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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: INTROVERSION

Annotated Bibliography:
Introversion in Higher Education
Makana Aloha Lariosa Agcaoili
Miami University

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: INTROVERSION

Ahmed, F., Campbell, P., Jaffar, A., Alkobaisi, S., & Campbell, J. (2010). Learning & personality
types: A case study of a software design course. Journal of Information Technology
Education: Innovations in Practice, 9, 237252. Retrieved from
http://www.jite.org/documents/Vol9/JITEv9IIPp237-252Ahmed823.pdf
The purpose of this research article was to understand the correlation between personality
type and academic progress in a fourth year undergraduate software design course. The target
population was eighty-five students from United Arab Emirates University throughout 2007 and
2008. All students completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to determine their
personality type. To determine academic progress, students were tasked to complete five
categories of tasks: a final exam; midterm exam; general assignments; quizzes, and a project and
presentation. The professor for the course utilized a collaborative problem solving methodology.
The two largest personality groups identified were ISTJ (24) and ENTJ (15). When
comparing the grades for quizzes, assignments, projects, and overall between all possible sixteen
personality types, ISTJ and ENTJ students scored higher grades than their colleagues of differing
personality types. It is important to note that introverts scored higher in all task categories except
in the project category. The authors conclude that personality types can determine what a student
can excel in from an academic standpoint and that those who have a Thinking (T) or Judging (J)
personality appear to have a stronger methodological personality leads to higher academic
achievements in this discipline academically.
This study shows that introverts have some innate abilities that allow them to excel in an
academic setting. What are these abilities? Is this pattern found in other disciplines? Does this
trend of high academic growth carry over to high professional growth post-graduation? These are
all questions that are open for research based upon this study. However, this study does support

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that there are definitely attributes that introverts have that extraverts typically do not that allows
them to excel and also have a purpose in academic and professional settings.

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Al-Dujaily, A., Kim, J., & Ryu, H. (2013). Am I extravert or introvert? Considering the
personality effect toward e-learning system. Educational Technology and Society, 16(3),
1427.
The purpose of this study was to understand the correlation between personality type,
focusing primarily on the Introvert or Extravert type in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI),
and the successfulness of e-learning systems. This study was separated into two components. The
first experiment looked only at introvert or extravert personalities and the effect the personality
type had on the effectiveness of an e-learning system with or without a tutoring agent. Sixty
participants from Oman and New Zealand in the computer-science undergraduate degree were
utilized as the subject population. The second experiment looked at all personality types from
MBTI in regards to the effectiveness to a tutoring e-learning system. Eighty-five students from
Massey University in their third year of an undergraduate program in computer-science served as
the study population for this experiment.
The first experiment showed that if there was no tutoring component in the e-learning
system, then there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the system to answering
questions in relation to the course material. On the other hand, when there was a tutoring system
implemented, then extraverts scored higher on average than introverts. In the second experiment,
extraverts generally scored much higher compared to other personality types. This represents that
the tutoring system utilized in these e-learning systems were in favor of extraverted students.
Therefore, the authors concluded that e-learning systems need to be molded on an individual
basis due to the effect that personality has on the effectiveness of e-learning systems and online
tutoring programs.

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From this research, I can conclude that there needs to be more research and discussion on
curriculum creation in regards to what students will be able to thrive and which ones will be
challenged due to their personality. Ones personality should not be an indicator for success, and
it concerns me that systems could be in place that disenfranchise some students simply based on
who they are on a mental level. Therefore, research that studies other fields in higher education
and how technology can be better utilized to support all students are of future interest.

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Borg, M. O., & Stranahan, H. A. (2002). Personality type and student performance in upper-level
economics courses: The importance of race and gender. Journal of Economic Education,
33(1), 314.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to understand the relationship between
personality type and academic achievement in upper-level economics courses, and to understand
the effect of race/personality and gender/personality on academic achievement in upper-level
economics courses. 166 upper-level economic students at University of North Florida in
intermediate macroeconomics, labor economics, and public finance served as the population for
the study. Students were asked to fill out a survey in regards to their gender, race, class,
professor, and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) results. After the courses were complete,
researchers compared the letter grade to the survey results.
Initially, researchers discovered that introverted students were more likely to perform
better than their extraverted counterparts. However, once gender and race came into play, the
results became more clear. Introverted females were more likely to perform better than all other
groups while introverted men performed similarity to extraverted men. There was no difference
in performance between African-Americans and other races, but they were not as likely to be
seen as star students by obtaining high marks. Also, it is important to note that the teachers
personality had no effect on the grade distribution of students with similar or opposite
personality types.
This study brings into light the integrated effects that race and gender play in academic
success when combined with personality. Understanding why female introverts performed better
than all other groups could explain lead to understand the effect that sex has on ones personality.
Similarly, while African-Americans did not perform better or worse, it is curious that their

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personality type had no significant changes while it did for white males and females. This could
lead to understanding how academic systems are supportive of majority students to perform at
some higher level while minority students can only survive.

