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CONTENTS

CANDIDATE DECLERATION

ii

CERTIFICATE

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER NO

CHAPTER NAME

Pg.No

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GLOBALMANUFACTURING

1.2 MARKETS

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

PROCEDURE OF CEMENT MANUFACTURING

3.1 Introduction to portland cement

3.2 history of portland cement

PRODUCTION OF CEMENT

10

MINING AND CRUSHING

11

5.1 Crushing Section

5.2 Application Of Input Crusher

12

5.3 Main Components Of Impactor

13

5.4 Stacker And Reclaimer

15

RAW MILL

18

6.1 Specifications

19

6.2 Process Flow

20

6.3 Cyclone

23

6.4 Bag House

24

6.5 S.F Silo

25

KILN AND COOLING SECTION

26

7.1 Preheater

26

7.2 Kiln

28

7.3 Cooler

29

7.4 Coal Mill

30

CEMENT MILL
8.1 Clinker Silo

33

8.2 Deep Pan Conveyor

35

8.3 Clinker And Gypsum

35

8.4 Weight Feeder

36

8.5 Cement Mill

37

8.6 Sepax Air Separator

38

8.7 Cyclone

38

8.8 ESP

38

8.9 Cement Silo

39

BUCKET ELEVATOR

41

9.1 Bucket Elevator

41

9.2 Jpf

41

9.3 Vibrating Screen

42

9.4 Hopper

42

9.5 Rotary Air Lock

42

9.6 Roto Packer

43

9.7 Weighing Technology

44

9.8 Discharge Belt

45

9.9 Loader

45
2

10

PROCESS FLOW

46

CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES
fig no

FIGURE NAME

Pg.No

1.1

markets

5.1

stacker

18

5.2

reclaimer

19

6.1

Raw Mill

21

6.2

Process Flow Diagram Of Raw Mill 22

6.3

Schematic Diagram Of Raw Mill

23

6.4

Cyclone

26

6.5

Bag House

27

7.1

Preheater

29

7.2

Kiln

30

7.3

Rotary Kiln

31

7.4

Coal Mill

36

7.5

Clinker Silo

37

8.2

Deep Pan Conveyor

38

8.4

Weigh Feeder

38

8.8

Esp

40

9.5

Rotary Air Lock

45

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE No

TABLE DESCRIPTION

1.1

impactor specification

14

2.1

raw mill specification

19

3.1

capacity of cement mill

40

4.1

roto packer capacity

43

PG. No

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Binani Cement Limited is engaged in the production and sales of cement
and clinker based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.[5] It is the flagship subsidiary
of Binani Industries Ltd.[6] The Company is certified as ISO9001, ISO14001 and
OHSAS18001 compliant.[7] The Company's subsidiaries include Krishna Holdings Pte
Limited, Mukundan Holdings Limited, Murari Holdings Limited, Bhumi Resources
(Singapore) Pte Limited, Shandong Binani Rong'An Cement China (SBRCC), and
Binani Cement Factory LLC, Dubai (BCFLLC).[8]

Binani Cement is amongst Indias reputed manufacturers of cement with a


global manufacturing capacity of 11.25 million tons per annum with an
integrated plant in India and China, and grinding units in Dubai. The
Companys product portfolio includes:
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
Pozzolona Portland Cement (PPC)
Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS)

1.1 Global Manufacturing


6

The Binani Cement Limited Plant was initially setup at Binanigram with a
capacity of 1.65 million tons per annum (MPTA) but today, the cement capacity is
6.25 MTPA. After its success in the Indian market, Binani Cement has taken giant
strides into the international arena. Today, it has manufacturing facilities in China Shandong Binani Rongan Cement Co. Ltd. (SBRCCL) and Dubai Binani Cement
Factory LLC that are setting global benchmarks.

1.2 Markets:
Binani Cement has a well-established sales network in India, UAE, UK, Sudan,
South Africa, Tanzania, and Namibia.

Figure 1 MARKETS

CHAPTER 2
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
BCL (Binani Cement Limited) is the flagship company of the Binani Group
which has the diverse manufacturing interests in Cement, Zinc and Glass Fibre. The
company was incorporated in Kolkata, West Bengal on January 15, 1996 as Dynasty
Dealer Private Limited.
The name of the Company was changed to Binani Cement Private Limited
and a fresh certificate of incorporation was issued to it by the ROC on April 23, 1998.
Subsequently, the Company was converted into a public company and the name was
changed to Binani Cement Limited wide a fresh certificate of incorporation dated
October 6, 1998 The Companys registered office is at 706, Om Tower, 32,
Chowringhee Road, Kolkata 70071. The companys corporate office is at Mercantile
Chambers, 12 J.N. Heredia Marg, Ballard Estate, and Mumbai 400001.
The companys cement plant is in Pindwara, Sirohi (District), State of
Rajasthan with the main plant and machinery supplied by M/s FL Smidth, Denmark
along with their hen India Associates Larsen & Turbo Ltd. The Sirohi facility us a
modern one and is ideally located on the Mumbai-Ahmedabad-Delhi Highway, at a
distance of 2.5 km from the Delhi-Ahmedabad Railway Line and approximately 435
km from the Kandla Port. The Company commenced commercial production on
November 1, 1997.

