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I

TECHNICAL REPORT N-71-3

PROJECT OFFICER'S FINAL REPORT


OPERATION DISTANT PLAIN, EVENTS 1, 2A
3, 4, AND 5; PROJECT 3.02A, EARTH MOTION
AND STRESS MEASUREMENTS
by

J. K. Ingram
I-'

May 1971

Sponsored by

Conducted by

Defense Atomic Support: Agency

U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment: Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

'

TECHNICAL REPORT N-71-3

PROJECT OFFICER'S FINAL REPORT


OPERATION DISTANT PLAIN, EVENTS 1, 2A
3, 4, AND 5; PROJECT 3.02A, EARTH MOTION
AND STRESS MEASUREMENTS
by

J. K. Ingram

May 1971
Sponsored by

Defense Atomic Support Agency

NWER Subtask 96X4902


Conducted by

U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi

A.RMYMRC VICKSBURG. MISS.

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

TArl
w~:.+-

110. //- 'l/-~

THE CONTENTS OF THIS REPORT ARE NOT TO BE


USED FOR ADVERTISING, PUBLICATION, OR
PROMOTIONAL PURPOSES.

CITATION OF TRADE

NAMES DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFICIAL ENDORSEMENT OR APPROVAL OF THE USE OF SUCH
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS.

70346

ABSTRACT
Ground motions and stresses within the upper 10 feet of soil were
measured on the Distant Plain events detonated in Canada in

1966-67.

Events 1, 2A, 3, and 5 were detonated at the Drowning Ford Test Site, Defence Research Establishment, Suffield (DRES), Alberta, Canada.

Event 4

was detonated at a remote mountainous site near Hinton, Alberta.


Ground motion measurements were unsuccessful for the aboveground detonation (Event 1).

Motion data of good quality were obtained for the re-

maining detonations of the test series (Events 2A, 3,

4,

and 5).

Accelera-

tion and velocity measurements were made in the vertical and horizontal
directions.

In addition, a limited number of vertical stress measurements


Sixty-four data channels were successfully recorded on Event 2A,

were made.

32 for Event 3, 35 for Event

4,

and 33 for Event 5.

Data waveforms, except

4, are included in Appendix A. Event 4 waveforms are included in

for Event
Chapter 5.

Detonation of the surface gas bag, Event 2A, produced no crater.


Airblast-induced ground motions for this event were greater than for Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III.

This was the result

of significant explosive energy going directly into airblast formation


rather than partitioning to the ground through crater formation.
Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III were identical in
yield and geometry, but differed in site location.

An additional variant

was introduced by Distant Plain Event 5 which was detonated in frozen


ground.

In spite of these variations, the ground motions were -s-imilar in

amplitude and waveform.

The variances between Distant Plain Event 3 and

Flat Top are -attributed to slight differenc-es in test site soils, explosive
coupling, and instrument canister placement.
The effect of the frozen ground on Distant Plain Event 5 motions was
generally limited to the horizontal vector near the surface.

This was

manifested as higher amplitude and frequency accelerations than for unfrozen ground.

The thin frozen surface layer allowed greater coupling of the

high-frequency components which are attenuated by dry alluvium.


Distant Plain Event 4 primary ground motions in the region of tree

blowdown were down and away from the point of detonation at early times,
then upward due to elastic rebound and., later, refracted energy from depth.
Measured upthrust motions were small in the region instrumented and did not
contribute significantly to the blowdown process.

PREFACE
This report describes the work conducted by the U. S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station (WES) as Project 3.02a of the Operation
Distant Plain Test Series, staged in Alberta, Canada, during 1966-1967.
Project 3.02a was funded by the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) under
Nuclear Weapons Effects Research (NWER) Subtask 96x4902, and was conducted
under the auspices of the Tripartite Technical Cooperation Program.
This work was conducted by personnel of the WES Nuclear Weapons Effects Division under the direction of Mr. G. L. Arbuthnot, Jr., Division
Chief, Mr. L. F. Ingram, Chief, Physical Sciences Branch, and Mr. J. D.
Day, Chief, Blast and Shock Section.

This report was written by Mr. J. K.

Ingram, Project Officer.