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Campbell, J. B., & Hawley, C. W. (1982). Study habits and Eysencks theory of extraversionintroversion. Journal of Research in Personality, 16(2), 139146. doi: 10.1016/00926566(82)90070-8
The purpose of this study was to understand the relation between personality (extravert or
introvert) and the location for studying at Everett Needham Case Library at Colgate University.
There were three main hypotheses in this project: introverts will study in areas where there is less
distractions and socialization; extraverts will study in areas where there is more distractions and
socialization, and extraverts will take more study breaks than introverts. The sample population
were two unique sets of students of fifty-seven and fifty-five each during two unique week nights
between 8:00pm and 10:00pm. Students were asked to complete two surveys. The first survey
was an Eysenck Personality Inventory and the second was about where they would be studying
and why.
The study found a significant correlation between extraverts and introverts studying on
floors that directly related to their personalities based upon Eysencks theory. Introverted
students were more likely to study on the floor that was architecturally created to inhibit
socialization and implement a lower degree of noise. On the other hand, extraverts were more
likely to study on the floors that were built to allow for socialization and had a higher degree of
noise. However, there was no correlation between extraverts and study breaks. However, the
authors defense is that these studies were completed close to the final examination period, which
means students could have innately been more focused due to these added stresses.
This study enables me to understand more about how architecture and settings plays a
role in the successful processing of information for introverts and extraverts. I wonder if there
are ways that classrooms can be created that assist introverts or extraverts. I also wonder if the

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typical lecture or seminar classroom is created in such a way that assists one personality over the
other. Is it possible that there are more locations for introverts to study than extraverts on college
campuses or vice-versa? These are all questions that are important to understanding how the
environment impacts learning and success in higher education.

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Cassidy, G., & MacDonald, R. A. R. (2007). The effect of background music and background
noise on the task performance of introverts and extraverts. Psychology of Music, 35(3),
517537. doi: 10.1177/0305735607076444
The three hypotheses of this study are as follows:
1. Music with high arousal and negative affect (HA) versus music with low arousal and
positive affect (LA) would lead to differences in task performance.
2. Task performance is dependent on personality type when there is noise of any sort
present.
3. Extraverts and Introverts will have different preferences for music when completing
tasks.
In order to this do, the study was split into two parts: music selection and measurement of task
performance. During the music selection, forty participants consisting of university students,
adolescents, and post-graduate adults were asked to list twenty popular songs with lyrics. The
group then labelled the songs as HA or LA. Next, they chose sounds that were deemed
background noise such as laughter, talking, and general sounds of traffic or sounds commonly
heard in an office. For the task-performance portion of the study, forty undergraduate students
(ten males and thirty females) were asked to complete the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to
determine if they are introverted or extraverted. Twenty-eight were extraverted and twelve were
introverted. This group was split into four groups of ten (seven extraverts and three introverts)
based upon levels of noise: HA, LA, background, and silence. Music was at a volume of sixty
decibels. Each group was then asked to complete five tasks: Stroop Neuropsychological
Screening Test; immediate recall; free recall; distractive task, and delayed recall. Members were
timed for the amount of time it took for them to successfully complete each assignment based
upon a rubric.

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The results showed that performance did drop for all tasks in the presence of background
sound, music and noise. Furthermore, listening to HA led to poorer task performance than
listening to LA, which means the intensity of the music has a negative effect on task
performance. Introverts did significantly better on immediate recall, free recall, and delayed
recall tasks, but did poorer on the Stroop task. Furthermore, introverts performed worse in the
presence of HA than compared to all other sound groups. Finally, introverts generally found any
sound more distracting than extraverts when completing tasks.
This study opens up so many questions for myself. First, does instrumental music or nonlyrical music have a different effect on task performance? Does changing the volume of the
sound alter the task performance? Do discussion assignments in class cause introverts difficulty
in processing due to the sudden increase in noise? What can be done to enable both introverts
and extraverts to succeed in classes knowing that sound plays a critical role in task performance?