CHAPTER 3
PROCEDURE OF CEMENT MANUFACTURING
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO PORTLAND CEMENT:
Portland Cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the
world because it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco and most nonspeciality grout. It is a fine powder produced by grinding Portland Cement Clinker, a
limited amount of Calcium Sulphate and up to 5% minor constituents as allowed by
various standards such as the European Standard EN197-1:
Portland Cement Clinker is a hydraulic material shall consist of at least twothirds by mass of Calcium Silicates (3CaO.SiO2 and 2CaP.SiO2), the remainder
consisting of Aluminium and Iron containing clinker phases and other compounds.
The ratio of CaO and SiO2 shall not be less than 2.0. The Magnesium Oxide content
(MgO) shall not exceed 5.0% by mass.
Clinkers are modules [diameters, 0.2-1.0 inch (5-25 mm)] of a sintered
material that is produced when a raw mixture of predetermined availability of the
limestone, shells, and other naturally occurring materials make Portland cement one
of the lowest-cost materials widely used over the last century throughout the world.
Concrete become one of the most versatile construction materials available in the
world.

3.2 HISTORY OF PORTLAND CEMENT:


Portland cement was developed from natural cements made in Britain in the
early 19th century, and its name is derived from its similarity to Portland cement, a
type of building stone that was quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England.
The Portland cement is considered to originate from Joseph Aspdin, a Britain
bricklayer from Leeds. He was one of his employees (Isaac Johnson), however, who
developed the production technique, which resulted in more fast-hardening cement
with a higher compressive strength. This process was patented in 1824. His cement
was an artificial cement similar in properties to the material known as Roman
cement and his process was similar to that patented in 1822.

CHAPTER 4
PRODUCTION OF CEMENT
There are three fundamental stages in the production of Portland cement:

Preparation Of The Raw Mixture

Mining section

Crushing section

Raw Mill Section

Production Of The Clinker


Kiln and cooling section

Preparation Of The Cement.

Cement mill section

Packing section

10

CHAPTER 5
MINING AND CRUSHING
In this section an area for mining is selected which is divided into many parts.
These parts are called phase having different constituents with different composition.
A sample from each phase is taken for laboratory testing. If any phase have less
constituents then other phase are used for the completion of first phase. Raw material
from mining has constituents as follows:

Lime Stone

Silica

Iron ore

Other materials in small quantities

5.1 CRUSHING SECTION:


In this section a Crusher is used to crush or break the big size stones in small
size stones which are suitable for Raw Mill. The maximum size of lime stone must be
less than 90 mm for Raw Mill feeding.
The major components of crushing sections are following:

Dump Hopper (211HP1)


Apron Conveyor (211AC1)
Scrapper Conveyor (211SX1)
Grizzly Conveyor (211GS1)
Impactor (Crusher) (211CR1)
Vibrating Screen (211VS1)
Belt Conveyor (211BC1 to 211BC5)
Surge Bin (221FB1)
Bag Filter (JPF) (211BF1, 211BF2 & 221BF1)
Deep Hill Belt Conveyor

Overview of Impact Crusher:


Impact Crushers are suitable for materials whose compressive strength is
under 360 MPa, and particle size less than 500 mm. This kind of machine features

11

easy maintenance, high crushing ratio and crushing efficiency etc. With end products
in cubic shape, Impact Crushers are the ideal Crusher for aggregates processing in
high-type highway building, water conservancy and power construction. Impact
Crusher is successfully crushing a wide range of materials such as limestone,
dolomite, gravel, basalt, copper reverts, concrete and asphalt.

5.2 The Application of Impact Crusher:


Impact Crushers are suitable for materials whose compressive strength is
under 360 MPa and side length is less than 500 mm. They are preferred to crush
granite, marble, barite, coal talc, coke, porcelain, glass, carborandum, zirconite,
limestone, barites, rival gravel etc.

The features and benefit of Impact Crusher:

Energy-efficient
Unique structure, keyless connection.
Blow bar made of high Chromium Steel, Impact Plate with a special shape.
End products with cubical shape

Main parts on Impact Crusher:


Impact Crusher is made up of first stage impact curtain with anvils, impact
curtain adjusting rods, second stage impact curtain with anvils, rotor, blow bar, wedge
lock assembly, back-up bar, discharge opening, third stage impact plate and so on.

Working Principle of Impact Crusher:


Impact Crusher use impact energy to crush materials. Driven by the motor of
the impact crusher, the rotor revolves at a high speed. Revolving blow bars in the
rotor blow the materials. Then the materials will be thrown to the impact crusher will
be shot back to the blow bars again. This process repeats until the materials are
crushed to the required size and discharged through the discharging opening at the
bottom of the machine. Adjust the gap between the impact racks.

Maintenance of Impact Crusher:


Impact Crusher is a machine of high rotational speed and high inertia. To
make sure the crusher runs normally, the engineer should follow several tips:
12

Make a Rigorous testing before you start the Impact Crusher.


Check the lubrication system regularly, when the Impact Crusher System is
running.
Feed the materials evenly to avoid stones of too big size and materials that
cant be crushed.
Change the blow bar of the impact crusher timely, so the crusher can keep the
balance for long time running.
There is a strong impact on the materials when the crusher is running, and the
engineers should keep the machine sealed so as to stop the dust flowing into
the air.