Messrs. L. T. Watson, Jr., G. P. Bonner, J. L. Pickens, and others
of the Instrumentation Services Division provided field technical support
in instrument checkout and data acquisition.
COL John R. Oswalt, Jr., CE, COL Levi A. Brown, CE, and COL Ernest D.
Peixotto, CE, were Directors of the WES and Messrs. J. B. Tiffany and F. R.
Brown were Technical Directors during the investigation and the preparation
and publication of this report.

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT-------------------------------------------------------------PREFACE--------------------------------------------------------------NOTATION-------------------------------------------------------------CONVERSION FACTORS, BRITISH TO METRIC UNITS OF MEASUREMENT-----------CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION----------------------------------------------1.1 Background----------------------------------------------------1.2 Objectives and Scope------------------------------------------1.3 Predictions---------------------------------------------------CHAPTER 2 INSTRUMENTATION-------------------------------------------2.1 Drowning Ford Test Range--------------------------------------2.1.l Layout----------------------------------------------------2.1.2 Placement Methods-----------------------------------------2.2 Hinton Test Site----------------------------------------------2.3 Equipment-----------------------------------------------------2.4 Gage Annotation-----------------------------------------------2.5 Data Reduction------------------------------------------------CHAPTER 3 RESULTS, EVENTS 1 AND 2A----------------------------------3.1 Event 1-------------------------------------------------------3.2 Event 2A------------------------------------------------------3.2.1 Data Recovery---------------------------------------------3.2.2 Ground-Shock Arrival Time---------------------------------3.2.3 Particle Acceleration-------------------------------------3.2.4 Particle Velocity-----------------------------------------3.2.5 Displacement----------------------------------------------3.2.6 Earth Stress----------------------------------------------CHAPTER 4 RESULTS, EVENTS 3 AND 5-----------------------------------4.1 Shot Conditions-----------------------------------------------4.2 Data Recovery-------------------------------------------------4.3 Ground-Shock Arrival Time-------------------------------------4.4 Particle Acceleration-----------------------------------------4.4.1 Near-Surface Vertical Acceleration------------------------4.4.2 Vertical Acceleration for Deeper Gages_--------------------4.4.3 Horizontal Acceleration-----------------------------------4.5 Particle Velocity---------------------------------------------4.5.1 Vertical Velocity-----------------------------------------4.5.2 Horizontal Velocity---------------------------------------4.6 Displacement--------------------------------------------------4.7 Stress--------------------------------------------------------CHAPTER 5 RESULTS, EVENT 4------------------------------------------5.1 Data Recovery-------------------------------------------------5.2 Ground-Shock Arrival Time-------------------------------------7

4
6
12
13
14
14
15
16
21
21
22
22
23
23
25
25
36
36
36
36
36
37
39
40
40
61
61
61
62
63
63
64
65
65
65
66
67
68
103
103
104

5,3 Particle Acceleration-----------------------------------------5.3.1 Vertical Acceleration-------------------------------------5.3.2 Horizontal Acceleration-----------------------------------5.4 Particle Velocity---------------------------------------------5.4.1 Vertical Velocity-----------------------------------------5.4.2 Horizontal Velocity----------------------------------------

104
104
106
106
106
107

CHAPI'ER 6 CONCLUSIONS-----------------------------------------------APPENDIX A DATA WAVEFORMS, EVENTS 2A, 3, AND 5-----------------------

128
131

REFERENCES------------------------------------------------------------

172

TABLES
1.1
1.2
2.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3,5
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5,5
5.6

Distant Plain Events-----------------------------------------Prediction Data for Airblast-Induced Ground Motions----------Description of Drowning Ford Soil----------------------------Acceleration Data, Event 2A----------------------------------Velocity Data, Event 2A--------------------------------------Displacement Data, Event 2A----------------------------------Vertical Stress Data, Event 2A-------------------------------Airblast-Induced Vertical Acceleration and Velocity Ratios,
Event 2A-----------------------------------------------------Acceleration Data, Events 3 and 5----------------------------Velocity Data, Events 3 and 5--------------------------------Displacement Data, Events 3 and 5----------------------------Vertical Stress Data, Events 3 and 5-------------------------Near-Surface Airblast-Induced Vertical Acceleration Ratios,
Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III---------Near-Surface Airblast-Induced Vertical Velocity Ratios,
Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III---------Normalized Peak Horizontal Particle Velocity, Events 3 and 5-Acceleration Data, Event 4-----------------------------------Velocity Data, Event 4---------------------------------------Displacement Data, Event 4-----------------------------------Airblast-Induced Vertical Acceleration Ratios, Event 4-------Ratio of Maximum Upward to Downward Acceleration, Event 4----Airblast-Induced Vertical Velocity Ratios, Event 4------------

