2.3.3.2 Hawkers/Informal Markets


The entire area is dotted with informal markets and hawkers. The areas around the station
has many hawkers selling vegetables and other daily needs. The street at the edge of
Qureshi Nagar also has a large number of hawkers. Other than these, sellers using
handcarts are also common in the area
2.3.4

Industrial Area:

The once flourishing Swadeshi Mill occupies a large portion of land in the project area. Being
under litigation this entire piece of land is enclosed and inaccessible to the general public. It
presently lies in a dilapidated condition.
Dilapidated Swadeshi Mill Compound

2.3.5

Chunnabhatti Station:

The western boundary of the project area is demarcated by the railway line. The Chunabhatti
Railway station is located south-west corner of the project area. It is on the harbour railway
line, which is part of the larger railway network of the city.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Chunabhatti station and railway crossing

2.4 Identification of Stakeholders


The preliminary meetings and reconnaissance survey assisted in identifying stakeholders
such as the local mandals operating social clubs, slum housing societies, mill workers
societies, hawkers, formal establishment, kabbadiwalas, commuters, etc. as listed in the
illustration below.

2.5 Project Team Building


A discussion was organized with expert team members to chalk out and finalize future plan
of action. The aim, objectives with definitive deliverables along with required actions were
identified and streamlined. It helped us to keep a track of timeline of the proposed work. We
formed an extended team for surveys and mapping for which we have partnered with
Geoconcept, as a GIS expert team and Dream Tech Solutions for providing surveyor and
GIS equipment and training. Our team also consists of two urban design students; Apoorva
Deshpande and Archana Jadhav from Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute of Architecture who
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

were trained to assist in surveys. A collaboration was made with Me2Green, an NGO
working on waste management along with their 10 student volunteers of 1st year
management of Institute for Technology and Management for conducting surveys amongst
various stakeholders in the community. Two other students (Saipriyanka Susarla and Simran
Madhok) who were trained to conduct biodiversity mapping from First Year Bachelor of
Computer Application from Dr. BMN College of Home Science, SNDT were also part of the
team. In the subsequent stages we had two urban design (Rejish Ramchandran and
Rajashree) students from Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute of Architecture to assist with
interventions and graphics. In the second stage after he surveys and mapping process was
completed, we mentored First Year Architecture Students from VIVA College to understand
the process of mapping and with them did a ground truthing exercise of all the maps.
Sketches and views of the area were also made by these students.
Expert team Planning

Briefing the students on surveys

Students for biodiversity mapping

Biodiversity mapping on Googlemaps

Student Volunteers from Me2Green

Snapshot of Questionnaire surveys

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

2.6 Delineation of the project area


The criteria for the delineation of the project area was a location which showcased multiple
aspects of urban living such as; shopping, residential, commuting, cultural, social,
recreational, economic activity, etc. It also needed to be a small micro unit of cities which
had a common thread/ homogeneity. Thus, an electoral ward was considered as base unit
for undertaking micro level planning. This unit is the smallest unit for which peoples
representative is elected who participates in the decisions of the city administration. The City
administration provides a budget of Rs.1.6 crores (Rs.1 crore development fund and Rs.0.6
crore Local fund) per year to every Corporator. The neighbourhood environment
improvement plan is aimed to assist in prioritizing the implementation of development works
under the Corporator funds and other available funds. The electoral ward 164 which has
been delineated for undertaking the project which is part of the Chunnabhatti area. The area
predominantly consists of mill worker housing, large abandoned mill areas in process of
redevelopment, a market stretch starting from the Chunnabhatti station, slum pockets, etc. It
was also noted that many pockets in the area are in process of redevelopment.
164 Electoral Ward part of Chunnabhatti Area

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

3 MAPPING THE AREA


3.1 Preparation of base map
As part of this stage, the first step was to prepare a base map. For this purpose,
Geoconcept, a GIS expert team based in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India was hired along with
equipment and surveyor assistance from Dreamtech solutions. The following information
was shared with him;
Google place marks of the project area
Raster image of the existing land use
Raster image of the proposed Development Plan
Google place marks of
the project area

Raster of
land use

the

existing

Raster of the proposed


Development Plan

To prepare the base map, the following steps were undertaken,


Digitization of the city survey ward boundaries, plots, roads, building footprints,
railway line, water bodies, environmental features etc.
Geo-referencing with the help of the open source satellite images.
Further digitization of buildings and roads based on satellite imagery

3.2 Team Building


The team for preparing the base map and undertaking the survey comprised of the core
member of the project team, GIS experts team from Geoconcept and Urban Design students
from Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute of Architecture.

3.3 Mapping surveys


As part of this stage the first step was to prepare the base map. Digitize the development
plan maps, geo-reference with the help of the open source satellite images. The

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

administrative and electoral ward was marked and boundary determined. The development
plan was also used to identify proposals for public amenities such parks, hospitals, etc.
Mapping of the area is being undertaken based on following categories;
Category

Parameters

Land-use Mapping

Roads, railways, commercial (types), residential (typologies),


institutional, vacant land, slums, hawkers

Environment mapping

Trees, drains, main holes, gardens, public toilet, solid waste


dumping/burning/composting, waste bins, tanks, wells,
flooding areas. Common plantation areas, Solar panels,
kabaddiwalas

Social Amenities

Community spaces, clubs, newspaper reading stands, post


offices, public health centers, political party offices,
Anganwadi, schools, hospitals, fire department , religious
buildings

Infrastructure Mapping

Street lights, footpath, bus stop, auto stand, parking lots,


railway over bridge, overhead tanks, pumping stations,
electric sub stations.

The process of mapping has been illustrated below;


Digitization of Reference maps

Georeferencing with satellite images

Creating colloborative maps

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Urban Design experts surveing the project area

The land-use survey team being felicitated by the


Corporator(Ward Councillor)

Biodiversity Mapping

Sample Maps Generated for Amenities

Similar such maps are being prepared as


part of the next phase.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

3.4 Generation of Maps


A set of maps are being prepared as part of the situational analysis listed as follows;
1. Transportation: Roads, Bus Stops, Rickshaw stands, railway line, railway station,
Streetlights
2. Green Cover: Trees and open spaces
3. Solid waste management: community bins, dumping areas, kabadiwalas
4. Sewerage and Sanitation: Toilets and sewer lines
5. Reservations of social amenities as per DP
6. Religious Structure
7. Social Nodes; Mandals, clubs, newspaper stands, anganwadi,
8. Social Amenities: hospital, school, post office, police station, health care centre,
9. Building typology: Heights
10. Building Typology: Income
11. Plot Land-use
12. Building Use
13. Disaster map: Landslides and flood

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

4 DATA COLLECTION
4.1 Development Plans/Maps
Development Plan proposals 1991 show proposals for hospitals, Schools, gardens. These
are depicted in the map below. Currently, the draft development plan 2014-2034 published in
the month of March, 2015 has also been reviewed for suggestions and objections. also
attended meetings on the draft development plan discussion at MCGM and assisted the
Corporator with understanding its implications in the area.
Development Plan 1991

Existing Land use Map 2014 (MCGM)

Draft Development Plan (Reservations)

Draft Development Plan 2014-2034 (FSI)

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

4.2 Infrastructure Information


Information on social and physical infrastructure was collected through procurement from
various departments of MCGM and through ground surveys. Social infrastructure and
amenities were mapped through existing maps available with MCGM and also verified on
ground for understanding existing status. These included; gardens, public health centres,
schools, hospitals, police stations, etc. along with social nodes such as gyms, mandals,
benches, etc. Sewerage and Sanitation data was procured from MCGM and marked on the
base map. These included sewer lines, man holes, inceptor chambers and public toilets.
Solid waste management department of MCGM assisted us with information of existing
number of community bins and their locations. These were marked on maps along with
location of kabbadiwalas and illicit dumping areas.

4.3 Questionnaire Surveys


Detailed questionnaires have been prepared attached as part of Annexure of this report.
There are 8 questionnaires as follows; (i)Residents survey, (ii) Shops & Establishments
Survey, (iii) Commuters Survey, (iv)Hawkers Survey, (v)Kabbadiwala Survey, (vi) Waste
Managers Survey , (vii) Open Space Survey , (viii) Ragpicker Survey

4.4 Project Proposals for the Area


Existing proposals were also identified from MMRDA details are as follows; An elevated 1.6
km corridor between the Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) and the Eastern Express Highway
(EEH), costing Rs.155.70 crore to provide connectivity between Eastern and Western
suburbs. The proposed elevated connector will start from G-Block in BKC and after crossing
Mithi river, LBS marg, Central Railway track and VN Mankikar Road or Duncan Causeway
road leading to Chunabhatti Railway station, it will cross Harbour Line Tracks, pass through
Somaiyya Trust Ground to join the Eastern Express Highway. The link will consist of
Construction of 260-meter long bridge across Mithi River, construction of Rail Over Bridges
(ROBs) across Central Railway near Sion Railway Station and across Harbour Railway near
Chunabhatti Railway Station. The scope
of the work also includes construction of
ROB at level crossing near Chunabhatti
Railway station on V N Purav Marg. The
Detailed Project Report was procured
from MMRDA along with Environmental
Impact Assessment Reports. The area
will see a considerable change with the
new proposal. The proposal was
discussed in detail with the Corporator
and a letter was drafted for the
Corporator identifying issues and
concerns

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

4.5 Population Estimation and Projection


For the purpose of estimating the 2014 population of the 164 ward, the researchers faced
certain limitations:
1. The census does not provide Corporator ward population
2. The census 2011 is yet to be published in the public forum, thus even city level
figures are estimates from various sources
Thus for estimating and projecting the population of the city various methods have been
used. Given below is the detailed methodology and estimates.
4.5.1

POPULATION OF MUMBAI (MCGM)

The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), also known as


the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is the civic body that governs the city
of Mumbai, Maharashtra. Established under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act 1888, it
is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city and some suburbs of
Mumbai. Shown below is the map and administrative wards of the city.

For the purpose of population estimation and projection, the MCGM is considered as the
largest entity for which the population figures are available in the census.
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Year
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011

Population
4152056
5970575
8243405
9925891
11914378
12478447

Change in population

Growth rate

1818519
2272830
1682486
1988487
564069

43.80%
38.07%
20.41%
20.03%
4.73%

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Source: Census Of India

As is seen in the growth rates graph, there has been a sudden dip in the growth rate of the
city. Researchers attribute the decline in population growth to people choosing smaller
families, others point to the saturation of the financial capital, plagued as it is with
disappearing job opportunities and shrinkage of affordable homes. However, Mumbai's
demographic shift is in keeping with global trends where population expectedly peaks at the
nascent stages of development and subsequently falls.
Considering that MCGM has a geographical administrative area of 480.24 Sq.km (Source:
http://www.mcgm.gov.in) the density of the city is as follows:
Sr. No

Year

Population

1
2
3
4
5
6

1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011

4152056
5970575
8243405
9925891
11914378
12478447

Density
(persons per
sq.km)
8646
12432
17165
20669
24809
25984

Other social parmanetrs available for MCGM are as below:


MCGM has a slum population of 41.85%(Source: Development Plan 2014-2034)
The sex ratio of the city is 811 females per 1000 males, which is lower than that of
the country i.e. 933 females per 1000 males (Source: Report: Population and Employment Profile
of MMR)

The city has a literacy of 77.45%


The estimated/projected population of MCGM for 2014 is 12655220, considering
a growth rate of 0.47% per year.
Further certain inofrmation is available of the number of voters in the city.
Area/Zone
Mumbai North
Mumbai North West
Mumbai North East

Population Census
2001
1949993
2003150
1985833

Registered voters 2009 electoral rolls


1608924
1604992
1572890

% of total population
83%
80%
79%
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Area/Zone

Population Census
2001
Mumbai North Central
2051039
Mumbai South Central
1933904
Mumbai South
2054531
TOTAL
Average
4.5.2

11978450
1996408

Registered voters 2009 electoral rolls


1682553
1515099
1590400

% of total population

9574858
1595810

80%
80%

82%
78%
77%

POPULATION OF L WARD

The councillor ward 164 lies within administrative ward L, thus the demographics of L ward
has been considered for the next level of analysis.

Source: http://www.praja.org/

Sr. No
1
2
3
4

Year
1981
1991
2001
2011

Population
433913
616592
778218
902225

Source: http://bmcmumbaicontact.blogspot.in/

Change in population

Growth rate

182679
161626
124007

42%
26%
16%
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Considering that L-ward has a geographical administrative area of 13.46 Sq.km (Source:
http://www.mcgm.gov.in) the density of the ward is as follows:
Sr.
No

Year
1
2
3
4

1981
1991
2001
2011

Population
433913
616592
778218
902225

Density (persons
per sq.km)
32237
45809
57817
67030

Other social parmanetrs available for L ward are as per 2001 census are:
L-ward has a slum population of 54.35%(Source: Development Plan 2014-2034)
The sex ratio of the ward is 758 females per 1000 males, which is lower than that of
the country i.e. 933 females per 1000 males (Source: Report: Population and Employment Profile
of MMR)

For the purpose of preapring the Development Plan, the ward is further divided into
smaller planning sectors. As per MCGM - Development Plan 2014-2034

4.5.3

ESTIMATING THE POPULATION OF CORPORATOR WARD 164

As mentioned ealrier, there are certain limitations in estimating the population of the
corporators ward. The only information available at the corporator level is that in 2012, the
voter population was 54,104. Based on this the following estimations are done.