Operation:
Dump hopper receives the raw limestone from mines; maximum size of raw
material must be less than 1600 1100 1100 mm. From here through Apron
Conveyor, material goes into Grizzly Screen, from here material having size +75 mm
goes to the Impactor and -75 mm directly goes to the Belt Conveyor (211BC3), to
another Vibrating Screen which separates -10 mm contains a lot of clay so we reject it
through Belt Conveyor (211BC4) and +10 mm goes to (211BC2) through (211BC5)
belt.

5.3 Main components of Impactor:


Main components are as follows:

Housing:
It is sturdy fabricated construction and consists of 3 parts:

Bottom Housing.
Front Housing.
Rear Top Housing.

Rotor: The rotor is the Impactor of S type construction, secured to the shaft by
locking assemblies. These locking assemblies are carefully clamped into the
portion at the factory to the specified torque. The blow bars are pushed into the
rotor.
Blow Bars:
These are made of alloy steel. Following certain period in operation the blow
bar can be taken out of the rotor and turned or exchanged.

13

Grinding Path:
The Impactor is fitted with grinding path for the production of an improved
cubical product. The top of grinding path is connected to the mounting by pivot pins.
At the bottom, the grinding path is connected by two pivot pins to a cross piece and
the cylinder.
The grinding path consists of a welded frame with many rows of the holders
starting at the bottom. They are sealed off and held by a row of impact plates which
are tightly bolted onto the construction.

Wear Plates:
Housing is provided with wear resistant plates which are secured in positioned

by special fasteners which can be changed as abs when required.

Impact Arms:
The Impactor is fitted with two impact arms. The impact arms suspended in

the housing upper part by means of two knock of spindle and can be adjusted to the
desired gap setting from out by means of adjusting spindles.

SPECIFICATION
Machine No.
Machine Size
Type
Rotor Speed
Capacity
v belt Quantity
Feed opening
Raw Material size
End Product size
V Belt size
Grinding Bar size
Grinding Bar Quantity
Blow Bar size
Blow Bar Quantity
Rotor pulley size
Motor

010-435
APPM-2022
Single rotor Impactor
306 RPM
1200 TPH
41
1830 x 2220mm2
1600 x 1100 x1000 mm3
90%(-75mm-30mm Sq mesh)
10%(90mm Sq mesh)
SP-12500
715 mm
27
2245mm,840-890 Kg
6 in Numbers
2000 mm diameter
1300KW,6600V,139 amp,990 rpm

14

5.4 STACKER AND RECLAIMER:


5.4.1 Stacker:
The stacking and reclaiming process are used to get the homogeneous mixture
of lime stone before send the material in raw mill sections. So to get same quantity of
limestone always, we do stacking and reclaiming. It also works as an inventory.
The crushed limestone comes via belt conveyor to stacker. The size of
materials coming to the stacker is 90-120 mm. it comes to stacker over a belt which
enters the stacker boom and returns back, this belt in the stacker boom is called the jib
belt. The boom drops the material over a fixed place creating a pile of it. There is a
sensor attached to the end of the boom which moves up the boom according to the
increasing height of the pile.
A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling applications. A
stacker's function is to pile bulk material such as limestone, ores and cereals onto a
stockpile. A stacker usually operates on a rail-like structure with movable wheels, but
the main operation is performed on a fixed place.
Stackers are nominally rated in tph (tones per hour) for capacity and normally travel
on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A stacker can usually move in at least
two directions typically: horizontally along the rail and vertically by luffing its boom.
Luffing of the boom minimizes dust by reducing the height that the raw material
needs to fall to the top of the stockpile. The boom is luffed upwards as the stockpile
height grows. Some stackers are able to rotate by slewing the boom. This allows a
single stacker to form two stockpiles, one on either side of the conveyor.

15

Figure 2 STACKER

16

5.4.2 Reclaimer:
A reclaimer is a large machine used in bulk material handling applications. A
reclaimer's function is to recover bulk material such as ores and cereals from a
stockpile. Reclaimers are volumetric machines and are rated in m3/h for capacity,
which is often converted to t/h (tonnes per hour) based on the average bulk density of
the material being reclaimed. Reclaimers normally travel on a rail between stockpiles
in the stockyard. A bucket wheel reclaimer can typically move in three directions:
horizontally along the rail; vertically by "luffing" its boom and rotationally by slewing
its boom. Reclaimers are generally electrically powered by means of a trailing cable.

Figure 3 RECLAIMER

17

CHAPTER 6
RAW MILL
It is a very eminent part of the cement plant as it is used to grind the limestone
that is coming from the mines. The unit I raw mill is of L&T ATOX 42.5. Its capacity
is 380 TPH i.e. it grinds 380 tonnes of material per hour. The table diameter is 4.25m.
There are 4 hoppers for the raw material out of which 2 are of limestone (500
tonnes each) that were filled by the reclaimer, 1 hopper contains iron ore and its
capacity is 250 tonnes and the last one contains silica also of 250 tonnes capacity.
Only one limestone hopper operates at a time. The material is dropped from each
hopper to the belt conveyor via weigh feeders. Silica and iron ore is added depending
upon the quality of the lime stone. Over the belt conveyor a magnetic separator is
attached which again checks for any iron particle. After some further movement a
metal detector is employed it senses the metal presence in the lime stone and throws
that particular amount of raw material to the reject bin. The metal detector, when
activated, will operate a change-over gate, which for a short while will direct the
material away from the mill. After this at the inlet a rotary feeder is fixed, the reason
to employ a rotary feeder is that the hot gases of the raw mill should not leave through
the inlet. Now the material falls in the raw mill, which has a table of 4.25m dia. rollers
of 35 tonnes, each rotate and also move vertically up-down which crush the material.
The raw mill operates at approx 380 tonnes per hour.