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Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. A. (2010). MBTI personality type and other factors that relate to
preference for online versus face-to-face instruction. Internet and Higher Education,
13(12), 8995. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.11.006
The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between personality type
(introvert or extravert) and a preference for online or face-to-face classrooms. Furthermore, the
study tried to find if there were any non-personality variables that would show correlation with a
preference for one of the two classrooms types. 166 (91% female and 9% male) students in
psychology, nursing, and education undergraduate and graduate programs were used as the
population for the study. Each student was asked to complete a Myers Briggs Type Indicator, a
Likert scale survey in relation to their preference for online or face-to-face classrooms, and a
Likert scale survey in relation to certain statements in relation to online courses. It is important to
note that results given can only be utilized to generalize females and those who have already
taken an online course.
There was an overwhelming conclusion that introverted students prefer online classes
over face-to-face classes while extraverts prefer face-to-face classes over online classes.
Furthermore, students who agreed with the following statements were more likely to be
interested in online courses: This type of class fits my schedule better; The amount of travel
for this class works better for me; I enjoy using computer technology, and This type of class
is more innovative. On the other hand, students who disagreed with the following statements
preferred face-to-face classes: This type of class appeals more to my need to learn through
listening, and With this type of class I can gauge the emotional reactions of others in the class
better.

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Since online classes appear to support introverted students more than extraverted
students, it will be important to find innovative ways to bring in aspects of the face-to-face
classroom that extraverted students enjoy such as: auditory signals; means to gauge emotion
through emoticons, and a form of office hours between student and educator. Furthermore,
knowing that those who are more skilled at computers prefer online courses, it will be important
to teach students in their first year of undergraduate study important computer skills they will
need to succeed in online courses. Furthermore, future studies understanding if online courses or
face-to-face classes correlate to better or worse grades or understanding how well introverts and
extraverts actually do in online courses are good places to go from here.

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Korn, M. E., & Maggs, J. L. (2004). Why drink less? Diffidence, self-presentation styles, and
alcohol use among university students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(3), 201
211.
The research question for this study was: do more introverted and lonely college students
with lower self-esteem drink alcohol more or less than their less introverted and lonely peers
with higher levels of self-esteem. This combination of introversion, lonely, and low self-esteem
has been coined diffidence due to the correlation between these three conditions. 548 first-year
undergraduate students, which was comprised of 58% women, in residence halls in a large public
university in the southwest United States served as the participants. 93% of participants were
also under the age of 21. Introversion was determined using the Lachman and Weaver
Extraversion-Introversion Measure. Loneliness was determined via the Gore and Aseltine Scale.
Low self-esteem was determined by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Students completed the
Importance of Consequences of Drinking (ICOD) Scale to understand both positive and negative
perspectives on alcohol consumption. Finally, students were asked to fill out a survey about their
plans for drinking in the future.
The results of the study discovered a negative relationship between diffidence and
alcohol use in the context of self-presentation expectancies. College students generally will
consume alcohol due to the social expectation of drinking in order to feel accepted or part of a
community. Students with diffidence were found to believe that drinking was an important part
of the college socialization process, but had fewer plans to drink. This paradox may represent the
difference between what the students believe versus what they will actually do. If this is the case,
then universities need to make adjustments to late night events and anti-drinking campaigns to
incorporate diffident students.

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This study is extremely impact to me as a Graduate Resident Director. From this study, I
have decided to increase the number of small-scale late night events in my halls from once a
month to twice a month. Also, I will work with students to try to plan events on other nights that
are not being planning by myself. This study represents the flaw in the Late Night Miami system
of creating events specifically centered around extraverted students. Creating smaller and more
intimate programs for dissident students will be a key area for advocating in the department this
year.

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Kreitler, C. M., Dansereau, D. F., Barth, T. M., & Ito, S. (2009). Enhancing the decision-making
of extraverted college students. College Student Journal, 43(4), 11711181. Retrieved
from http://libaccess.mcmaster.ca/login?
url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/61809939?
accountid=12347\nhttp://sfx.scholarsportal.info/mcmaster?url_ver=Z39.882004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&sid=ProQ:ProQ:ericshell
&atitle=Enhancin
The purpose of this study was to see if extraverted students would benefit from a
reflection model in terms of understanding their decision making. This reflection model was the
Assess Create Evaluate Decide Implement Test (ACED IT), which was created by the authors.
The hypothesis was that extraverted students would benefit more from ACED It than introverted
students. Ninety-seven (42 women and 55 men) undergraduate psychology students served as the
participants for the study. Students attended a four-hour experimental credit workshop that had
them take the Big Five Inventory (BIF) and two questionnaires to understand their ethical
perspectives and decision-making processes. Finally, students were asked to think of three
dilemmas they have had in their lives, and then either use the ACED IT or their own system to
reflect on their choices.
Extraverts had a greater tendency to change their actions after using the ACED IT system
than introverts and had greater satisfaction from the system than introverts as well. This outlined
system of reflection seemed to be of better use to the extraverts than the introverts. This is most
likely due to the fact that introverted students are more likely to have their own reflection
systems and therefore discredited the ACED IT system. On the other hand, students, extraverted