4.5.3.1 Estimating 164 wardpopulation based on voter population


We know from the city level data that, the voter population is approximately 80% of the total
population of the city. Applying this same ratio for the corporator ward, the population of the
Corporator Ward 164 is as follows:
Voter population: 54,104; which is approximately 80% of the total population. Thus,
80% * X = 54104

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Thus the current estimated population of corporator ward 164 is 67,631

4.5.3.2 Estimating the slum population of 164 ward


We have seen earler that the average slum population in the city varies from 40% at the city
level to 54% in L ward. Since a large area withtin ward 164 is slums, 54% is being assumed
as the slum population. Thus the ward has approximately 36,521 persons living in the
slums.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

5 INTERACTIONS

AND

SURVEYS

OF

KEY

STAKEHOLDERS
5.1 Interaction with community
As mentioned in the earlier section, the stakeholders had been identified at the inception
stage and detailed questionnaires were prepared.
Bilateral interviews in form of detailed questionnaires were undertaken with multiple
stakeholders across the area to include; people residing in the neighbourhood, people
commuting through the neighbourhood, people with businesses in the area, people coming
for recreational purposes and all types of waste managers. The purpose of the surveys was
to understand the infrastructure, resource use, carbon footprint, existing environmental and
social strengths, needs and issues of the community. It was also to understand the
engagement of the local Corporator and the municipal corporation with the community.
These surveys have been taken across income groups, gender, age and locality to remove
any biases. Community development and environmental management aspects were
understood based on the surveys.
Below is the list and characteristics of the various stakeholder questioned and sample size
(All questioners have been incorporated in the annexure).
5.1.1

RESIDENTS SURVEY

Chunabhatti is a typical suburban area with a mix of apartments, chawls, mill housing and
slum pockets. Each of this building typology represents a different class of society which has
its own issues to be addressed. The survey with each of these residents was done therefore
to understand and identify the problems faced by the citizens. Special emphasis was made
to calculate their carbon-footprint, for which data was particular collected with respect to their
solid waste output and energy consumption. In the survey both the residents of the area and
the housing society committees were interviewed so as to have an overall picture of the
neighborhood problems. The residents readily participated in the surveys and most of them
showed interest in contributing in some form or the other if any work is done by the municipal
organization for the improvement of the area in future.
5.1.2

SHOPS AND ESTABLISHMENTS SURVEY

Shops and establishment were surveyed to have a sense of commercial areas of the locality.
Most shopkeepers complain of lack of any garbage collection facility or availability of toilets
in the market areas. This makes it very inconvenient for the shopkeepers and they even
have to buy drinking water or get it from home. Municipality has not taken the effort to
construct a shopping center in the area which can have all the facilities for the shopkeepers.
5.1.3

COMMUTERS SURVEY

Local trains are Mumbais lifeline. It covers south to north and east to west of the city within a
span of few minutes and is affordable to each pocket. The Chunnabhatti station is one of the
oldest on the harbour line. Its BEST bus depot is right outside the station which eases
connectivity for the passengers of the nearby area. But both the suburban railway station
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

and the best depot lacks facilities and modernization with the changing time and increasing
population. The surveys with the commuters were done to identify what are these changes
which have made the everyday experience of travelling difficult. The travelers were
interviewed at different point of time and covering different modes. It included people those
use train, public bus and auto service for their daily commuting and at different time period in
a day. Some of the common complains by train passengers at Chunabhatti,were lack of
sufficient ticket counters, no drinking water fountain or toilets. The pedestrians found lack of
enough street lights in the vicinity a big safety hazard particularly by the women commuters.
Those who use public buses for travel complained of less frequency of buses plying from
Chunbhati depot.
5.1.4

OPEN SPACE USERS SURVEY

In a city like Mumbai, which is dense and open spaces are shrinking with few green spaces
to be found. Fortunately for Chunabhatti there are quite a few open green spaces in forms of
Parks and Maidan. These parks and ShivajiMaidan are used by many people. To identify
their issues the survey was done with different age groups and at different point of time. The
morning joggers imagine it to be a fitness friendly space, whereas the bunch of boys want to
enjoy a game of football in the ground at evening hours. Detailed survey was done with each
such group so as to capture their needs and desire of a green space. Those who surveyed
complained of poor lighting in the park during evening hours, lack of maintenance of the park
by responsible authorities and expressed the need for special arrangements for the elderly
population. The Corporator has shown particular interest in development of these spaces for
the larger interest of its user.
5.1.5

HAWKERS SURVEY

Hawking is one of the biggest sources of informal employment in the Mumbai. It makes
Indian streets vibrant and gives alternative sites for shopping for the local population. In
Chunabhatti neighborhood there are quite a few hawkers particularly along the railway
station. They mostly sell snacks and are a compulsory stop over for people returning from
work in the evening. It provides a variety of snacks and eatables at cheap rates and good
quality. A survey was done with the group to understand their problems. Most of them have
license from the municipality for hawking but get no support from the local body. They dont
have formal electricity or water connection. They are frequently harassed by the police and
have to keep shifting places within the area. It is an important stakeholder in any given
locality for it provides vibrancy and safety on otherwise desolate streets. Thus, special
emphasis was given in surveying the hawkers of the neighborhood so as it to integrate them
in a positive manner which would improve their daily struggle for survival and make our
streets vibrant.
5.1.6

WASTE MANAGERS SURVEY

While discussions we realized that other than the rag-pickers and Kabadiwala there is a
parallel cycle of waste-manager. It takes care of re-use, re-cycle, and re-furbish aspect of
the things discarded by the resident of the area. To identify and understand the chain the
cobbler, electrician and cloth-mending tailor were interviewed.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

5.1.7

KABADIWALAS SURVEY

Municipality does not practice waste segregation at the household level in the city. Once the
household waste is collected, the waste workers segregate the waste on their own and sell it
to the Kabadiwala for personal monetary gains. The Kabadiwalas also buy newspapers and
plastic wastes from apartments and residential areas. They subsequently sell the sorted
newspaper, plastics waste, metal scraps and electric stuff in the Dharavi market. The
Kabadiwala is an important part in this chain of waste management in the city. It also helps
us identify how much waste is being reused to understand the overall carbon-footprint
consumption pattern of the neighborhood.
5.1.8

RAG PICKERS SURVEY

In a city like Mumbai, where there is no segregation of waste at source, the rag pickers play
a vital role in the maintaining the environment of the city. Their role is primary to segregate
waste that is dumped in the public waste bins. The non-biodegradable waste is further
segregated into plastic, paper, glass, metal etc. and into sold to the kabadiwalas.
In the initial visits to the site, it was observed that the jhaduwalas i.e. the person collecting
waste from household also plays a role in initial segregation. Thus they were also
interviewed under this head.

5.2 Interaction with Key Institutions


Institutional interactions with MMRDA and MCGM along with the local Corporator, Mr.Tandel
was also undertaken.
5.2.1

LOCAL CORPORATOR

There were multiple interactions undertaken with the Corporator to discuss local issues and
developmental works and priorities. The team interacted on September, 2014, November,
2014, December, 2014 and January, 2015. The team assisted and accompanied him in
discussions with MCGM on the development plan of MCGM. He has been assisted in
dealing with and writing letters to MMRDA and GoM on issues such as the BKC connector
and closure of railway crossing which is seen to have adverse impacts in the community.
The Coporator has been cooperative with the group of volunteers to conduct the survey of
the area. He has highlighted certain issues in the community as follows;
a) High slum population and increasing densities in the area with limitation on
upgradation of infrastructure such as water supply and sewerage.
b) Low hygienic conditions due to issues of waste management due to lack of
accessibility to service congested areas and also the lack of awareness and
cooperation of the community.
c) Flooding and sewage overflows from storm water drains are commonly occurring
events due to solid waste dumping and crossing of utilities.
d) Mosquitoes and incidence of malaria due to unhygienic condition, sewage overflow
water stagnation and improper storage of water.
e) Lack of education/literacy in the community due to lack of enough education facilities
and mid day meal facilities for children from the lower strata.
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

f)

High commercial activities with increased number of shops and establishments and
hawkers with no planning and controls are creating congestion and mismanagement
of traffic and parking problems. Also the street faade is cluttered due to lack of
consistency of signage and boards of shop fronts.
g) There are further improvements required in existing open space conditions as also
additional recreational spaces are required for the community.
h) There is a strong sense of community and belongingness in the neighbourhood
i) The development proposals such as the BKC connector are threatening the
environmental condition of the area creating possibility of noise pollution, flooding, air
pollution and nuisance for the community. Nonetheless the railway overbridge which
is now a part of the project is a need for the community since the chunnabhatti
phatak is one of the only operational railway crossing existing in Mumbai.
5.2.2

MUNICIPAL CORPORATION OF GREATER MUMBAI

There were multiple meetings with people from various departments in MCGM like
Sewerage, water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, health, etc. so as to procure
information and understand infrastructure and social development issues in the
neighbourhood. Following people from MCGM were met; Mr.Anis Khan, Mr.Sandesh Matkar,
Mr.Sonawne, Mr.Saudagar, Mr.Kolte, Mr.Phunde and Mr.Katkade.
5.2.3

MMRDA

Interactions with MMRDAs Engineering Division revealed that a BKC connector has been
proposed and approved to connect BKC with Eastern Express Highway and the same is
being built via Chunnabhatti. Although the connection is much needed, but it will only
encourage private transport. The stretch connecting these area passes through two railway
lines i.e. harbor and central line and two stations namely; Chunnabhatti and Sion. These are
opportunities for connecting BKC via direct public transport and acting as an alternate to
Kurla station. This can be done by integrating and developing SATIS (Station Area Traffic
Improvement Scheme) projects for the two stations integrating the BKC Connector. But,
talking to MMRDA officials and sending letters has not led to any positive action. To get
details of the project an RTI was filed which helped get the detailed project report and
Environmental Impact Assessment.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

6 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
The section will detail out the situational analysis in the following areas;
Land and Building Use
Public Spaces - Recreational/Open Spaces
Social Amenities
Social Nodes
Transportation and commuting
Informal Economy: Hawkers and Street Vendors
Shops and Establishments
Environment
Corporator Funding and Expenditure
The analysis is based on observations on the site, consultations with experts and
stakeholders and surveys.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

6.1 Land and Building Use


A thorough land use survey was conducted in the project area to capture the land and
building use. The methodology for the same is explained in the earlier chapters. Given below
are the broad categories and their predominant characteristics
LAND USE
Residential

PREDOMINANT CHARACTERISTICS

Commercial

It includes all plots used purely for commercial purpose. It includes


commercial complexes, small shops and office buildings

Industrial

Being home to the once flourishing Swadeshi Mills, the project area has a
large area under industrial use. These industries are now defunct and in
dilapidated condition. Some plots have undergone redevelopment under
the Maharashtra Government Model of Industrial plot redevelopment,
however few plots still remain under litigation. Through discussion with the
locals and Corporator, it is understood that these plots will also undergo
redevelopment in the near future and thus open up large tracts land for real
estate development. The project will undergo a huge transformation in this
process with various high end properties being developed.

It encompasses all plots used purely for residential purpose. It accounts or


residential apartments, bungalows and chawls. Since slums have an
entirely different characteristic, they have not been included in residential
use but have been captured as a separate use.

The Maharashtra Government Model of Industrial plot redevelopment,


basically helps in opening up locked defunct industrial properties in the city
for development. Mumbai was once a flourishing industrial town with large
number of cotton mills. In the 1980's when the industries started shutting
down, they went into litigation with the workers and thus these land were
sealed. Now in an effort to open these land for development the state has
devised a model wherein the land is subdivided into three parts. One is to
be handed over to MHADA who develop it as a residential facility for the
mill workers and slum population. Second has to be developed as public
utility and handed over to the municipal corporation. This usually
developed as an open space or ground. The third part the mill owner can
sell off in the open market and high end commercial or residential building.
This model ensure development of standard residential facility for the lower
income as well as creates pockets of high end real estate as well as
secure land for the government through open spaces and public utilities.
Mixed use

This includes all plots which are used for multiple purposes. For example
residential and commercial development together.

Open space

This includes open space like parks, play grounds and vacant spaces.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Slum

Slums include a contiguous settlement where the inhabitants are


characterized as having inadequate housing and basic services. It is often
not recognized and addresses by the public authorities as an integral part
of the city. Slum households are often characterised as having insecure
residential status, inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor
structural quality and overcrowding.

Amenities

These include public amenities like schools, hospitals, gyms, police


chowky, social nodes etc

Utilities

These include services like pumping stations, toilets, electric sub stations.

To further refine the understanding of the urban character and development pattern, a
complete survey was carried out to capture the building usage. This was again done at two
levels.
MAIN CATEGORY
Residential

SUB
CATEGORY
Apartments

Bungalows

Chawls

Industrial

Industries

Commercial

Commercial
Complex
Retail Stores

Markets

PREDOMINANT CHARACTERISTICS
An apartment, colloquially speaking, is a self
contained housing or dwelling unit that occupies
part of a building.
A bungalow is a type of building, originally from
India, but now found throughout the world. Across
the world, the meaning of the word bungalow
varies. Common features of many bungalows
include verandas and being low-rise
Chawls have traditionally been residential
tenements constructed by factory owners and land
owners for low income group workers between
1920-1956. They are characterised by typical one
room tenements with a small cooking space and
shared common sanitation facilities. Originally
meant for only male migrant workers, these were
later proliferated by families subsequently
increasing densities.
As defined above
Is an entire multistory building which houses only
commercial establishments like shops and offices.
As seen in the project area, retail stores are small
shops constructed independently entirely used for
commercial purpose.
Markets as seen in the project area are
designated street vending areas, very similar to
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

hawker zones. In the project there is one fish


market.
Mixed use
Amenities

Residential +
Commercial
Hospital
School
Police
Chowky/Station
Post Office
Gym
Community Hall
Religious

Slums

Slum

Utilities

Sub Station
Pumping Station
Toilet
BMC Office

As defined above
All medical facilities like hospitals, clinics etc
All educational institutes
All police stations and chowky. Chowky is a patrol
station.
Postal service office
All health clubs and gyms
Includes small mandals, hall, built spaces used for
community functions. Mandals are youth clubs.
Includes all Temples, Mosques, Churches, Budh
Viharas, Dargahs etc.
As defined above
Electric sub-station setup as part of the power
supply grid
Set up for water supply or storm water draining
All public toilets
All administrative offices

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

LAND USE MAP

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BUILDING USE MAP

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- Sub Category

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6.2 Public Spaces - Recreational/Open Spaces


In the project, the open spaces were captured through land use survey and mapped. Its
qualitative aspects were gauged through surveys, picture and sketches As per the DP (see
images below), a large portion of the project area on the west is a designated open space,
however over the years this space has been encroached and is thus not considered in the
inventory below.
NAME
Shivaji
Maidan

USE
Open
play
ground

Manorajan Enclosed
Udyan
park

EXISTING SITUATION
An actively used open ground by all the residents. Activities
keep changing throughout day. In the morning it frequented by
senior citizen for their walk, in the latter half of the day it is used
by the youth a football and cricket ground. By night it becomes a
public meeting space of youth and elderly to sit, chat or walk
Situated in the midst of a densely populated area with average
housing size less than 40 sq meters and family size of more
than 4-5 persons, the park provides the much needed open
space for the community. An array of activities can be seen here
which reflect the lifestyle of the people around it. On can see
youth playing and chatting, the elders catching an afternoon nap
and women using it as a place to socialise as well as do
household activities like cleaning and drying grains.
Situated in the bazaar/market area, this small open space is
mostly used by the street vendors during the day as a respite
from the afternoon heat, when the market is closed. In the
evening it doubles up a children's park since it has a lot play
equipment
This is located within the mill workers settlement close to TATA
nagar. Though not developed the area is being used by the
residents as open space like a small shed (temporary) that has
been built to act as newspaper stand and meeting point. One of
the local mandal has cleared and levelled certain portion and
created a kabaddi ground. There are few old abandoned
vehicles dumped here and slight encroachments.

BMC
garden

Enclosed
park

Vacant
plot near
TATA
Nagar

Vacant
plot

Vacant
plot
behind
fish
market
Open
space in
Samarth
Nagar

Vacant
plot

Presently lying vacant, this plot is reserved as an recreational


space in Development Plan. Recently informal market
development has been noticed on this plot.

Vacant
plot

In the course of development, this open space has become part


of a residential society. However, the ownership still lies with the
Local Body. Presently it is vacant.

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MANORANJAN UDYAN

VACANT PLOT NEAR TATA NAGAR

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BMC GARDEN

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GREEN COVER MAP

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ACCESS

USERS

WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

PURPOSE

HIGHLIGHTS
Situated in a densely populated area with average
housing size less than 40 sq meters and family size
of more than 4-5 persons, the park provides the
much needed open space for the community
An ideal example of a neighborhood where residents
can easily walk up-to the nearest open and green
space
None of the gardens charge entry fees thus making
them accessible for all

ISSUES

Nearly 64% of the respondents have suggested there need to better maintenance of the
open spaces.
Dustbins need to be placed and maintained across the park
Some also suggested that security is an issues at time specially during afternoons and
late evenings.
There are no public toilets and drinking water facilities inside the garden. There are pay
and use toilet blocks in the garden areas but they are not cleaned regularly.
Insufficient lighting facility in the park area
Play equipments are old and need replacement

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COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

Presently though there are 5 designated open spaces, only 3 are being actively used.
The residents have also suggested the need for more open spaces.
Residents have also suggested planting more trees in the vicinity.
Installing lights, toilets and drinking water facilities in the parks
Respondents have also shown interest in urban farming
They have further suggested that the garden need to be upgraded to encompass more
activities. They have suggested creating platforms/stages for street plays, camps for
children, dog parks, creating shaded areas within the parks etc

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6.3 Social Amenities


To make a neighbourhood functional and livable availability of social amenities which
ensures equal accessibility for one and all is very important.
SCHOOLS

EXISTING SITUATION

Swadeshi Mill BMC Marathi


School

It is one of the oldest schools in Chunabhatti were the


medium of education is Marathi and is supported by
BMC.