18

Figure 4 RAW MILL

6.1 SPECIFICATIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Type
Model (Unit 1)
Model (Unit 2)
Dynamic Separator
Feed Size

Vertical Roller Mill


ATOX Mill 42.5
ATOX Mill 45
47.5
120 mm

19

6.2 PROCESS FLOW:


Feed Belt Conveyor

Hopper

Magnetic Separator

Rotary Feeder
(through raw mill fan)

Raw Mill

Cyclone (Through Air


Slide)

CF Silo
Figure 5 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF RAW MILL

20

Figure 6 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF RAW MILL

The raw materials for Portland cement production are a mixture of minerals
containing calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, ferric oxide, and
magnesium oxide, as fine powder in the 'Dry process' or in the form of a slurry in the
'Wet process'. The raw materials are usually quarried from local rock, which in some
places is already practically the desired composition and in other places requires the
addition of clay and limestone, as well as iron ore, bauxite or recycled materials. The
individual raw materials are first crushed, typically to below 50 mm. The raw
materials are next ground together in a raw mill. Raw material feeds into raw mill. 3
rollers of about 6 feet dia. are arranged at 1200. These rollers are stationary but have
relative motion with horizontal rotating grinding table which is driven by motor.
These are a circulation of hot gas used to reduce the moisture in raw material. Raw
material grounds between roller and rotating grinding table.
Fine material starts to move up due to negative pressure caused by an R/A fan.
As the separator rotate, centrifugal force generates & causes the fine material to go

21

cyclone and coarse material to outward and then downside. A reject is providing to
reject the ungrounded material and recirculation to raw mill.
CONSTRUCTION:

Drive Station:
Grinding Machinery:
Nozzle Ring:
4 Separator:

Drive Section:
The drive station consists of motor coupling and gear unit. The torque of the
motor is transmitted to the grinding table of the raw mill via gear unit. The gear is a
right angle gear FLS. A segmental thrust bearing is mounted on the gear to support
the grinding table and the grinding rollers. The wt. of the grinding machinery and
grinding pressure is transferred to the gear box through this thrust bearing and oretransmitted to the gear box to the foundation of the mill.
Grinding Machinery:
It consists of grinding table, grinding rollers, central yoke and the hydraulic
tensioning system. On the grinding table there is a grinding track which is circular and
consists of wear segments which are made of wear resistant Cr, Ni or alloy.
Scraper are mounted at the underside of the grinding table so that the material
which drops through nozzle ring congener to the spill outlet.
The grinding rollers are stationary in relation the mill housing but turn able
about journal, which are fixed to the central yoke.
The interior of the rollers is also protected against ingress of dust by a sealing
air system, with the air supply to the system being handled by a sealing air fan which
incorporates a filter in the air intake.
Sealing air is transferred to the central yoke through a mobile air duct from the
mill housing wall. Then it goes to the three rollers sealing air seals. The pressure in
the sealing air in chamber always exceed than in the grinding chamber.
The Hydraulic Tensioning Device:
It consists of 3 tension rods and 3 torque arms. The tension rods, whose heads
grips the end of the journal of the rollers, are connected direct to the piston rods in the
3 hydraulic cylinder.

22

Through the tension rods the hydraulic cylinder delivers a pulling force, which
in conjunction with the weight of the rollers, central yoke and tension rods, generates
the necessary grinding pressure and is may be used to life the rollers.
The hydraulic cylinders are connected to the nitrogen charged pr. accumulator
which operates as grinding pr. spring.
6.3 Cyclone:
It is stationary part in which a cyclone is produced by means of air. Due to
centrifugal force on the ground particles fine particle begin to move upward and
coarse particle move downward. Fine is collected in bag house and coarse particle
goes to the C.F. Silo through air slide.

23

Figure 7CYCLONE

6.4 Bag House:


It is the part where dust from the cyclone is collected. A bag house has
generally 16 bags. An R/A fan suck the dust and collect dust in bags. Every bag has
an air valve on the upper side from where forced air is provided to remove dust from
bags. This phenomenon is called purging.

24

Figure 8 BAG HOUSE

6.5 C.F. Silo:


It stands for Continuous Flow Silo. It is storage of ground raw material which
will be used for next stage. After this stage material goes to Preheater.