19
19
27
42
43
44
45
45
70
71
72
73
73
74
74
108
108
109
110
110
110

FIGURES
1.1
~~

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

Wavefront diagram and force vectors---------------------------locations, Events 1, 2A, 3, and


Cross section of gage test plan, Events 1 and 2A-------------Cross section of gage test plan, Events 3 and
Typical gage columns, Drowning Ford Test Site----------------Field locations, Event 4-------------------------------------Cross section of gage test plan, Event 4---------------------Partially grouted instrument canister, 10.0-foot depth,
Event 4------------------------------------------------------Photograph of cleared sector main blast line from GZ,
preshot, Event 4---------------------------------------------Kaman Nuclear experimental accelerometer----------------------

5----------------------5---------------

~ierd

20
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
34
35

3.1
3.2
3.3

3.4
3.5
3.6

3,7

3.8
3,9
3.10

3.11
3.12
3.13

3.14
3.15
3.16

4.1
4.2

4.3

.4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

4.8

4.9
4.10

4.11
4.12
4.13

Ground-shock arrival time versus horizontal range, 1.5-foot


depth, Event 2A----------------------------------------------Ground-shock profile, Event 2A-------------------------------Peak airblast-induced downward acceleration versus horizontal
range, Event 2A----------------------------------------------Vertical accelerograms, Event 2A-----------------------------Ratio of maximum airblast-induced vertical acceleration and
velocity to surface overpressure versus depth, Event 2A -----Vertical accelerogram comparisons, 1.5-foot depth, Kaman
Nuclear and Pace transducers---------------------------------Vertical accelerograms, radially deployed gages, 1.5-foot
depth, 210-foot horizontal range, Event 2A-------------------Peak airblast-induced outward acceleration versus horizontal
range, Event 2A----------------------------------------------Horizontal accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 2A-----------Peak airblast-induced downward particle velocity versus
horizontal range, Event 2A---------------------------------~-
Peak airblast-induced outward particle velocity versus horizontal range, Event 2A---------------------------------------Peak airblast-induced downward displacement versus horizontal
range, Event 2A----------------------------------------------Peak airblast-induced outward displacement versus horizontal
range, Event 2A----------------------------------------------Peak airblast-induced vertical stress versus horizontal range,
Event 2A-----------------------------------------------------Vertical stress waveforms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 2A----------Comparison of surface airblast and near-surface stress waveforms, Event 2A----------------------------------------------Preshot ground temperatures, Event 5-------------------------Ground-shock arrival time versus horizontal range, 1.5-foot
depth, Events 3 and 5----------------------------------------Ground-shock profiles, Events 3 and 5------------------------Vertical accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 3--------------Comparison of vertical accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth, Events
3 and 5-- --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --.- - -- - - - - Vertical accelerograms at 150-foot range, near-surface,
Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III---------Peak airblast-induced downward acceleration versus horizontal
range, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat
Top
Ratio of maximum airblast-induced downward acceleration to
overpressure, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 2A, 3, and 5
and Flat Top
and
Vertical acceleration waveform modification with depth,
60-foot range, Event 3---------------------------------------Vertical accelerograms, 10-foot depth, Event 3---------------Comparison of vertical accelerograms, 10-foot depth,
Events 3 and 5-----------------------------------------------Horizontal accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 5------------Comparison of horizontal accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth,
Events 3 and 5------------------------------------------------

II and III-----------------------------------------------1I

III---------------------------------------

46
46
47
48

49
50
51
52
53

54
55
56

57
58
59
60

75

76
77
78
79

80
81
82
83

84
85
86

87

4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18

4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.28
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8