Khajuri-bhatti Municipal
Marathi School

It is near Muktadevi Udayn. It is a municipal school and


medium of education is Marathi.

Swadeshi Marathi School

It is a co-educational Marathi school founded in 1920.

Vivek English School

It is an English medium school run by private body in a


four storied building. It fulfills the crucial gap of an
English medium school in Qureshi Nagar.

Qureshi Nagar Municipal


Urdu School

Qureshi Nagar Urdu school is run by BMC and students


from the nearby Muslim dominated neighborhood attend
it.

Vidyavikas High School

It is one of the prominent English medium educational


institute in the project area

Chunnabhatti Municipal
Marathi School

This school is run by BMC and mostly students from the


nearby slums attend this school

Private School
OTHER SOCIAL AMENITIES

There are two other private schools in Chunabhatti


EXISTING SITUATION

Hindu Crematorium

It is the only crematorium for Hindus in Chunabhatti.

BMC Hospital

The municipal hospital is a double storied building in Tata


Nagar.

Police station/ Police Chowky

There is one police station on V.N.Purva marg. There is


one police chowky next to the post-office near Shivaji
park and another police-chowky is in Tata Nagar

Post Office

Chunabhatti post office is near Shivaji Maidan

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SCHOOLS

HOSPITAL

CREMATORIUM

POST OFFICE

POLICE STATION

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SOCIAL AMENITIES MAP

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HIGHLIGHTS

Services and Amenities are available within a walk able distance in the neighborhood
It has both Municipal and private schools whose medium of education is Marathi, English
and Urdu
There is a Municipal hospital and few private doctors
There is one Police station and two beat stations in the neighbourhood
COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

Schools can be an important participant in neighborhood development activities.


Young school children can act as agents of change for cleanliness drive, green initiatives
and other socio-cultural programs.

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6.4 Social Nodes


Every neighborhood is recognized by its cultural nodes, activities and the vibrant life built
around it. Chunabhatti has one of the oldest mills in i.e. Swadeshi Mill. The community has
always been living together in the housing societies of these mills which have fostered a
sense of community and togetherness for years. There are several Mandals, Vachnalays
(newspaper reading centers) and Gymkhanas (Clubs and gymnasium). During the Ganpati
festival Mandals are active centers of activities and programs. Each Mandal has its own
celebration of Ganpati festivals followed by various cultural programs performed by the local
children and youth.
The Vachnalayas or newspaper reading center is a unique community tradition being
followed in Mumbai for several years. It is found at all the main junctions and public spaces
which provides a public space for people to read, discuss and exchange ideas about local
and national news. It is also a point of information sharing about government programs and
new schemes.

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VACHNALAYA

MANDALS

TEMPLES

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SOCIAL NODES MAP

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HIGHLIGHTS

It fulfills the ideal condition of a compact urban form with a mixed income walk able
neighborhood
Presence of public spaces for discussion and information sharing. i.e. newspaper reading
stand or Vachnayla
Willingness of the people to be part of development work
COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

Need to build a vibrant street life, both economically and socially engaging
Use the platform of Mandals for further public participation

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6.5 Transportation and commuting


The project area is suburb of Mumbai, located close to the Eastern Express Highway. It is
served by Chunabhatti railway station on the Harbour Line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway.
Within the project area, most of the facilities are at walking distance. For local commuters
auto rickshaws and bus is also a viable option. Given below is the summary of the various
modes of transport.
MODE OF TRANSPORT

EXISTING SITUATION

Railway (local trains)

The nearest railway station in the project area is Chunabhatti


on the harbour line, which connects it to Panvel on the east,
CST in its south and Andheri on the western line on the
northern side of the city. Trains are available every 10m
connecting to the nearest transit routes of Kurla and Wadala.

Railway (for outstation


travel)

For outstation travel the nearest railway station is the Tilak


Terminus at Kurla. Other than that Dadar railway station is
also a major station and can be easily accessed by road.

Bus service

There is a bus depot near the railway station and two bus
stops on V N Puran Marg connecting the area to Sion, Kurla
and Bandra.

Taxis

There is one taxi stand near the station.

Auto rickshaws

There are mainly two auto stands in the project area. One
near the station and Shivaji Udyan area, where in autos are
parked mostly for the railway commuters. The second one is
in Qureshi Nagar

Proposed new Rail Over


Bridge

As per the Draft DP 2015, there is a new rail over bridge


proposed near the railway crossing. This is a long ending
project and will ease some the traffic issues n the area.
Presently due to the railway signal traffic gets stalled for
nearly 15-20 minutes cause huge pile up. This condition shall
ease after the project is implemented

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RAILWAY STATION

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TRANSPORTATION MAP

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ISSUES

TIME AND MONEY

PREFERED MODE

WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

HIGHLIGHTS

Walk able distance from home to office and market is the biggest selling point for a given
neighborhood. Chunabhatti came up as a neighborhood in keeping with this idea.
The travel time often is less than the waiting time for the desired mode of transport.
ISSUES

Chain snatching of pedestrians during early morning hours and later in the night is very
common.
Getting auto-rickshaw is difficult, frequency of auto and bus is less, availability of taxi is
also less in Chunabhatti area.
There is no ambulance outside the railway unlike many other railway stations of western
railway.
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There is no facility near the bus station for throwing garbage.


Cleaning is required outside the station. Railway tracks and roads are often not clean.
Footpath are blocked by hawkers
COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

Fogging should be done regularly at the railway station premises


Footpaths should be cleared for pedestrian use
Increase the fleet size of buses from Sion to Kurla
Frequency of trains should be increased
The railway crossing is a major traffic hurdle and thus an over bridge need to be built
There should be police station near the bus-railway station area.

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6.6 Informal Economy: Hawkers and Street Vendors


Street Vendors and hawkers are an integral part of the informal economy in urban India. It
provides livelihood opportunities to many with good being available for the buyers in their
neighborhood at a reasonable cost. At the same time street vendors and hawkers make our
streets vibrant and safe.
HAWKERS AND STREET VENDING

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Waste management

Availability of Utilities

Profiling the hawkers

WHAT THE HAWKERS SAY

HIGHLIGHTS
Many hawkers are those who were earlier employed in the Mills and are from the
neighborhood itself.
Only 10% of the hawkers come from areas like Sion and Panvel.
The usual hawking hours are from morning 6 am to afternoon and again in the evening
hours right up till 9 pm.
They agreed to pay for services if it is provided to them in an organized manner.
ISSUES

Identification of vending and no-vending zone so as to bring in clarity even for the
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vendors who are frequently caught for breaking the rules.


There is no toilet facility, source of electricity or storage space for the hawkers and
vendors.
The hawkers face frequent eviction and harassment because they dont have license and
I-card.
COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

Dustbins: should be provided at the vending zone for collection of waste


Sanitation: Cleanliness of vending Zone and provide toilet blocks with drinking water
facility
CFL bulb should be used in keeping with green emission principles
No permanent structure should be allowed and only usage of bamboo and plastic sheets
to be permitted.
The municipal authorities should regularize the vending zones and stop regular eviction
of hawkers.
Marking the vending zones near residential areas helps in reducing the commuters
carbon foot prints.
Provide identity card to all the hawkers in the neighborhood

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6.7 Shops and Establishments


The formal shops are mainly situated on the V N Puran Marg. The type of shops range from
grocery, departmental stores, hardware stores, cloth and garment stores, tailors, parlours,
milk booths, bakeries, repair shop etc. The entire stretch on either sides on the V N Puran
Marg from the station till the BMC hospital are lined with such stores/shops.
These shops have legal electric connections but have to depend on their own resources for
amenities like water, toilets, waste disposal etc. This was also reflected in the survey as
explained below.
SHOPS AND ESTABLISHMENTS

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Waste Management

Availability of Utilities

Profiling the Shopkeepers

Shops and Establishments

HIGHLIGHTS
The V.N.PuranMarg is the central artery in Chunabhatti along which most shops are to
be found.
The shopkeepers are knee to contribute both money and time if any development work is
undertaken in the neighborhood.
ISSUES

Lack of any municipal market complex which has been their demand from long yet to be
fulfilled.
Negligible presence of basic services for the shopkeepers by the municipality
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COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

The municipal market should be built on priority with toilet, drinking water and rest room
facilities.
The shopkeepers are willful participant of any development work in the locality. Their
monetary strength should be particularly used by for local development work.

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6.8 Sewerage and Sanitation


Sanitation is defined as safe management of human excreta, including its safe confinement
treatment, disposal and associated hygiene-related practices. (National Urban Sanitation
Policy). The main issue to be addressed is access and equity which needs to be maintained
across the different socio-economic group of population. The sanitary facility can be divided
into two sections.
Public Toilets which are pay and use facility. They are provided at the railway station,
Manoranjan Uday-Park and Shivaji Park. The toilet block at the railway station is poorly
maintained and commuters complain of it being often dirty and beyond usage for them. Due
to lack of cleanliness it leads to stench and mosquitoes. The number of toilet block is less
and complained of toilet units not being available if one wishes to use it. Those functional are
dirty and not fit to usage was the complaint and waiting time is longer for the passengers
who are in a hurry. Thus to improve the condition the surveyed commuters suggested
increasing the number of toilet blocks. There should be daily cleaning ventilation should be
improved. There is no public toilet inside the garden. There is one pay and use toilet block
in-front of the garden but is hardly cleaned and needs regular upkeep and maintenance. For
daily users of park a well maintained toilet block is essential necessity.
Community toilet blocks are available in slums and chawl's. while those which are in Chawl's
are comparatively better maintained because the number of users are not more than eight to
ten families. The toilet blocks in slum pockets are in worse condition because the number of
users are more and up-keep is extremely poor. The toilet blocks are often choked and lack
of regular water supply makes its cleaning difficult. They have separate toilet seats for men
and women users. But they being common toilets are fraught with various problems of
maintenance and cleanliness. Often the toilet is choked and is over flowing because women
throw their sanitary napkins hence choking the sewerage lines. There have been complains
of sewerage lines bursting of because the pipes are old and rusted. But most importantly the
availability of the toilet blocks is not in proportion to the population it is covering, leading to
long waiting lines and poor maintenance.

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PUBLIC TOILTES

SEWERAGE SYSTEM AND DRAINAGE

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SEWERAGE AND SANITATION MAP

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HIGHLIGHTS

The number of toilet blocks are inadequate, particularly for the women.
Open defecation is common among men and children.
Inadequate water supply makes the toilet unhygienic.
ISSUES

The public toilets are not clean and lack in basic amenities. There is no facility for the
disposal of the sewage and liquid waste from the toilets which is further discharged into
storm water drains.
There are no community toilets for the hawkers and shopkeepers in the neighborhood.
The toilets often over flow due to choked sewerage lines.
COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS

Community participation is the most efficient way to maintain the infrastructure


To maintain access and equity more toilet blocks and more number of toilet seats need
to be constructed in proportion to the existing population in slums.
Continuous supply of water should be ensured.
Separate toilet block should be constructed for hawkers and shopkeepers in the market
area.

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6.9 Solid Waste Management Chain


Any material that is discarded, useless or unwanted is considered as waste. Waste
management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of
waste materials.
To understand the aspect of solid waste management, the agents/actors/stakeholders of the
entire process were interviewed through a set of questionnaires. Given below are the details.
Agents

Role in the
process

Description

Residents/shopkeepers/hawkers

Waste
generators

These basically include all residents and commercial


establishments in the area. They were interviewed to
understand their waster generation patterns and
disposal techniques. It was learnt through interviews
that segregation at source is very rare in the project
area.

Jhaduwalas

Waste
collectors/
segregators

These are people involved in door to door collection of


waste, be it privately hired waste collectors or people
appointed by the local authorities. Their role is to
collect the waste and dispose it at waste collection bins
placed throughout the project area. It was learnt
through discussion that these also act as segregators.
They segregate the bio-degradable and non-bio
degradable waste. The non-biodegradable waste is
then sold to the kabadiwalas by them. It serves as an
additional income for them but in the process they
serve an important role in the process of SWM.

Rag pickers

Segregators

Rag pickers are people who make a living by


rummaging through refuse in the streets to collect
material for salvage. The rag-pickers do not recycle the
materials themselves; but sell it generally by weight to
kabadiwalas. They perform the duty of second
screening the waste to further segregate the
degradable and non-degradable waste from the waste
bins placed throughout the project area or also from
areas where waste is indiscriminately dumped.

BMC Waste
Collectors

Segregators
and
transporters

These are people appointed by the local authority to


collect waste from the bins and transport it to the
dumping grounds. Since waste has already undergone
multiple levels of screening, this is mostly degradable
waste.

Kabadiwalas

Waste

These serve the purpose of collectors of non77

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Electronic
repairers, Tailors,
Cobblers

managers

degradable waste. These are usually small shops


wherein once can sell old newspapers, plastic,
cardboard, metal, glass or thermacol. They further
segregate the waste material wise and sell it to scrap
dealers.

Recyclists

Usually in SWM we discuss the 3R's i.e. reduce, reuse


and recycle. To further deepen the understanding of
the of the entire process we are discussing the 4th R
i.e. Repair. It has been widely observed that there is
huge market for repaired good and the repairmen
serve as agents of waste management in the process.
These include people who refurbish electronic goods
and resell them, tailors who alter clothes to be reused
and cobblers who mend shoes for reuse. These were
also studied in the project area.

RAG PICKERS

INDISCRIMINATE DUMPING

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KABADIWALAS

ELECTRIC REPAIRMAN & TAILOR

COBBLER

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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGERS

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SHOP OWNERS

HAWKERS

RAG PICKERS JHADUWALAS

COMMUTERS

RESIDENTS

WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

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ISSUES
Minimal waste segragation at the source
Indiscrimate dumping seen in the project area
Health issues among rag pickers and municiapl workers dealing with SWM.
Dustbins need to be placed and maintained
COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS
At the neighborhood level segregation of waste can be done by placing green bag for
collecting organic and bio-degradable wastes, black bag for recyclable or non-biogradable wastes and red bag for domestic hazardous wastes.
Resident Welfare associations facilitate collaborations with various stakeholders in the
chain of waste collections namely waste-managers and Kabadiwalas.
BMC on trial basis can install small capacity bio-methaniation plants to reduce the
amount of waste which goes to dumping ground. It has also been using composting
system in its municipal gardens.
GIS location & co-ordinates of bins and dumping sites and GPS enabled vehicles
Analyze the bin pick up status such as bins picked up/served on not picked up/served in
real time
Ensure citizens participation in governance who monitor the performance level of each
waste collecting vehicle
Citizens participation to see that waste is not littered around the bin
Controlling the foul smell emanating from the bins and checking the menace of stray
animals.
Encourage RWA to engage in composting in their local area

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6.11 Environment
Carbon footprint is the amount of Green House Gases (GHG) emitted by an individual or an
organisation. GHG emissions from activities pertaining to the day to day personal life of an
individual such as electricity use, transportation, cooking and waste generation has been
considered while calculating the carbon footprint for the neighbourhood of Chunabhatti.1.4
tons of CO2 equivalent per year is the National Average Carbon Footprint of India. A
detailed household survey of the residents of Chunabhatti was done. Given below is a
summary of what the people had to say.