25

CHAPTER 7
KILN AND COOLING SECTION

This section includes following departments:

Preheater

Kiln

Cooler

Coal Mill

7.1 Preheater:
It consists of two units:
Calciner Preheater
Kiln Preheater
The combustion air for the Calciner is hot atmospheric air drawn from coolax
cooler through a separate tertiary duct. The Calciner is dimensioned for a gas
retention time of more than 3 second.
The Calciner & kiln are provided with a 6 stage double string Preheater. The suction
at the outlet of the Preheater is less than 450 mm WG in kiln string & 630mm WG in
Calciner string. The main burners (swirlax burner) designed for a velocity of 140 in
the primary air nozzle.
The burner is provided with an oil burner for start-up. The Raw-Mill feed is extracted
from C.F. Silo into feed bin. The feed bin is placed on load cells. After the feeding
system the raw material is transported to the Preheater inlet by means of silo feed
elevator and air slides.
At the Preheater inlet the feed is split to the two Preheater strings in such a way that
outlet temperature is equalized. The Preheater is operated as a counter current heat
exchanger with the Raw Mill passing downward by gravity and the air going upward
by ID-Fans.
After the 6th stage of the kiln string & the 5th stage of the Calciner string the combined
Raw-Material enters the Calciner vessel where 55% of fuel is fired, Raw- Mill will be
26

calcined to about 90-95% the material from the Calciner is routed onwards to the 6th
stage cyclone of the Calciner string from where it slides into the kiln, due to the
inclination & rotation of the kiln, Raw-Mill transferred downstream through the kiln.
Simultaneously the Raw-Mill is gradually heated by the heat supplied to the kiln by
the firing installation at the outlet of the kiln.
Clinkerisation takes place when the Raw-Mill passes through the burning zone of the
kiln. The clinker formed enters the grate cooler for cooling.

Figure 9 PREHEATER

27

7.2 Kiln:
Key elements of Kiln are:
Kiln tube of 4.5568 m long with 3 supporting rollers.
Inclination of kiln tube is 4% of horizontal length.
765 kW drive of up to 3.8 RPM.
Double string 6 stage Preheater with FLS-LP type Cyclone.
Kiln string 25.4 m + 46 m Cyclone.
Single separator line Calciner of 6.3 m diameter and of 20 m height.

Grate cooler of the high efficiency Coolax type 1284 size.

Swirlax burner for coal and oil for start-up.


Scheneck kiln feed system with elevator for transport.
ATOX Coal Mill 22.5.

28

Figure 10 KILN

Kiln is rotating cylindrical member used to heat the raw material up to 14000c.
The raw mixture is heated in a cement kiln, a slowly rotating and sloped cylinder,
with temperatures increasing over the length of the cylinder up to a peak temperature
of 1400-1450 C. A complex succession of chemical reactions takes place as the
temperature rises. The peak temperature is regulated so that the product contains
sintered but not fused lumps. Sintering consists of the melting of 25-30% of the mass
of the material. The resulting liquid draws the remaining solid particles together by
surface tension and acts as a solvent for the final chemical reaction in which alit is
formed. Too low a temperature causes insufficient sintering and incomplete reaction,
but too high a temperature results in a molten mass or glass, destruction of the kiln
lining, and waste of fuel. When all goes according to plan, the resulting material is
clinker. On cooling, it is conveyed to storage.

Figure 11 ROTARY KILN

7.3 Cooler:

29

The coolax cooler has 3 horizontal grates consisting of movable and fixed rows of
grate shoes.
The 1st part of the cooler has the controlled flow grates (C.F.G.). The amount of air is
used for cooling in this section is more or less equal to the air consumed for the
combustion in the kiln system. The part of the cooler is called recuperation zone.
The 2nd & 3rd part of the cooler are the after cooling zone, which has the reduced fall
through (R.F.T.) grate system. In this zone the cooling air is supplied to the grate from
under grate compartment as in conventional grate coolers.
However in the CFG zone, the cooling air is supplied to the grate plates through a
system of hollow beams and ducts. The entire CFG zone has 3 under grate
compartment, which are kept at a medium pressure by one common fan.
The CFG zone is divided into 18 sectors, which are supplied separately by a
controlled quantity of the air, the sectors are placed 9x2 sectors in parallel.
The sectors will be supplied by air from 7 fans. The division in many sectors gives a
perfect control of the air flow to each sector.
The RFT zone is divided into 3 sectors on grate 2 & 2 sectors on grate 3. Each sector
or compartment has air supply from individual fans.
The clinker cooling operation recovers up to 30% of kiln system heat, preserves the
ideal product qualities, and enables the cooled clinker to be manoeuvred by
conveyors. The most common types of clinker coolers are reciprocating grate,
planetary, and rotary. Air sent through the clinker to cool, it is directed to the rotary
kiln where it nourishes fuel combustion. The fairly coarse dust collected from clinker
coolers is comprised of cement minerals and is restored to the operation. Based on the
cooling efficiency and desired cooled temperature, the amount of air used in this
cooling process is approximately 1-2 kg/kg of clinker. The amount of gas to be
cleaned following the cooling process is decreased when a portion of the gas is used
for other processes such as coal drying.

7.4 Coal Mill


The coal mill plant includes:

Atox Mill 22.5.

Dynamic Separator RAKM-25.

Mill Fan.
30

Heat generator for fuel.

Cyclone and Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP).

Booster fan for hot air supply.

The plant is controlled from Central Control Panel.

The guaranteed production of the mill plant is 45 TPH ground to


15%+90 microns.

Figure 12 COAL MILL

Operation Of Coal Mill:


The coal from the 2 feed silos is proportioned to the mill by the respective
feed conveyors.
Feeding into the mill is affected by the belt conveyor followed by a double
screw conveyor.
During transport to the feed silos, magnetic objects are removed by magnetic
separator.
As some metal objects cannot be attracted by the magnetic separator, a metal
detector, which activates a pneumatic controlled gate, is built in as a further
protection.