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students generally, who do not typically rely on reflection or put more thought into their actions
would benefit from these structured systems.
This is extremely fascinating from a judicial point of view. Knowing that students have to
write reflection and other papers for their sanctions, ACED IT may serve as a wonderful addition
to the canon of judicial affairs here at Miami University. Also, it makes me wonder how we can
empower extraverted students to create their own reflection models and not just rely on external
ones. Furthermore, I wonder if the systems that introverts are thinking of in terms of reflection
are better than the ACED IT one. A future study may be to interview introverted students to
understand what processes they use to reflect on past dilemmas.

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Montgomery, G. K. (1983). Uncommon tiredness among college undergraduates. Journal of


Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(4), 517525. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.51.4.517
The purpose of this study was to understand the possible causes or relationships in
regards to uncommon tiredness in undergraduate students. Ninety-nine students, identified as
students who suffer from tiredness, and 110 students, identified without tiredness, self-selected
from an original pool of 1,809 males and 2, 129 females served as the subjects for the study.
Students filled out a combination of Eysencks, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale,
Jackson and Messick index of acquiescence, and a self-created survey from the authors in
relation to identifying uncommon tiredness to determine relationships between tiredness and
factors such as class load, sleep schedule, mental health, and personality.
The results of the surveys showed that there was no correlation between tiredness and
course load. In fact, students who took less credits were more likely to be tired. Second,
introverted males were more likely to suffer from tiredness than extraverted males or females in
general. Also, sleep schedule had no effect on tiredness. In other words, the typical sleep
schedule of an undergraduate student does not seem to impact the presence of tiredness. Males
who drank alcohol infrequently appeared to suffer from tiredness more than those who did not.
Furthermore, it was determined that uncommon tiredness, depression, and anxiety are linked. In
fact, depression and anxiety both serves as a symptom and cause for tiredness. The final note to
make is that even though a correlation between males who are introverted or extraverted and
tiredness was found, no such correlation was found with females. Therefore, no generalizable
theory can be crafted in regards to introversion and uncommon tiredness.

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This research is deeply fascinating due to male introverts being more likely to suffer from
uncommon tiredness than their extraverted counterparts. The results show that more research
trying to understand this dynamic needs to be done to see if this pattern is also seen in females. I
wonder if the cause for this is due to introverted males not being socialized to communicate and
create deep relationships with other individuals. This combination of internal processing and an
inability to create a network of support may lead to symptoms of depression, anxiety, or
uncommon tiredness. If this is the case, then there needs to be a move in education to assist
introverts in learning how to socialize and network due to the implications on their health.

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Tharp, G. D. (1993). The connection between personality type and achievement in college
biology: How our personality influences our ability to succeed in science. Journal of
College Science Teaching, 22(3), 276278.
The purpose of this study was to discern any relationship between personality type and
achievement in introductory biology courses for undergraduate students. 146 students were asked
to complete the Myers Briggs Type Indicator Form G personality test prior to the course. Their
grade was measured as a percentage with a total possible grade of 320 maximum marks. At the
end of the course, the data was cross-analyzed for any significant correlations between
personality based on the MBTI and grades in the biology courses.
The results of the study revealed that introverted students were able to score higher marks
than perceiving students (214.8 vs. 188.0). Furthermore, introverted-judging students scored the
highest grades (229.1) compared to extravert-perceiving (186.8). Most likely, this can be
explained by the way that science courses in universities are structured to support and allow for
students who are able to work independently, create order from chaos, and work well with
deadlines to do well, which are synonymous with the introvert-judging type. However, the
majority of students who enter college are of the extravert-perceiving type. This means
universities need to find ways to implement more social and critical thinking and non-structured
activities into curriculum.
This study further exemplifies how academics seem to be favorable towards introverted
students. However, this makes me wonder if college is more about social aspects and
extracurricular for extraverted students. It is possible that the two sisters of universities,
academic and student affairs, are primarily supporting one of the personality types (introverted
and extraverted respectively) more than the other. If this is true, there needs to be more

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partnerships and cross-over in order to allow all students to succeed from both an academic and
student affairs lens.