POWER SUPPLY

TYPOLOGY

WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

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SHOPS WASTE
MANAGEMENT

HAWKERS WASTE
MANAGEMENT
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MANAGEMENT

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COMMUTING

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SANITATION

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ISSUES
Chunabhatti has a mix of slums, apartments, mill housing and chawls. It has been
observed through the surveys conducted that people residing in the apartments have a
higher carbon footprint.
Segregation of waste at source is not practiced by the residents.
There are not enough dustbins in the public spaces such as parks and bus stops
resulting in the waste being strewn on the roads. This results in choking of the sewer and
drainage lines.
Burning of waste by the rag pickers is also a common sight in the area.
Basic infrastructure facilities such as drainage lines have not been provided to the
Qureshi Nagar slum dwellers.
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Chunabhatti and Sion railway stations are within close proximity to the neighborhood.
However there is poor frequency of autos and buses within the neighborhood making this
place secluded, especially in the night. This acts as a catalyst to the use of private
vehicles. The residents living in apartments prefer air conditioned cars, taxis and auto
rickshaws which are high carbon transport choices.
LPG has higher carbon emission than Piped Natural Gas (PNG). However LPG is widely
used by the residents as piped gas supply is restricted to the apartments only.
Most households and shops in the neighborhood do not have energy efficient fixtures
such as CFLs, LEDs, BEE star rated appliances and Solar Water Heaters.

COMMUNITY'S SUGGESTIONS
Segregation of waste should be done at source. The wet waste collected should be
composted. Majority of the residents indulge in growing plants and nurseries in their
houses. Compost generated from the domestic waste collected can be used as manure
for the plants. Respondents have shown interest in urban farming. Other than in their
own houses, residents have also suggested planting more trees in the surrounding area
and gardens. The compost generated can be used for such activities.
Biogas plant can be set up within the neighborhood. The gas generated can be supplied
to the economy poorer section of the population at cheaper rates.
The waste managers and rag pickers need to be brought into the formal system.
Dustbins need to be placed and maintained at accessible locations to prevent open
dumping of waste. Dry waste such as newspapers, plastics and electronic waste should
not be burnt but given for recycling. Decentralized material recovery centres need to be
developed where such activities can take place.
There is an urgent need to improve the transport connectivity within the neighborhood
especially during the night period. Frequency of buses and auto rickshaws should be
increased for the same. Emphasis should be given on use of public transport such as
trains and buses for long distance commute. Air conditioned taxis and cars have the
maximum carbon footprint as compared to other vehicles of daily commute. Trains have
the minimum emission factor and are the fastest mode of transport.
The practice of car-pooling should be encouraged amongst the residents.
Energy efficient fixtures such as CFLs and BEE star rated appliances should be used for
lighting at homes and commercial areas. Solar water heaters should be used for heating
purposes.
Rain water harvesting at roof tops and at community level should be encouraged. The
water collected can be used for potable and non-potable purposes depending on the
level of filtration.
Decentralized waste water treatment system for both black and grey water can be
provided at community level in accordance with availability of space. As the Qureshi
Nagar Slums have no infrastructure facilities for drainage, such a decentralized system is
essential. Open spaces need to be identified for designing of the same.
Capacity building of the community on issues of local development and use of energy
efficient technologies needs to be undertaken. To encourage neighborhood participation
the schools, institutions and 'Residents Welfare Association' can also be approached.
Chunabhatti has very active social groups comprising of people from varied age groups.
Support of such groups can also be taken for knowledge dissemination.

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6.12 Snapshots of the Carbon Footprint


6.12.1 METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT
Carbon footprint is the amount of Green House Gases (GHG) emitted by an individual or an
organisation. The carbon footprint calculation for Chunabhatti neighborhood had been done
using the Carbon Footprint Calculator designed by Environment Management Centre
(EMC), Mumbaiin collaboration with Mumbai Metropolitan Region Environment
Improvement Society (MMR-EIS).
The Calculator gives calculations based on 10 personal queries. The queries relate to a few
carbon intensive activities pertaining to the day to day personal life of an individual.The
activities which have been considered for the calculations are electricity consumption, mode
of commute, mode of cooking, waste generation and its management. A household survey
of the residents of Chunabhatti was undertaken in which the above mentioned queries were
asked in detail through group discussions and questionnaires. The responses had been fed
into the Calculator and the system generated the Personal Carbon Footprint (CFP) and the
CFP Index (CFPI) of the respective households.
Personal Carbon Footprint (CFP) considers the Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from
the above mentioned activities. The sum of GHG emission from these activities over a year,
measured in units of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), is the individuals "personal carbon
footprint". The National Average Carbon Footprint of India is 1.4 tons of CO2 equivalents per
year.
CFP Index (CFPI) is calculated considering specific intensity of GHG emissions e.g. per km
of travel, per sq. m. of residential area etc. A low carbon footprint intensity (CFPI) along with
a low personal carbon footprint (CFP) means that you are "climate friendly".
The calculator also proposes specific interventions which indicate how minimal changes in
daily lifestyles can help in reducing the existing carbon footprint being generated. These
interventions are case specific and in accordance to the lifestyle being led by the individual.
Once implemented these interventions can help the families maintain a low carbon lifestyle.
For further details on the Carbon Footprint Calculator one can log into the following web
link: www.mmr-ccrt.org.in
6.12.2 SNAPSHOTS OF FEW CASES
Mr. Haneef Mukadam is a resident of Qureshi Nagar. He does not use any energy
efficient appliances such as CFL or Solar Water Heater. He also does not practice
segregation and composting of waste at home. His Carbon Footprint Calculation and
the interventions proposed by the Calculator are as follows:

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Ms Aiysha Dinesh Thakur is a resident of Bhagnari Society, Chunabhatti. She uses


energy efficient fixtures such as CFL bulbs. However her electricity usage is high.
She also practices segregation of waste and composting at home. But her transport
choice is very high carbon. She commutes from Chunabhatti (home) to Andheri
(office) regularly in her car. Her Carbon Footprint Calculation and the interventions
proposed by the Calculator are as follows:

Mr. S S Kargutkaris a resident of Hill Road Chunabhatti. He practices segregation of


waste and composting at home. However his transport choice is very high carbon.
He commutes from Chunabhatti (home) to Vashi (office) regularly in his car. His
electricity usage is also very high. His Carbon Footprint Calculation and the
interventions proposed by the Calculator are as follows:
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Mr. M D Usup resides near Chisty Masjid. He does not use energy any efficient
electricity fixtures. He also does not practice segregation of waste and composting at
home. However he walks from his home to his place of work which is at a distance of
1 km. His Carbon Footprint Calculation and the interventions proposed by the
Calculator are as follows:

Ms.KausarJahan resides in KambliChawl, Qureshi Nagar. She uses energy efficient


fixtures such as CFL bulbs. However she does not practice segregation of waste and
composting at home. Her Carbon Footprint Calculation and the interventions
proposed by the Calculator are as follows:

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It has been observed as per the calculations of the Crbon Footprint Calculator that the
carbon footprint of the residents living in the slums and chawls in Chunabhatti is lower
compared to the residents living in Societies and Appartments.
It can be sumarised that the residents living in the slums and chawls use public transport
such as trains for daily commute. However they do not seggregate waste at home and
practice composting. Also not many use energy efficient electricity fixtures such as LED and
CFL bulbs. On the other hand the residents living in Housing Socities and Appartments have
access to energy efficient fixtures such as solar water heater, CFL bulbs and LED lights. But
their electricity usage overall is very high. They also practice seggregation of waste and
composting at home. The compost generated is used for gardening purposes. However their
preferred mode of transport is energy extensive. Many residents interviwed prefer using
private vehicles over public transport.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

6.13 Corporator Funding and Expenditure


Date/
Year Amount (in Nature of work undertaken
(2012-13
Rs)
27.07.2012

217,993.86 R.C.C. Cover in various places in Beat No-164

27.07.2012

299,808.52 Improvement. of Passage /drainage arrangement at Raj


Bhadur Singh Chawl

31.07.2012

299,112.85 Improvement. of Passage/drainage arrangement at Guru


Kurpa Chawl

09.01.2013

68,214.48 Providing kadhappa at various places in beat no-164 kurla

14.01.2013

232,845.84 Improvement. of Passage /drainage system of Rangari


Chawl No-2, Muktadevi Mandir Marg

14.01.2013

344,171.90 Improvement. of Passage and drainage system near


KalakunjChawl, Cemetry Road

14.01.2013

331,331.14 Improvement. of Passage and drainage system of Swadeshi


Chawl

11.03.2013

290,486.30 Improvement. of Passage and drainage system near


Dhanabai Chawl

12.03.2013

252,620.41 Repairs to damaged footpaths and side strips at various plac


es

In the financial year 2012-13 major work was undertaking for improving and repairing the
drainage system in various chawl pockets across Chunabhatti beat-164 locality. The other
work included providing RCC cover and Dhappa at various places. Work worth 252, 620.41/was also undertaken to repair the damaged footpaths and side strips in the area. One can
conclude that most work was infrastructure improvement or repairmen related.
Date/
Year Amount (in Nature of work undertaken
(2013-14)
Rs)
13.05.2013

387,300.00

Improvement of Passage and drainage system at Siddharth

13.05.2013

346,760.53

Improvement of Passage /drainage System near Bholenath


Krida

13.05.2013

178,220.59

Improvement of Passage/drainage system near Takur Niwas

13.05.2013

394,823.27

Repairs to 08 Seated PSC Block and Passage at Chawl

13.05.2013

382,886.69

Improvement of Passage/drainage system at Gaikwad


Chawl

13.05.2013

439,650.80

Improvement of passage at Devdatta Chawl and road side

13.05.2013

146,611.95

Improvement of passage at Yadav Chawl, Patil Lane,


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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

23.08.2013

310,717.30

Supply /Installation of Gymnasium Equipments

25.09.2013

451,575.00

Supply of 120 ltr <(>&<)> 240 ltr. Capacity HDPE refuse bins

05.10.2013

277,015.70

Supply/Installation
of
Gymnasium
Chaphealley Seva Mandal

07.10.2013

251,183.26

Supply/Installation of Gymnasium Equipments at Premnagar


Sports club

17.10.2013

177,302.88

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at Sarpole

17.10.2013

64,187.50

Providing and Fixing G. I. Doors at various locations

17.10.2013

122,906.97

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System Sakhubai

17.10.2013

206,346.53

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at Khanolkar


Chawl, Mukta Devi Road

17.10.2013

145,224.32

Improvement of Passage / Drainage System at Shramik

17.10.2013

180,047.70

Improvement of Passage/ Drainage System at Sawant

17.10.2013

156,109.96

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at at New

17.10.2013

193,489.70

Improvement of Passage / Drainage System at Gurudatta


Society

24.01.2014

343,515.01

Supply/Installation
Pratisthan

30.01.2014

267,868.03

Repairs to 18 seated A.P Block at Cementry road

30.01.2014

116,648.20

Providing Dhapa at various place in beat No-164

30.01.2014

80,142.09

Repairs to A.P Block near Hindu Cementry, Cementry road

30.01.2014

100,742.17

Repairs to A.P Block near Pankha Bldg, Muktadevi road

14.02.2014

459,637.30

Improvement of Passage / Drainage System at Parvati bai


chawl, Hill road

14.02.2014

493,485.44

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at Chintamani


chawl, Hill road

14.02.2014

165,446.49

Repairs to Jaganath Carron Club Chunnabhatti Beat No.164

14.02.2014

435,535.01

Improvement of Passage/ Drainage System Near Mahadev


Mandir at Hill road

14.02.2014

296,589.89

Providing / Laying Sewarge line at behind Firdosh hotel S.K.


Ali

14.02.2014

280,785.79

Providing fixing M.S. Black pipe for ladder support at various


places

24.02.2014

215,842.79

Improvement of Passage /

of

Gymnasium

equipments

equipment

at

at

Shiv

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Drainage System at Sai Rahewashi Sang Chawl


28.02.2014

249,502.27

Supply/Installation of Gymnasium Equipments at Durgamata

03.03.2014

406,999.94

SITC of Highmast Lights at Chatrapati Shivaji Maidan

Unlike the previous year in the 2013-14 financial years the number of work undertaken
through the corporator fund was much more. A large portion of work was again for providing
and improving the drainage and passage layouts in the Chawls. Most of these habitations
are several years old and need regular upkeep and repairmen, thus forming one of the main
components of corporator financial expenditure. Apart from it under social component
gymnasium equipments have been installed in various clubs in the locality. A highmast light
has also been installed at the ShivajiMaidan for better illumination in the large ground for
public safety.
Date/ Year

Amount (in Nature of work undertaken


Rs)

08.8.2014

453,191.56

Repairs to 02 seated PSC Block <(>&<)> Pathway at Jariwal


a Chawl No-75

20.08.2014

411,500.81

Repairs to 01 Seated PSC block Pathways at Daruwala


Chawl Swadeshi Mill

20.08.2014

211,090.59

Re.const. Of Cross Culvert at Nagoba Chowk, Nagoba road


in Chunabhatti

20.08.2014

458,547.57

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System Rangari Chawl

20.08.2014

270,342.51

Suppy of RCC Dhapa in beat no 164 Kurla L Ward

21.08.2014

491,369.02

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at Gavkari


Mandal

22.08.2014

449,727.40

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at Bandiya Bapu


Chawl

22.08.2014

225,095.98

Improvement of Passage/Drainage System at Rangani


Chawl No-06 ,

21.01.2015

44,594.41

21.01.2015

252,819.31

Repairs to Balwadi at Shivaji Garden, V.N Purav Marg

21.01.2015

221,390.36

P/F G.I Door at Various Place in beat no- 164

10.02.2015

488,106.64

Supply/Installation of Gym Equipments at Rameshwar Mitra

20.02.2015

356,873.02

P/L Sewreg. line /Const. Of Chamber at 40 seated W.C


Block at Nagoba Road

20.02.2015

427,529.75

Improvement of Passage/ Drainage system


Co.Op. Hsg. At Panchil Nagar cemetery

Const. of C.C Platform near Sanjay Hair Cutting Saloon,


Khajuri

at

Ganesh

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

20.02.2015

201,644.34

Improvement of Passage system at Sunder Seth Chawl No2, Dhobi Ghat, Mukta Devi Road

26.02.2015

430,039.74

Improvement of Passage system at Neesarg Rahivashi Sev


a Sangh, Hill

26.02.2015

324,252.39

Improvement of Passage Drainage system at Rangani Chaw


l No- 04-5 , Muktadevi Marg

11.9.2015

176,922.00 40 ltr HDPE refuse bins for the electoral ward-164 through
councilor fund

9.10.2015

178,002.78 Improvement of Passage/Drainage System


Niwad, S.M road

near

Aaru

In the financial year 2014-15 work was undertaken to repair toilet blocks in Chawl areas. A
major reconstruction of the culvert near NagobaChowk was also done in the current financial
year to avoid flooding during the rainy season. Some of the community level work included
repair of Balwadi at Shivaji Garden locality, installation of gymnasium equipments at
RameshawarMitra for community use. Specail emphasis is being paid frm last two years to
provide sufficient number of dustbins in all the residential areas and public spaces and
HDPE refuse bins are being regularly purchased to take care of this need.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

6.14 SWOT

Social

Strength

Weakness

Opportunities

Threat

Has one of the oldest mill


in Mumbai i.e. Swadeshi
Mill.