31

The double screw conveyor feed the raw coal into the rotary grinding table of
the mill from where it is thrown under the rollers by the rotary movement of the table,
and ground.
The grinding table is driven by the mill main motor connected through the
bevel helical gear unit.
The material is dried by the hot exit from the Preheater or from auxiliary
furnace.
The hot air is supplied through the nozzle ring surrounding the grinding table.
The ground and dried coal dust is carried by the air flow to dynamic separator at the
top of the mill housing. The coarse particle is returned to the grinding table, while the
fine fraction passes for the collection in the de-dusting cyclone and ESP.
An oil pumping station ensures lubrication and cooling of the gear unit and the
bearing of the grinding table. The hydraulic oil pumping station ensures maintenance
of the foreseen grinding pressure between the 3 rollers and the grinding table.
Operating Principal:
The hot air-stream which sweeps through the mill dries the raw materials and
lifts the material away from the grinding table, providing simultaneously drying and
separation of the materials.
From the grinding compartment the ground material is led through the guide
vanes into rotor of the separator. The guide vanes ensures an even distribution of the
materials across the desire height of the rotor, with simultaneously provision of
effective pre-separation of the ground material by subjecting the mixture of air and
grinding material to swirling action.
As the fine fraction is passing through the rotor and onwards through the
outlet, the coarse particle are, on impact with the rotor blades, thrust outwards towards
the guide vanes, causing them to drop into the cone under the rotor.
The fineness of the finished product can be adjusted by changing rotor speed.
The adjustment of the position of guide vanes must be made during running in phase
in order to optimize performance.

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CHAPTER 8
CEMENT MILL SECTION

This section includes following departments:

Clinker SILO

Deep Pan Conveyor

Clinker and Gypsum Hopper

Weigh Feeder

Cement Mill

Separator

Cyclone

ESP

Cement SILO
Installation:
Essential features of the mill plant:

Silos, with feeders, for clinker, gypsum and activities.

Cement mill UMS 46x16.5 with double side drives and 2x2600 KW
motors.

Sepax separator No. 400 M222.

Bag filter for de dusting of separator and transport equipment.

Electrostatic precipitator for de-dusting of mill.

Air slides and elevator for conveyance of cement to the 4 storage silos.

The mill plant is designed for a minimum production of 150 TPH OPC
Cement ground to 3000 Blaine.

8.1 CLINKER SILO:


Although clinker storage capacity is based on the state of the market, a plant
can normally store 5 - 25% of its annual clinker production capacity. Equipment such
as conveyors and bucket elevators is used to transfer the clinkers from coolers to

33

storage areas and to the finish mill. Gravity drops and transfer points typically are
vented to dust collectors.
It is storage of clinker which also called semi finished cement. Clinker from
the kiln is tested in laboratory to check the compressive strength of the clinker. If the
of the clinker of the clinker becomes more or less than the ISO strength limit then it is
collected in a hopper. And it is fed for further processing or to limit the strength of the
clinker. And the remaining clinker is fed to clinker silo.

Figure 13 CLINKER SILO

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8.2 DEEP PAN CONVEYOR:


This type of conveyor has chain instead of belt. A no. of buckets is attached in
such a manner that they do the work to carry the clinker from kiln to clinker silo. This
conveyor is driven by motor and 2 supporting rollers. Deep pan conveyors
successfully meet the functioning demands at various cement plants. The conveyors
are manufactured using deep drawn quality sheets at our modern facilities.

Figure 14 DEEP PAN CONVEYOR

Advantages of Deep Pan Conveyor:

Completely Dust free transport.

No spillage from return belt.

Return Belt can also be used to convey material.

Conveyor can be curved both horizontally and vertically.

No spillage from loaded belt.

8.3 CLINKER AND GYPSUM HOPPER

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A hopper is a storage unit used to store the material which generally used in
any plant. In the cement plant a separate clinker and gypsum hoppers is provided to
every unit of cement plant. Clinker is made by cement but gypsum hopper is made by
metallic material. To grant the adequate quantity of the clinker and gypsum these
hoppers is used. The discharge from both the both hopper is kept at a belt conveyor
same for both hoppers. And the discharge of the belt is kept direct in the cement mill.
8.4 WEIGH FEEDER: A weigh feeder is used to feed the material according to
the weight. Weigh Feeder Systems provide a simple and accurate way to control and
measure the flow rate of bulk material passing along a conveyor belt. They transport
bulk material from a hopper on a driven belt across a weigh section. The weight on
the weigh section is measured by a high resolution load cell. Mod Weigh processor
computes the flow rate based on the weight and measured belt speed. The flow rate is
then regulated to the desired value by varying the speed of the belt.
Weigh feeder systems include:
3 idler weigh section, with integrated load cell.

Direct drive sealed gear motor.

Belt speeds through a tail drum encoder.

Mod Weigh Processor to control the flow rate (t/hr)

Maintaining bulk material flow rates. E.g. optimizing material flow


into kilns, driers, grinding mills etc. ensures peak efficiency and high
product quality.