The public spaces like


Vachnayla and gymkhana
lacks proper maintenance

Public spaces for


discussion and information
sharing. i.e. newspaper
reading stand or
Vachnayla and gymkhana

Lack of community
interaction activities
particularly among the
high rise apartments and
chawls

Vachnalya and gymkhana


centers can be used
effectively for community
activities

Corruption of the
implementing official has
been cited as a major
problem by the citizens

Neighborhood
associations should be
brought together on a
common platform to
develop an unique identity
of Chunabhatti

Difference in the
community on various
issues particularly those
who live in high-rise
apartments and those
living in Chawl.

Presence of several
neighborhoods
associations, Mandals,
and clubs which is very
active during the religious
festivals
It has high-rise
apartments, oldchawls of
mill workers and slum
pockets.
Physical

Small and compact


neighborhood
Geographically undulating
surface with some hilly
areas

Poor maintenance of water Willingness of the


supply and drainage.
community to be part of
development work
The mill land remains
unused
Willingness to even
support financially by
Cleanliness and collection
many in the community

Illegal occupation of hill


areas which causes
frequent landslide during
the rainy season and is a
major safety issue.
Slow bureaucracy in
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

Mixed land-use of
residential and commercial
types

Transportation

Commuting to Kurla or
Sion is difficult

Bus and train services are


easily and frequently
available.

Poor road conditions and


railway infrastructure

Good tree density


A strong chain of waste
management consisting of
rag-pickers, Jhaduwalas,
Kabadiwalas and waste
managers

effective implementation of
sanctioned projects and
programs

Increasing slum population


and subsequent density is
putting pressure on the
existing infrastructure.

Most services are in walk


able distance

Proposed Bandra-KurlaComplex and Eastern


Express Highway
connector will improve
connectivity for the
neighborhood

Environment

of waste is poor
particularly in chawls

Low acceptability of the


BKC-Eastern expressway
connector in the local
community s

Possibility of developing
cycling track in the
neighborhood
Connector will increase
traffic flow and bring in
more business
opportunities

Unresponsive
administration in improving
the infrastructure
conditions
Apprehension about
increasing noise and air
pollution with the coming
up of the connector.
The proposed connector
will be built at the expense
of displacement of some
commercial
establishments

Informal cycle of waste


management with no
social security
Open dumping of garbage
Flooding and choking of
sewage lines during rainy
season

long stretch of streets lined Lack of community


with trees can be improved participation
to give it a boulevard look
Lack of awareness among
Waste can be segregated
the community to
and commercial chain of
environmental issue and
waste management can
concept of carbon foot
be established
print
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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

overcrowding on the
existing facilities like toilets
and water supply in
Chawls
Open Spaces

Three big along gardens


with several green patches
in the neighborhood
Regularly used by various
age groups

Commercial

Lack of infrastructure and


utilities in the playgrounds
Safety and security of
elderly and women is an
issue

90% of the population


walks to the parks and
maidans

Lack of financial support

Both retail shops and


informal markets are found
along the streets.

Redevelopment of Mill
lands will create more
commercial spaces
Lack of infrastructure for
commercial
establishments and
hawkers

Construction work is
decreasing the green
cover

More open spaces can be


opened up after
redevelopment

Poor participation by the


community in undertaking
community activities

Potential to develop an
energetic and vibrant
neighborhood common
property

Opportunity to develop a
municipal market block
Willingness among the
commercial establishment
to participate for improving
their conditions

Lack of unity among the


shopkeepers and informal
vendors
Sidelining of smaller
establishment with
increasing
commercialization

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

7 PROJECT AND PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS


The overall goal of the project is to propagate the idea of creating neighbourhood level plans
which will work towards creating environmentally sustainable and livable areas. The citizens
of the neighbourhood along with the local Corporator will work towards reducing their carbon
footprint and thus creating an environment which is conducive to growth and at the same
time respects the role of individuals and community in the development of the
neighbourhood.
Listed below are some projects and program interventions which have been chalked with the
local Corporator (local representative of the citizens) and through discussions and surveys of
the various stakeholders in the neighbourhood. Various methods of implementation and
funding have been suggested in few instances. These are preliminary calculations and will
have to be worked out in detail as and when projects are being phased out for
implementation.

7.1 Greening and redesigning of open spaces


EXISTING POLICY ON OPEN SPACES

The model Municipal law 2003 gives due emphasis on promotion of urban forestry,
parks, street-side gardens and local participation in the upkeep and maintenance of the
open spaces.
The policy aims at creating a sense of ownership of the open space among the residents.
It encourages creation of nurseries and organizing flower shows, plantation drives and
adopt a tree program.
The policy states that, the neighborhood association can develop programs to encourage
participation of youths and school going children in building the local flora and fauna.
PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS

Urban Farming

Through surveys and discussions, it is clear that residents would participate in urban
farming. However, to encourage such activities, they first have to be showcased. Thus the
project envisages partnership with local NGOs to conduct workshops on urban farming.
Urban faming can be done at two levels; one at the household level where individual
segregate waste and use it as manure for home/balcony/window gardens. Second, at the
community level, where self help groups can be formed to create and manage small urban
farms. The produce from these farms can be sold in the market thus creating an alternate
source of income for the group members.
To encourage neighbourhood participation, schools and institutes can also be involved in the
activity.
Few NGOs which work in this field are listed below:
Urban Leave (http://www.urbanleaves.org/)
iKheti (http://www.ikheti.co.in/)
Earthoholics (http://www.earthoholics.com/)

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY 1: URBAN FARMING- NANA NANI PARK, OPPOSITE WILSON
COLLEGE, CHOWPATTY
Started in 28th Nov 2010, Nana Nani Park is the second Community Urban Farm initiated in
Mumbai city by the Urban Leaves Volunteers. The first being at Maharashtra Nature Park.
The project at the Nana Nani Park funded by the Nana Nani Foundation is aimed at
providing a green activity of composting organic waste, growing herbal, medicinal plants and
veggies. This activity is mainly for the senior citizen members of the park.

Based on the case studies, exisitng policies and through discussion, primarily four open
spaces have been shortlisted for design intervention.
7.1.1

SHIVAJI MAIDAN

An actively used open ground by all the residents. Activities keep changing throughout day.
In the morning it frequented by senior citizen for their walk, in the latter half of the day it is
used by the youth as a football and cricket ground. By night it becomes a public meeting
space of youth and elderly to sit, chat or walk.
Through discussions with the stakeholder certain issues pertaining to the open spaces were
also highlighted. Given below are a few:
Since the garden is used for playing (cricket and football) as well as by citizens for
walking and jogging, there have been few instances where in people were hurt by the
ball.
In the evening safety is a major concern in the maidan
There have been cases of vandalism of light poles and other equipment in the
maidan
In the above discussion it was understood that the main issue is that the maidan is visually
opaque and this leads to safety and vandalism issues. Thus, keeping in mind the multifaceted use of the space and issue faced by the citizens, it is advisable to do certain small
interventions.

7.1.1.1 Erecting safety nets between the play ground and joggers track
This is a simple action need to be taken. Erecting safety nets along the edge of the play
ground would ensure safety of the joggers. This could be as simple as nets erected for
cricket net practice.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

7.1.1.2 Edge design of the maidan


The main reason for safety issues and vandalism in the park is that the park is visually
opaque to the passerby. The park is located in the most busy area of the neighbourhood i.e.
near the railway station, taxi & auto stand and the market. However, since the edge of the
maidan is such that one cannot easily see the activities happening inside it. Thus a small
intervention like designing the edge of the park can resolve the issue.
Designing a park for safety is based on what is generally considered to be good design: it
meets the needs of its users; it is diverse and interesting; it connects people with place; and
it provides people with a positive image and experience. While good design will not
necessarily eliminate perceptions of fear or opportunities for crime to occur, it can create the
preconditions for effective control. The essence of the eyes on the street approach to
planning and design is to increase the opportunities for informal surveillance and reduce the
number of isolated places where crime can take place unseen.
Visibility is an important factor in enhancing park users feelings of comfort and security.
Perceptions of safety increase markedly if people can see ahead and around them, and if
other people are visible. Clear sightlines allows park users to ability to verify the presence of
persons which they might find threatening. The ability to see into and out of an area is
referred to as visual permeability. The presence of shrubbery, fences, walls, sharp corners,
storage sheds or buildings can hinder visibility and thus reduce perceived and actual safety.
Small neighbourhood and downtown parks usually feel more comfortable if a considerable
degree of openness is provided.
Regardless of park size, safety begins at the perimeter. If the perimeter is inviting and
people can observe pleasing activity from the street, they are more inclined to enter a park
(Whyte, 1981). An active and visible edge will encourage use and create a perimeter of
surveillance for the park. An active edge can also increase park accessibility to user groups
who may feel more vulnerable in the park interior and who are of lower mobility, such as
women, children, older adults and people with disabilities
Thus the following points need to be considered while redesigning the maidan edge:
Edges of the park should be open enough so that passersby can see into the park
and park users can see out
Nighttime activity nodes should be located so as to take advantage of existing street
lighting
Activity areas such as playing fields, tennis courts, playgrounds should be so located
that there are clear sightlines between areas to encourage surveillance
Solid walls, tool sheds or plantings that reduce visibility should be avoided along
primary routes
Seating areas along the edge should be such that they offer view on the inside and
outside of the park
Below Are few suggestive images:

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

7.1.2

OPEN PLOT AT TATA NAGAR

This is located within the mill workers settlement close to TATA nagar. Though not
developed the area is being used by the residents as open space like a small shed
(temporary) that has been built to act as newspaper stand and meeting point. One of the
local mandal has cleared and leveled certain portion and created a kabaddi ground. There
are few old abandoned vehicles dumped here and slight encroachments
Through consultations with an expert a design option has been created for the plot. Below
are the before and after images.
Existing Condition of vacant plot near TATA Nagar

103

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

7.1.3

MANORANJAN UDYAN

Situated in the midst of a densely populated area with average housing size less than 40 sq
meters and family size of more than 4-5 persons, the park provides the much needed open
space for the community. An array of activities can be seen here which reflect the lifestyle of
the people around it. On can see youth playing and chatting, the elders catching an
afternoon nap and women using it as a place to socialise as well as do household activities
like cleaning and drying grains.
Existing Condition of Manoranjan Udyan

Two design options have been made for Manoranjan Udyan.

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

106

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Neighbourhood Environmental Improvement Plan (NEIP)

7.1.4

HAWKERS ZONE AT VACANT PLOT BEHIND FISH MARKET

Presently lying vacant, this plot is reserved as an recreational space in Development Plan.
Recently informal market development has been noticed on this plot. In tune with the market
force, we are suggesting converting that plot into a hawkers zone so as to clear the presently
congested roads. In the evening the entire stretch from the railway station till the fish market
is congested due to heavy traffic and encroachment by hawkers. Thus the area needs a
demarcated hawkers space.
POLICY ON STREET VENDORS AND HAWKERS
To facilitate the improved access of infrastructure for hawkers and vendors the following
policy level intervention are possible
Under the street vendors (protection of livelihood and regulation of street vending) Act,
2014 every local authority shall, in consultation with the planning authority and on the
recommendations of the Town Vending Committee, once in every five years, prepare a
plan to promote the vocation of street vendors
The National Policy on urban street vendors of India, 2009 gives provision to plan for
street vending and shall identify vending zones as restriction-free-vending zones,
restricted vending zones and no-vending zones.
The National Policy on urban street vendors of India, 2009 has provision for providing
common civic amenities namely toilet, drinking water facilities and permission to use CFL
bulbs at the identified vending zones.
PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS
There has to be an integrated approach to support the street vendors. It would require
design interventions and planning innovations by the local implementing agency.
The main market on V.N.Purav Marg which is closed on Sunday can be made pedestrian to
organize Sunday market. The same market can be occupied by food stalls in the evening
along the Shivaji Park for the Sunday revelers to enjoy.
The existing market in Chunabhatti can be improved by providing infrastructural support
to the vendors like build platforms and storage space for which they can be charged
minimally.
Off-street identification of vending zone in-front of Shivaji Park and Manoranjan Udyan
particularly for those hawkers who sell eatables in the evening time.

Converting the space behind the existing fist market into a hawkers zone
CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY 1: Sunday Market, Bhopal
In Bhopal the Sunday market operates only on Sunday, when the roads are pedestrianized.
Paid parking is provided to support the market. There are no structures provided. The
Bhopal Municipal corporation collects 20/- per day from each vendor. Electricity is provided
separately through a private service provider for which they vendors have to pay 20/- per
day. The vendors are not licensed and sell at different locations on different days.
( Source: Inclusive Design for street vendors in India, Center for Urban equity& Cardiff University)

108

Locality with amenities

CASE STUDY 2: Saiyadpur Market


Saiyadpur market is primarily a meat market, catering to the local market. It also has a
vegetable market constructed by Surat Municipal corporation. SMC has provided the
vendors with platforms and constructed a semi-permanent tin roof over the whole market.
SMC collects 2-3/- per day for using the space and there is storage inside the market.
( Source: Inclusive Design for street vendors in India, Center for Urban equity& Cardiff University)

CaseStudy-3 Off-street Provision


Rajkot Municipal corporation designed an off-street market in the Laxminagar hawking zone.
They are mostly vegetable, fruit sellers and food hawkers who have been in this area from
last 40 years. They are not licenses, but vending is permissible for them in these areas
throughout the day. The vending area is demarcated by pathways of different colored floor
tiles and by different levels. Pay toilets are provided. Electricity is provided by a private
company via a battery with at a price of 40/- per day. The hawkers have to pay 25/- per day
to the Municipality and each vendor has to keep a dustbin failing which they are fined.
( Source: Inclusive Design for street vendors in India, Center for Urban equity& Cardiff University)

Present Condition of hawkers and street vending near Fish Market

109

The vacant plot seen behind the fish market in the plan sketch, can be converted into a
hawkers zone.

110

7.2 Creating public spaces in the process of redevelopment


The project area, as mention earlier once housed he Swadeshi Mill. It is now a defunct
property with most of its workers settled down in the project area. As the city is going
through the process of redevelopment and gentrification, Chunnabhatti ward 164 is no
different. The project area has already witnessed one redevelopment of the mill land and
more are to follow. The Shivaji maidan infact was created in the process. Thus the
redevelopment within the project area is an upcoming opportunity for the local administration
to create parcels of land for public use.
POLICY ON REDEVLEOPMENT OF MILL LANDS
According to the DCR 58, in the case of redevelopment, entire mill land (either open or after
demolition of existing structures) has to be distributed as follows:
One third to the BMC for open spaces.
One third to the MHADA for public housing.
The rest to be used by the owner/developer for commercial development.
Most of the private mills found the regulations of the DCR 58(1991) onerous and refused to
go that way. Modifications to the original DCR were sought and in 2001 the government
tabled an amendment to the DCR 58 (1991). According to the new rules, only the open land
on which there was no construction was to be distributed in the manner laid down in the
DCR 58(1991). As a result of this policy change, a number of defunct private mill owners
made a beeline to the civic authorities to have their plans for redevelopment passed and
approved.
PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS
As part of the redevelopment process, when the BMC shall get 1/3rd land for public use, it
should consider the needs of the local population while developing it.
As per the present condition, land is required for the following in the area:
Public square - this could house open areas/small park, hawkers zone and centre for
waste sorting.
As the area will develop, parking within and around the station areas is going to be
major concern, place needs to be appropriated for the same.