Figure 15 WEIGH FEEDER

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8.5 CEMENT MILL:


In order to achieve the desired setting qualities in the finished product, a
quantity (2-8%, but typically 5%) of calcium sulphate (usually gypsum or anhydrite)
is added to the clinker and the mixture is finely ground to form the finished cement
powder. This is achieved in a cement mill. The measure of fineness usually used is the
"specific surface area", which is the total particle surface area of a unit mass of
cement.
The raw material- clinker and gypsum are transported from feeders on a belt conveyor
in the mill inlet.
The belt conveyor is reversible so that calibration of the feeders can make.
The UMS mill has two grinding chamber. 1st chamber has a stepped lining and
contain about 107 tonnes of balls mixed in sizes from dia. 60 to 90.
The final material or product is separated in four cyclones. The necessary air through
the separator is provided by means of a fan.
The separating air flow is circulating in a closed system.
The mill fan draws the de-dusting air from the mill through the ESP.
Water injection will ensure that the ground material after the mill is maintained at a
max temperature of approximately 1100-1200c.The cement is transported to the
cement silos by the air slides and elevator.
8.6 SEPAX AIR SEPARATOR FOR CEMENT MILL:
Sepax air separators are used in closed circuit mill plants for cement and raw
mill. The air separators main purpose is to improve the possibility of changing and
controlling the product fineness.

The grinding economy measured in power

consumption depends upon the air separator efficiency.


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Improvement of grinding economy in a closed circuit mill plants relative to


the straight grinding mill plants may vary from negative values for a low economy air
separator and up to 50% improvement when grinding to the same sieve residue.
8.7 CYCLONE:
Cyclone in cement mill fed the fine material to the air slide and to the elevator.
Air from down side is enters and produce a cyclone. Fine material separates and fed to
downside due to centrifugal and gravitational force.
8.8 ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP):
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate
collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the
force of an induced electrostatic charge.
Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally
impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate
matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream.

Figure 16 ESP

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In contrast to wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing fluid medium,
an ESP applies energy only to the particulate matter being collected and therefore is
very efficient in its consumption of energy (in the form of electricity).
8.9 CEMENT SILO:
Cement silo is storage device used to store the finished cement from where
cement is sent for packing and then loading and transport.
Every cement mill have separate cement silo. Every silo contains 5 or 6
blower to flow the cement in air slide. And then cement fed to the bucket chain
elevator.
PROCESS FLOW:

Clinker SILO

Deep Pan Conveyor

Hopper

Weigh Feeder

Cement Mill (Through


Feed Belt Conveyor)
Bucket Elevators
(Through Air Slide)
Sperator Duct
(Through Air Slide)

Cyclone

Cement SILO
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Types Of Cement Grinding Mills:


There are two types of cement grinding mills are in the plant:

Double Drive With Girth Gear:


There are two cement mill are of this type which is for plant 1. In this type

there is one girth gear is attached with the cement mill just after the tire at the outlet.
The power is transmit to the girth gear through pinions and pinion take power through
2600 kW motors which are attached with pinions through gearbox and gearbox shaft
is couple with pinion shaft.

Central Drive With No Girth Gear:


There are two cement mill are of this type which is for plant 2. In this type

there is no girth gear is attached with the cement mill. The power is transmitted
through central drive shaft whose one end is attached with motor and other end with
the cement mill.
1. Capacity of mill of UNIT 1

150 TPH

2. Capacity of mill 3 of UNIT 2

180 TPH

3. Capacity of mill 4 of UNIT 2

150 TPH

4. Temperature of 1st section of

120 C

cement mill
5. Temperature of 2nd section of

140 C

cement mill
6. Final Size at outlet of cement mill

90 m

7. Size of balls in 1st section of

70 90 mm

cement mill
8. Size of ball in 2nd part of cement

15 20 mm

mill
9. Speed of cement mill

15 RPM

10. 70 to 77% of critical speed

Speed of cement mill

(Critical speed: This is the speed at which the balls start rotating with the inner
surface of mill.)

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CHAPTER 9
PACKING AND LOADING SECTION
This section include following departments:

Bucket Elevator

JPF

Vibrating Screen

Hopper

Rotary Air Lock

Roto Packer

Discharge Belt

Loader

9.1 BUCKET ELEVATOR


Cement from cement silo is fed to the vibrating through elevator named bucket
elevator. Elevator does the function to transport the cement from downside to upside.
This elevator may have chain as well as belt. Cement from cement silo flow through
air slide and then bucket elevator.
9.2 JPF
JPF stands for jet pulse filter. It contains a no. of bags which are used to
collect the dust. But in packing plant it collects cement.
A bag house (BH), or fabric filter (FF) is an air pollution control device
responsible for filters particulates out of air that has been released as a product of a
commercial process. Industries such as power plants, pharmaceutical producers, food
manufactures, and chemical producers commonly employ bag houses.
This type of bag house cleaning (also known as pressure-jet cleaning) is the
most common. A high pressure blast of air is used to remove dust from the bag. The
blast enters the top of the bag tube, temporarily ceasing the flow of dirty air. The
shock of air causes a wave of expansion to travel down the fabric. The flexing of the
bag shatters and discharges the dust cake. This phenomenon is called as purging. The
air burst is about 0.1 second and it takes about 0.5 seconds for the shock wave to
travel down the length of the bag. Due to its rapid release, the blast of air does not
interfere with contaminated gas flow. Therefore, pulse-jet bag houses can operate
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continuously and are not usually compartmentalized. The blast of compressed air
must be powerful enough to ensure that the shock wave will travel the entire length of
the bag and fracture the dust cake.
An r/f fan is used to suck the flying cement and collects it at the bags of the
bag house.
9.3 VIBRATING SCREEN
A screen made of metal having an inclination of about

70

is used to separate

the unnecessary products which can cause a danger to packers and plants like bolts,
nuts. A counter weight is used to unbalance the pulley belt balance and a produce a
sharp vibration. Vibration is produced to ensure the continuous flow of cement and to
separate the unwanted materials.