111

7.3 Redevelopment of the station area


Through discussion with commuters around the station area, major concerns were voiced on
the management and cleanliness of the station area. Many suggested that there is a need
for a ticketing counter on both sides of the station. Presently there is only one near Samarth
Nagar side of the station. Other issue raised was about the cleanliness of the station. The
toilets are usually unclean and there are inadequate dustbins due to which the tracks are
littered. Further around the station area there are issues of parking for local commuters as
well as space for taxi and auto stands is inadequate.
As part of the project, we are suggesting that the entire station area needs to be redesigned
to accommodate ticket counters, toilets and parking facilities. With the new ROB proposed to
be constructed in the DP at the railway phatak, it can be treated as an opportunity to
redesign the entire station area.
The local administration i.e. the Corporator needs to take up these issues with the Local
Body, PWD and Railway authorities.

112

7.4 Promoting pedestrianisation


EXISTING POLICY ON TRANSPORTATION

The National Urban Transport Policy, 2014 emphasizes that Non-Motorized transport
system, should be encouraged namely, walking, cycle and rickshaw since they are green
modes of transport and belong to low carbon foot-print.
The Government of India as part of its mandate supports construction of safe pedestrian
crossings and cycle tracks. The planning and implementation of the same can be
possible by active participation of the Municipality and local support by the commuters
themselves
PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS

Creating pedestrian zones


CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY 1: COPENHAGEN - PEDESTRIAN CITY


Copenhagen is one of the worlds great pedestrian cities. Although its blessed with certain
inherited characteristics - such as a narrow medieval street grid - the city has worked
steadily to improve the quality of its street life. In the 40 years since Copenhagens main
street was turned into a pedestrian thoroughfare, city planners have taken numerous small
steps to transform the city from a car-oriented place to a people-friendly one. The city
adopted a 10 step program to implement the plan.
Copenhagens 10-step program
Convert streets into pedestrian thoroughfares
Reduce traffic and parking gradually
Turn parking lots into public squares
Keep scale dense and low
Honor the human scale
Populate the core
Encourage student living
Adapt the cityscape to changing seasons
Promote cycling as a major mode of transportation
Make bicycles available

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7.5 Mobilizing citizens into neighbourhood activities


Mobilizing the citizens of the neighbourhood to take active role in the maintenance and
upkeep of the area, help in instilling a sense of ownership amongst the people. This has
been tried and tested in few areas/cities/countries and has proved to be very successful.
School children and senior citizens can be major agents of change. Giv

PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS
School children as agent of change.
Events and programs to bring the local community together
Programs across the public space to bring in a sense of place among the community
On the spot fixing and clean up drives
CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY 1: MUMBAI NGO ADOPTS KING CIRCLE STATION


School children under the initiative of Swach Bharat Abhyan came together to paint King
Circle station and clean its surrounding area to make the station clean, safe and welcoming.
On 17th January around 44 children painted the outer wall of King Circle station. The colorful
painting has social message and keeps the wall spit-free.

ASE STUDY 2: ONE MATUNGA A MONTHLY EVENT TO BUILD TEAM SPIRIT


AMONG THE LOCALS.
A ten member group has come up with the idea of bringing children and parents out of their
home to enjoy games which were played by the earlier generations and to make new friends
in the neighborhood of Matunga. The events have different programs every time it is
organized. It not only includes fun games but medical checkups for elderly also.

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CASE STUDY 3: EQUAL STREET, MUMBAI


It is a citizens movement that is aimed at correcting the imbalance in how our roads are
used. Equal Streets, Mumbais open streets citizens movement, was launched yesterday by
EMBARQ India, the Mumbai Police, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai with
support from the Times of India. Over 15,000 people came out of their homes at 7 am on
Sunday morning to take back the streets. The 6.5 km loop on SV Road, Linking Road and a
part of Juhu Road saw a range of activities including yoga, aerobics, cross-fit, Zumba and
cycling. Many resident welfare association and NGO were also part of the initiative. The
objective is to provide walking and cycling tracks throughout all neighborhoods in the city.

CASE STUDY 4: The Ugly Indian


The Ugly Indians (TUI) are an anonymous group of motivated volunteers who clean Indian
streets. TUI calls cleaning the street "Spot-fixing". TUI chooses small segments of road each
week to clean: pavements piled up with plastic, defaced walls, footpaths rendered unusable
by potholes as spot-fixing places. All tools, materials and instructions are provided on the
spot. All spot fixes are self-funded and volunteers are requested to make a contribution
towards material costs.

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CASE STUDY 5: NEIGHBORHOODS OF FINDIKLI AND CIHANGIR IN ISTANBUL


A retired forestry engineer named Huseyin Cetinel decided to spruce up the neighborhoods
of Findikli and Cihangir in Istanbul, devoting four days and $800 dollars to redecorate a
massive staircase in rainbow hues. The local community fell in love with the newly adorned
pedestrian passageway, tweeting up a storm of praise for the beautification project. Tourists
flocked to the impromptu artwork.
Yet on August 30, citizens of Findikli and Cihangir woke up to an upsetting surprise when the
government painted over Cetinel's painted rainbow with a dull gray. In an act of multicolored
defiance, residents joined forces on Twitter and repainted the steps to the height of their
rainbow-bright glory. Residents of other nearby neighborhoods joined in as well, adding a
colorful flair to their local staircases.

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117

7.6 City Engage - An application for community engagement


Through this project, we are proposing the creation of a mobile application which can help
the local body in monitoring and updating status of work that is taking place in the ward. The
app can be downloaded by the various stakeholders on the mobile and it can be used to
raise concerns, register complains and see status of work happening in the ward. It can
serve as a stage for communication between the ward Corporator and citizens.

7.7 Node developments


During the survey of the area, it was observed that there are a few small pockets, corners ,
tree perches etc which have potential to be developed as street nodes. Here the intervention
is not huge, but small changes like cleaning up the surrounding and make seating space is
all it needs. One example of the corner and possible intervention is shown below.

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7.8 Creating a sustainable waste management systems


In the solid waste management sector, there are presently various actors/players/workers
i.e. the waste creators (i.e. the residents, commercial establishments, hawkers etc), the
waste collectors i.e. the jhaduwalas who collect waste at the household level, the rag picker
or segregators and the BMC Safai Kamgar (i.e. the cleaners) who collect the waste and take
it to the dumping grounds and last but not the least the kabadiwalas who source waste from
the above to sell in the scrap market.
To make the entire system of waste management sustainable, each actor/player has a role
in it.
Actor/player

Role and responsibility

Possible intervention

Waste creators

Segregation of waste at
source

Create urban farms within the


neighbourhood to promote composting

Recycling waste at home


to whatever extent
possible

Conduct workshops within the


neighbourhood on composting and
home/terrace gardening.

Ensure biodegradable
waste is disposed
ethically
Jhaduwalas and
ragpickers

Kabadiwalas

After the waste creators,


they are next segregators
of waste.

Create storage facility for scrap storage,


so that it can be sold in bulk for better
profits

Once segregated they


have to ensure the scrap
is stored and disposed
ethically

Training can be imparted to the rag


pickers to treat the scrap ethically and
reuse it (case study given below)

These serve the purpose


of collectors of nondegradable waste. These
are usually small shops
wherein once can sell old
newspapers, plastic,
cardboard, metal, glass or

The local kabadiwala and rag pickers


cooperatives are the forward and
backward linkages of the SWM system.

The hawkers and waste managers need


to be brought into the formal sector.
They can be formed into Self Help
Groups and introduced to Micro Credit
System. Vocational trainings such as
gardening, composting, sewing etc. can
also be taught to the women rag pickers
and waste managers

The kabadiwalas can be part of the


cooperative and help in getting the best
price for the crap
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thermacol. They further


segregate the waste
material wise and sell it to
scrap dealers.

POLICY INTERVENTIONS
3Rs - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle should be made mandatory and residents should be
encouraged for the same. Extensive capacity building of the residents, shop keepers, rag
pickers and waste managers is necessary. Involvement of the Residents Welfare
Associations (RWAs), schools and institutions is required for encouraging neighborhood
participation. Chunabhatti has very active social groups comprising of people from varied
age groups. Support of such groups should also be taken for knowledge dissemination.
The local Corporator needs to allocate budget for the above activities.
The open grounds and gardens within the area should be used for organizing activities
such as street plays, drawing competitions and dramas amongst students on themes of
energy conservation and sustainable livelihood. This would further encourage community
participation and knowledge dissemination. Leaflets and pamphlets should also be
distributed in the neighborhood.
The shopkeepers and hawkers should ban the use of plastic below 50 microns within the
neighborhood.
The hawkers and waste managers need to be brought into the formal sector. They can
be formed into Self Help Groups and introduced to Micro Credit System. Vocational
trainings such as gardening, composting, sewing etc. can also be taught to the women
rag pickers and waste managers.
PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS
Solid Waste Management
Unlike the wet waste which can be composted, the dry waste can be recycled and reused.
The area has an active informal chain of rag pickers and waste managers who can be
encouraged to undertake sustainable management of waste through capacity building and
awareness generation.
Presently very few households indulge in the practice of segregation of waste. Sustainable
production and consumption of materials can be encouraged and disposal of waste can be
done in an improved scientific way by undertaking capacity building both for the residents
and the waste managers. Segregation of waste can be done by placing green bag for
collecting organic and bio-degradable wastes, black bag for recyclable or non-bio-gradable
wastes and red bag for domestic hazardous wastes.
The organic waste collected can be composted and used as manure for gardens, both at
residential and community levels. Chunabhatti has open maidans and gardens where such
activities can be initiated. Compost pits do not require much area and can also be
constructed within individual apartments. Biogas plant can be set up within the
neighborhood. The gas generated can be used for cooking purposes in the houses where
piped gas supply has not yet reached. Provisions for decentralized material recovery centers
need to be developed according to the space availability.
The waste managers working within the neighborhood have shown an active interest
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towards segregation of waste and its sustainable management. It is very important to bring
this informal and unorganized sector of rag pickers and kabadiwalas into an organized
formal setup.
Few NGOs which work in this field are listed below:
Chintan
Environmental
Research
and
(http://www.chintan-india.org/)

Action

Group,

New

Delhi

Chintan works in partnership with diverse sections and groups such as waste pickers, junk
dealers, itinerant buyers and reprocessors for improved disposal of waste. They have started
a program called 'Green Jobs' where they provide job security and dignity for the waste
pickers.
SWaCH, Pune (http://www.swachcoop.com/about-swachpune.html)
'Solid Waste Collection and Handling' or SWaCH Seva Sahakari Sanstha Maryadit, Pune is
a cooperative of waste pickers and waste managers in Pune. Authorized by PMC it provides
door to door collection and other allied scientific waste management services.
KKPKP, Pune
KKPKP or 'Kagad Kach Patra Kashtakari Panchayat' is a trade union of waste pickers and
scrap buyers in Pune. Apart from working in the field of sustainable waste management, it
has pioneered in bringing this unorganized set up into the formal system of governance.
KKPKP has spearheaded the struggle for recognition of scrape collectors as "workers" and
scrap collection as "work" by the Municipalities and later the State Government.
Stree Mukti Sanghatna(streemuktisanghatana.org/)
Based in Mumbai this organization has aims to recycle waste and create zero-waste cities. It
works closely with self-employed women waste pickers whom it has empowered to resist
exploitation. Besides training these women in composting, bio-methanation, micro-saving
and leadership skills, the NGO has also helped many women find alternative employment.
Triratna Prerana Mandal (http://www.triratnaindia.org/main/home.html)
A socio-humanitarian, service oriented, non-profit organization based in Mumbai. It has been
working for the sustainable development of under-privileged sections of the society including
rag pickers and waste managers.
CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY 1: SWaCH and Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) collaborative
partnership for solid waste management in Pune city.
Launched in 2005-06, 2300 waste pickers are now members of SWaCH and provide doorto-door waste collection, housekeeping, facility management and local waste processing
services to more than 4 Lakh households and several institutions in the city. Segregation of
waste is done at source by the residents. The monitoring of the same is done by PMC. The
waste collectors sort the dry waste in sorting sheds provided by PMC or in areas designated
by RWAs and retrieve recyclables such as paper, glass and plastic. They retain the income
from the sale of this material. The wet waste and non-recyclable dry waste is handed over to
PMCs collection vehicles at designated spots. SWaCH makes alternate arrangements in
case of absence of a waste collector. Under the MoU, PMC has also authorized SWaCH to
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enter into private service contracts with housing societies, institutions and corporate offices
for waste collection, on-site waste processing a well as housekeeping and facility
management services. To encourage citizens to treat waste at source, PMC provides a
rebate of 5% on property tax to societies, institutes and commercial establishments who
compost on site.

CASE STUDY 2: Solid Waste Management by Chintan Environmental Action Group,


New Delhi
One of the pioneer programmes of this NGO is 'Low Carbon Future'. As a part of this
programme
the organization works with bulk waste producers - hotels, offices, malls and railway stations
to reduce their wastage. The collected waste is recycled. Awareness programmes are
organized by Chintan amongst the staff of the institutions and waste audits are conducted on
regular basis.
Chintan also provides door to door collection of waste from 60,000 residences and shop
owners. Apart from waste management, it also helps in setting up of composting plants and
provides capacity building on the same. It has started a programme called 'Green Jobs'
where it provides job security and dignity for the waste pickers.
CASE STUDY 3:Training programmes for waste managers by Stree Mukti Sanghatana,
Mumbai
This NGO is working towards liberation of the women waste managers by providing them
livelihood and self respect within the society. It provides training programmes to the women
workers on sustainable methods of waste management. It has helped them from micro credit
groups. It also provides them training in alternative vocational skills such as gardening,
vermiculture and bio-methanation etc. Apart from capacity building, it also participates
actively in on-site waste processing and composting. It has constructed its training centre at
Koparkhairane in 2015. The building is an exhibition centre in itself with facilities like bio gas
plant, composting pit and rain water harvesting structures. The NGO also provides training
programmes to school children and colleges to promote recycling.