9.4 HOPPER
Finished cement from vibrating screen collects in a unit called hopper. Hopper
is simply a storage device to store the cement. Every rotopacker unit has separate
hopper.
9.5 ROTARY AIR LOCK:
Rotary feeders, also known as rotary airlocks or rotary valves, are commonly
used in industrial and agricultural applications as a component in a bulk or specialty
material handling system. Rotary feeders are primarily used for discharge of bulk
solid material from hoppers/bins, receivers, and cyclones into a pressure or vacuumdriven pneumatic conveying system. Components of a rotary feeder include a rotor
shaft, housing, head plates, and packing seals and bearings. Rotors have large vanes
cast or welded on and are typically driven by small internal combustion engines or
electric motors.
The basic use of the rotary airlock feeder is as an airlock transition point,
sealing pressurized systems against loss of air or gas while maintaining a flow of
material between components with different pressure and suitable for air lock
applications ranging from gravity discharge of filters, rotary valves, cyclone dust
collectors, and rotary airlock storage devices to precision feeders for dilute phase and
continuous dense phase pneumatic convey systems.

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Figure 17 ROTARY AIR LOCK

9.6 ROTO PACKER:


There are many features in its machines which can be seen in its latest design
of Packers with larger size of Impeller Box, re-positioning of 3 position cylinders to
reduce the consumption of spares. Also Solenoid Block has been placed outside the
Electrical Panel to avoid opening of Panel Door for maintenance.
Cement products using EEL & enexco ROTO-PACKER.

1. 3 Spots

900 1,100 bags per hour

2. 4 Spots

1,200 1,400 bags per hour

3. 6 Spots

1,800 2,200 bags per hour

4. 8 Spots

2,200 2,600 bags per hour

5. 10 Spots

3,300 3,600 bags per hour

6. 12 Spots

4,000 4,500 bags per hour

7. 16 Spots

5,000 5,200 bags per hour

Saddle Height Adjustment for Different Bag Length:


For varying bag lengths, the packer saddle height can be automatically
adjusted. In this way it is possible to avoid time loss in making these adjustments

43

manually. This saddle height adjustment can be executed for only 2 lengths or in
steps. The infinitely adjustable design is motor driven and different saddle heights can
be stored along with the parameters for product type, the saddle height being re-called
when the product type is selected.
Quick Emptying Facility for Range of Products:
When the Roto-Packer is to be used for packing a variety of products, it may
be a requirement to empty any product left in the machine prior to selecting a
different product. A second flap valve outlet is provided within the impeller system,
whereby the remaining product can be emptied back into the spillage return system.
The weighing systems are built and designed to reflect the latest operational
requirements. It is therefore possible to compensate for weighing errors resulting from
the following factors:

Build up of product on the weighing mechanism.

Changes in flow rate caused by changes in product (consistency, temperature


and bulk density etc.)

Product loss during bag structure on conveyers.

9.7 Weighing Technology:


Each filling station is equipped with a digital microprocessor controller. This
weighing control system incorporates a so-called "dynamic weight compensation",
which is used to calculate the cut-off points for coarse and trickle feed dependent on
the flow characteristics for the product being packed. The system guarantees high
weight accuracy even with high variations of product bulk density and flow ability,
providing optimization of machine capacity.
Features of Electronics:
Each filling station of the Roto packer consisting of:

Load cell with 200 kgs nominal load.

Control cabinet with components incorporated for motor protection, overload


relay drive.

Pneumatic panel consisting of Solenoid block for pneumatic functions.

Auto tare facility.


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After flow correction.

2 filling modes coarse and fine.

Dosing time regulator.

Broken bag recognition.

Parameter changing through remote.

Can be interfaced with Bag Placer, Check weigher.

Two-way Data Communication System is possible.

9.8 DISCHARGE BELT


Two type of discharge is provided to the every roto packer.
Radial discharge and Tangential discharge. Every discharge has a deviator to
divert the discharge the cement bags to the train loading and truck loading. A seal of
date, week and MRP is written automatically on the every bag of the cement. A
sensor is used for sensing the bag before the seal writer.
9.9 LOADER:
There are two type of loading for cement:

Train loading

Truck loading

Deviator upon the belt is operated by 2 cylinders. It operates the direction of


the cement discharge either on the train side or truck side. There 16 truck loader used
in Binani Cement and a train loader.

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CHAPTER 10

PROCESS FLOW

46

CONCLUSION
I fell highly overwhelmed as I got such opportunity of being a part of BINANI
CEMENT LIMITED as a trainee. It was a great experience and I learnt a lot from it. I
find no suitable words to express my profound indebtness and heartful thanks to
BINANI CEMENT LIMITED for their prestigious guidance, support and supervision.
There occasional words of advice surely act as a beacon of light. It was due to their
cheerful and sincere co-operation which made my training a fruitful, pleasant and a
life time experience.

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