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7.9 Other interventions to promote sustainable environmental


practices
POLICY ON CLIMATE CHANGE
EXISTING POLICIES
National Action Plan on Climate Change identifies the following eight missions:
- National Solar Mission: It promotes the use of solar energy for power generation.
- National Water Mission: Emphasizes on improvement of water use efficiency.
- National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency: Provides energy incentives and
reduces taxes on energy efficient appliances.
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: Has laid emphasis on urban waste
management and recycling. It also provides incentives for the use of public
transport.
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: Emphasis on
conservation of ecosystem in the Himalayan region.
- National Mission for a Green India": Afforestation of degraded forest land.
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: Aims at developing climate resilient
crops.
- National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: the plan envisions a
new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased
international collaboration
National Environment Policy, 2006
- Promotes the concept of 'Polluters Pay'.
- It also advocates mandating the installation of water saving closets and taps in the
building bye-laws of urban centres, and other available regulatory mechanisms.
- The policy mandates rain water harvesting and recharge in all new constructions in
urban areas.
- Revival of traditional water ponds.
- Promotes low pollution mass transport systems.
National Water Policy 2002 stresses on traditional water conservation practices like roof
top rainwater harvesting.
National Urban Transport Policy, 2006 lays emphasis on the use of public transport and
non motorized modes by offering central financial assistance for developing
infrastructure. It intends to increase the public transport trips to promote efficient
movement.
The urban street vendors of India, 2009 Act has provision for common civic amenities
namely toilet, drinking water facilities and permission to use CFL bulbs near the area
allocated for street vendors.
The Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2002 mandates a
comprehensive policy and responsibility of door to door waste collection and educate its
citizens about segregation of waste.
National Urban Sanitation Policy, 2008 aims at providing 100% sanitation access to
different socio-economic groups. It also strongly promotes decentralized waste water
treatment technologies.
PROPOSED POLICY INTERVENTIONS
3Rs - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle should be made mandatory and residents should be
encouraged for the same. Extensive capacity building of the residents, shop keepers, rag
pickers and waste managers is necessary. Involvement of the Residents Welfare
Associations (RWAs), schools and institutions is required for encouraging neighborhood
participation. Chunabhatti has very active social groups comprising of people from varied
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age groups. Support of such groups should also be taken for knowledge dissemination.
The local Corporator needs to allocate budget for the above activities.
The open grounds and gardens within the area should be used for organizing activities
such as street plays, drawing competitions and dramas amongst students on themes of
energy conservation and sustainable livelihood. This would further encourage community
participation and knowledge dissemination. Leaflets and pamphlets should also be
distributed in the neighborhood.
The shopkeepers and hawkers should ban the use of plastic below 50 microns within the
neighborhood.
Use of CFLs and BEE star rated appliances should be encouraged. The shopkeepers
should provide incentives on the purchase of the same. The Corporator should allocate
budget for providing incentives to the residents.
Rainwater harvesting should be encouraged amongst the residents. Capacity building
should be done on the same.
Awareness should be spread amongst the slum dwellers against open defecation. The
Corporator should provide funding for the operation and maintenance of the public
toilets.
The hawkers and waste managers need to be brought into the formal sector. They can
be formed into Self Help Groups and introduced to Micro Credit System. Vocational
trainings such as gardening, composting, sewing etc. can also be taught to the women
rag pickers and waste managers.
As the people residing in the apartments depend on private transport for their daily
commute, stress should be laid on car pooling. Parking areas should be charged by the
RWAs. The RWAs should allocate only one parking space per family and fine should be
imposed for parking on the roads.
Pollution control tests on a periodic basis should be made mandatory by the RWAs for
the privately owned vehicles.
Events such as cycle marathons should be encouraged by the RWAs and social groups
amongst the residents to encourage cycling which is an energy efficient mode of
transportation.
The Corporator should work towards providing piped gas lines tothe residents. Bio gas
plant if constructed at a community level can produce gas which can be used for cooking
purposes in the houses where piped supply has not reached.
PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS

WATER CONSERVATION

With the increase in erratic water supply by the municipal corporations, there has been a
strong dependency on ground water resources. With the fast depleting natural resources
and rapid urbanization there has arisen a strong need for water conservation.
Water conservation can be done through Rain Water Harvesting' and 'Recycle and Reuse' of
water. The residents should be encouraged to undertake roof top rain water harvesting. Rain
water is the purest form of water. Once harvested it can be filtered and stored in storage
tanks and used for potable as well as non potable purposes depending upon the level of
filtration. The resident living in apartments and chawls can be encouraged to undertake
community level rain water harvesting in accordance to the space available.
The used water from the kitchens (grey
collected and treated in decentralized
technologies and designs available for
should be adopted depending upon the

water) and the bath rooms (black water) can be


natural treatment systems. There are various
waste water treatment. Appropriate technology
space availability. The system can function at a
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community level and the treated water can be used for non - potable purposes like car
washing, floor mopping, gardening etc. Qureshi Nagar Slum within Chunabhatti
neighborhood does not have drainage networks. A decentralized natural treatment system is
a necessity in such conditions.
As rain water harvesting and decentralized waste water treatment structures need
maintenance, it is necessary to encourage the residents to undertake the same. Adequate
capacity building also needs to be provided.
Few NGOs and institutions which work in this field are listed below:
Centre
for
Urban
and
Regional
Excellence,
(http://www.cureindia.org/index.php)

Delhi

CURE India organizes and empowers low income communities, especially woman and
young people in urban areas, to access water supply and sanitation
Mumbai and NEERI
Premier institutions such as IIT Mumbai and NEERI have done research in the sector of
Rainwater Harvesting and Decentralized Treatment of Waste Water. IIT Kanpur has
developed 'Zero Discharge Toilets' which can be installed in places where there is lack of
sanitation and drainage facilities. Quereshi Nagar Slum where there exists a problem of
sanitation and drainage can benefit from such technology.
Shrishti Eco Research Institute, Pune (http://www.seriecotech.com/)
SERI works for the ecological restoration of polluted lakes and streams in the country. Based
in Pune, it has developed tailor made technologies for the treatment of waste water.
Consortium
for
DEWATS
Dissemination
Society
(CDD),
Bengaluru
(http://www.cddindia.org/)
CDD is an NGO working towards overcoming the existing sanitation challenges in India.
Based in Bengaluru it is presently involved in developing micro and macro level waste water
treatment systems. It is also involved in extensive capacity building programmes on
'Decentralised Treatment of Water'.
Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi (www.cseindia.org)
CSE is a research and advocacy organization working in the field of environment. As a part
of its overall objectives the organization has been doing research in the field of rain water
harvesting and decentralized waste water treatment systems. CSE has developed model
projects across the country in both the sectors. It is also involved in extensive capacity
building programmes on water conservation.
Triratna Prerana Mandal(http://www.triratnaindia.org/main/home.html)
A socio-humanitarian, service oriented, non-profit organization based in Mumbai. As a part of
its objectives it has been working in the sectors of decentralized waste water treatment and
rain water harvesting.

USE OF ENERGY EFFICIENT FIXTURES

Energy efficient fixtures such as CFLs and BEE star rated lighting fixtures should be used by
the residents and shop keepers. Use of solar water heaters should also be encouraged.
Adequate capacity building is required amongst the residents for the same. To encourage
neighborhood participation the schools, institutions, active social groups and 'Residents
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Welfare Association' can also be approached.Premier institutions such as IIT, IGBC, CII and
TERI have been providing capacity building on the same.

EMPHASIS ON THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

There is a need for knowledge dissemination amongst the residents on the importance of
public transport such as trains, auto rickshaws and buses. Emphasis should be given on car
pooling also. Awareness generation programmes can be organized in collaboration with the
Resident's Welfare Associations, schools, institutions and social groups. Events such as
cycle marathons should be introduced amongst the residents to encourage cycling which is
an energy efficient mode of transportation.
Cyclist. in is an NGO which arranges 'cyclothon events' across Mumbai to encourage
pollution free and healthy mode of transport. (http://cyclists.in/#)

USE OF ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FUEL FOR COOKING AND HEATING


PURPOSES

LPG has higher carbon emission than Piped Natural Gas (PNG). However LPG is widely
used by the residents as piped gas supply is restricted to the apartments only. Bio gas plant
if constructed at a community level can produce gas which can be used for cooking
purposes in the houses where piped supply has not reached.
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed the Nisargruna Bio Gas Plant
which can treat any form of biodegradable waste including kitchen waste. The system
completely digests the waste in 19 20 days and the gas generated can be used for
cooking and heating purposes. The gas produced is odor free and environment friendly.
CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY 1:Water conservation and Rain Water Harvesting by Triratna Prerana
Mandal, Mumbai
The NGO has set up Vermi Composting boxes in various societies. The boxes are in the
form of trolleys which can be shifted from one place to another. They are also planning to set
up a Bio - Gas Plant for all the wet waste.

Triratna Prerana Mandalhas also set up Rain Water Harvesting Plant in the play ground of
Khotwadi. The water harvested is used for sanitation purposes. The tank has 30,000 litres of
water available on a daily basis during monsoons. It has also been organizing workshops on
water conservation.

CASE STUDY 2:Zero Discharge Toilets by Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur.
The toilets have been installed at a residence in Krishna Dham in Aligarh.The toilets installed
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are the conventional structures but the collection and processing of the waste generated is
different from the conventional systems. A separator is fitted below the toilet seat where it
separates the solids (faecal matter) and the liquid (urine and water used for flushing). This
separator allows formation of a thin water film that sticks to the surface of the separator and
flow in outward direction whereas the solids in the form of slurry, is collected separately.
Three tanks of different capacities are installed to collect grey water, urine and flushed water
and solids/slurry. The wastewater from the two tanks containing grey water and urine/flushed
water is treated through planted filter bed and reused for gardening and flushing. The slurry
is removed from the tank and transferred to a composting plant located nearby. This system
can easily be maintained by the community and requires no motor driven services.
Design Capacity :1.5 KLD
Capital Cost: Rs 40,000- Rs 50,000/- additional to the conventional toilet system
Operation and Maintenance: Rs 5000/- month which includes slurry transportation and
supervision.
CASE STUDY 3:Decentralised Waste Water Treatment System at Kachpura Village in
Agra by Centre for Urban and Regional Excellence (CURE), Delhi.
The system treats approximately 50 KLD of the
total wastewater which it receives from 5 clusters
of slums through a common drain. The system
comprises of screen chamber which prevents the
solid waste entering into the system. The
wastewater then enters into three chambered
septic tank. After primary treatment, it goes to nine
chambered baffled anaerobic reactor which is
filled with gravels. After secondary treatment the
wastewater goes to planted filter bed for root zone treatment. The bed is filled with three
different types of filter media (white river pebbles, red stones and gravels) and planted
with Canna indica. The treated wastewater is reused for horticulture and irrigation purpose
by the local community of Kachpura.
BOD reduction: 61%
COD reduction: 64%
TDS reduction: 94%
CASE STUDY 4: Soil Scrape Filter Unit for Treating Waste Water at residence by SERI,
Pune
Done at a residential level in 2009, the treated waste water from bathroom, kitchen and
laundry has been reused for gardening purposes.
The grey water is first collected in the collection sump. It is further sprinkled on the filtering
tank planted with Canna indica and filled with ecofert material, sand, small stones and dried
leaves. The filtered water is collected in a tank from where it is lifted using bicycle operated
pump and reused for gardening. The system receives about 250-300 litres of water per day.
Gambusia fish in the storage sump keeps a check on the quality of the treated wastewater.
Design Capacity: 1KLD
Capital cost : Rs 18000-20000
O&M: Rs 1800-2000 per year

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CASE STUDY 5: Rainwater Harvesting at Surya Vihar Apartments by CSE, New Delhi
The society is dependent on borewells for its daily water requirement. Rainwater from the
roof top (surface area: 44,029square metres) is collected. This water is harvested by
constructing nine percolation pits within the storm drain or diverting water to nearby recharge
wells at strategic locations. These pits are also provided with a recharge bore of 150 mm
diameter and 10 m depth to facilitate the recharging of water into the subsoil strata. The
surface runoff is also captures, filtered and recharged further.

128

8 OUTCOMES OF THE PROJECT


8.1 Knowledge Dissemination
Dissemination of knowledge: one of the priorities of this exercise was to not only include
various groups from the community to develop a comprehensive study but to also work
along with students for the purpose of dissemination of knowledge gained and skills
developed in this process. At each stage students were made part of the study which
brought in new ideas from the youngsters too.
Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute for Architecture and Environmental Studies:
the team for the initial reconnaissance study had two students from the third
semester as a part of its team. The students were basically trained and oriented
towards doing an area study whose outputs could be meaningfully used in creating
the neighborhood development plan. In the third stage to other students from the
college were involved in developing sketches of the various sites in the
neighborhood.

The Corporator felicitating the student from KRVIA for


being part of the project

Me2Green and Management students of Institute of Technology and


Management: there were ten students who along with Me2Green NGO who had
volunteered to be part of our working team during the summer internship. These
students were part of the MBA program and it was first such experience for them to
be part of such a study. They were trained in how to do socio-economic survey, case
study and conduct focus group discussions. Later these students were also trained in
qualitative and quantitative data analysis which helped in developing the study further
in the second and the third stage.

129

Debriefing the IITM team on site

BMN College, SNDT: students were from this college helped us in bio-diversity
mapping of the neighborhood. Before that our core team had conducted presentation
with the students on climate change and solid waste management.

Viva, Virar: two students from the first year and two students from the third year
college of architecture were part of the team in the third and the fourth stage of the
project. They helped us in developing the maps and were trained in GIS map making
130

as well as ground-truthing of the same. For them it was first of its kind experience
when they were working outside any academic project. They also made sketches of
various sites and were continuously mentored by the team to develop a good quality
of working.

8.2 Empowering the Corporator


Training the Corporator and the community to think in terms of community planning. The
neighborhood community planning includes the community for which it is meant for and
at the same time needs continuous support and faith from the elected local government
so as to make the exercise more meaningful. Right from the inception of the project a
conscious effort was made to keep along the local Corporator and his team so that they
are able to understand each components, its relevance and importance in developing
future plans and outlays for the locality. The team at each stage would take the maps
developed or the data analyzed and sit with the Corporator so as to make him aware of
various tools and methodologies of area planning.

131

9 ANNEXURE:
9.1 QUESTIONNAIRES
9.1.1

RESIDENTS SURVEY FORM

Name of the surveyor


Unique ID

RSF__________

Date

General information
Name of
resident

the

Detailed address
Per
month
income of the
household
(in
INR)

<5000

5000-10000

10001-20000

Religion details

Hindu

Muslim

Sikh

20001-50000

Christian

Jain

>50000

Buddhism

Caste
Household size
School
children

Non Workers
Type
tenement
Area
house

of

How long have you been residing here?

of
the

Ownership
details

Apartment

Senior citizens
Chawl/
Tenement

Slum

______________ sq.ft

Own

Rented

Years
Others

Maintenance charges:
Property tax:

Leased

What is the rent/lease period and


amount?
_________years
_____________per month

Electricity/Power
Which company supplies you power?
What is your monthly electricity bill:

<200

20-500

Do you use environmentally friendly


lighting

CFL

LED

Do you use any alternate source of

Yes

501-1000

1001-1500

>1500

No

132

energy
If
yes
what?

Solar water heater

Solar lamps

Sewerage and sanitation


Inside
house

Toilet facilities
Do you have
connection

the

sewerage

Common Toilet

Yes

Public

Open defecation

Toilet

If No, then how is


sewage disposed

No

Payment for public toilet: _____________________


Condition of public
toilets

Clean

Unclean

Solid Waste Management


Who collects waste from your
house
Do you segregate waste?

Jhaduwala

Yes

the

Discarded
in the open

Approximately how much waste is generated


per day

No

How much do you pay per month


for waste collection

Discarded in
communitybin

Ghantagadi

Kitchen waste

1/4bin

1/2 bin

1
bin

other

1/4bin

1/2bin

1
bin

------- (INR)

Fuel Usage
What
cooking
fuel
do
you use?
Amount
used

LPG

Piped gas

Kerosene

Solar cooker

Wood/coal

Microw
ave/
OTG/in
duction

No. of
cylinder

Monthly bill

Lts per week

Hours/day

No of
times/week

Hours/
day

One per
month

<500

<10 lts

Once a
week

<1/2
hour

One per
2 months

500-1000

10-15 lts

2-3 week

1/2
hour
1 hour

One per
3 months

>1000

>15 lts

Daily

>1
hour

Water
What are your
sources of water

Municipal
Supply

Bore well

Tanker

Public taps

Bottled
water

Hours

________hr

___________hrs

_____/week

_______buckets

________

of

133

supply/amount

_/week

What is your monthly expenditure on


water?
Commuting
Daily commuting pattern (work, school, daily needs)
Member

Example

Origin

Chembu
r

Destination

Chunabhatti

Distance

Purpose

Modes used

Time
taken

Money
spent

3km

Work /school/
shopping/
tutions/recrea
tion

Train/auto/
walk/bus/
taxi/car/2
wheeler/
metro/monorail

10min

15

Commuting for recreation/vacation


What mode of travel do you
use?

Train

Car

Flight

Bus

Walk

How often in a year


How much do you spend

134

How many
location

kilometers

Disaster vulnerability
Have you faced any of the following disasters?
Loss
property

When and how

to

Loss to
life

Loss to livelihood

Flooding

Landslide

Fire

Theft

Accidents
Health issues due to
environmental hazards
Environmental practices and issues
Do you harvest rainwater?

Yes

No

If yes, for what purpose is it used?


Do you give newspaper/bottles/plastic items to the
kabadiwala?

Yes

No

Do you do any sort of gardening activities

Yes

No

If yes, do you use kitchen waste for gardening?

Yes

No

Do u face any
neighbourhood

environmental

issues

in

your

Yes

If
yes,
weight
in..kgs

No

If yes, list and describe them

(Example: burning smell, vehicular smoke, flooding, waste littering,


unhygienic toilets and open space etc.)

Issue

Description

135

What are your aspirations for the area in terms of:


Water supply and drainage

Solid waste management


Open
spaces
and
greening/recreational activity
Safety
Development/
redevelopment
Environmental Management

Monitoring and evaluation


How often have you interacted with the ward
councilor and /or MCGM
Have your issues been resolved? If yes how long did
it take?
Are you aware of the developmental work in your
ward?

Yes

No

What developmental project have


been
completed
or
being
undertaken in your ward
What
is
your
information?

source

of

Newspaper

Internet

Word
mouth

of

Informed
by
administrative

the

136

authorities
Are you willing to participate if a community planning
exercise is undertaken in your ward?

Yes

No

How would you like to contribute


towards
improving
your
neighbourhood?

9.1.2

SHOPS & ESTABLISHMENTS SURVEY FORM

(To be used for interviewing vendors sitting on the street to sell vegetables, fruits, fish, food stalls,
plastic and household items, clothes, jewellery, coconut seller)
Name of the surveyor
Unique ID

ESF__________

Date

General Information
Name of the Shop
Detail location
Type of product/ service sold:
Timings

Size

Ownership: Owned/ Reneted/Leased

________sq.ft

Operating since when?

Years

Monthly income(Rs.)
What
are
your
monthly
outgoings
(Rs.):

Commute
for work

Salary of
employee
s

Water

How
customers
get daily

From which areas do


you get customers
Commute pattern

Rent

From

Where

Mode used

do

Electric
ity

Tax

Total

many
you
How many time a
week

Money
spent

Home to work place


Work place to home
For raw material
1
2

137

3
4

Public Infrastructure and Amenities used/ needed:


Infrastructure/
Amenities

Availability/source

Charges

Issues/Remarks

Availability/source

Charges

Issues/Remarks

Water supply /
Waste Disposal
Toilets
Power
Open Space /Garden
Infrastructure/
Amenities
Parking (own vehicle/
loading
/De-loading
Materials)
Any Other
Library etc)

(Hospital/

Do you use the open space/public spaces within the ward to rest in the afternoon

How will the redevelopment process and road widening project affect your business

Solid waste management


What type of waste is
generated (list it)
Amount
generated

of

Biodegradable

Non biodegradable

Do you segregate the


waste
Yes

No

waste

How do you discard it?


Where do you discard it?

138

How will the redevelopment process and road


widening project affect your business

Monitoring and evaluation


How often have you interacted with the ward
councilor and/or MCGM
Have your issues been resolved? If yes how long
did it take?
Are you aware of the developmental work in your
ward?

Yes

No

What developmental project have been completed


or being undertaken in your ward

What is your source of information?

Newspaper

Are you willing to participate if a community


planning exercise is undertaken in your ward?

Internet

Yes

Word
mouth

of

Informed
by
administrative
authorities

the

No

How would you like to contribute


towards
improving
your
neighbourhood?

139

9.1.3

COMMUTERS SURVEY FORM

Name of the surveyor


Unique ID

CSF__________

Train

Type of commuter

What
is
destination

your

Date

origin

and

What are the different modes of


commute you have used to reach
here

Auto

Taxi

Bus

Origin:___________________
Destination:_______________________

Walk

Train

Train

Bus

Auto

Taxi

Auto

Bus

Taxi

What is your daily travel expense


per mode?

****Only for railway commuters:


What are the issues and suggestions on the following at the chunabhatti station:
Issues

Suggestions

Ticketing system

Public toilets

Cleanliness at the station

Safety of commuters

Getting
autos/buses/taxis
further travel

for

Others

140

9.1.4

HAWKERS SURVEY FORM

(To be used for interviewing vendors sitting on the street to sell vegetables, fruits, fish, food stalls,
plastic and household items, clothes, jewellery, coconut seller)
Name of the surveyor
Unique ID

HSF__________

Date

General Information
Name of the Hawker
Detail location
Type of product

Approximate monthly income

Hawking timings

How long have you been


hawking here?

Years

From which areas


do
you
get
customers

What is the rent/lease/hafta paid per


month?

How
any
customers do you
get daily

_____________per month

Commute pattern

From

Where

Mode used

How many time a


week

Money spent

Home to work place


Work place to home
For raw material
1
2
3
4
5

141

Infrastructure facilities:
Infrastructure

Availability/source

Charges

Issues/Remarks

Water supply
Toilets
Power
Hawkers
zone/permanent place
Storage space
Solid waste management
What type of
generated (list it)

waste

is

Do you segregate the


waste
Biodegradable

Non biodegradable

Yes

No

Amount of waste generated


How do you discard it?
Where do you discard it?

Do you use the open space/public spaces within the


ward to rest in the afternoon

What according to you will be an ideal areas for a


dedicated hawkers zone within the ward

What sort of facilities would you like if such a zone is


provided
Are you ready to pay monthly charges for it?

Yes

No

How will the redevelopment process and road


widening project affect your business

Monitoring and evaluation


How often do you/have you interacted with the ward

142

councilor and MCGM


Have your issued been resolved? If yes how long did
it take?
Are you aware of the developmental work in your
ward?
What
is
your
information?

source

of

Newspaper

Yes

Internet

Are you willing to participate if a community planning


exercise is undertaken?

Yes

No
Word
mouth

of

Informed
by
administrative
authorities

the

No

How can you contribute in this


process?

143

9.1.5

KABBADIWALA SURVEY FORM

(To be used for interviewing electrician, mochi, clothes alteration)


Name of the surveyor
Unique ID

WMSF__________

Date

General Information
Name of the establishment

Location

Residential location
Size
of
__________sq.ft

establishment:

Operating since when:


Is it a registered
Establishment?

Ownership: Owned/ Rented No. People employed:

Shop

&

What sort of Waste Streams?

Paper

Cardboard

Plastic

Glass

Electronics

Metal

Wood

Rubber

Any Other:
What is your monthly income

Rs.

What are yourmonthlyoutgoings


(Rs.):

Commute
for work

Rent

Salary of
employees

Water

Electricity

Tax

(Add Total column)


Alternate jobs?
Waste Business
Type of waste

Quantity bought per


week (kg/ number)

Buying
Price
(Rs.) per unit/kg

Quantity
sold
week(kg/unit)

per

Selling
price
(Rs.) per unit

Paper
Cardboard
Plastic
Glass
Electronics
Metal
Wood
Rubber

144

Waste Operations
Waste Stream

Type of processing (Sorting, cleaning, bundling, storing)

Customers (People from whom he buys waste)


Type
customer

of

No.
of
customers
per type

Rag
picker/
HIG/
Slum/
office/ school/
establishment

Type of Waste

Newspaper/
Bottles/ Metal/
Cardboard/
Tyres/

Distance
from shop

Monthly
Quantity

0-500m,
>2
km,
>5km

Frequency
of
Collection
(Daily/
weekly/
monthly/
once
in
while )

Mode
Collection

of

Walk/Cycle/Bike/
At Shop

Buyers (Forward Linkages: people who buy waste from him)


Waste
Stream

Buyer Name

Location

Quantity
sold per
month

Transport
Cost
Borne

Collection
Frequency
in a month

By Buyer/
Self

145

Public Infrastructure and Amenities used:


Infrastructure/
Amenities

Availability/source

Charges

Issues/Remarks

Water supply /
Waste Disposal
Toilets
Power
Open Space/Garden
Parking
Any Other (Hospital/
Library etc)
What kind of facilities / support do you need for
your business?
Monitoring and evaluation
How often have you interacted with the ward
councilor and/or MCGM
Have your issues been resolved? If yes how long
did it take?
Are you aware of the developmental work in your
ward?

Yes

No

What developmental project


have been completed or being
undertaken in your ward

What is your
information?

source

of

Newspaper

Internet

Are you willing to participate if a community


planning exercise is undertaken in your ward?

Yes

Word of mouth

Informed
by
administrative
authorities

the

No

How would you like to contribute


towards
improving
your
neighbourhood?

146

Are there any more shops/mobile kabadiwals active in your locality? If yes, how many?

9.1.6

WASTE MANAGERS SURVEY FORM

(To be used for interviewing electrician, mochi, clothes alteration)


Name of the surveyor
Unique ID

WMSF__________

Date

General Information
Name of the establishment
What sort
manage?

of

products

Location
does

he

Electrical good

Mochi

Clothes
alteration

No
of
repaired

No of Product
discarded

How
is
discarded

What is your monthly income

Type
product

of

No of
received

products

Product

it

147

9.1.7

OPEN SPACE SURVEY FORM

Name of the surveyor


Unique ID

OSSF__________

Date

Background
Name
Space

of

Name of Person

Type of User

Children
13)

Gender

Have
you
someone?

come

(6-

Teenagers (13-18)

Adult
60)

College Student

(18-

Senior
Citizen

Residential
location

Yes
No

Whom?

Chil
d

Parent/
Grandparent

Friend/
Sibling

How often do you come

Twice
a day

Daily

2-3 times a
week

Once in a while

Weekends

Time spent here

< Half an hour

Upto
hour

More than one Hour

When do you come

Early
mornin
g

Morning

Afternoon

Evening

How do you come here

Walk

Two
Wheeler

Car

Bus

Time taken
to reach

____Hr__min

How much Cost


(Rs)

Jog/ walk

Exercise

Training

Meet Friends

Yoga

Rest

Club Activity

Eating

Privacy

Work meeting

Talk

Any
other

Purpose

with

Partner

One

Train

How
distance

Late
Evening
Taxi
much

Auto
_____k
m
Play

148

What do Like/ Dislike? What would you like to Improve?


Aspects

Like

Dislike/ Issues

What to Improve

Fee/ Charges
Public toilets
Waste
Management/Bins
Cleanliness
Play Equipments
Greenery/Shade
Lighting
Safety /First Aid
Drinking Water Facility
Sitting Areas
Parking
Air Quality
Others

Views on improvements
Would you like to have the following facilities/ activities?
Yes / No

How much Fee/Charges can you


pay

Urban Farming/ Greening

149

Composting
Football matches
Yoga Classes
Cricket Matches
Sport Training Sessions
More Such Spaces
Children Camps
Street Play/ Movies
Dog Park
Any Other

150

9.1.8

RAGPICKER SURVEY FORM

(To be used for interviewing Jhadoowala/ waste collector/ waste picker/ rag picker)
Name of the surveyor
Unique ID

RSF__________

Date

Background Information
Location Met:

Person Name:

Residential location
Working
when:

on

this

job

Do you have id
card?

since

What is the nature of work


performed?
(household waste collection&/or
recovery/ disposal in bin/ waste
recovery from bin/ waste recovery
from streets or public spaces)

What sort of Waste Streams do


they recover?

Paper

Cardboard

Plastic

Glass

Electronics

Metal

Wood

Rubber

Any Other:
Specify
Primary
alternate Jobs?

job

and

What is your monthly income


(Rs.):

Job (1)

Job (2)

Job (3)

Dry
(%)

Area
used
for recovery
(sq.ft.)

Job (4)

Work Timings

Waste Collection Activity

Societies/ Shops

No.
of
Flats/
shop
s

Quantity
/
day(kg)

Wet
(%)

Recove
ry (kg)

Salar
y
(Rs.)

Workin
g
Hours

151

Environmental, Health, Social and Safety Aspects


Is waste segregated
household ?

at

Yes

No

Specify % of
HH?

Do you collect wet and dry


waste separately?

Yes

No

How ?

Do
you
(Glove/boots/
Work?

Yes

No

Yes
Yes

use
PPE
Mask)
for

Do you know composting?


Do you burn
recovery?

waste

for

25-50

>50

Do you think is required?

Yes

No

No

Do you burn garden waste?

Yes

No

No

Do you feel there is a social


stigma associated with this work?

Yes

No

Any
diseases?
Specify____________________

0-10

10-25

Money spent on Health expenses (Rs.)

Waste Recovery Operations


Bins Location
Covered

Areas/
Streets
covered

Waste Stream
Newspaper/
Bottles/ Metal/
Cardboard/
Tyres/

Quantity
per
day
(kg)

Timing

Frequency

Mode
Collection/
Transport

of

Twice/
Daily/
weekly

Walk/Cycle/Bike/
Hathgadi

152

Buyers/ Kabbadiwalas(Waste sold to whom?)


Kabbadiwala
Name

Location

Waste Stream sold

Quantity
sold per
month

Rate per
unit sold

Frequency
in a month

Public Infrastructure and Amenities Issues:


Infrastructure/
Amenities

Availability/source

Charges

Issues/Remarks

Water supply /Drinking


water
Community bins
Public Toilets
Street Lighting
Transport
Open Space/Garden
Parking
Any Other

What kind of facilities / support do you need for your


waste
management
activity?
(Space
for
segregation/Storage space/ ID cards/ Health
insurance/ vehicles/ personal protective equipment/
right to access waste/ etc.)

153

Monitoring and evaluation


How often have you interacted with the ward
councilor and/or MCGM
Have your issues been resolved? If yes how long did
it take?
Are you aware of the developmental work in your
ward?

Yes

No

What developmental project have


been
completed
or
being
undertaken in your ward

What
is
your
information?

source

of

Newspaper

Internet

Are you willing to participate if a community planning


exercise is undertaken in your ward?

Yes

Word
mouth

of

Informed
by
administrative
authorities

the

No

How would you like to contribute


towards
improving
your
neighbourhood?

Are there any more jhaddowalas/rag pickers active in your locality? If yes, how many?

154