5.9
5.10
5.11

Peak airblast-induced outward acceleration versus horizontal


range, 1.5-foot depth, Events 3 and 5------------------------Vertical velocity waveforms from integrated acceleration,
1.5-foot depth, 60-foot range, Events 3 and 5----------------Vertical velocity waveforms from integrated acceleration,
1.5-foot depth, various ranges, Events 3 and 5---------------Peak airblast-induced downward velocity versus horizontal
range, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and
Flat Top
and
Ratio of maximum airblast-induced downward velocity to overpressure, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 2A, 3, and 5 and
Flat Top
and
Horizontal velocity waveforms, 1.5-foot depth, Events 3 and 5Horizontal velocity waveforms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 5-------Horizontal velocity waveform comparison, near-surface,
150-foot range, Distant Plain Event 3 and Flat Top
and
Peak airblast-induced outward particle velocity versus
range, Events 3 and 5----------------------------------------Peak crater-induced outward particle velocity versus range,
Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top
and
Peak crater-induced outward particle velocity normalized to
crater radius, Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top
and
Peak vertical displacement versus horizontal range,
Events 3 and 5-----------------------------------------------Peak crater-induced horizontal displacement versus horizontal
range, Events 3 and 5----------------------------------------Composite stress plot, 1.5-foot depth, Events 3 and 5--------Vertical stress waveform comparison, 1.5-foot depth,
70-foot range, Events 3 and 5--------------------------------Ground-shock arrival time versus horizontal range, 1.5-foot
depth, Event 4-----------------------------------------------Ground-shock profiles, Event 4-------------------------------Peak airblast-induced downward acceleration versus horizontal
range, Event 4-----------------------------------------------Peak crater-induced upward acceleration versus horizontal
range, Event 4-----------------------------------------------Ratio of maximum vertical acceleration to surface overpressure, Event 4------------------------------------------------Vertical acceleration ratio as a function of ground range,
Event
Vertical acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and
cleared sectors, 1.5-foot depth, Event 4---------------------Vertical acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and
cleared sectors, 5.0- and 10.0-foot depths, Event 4----------Peak airblast-induced outward acceleration versus horizontal
range, Event 4-----------------------------------------------Horizontal acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and
cleared sectors, 1.5-foot depth, Event 4---------------------Horizontal acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and
cleared sectors, 5.0- and 10.0-foot depths, Event 4-----------

89
90

II

III-------------------------------------------

91

II

III-------------------------------------------

92
93
94

II

II

II

88

III-

95
96

III----------

97

III----------------------------------------------------

98

4-------------------------------------------------------

10

99
100
101
102
111
112

113
114
115
116
117

118
119
120

121

5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
A.l
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5

A.6

A.7

A.8
A.9

A.10
A.11
A.12
A.13
A.14
A.15

Peak airblast-induced downward velocity versus horizontal


range, Event
Ratio of maximum airblast-induced downward velocity to overpressure, Event 4--------------------------------------------Peak airblast-induced outward velocity versus horizontal
range, Event 4-----------------------------------------------Horizontal velocity waveform comparisons, forested and cleared
sectors, 1.5-foot depth, Event
Horizontal velocity waveform comparisons, forested and cleared
sectors, 5.0- and 10.0-foot depths, Event
Measured horizontal velocity waveforms compared to integrated
acceleration, 10-foot depth, cleared and forested sectors,
Event 4------------------------------------------------------Vertical acceleration, Event 2A------------------------------Vertical velocity, Event 2A----------------------------------Horizontal acceleration, Event 2A----------------------------Horizontal velocity, Event 2A--------------------------------Vertical stress, Event 2A------------------------------------Vertical acceleration, Event 3-------------------------------Vertical velocity, Event 3-----------------------------------Horizontal acceleration, Event 3-----------------------------Horizontal velocity, Event 3---------------------------------Vertical stress, Event 3-------------------------------------Vertical acceleration, Event 5-----------------------~-------
Vertical velocity, Event 5-----------------------------------Horizontal acceleration, Event 5-----------------------------Horizontal velocity, Event 5---------------------------------Vertical stress, Event 5--------------------------------------

4------------------------------------------------

4-----------------------------4-------------------

11

122
123
124
125
126
127
132
138
142
145
150
152
154
156
158
161
162
164
167
168
171

NOTATION
Ah

Horizontal particle acceleration, g's

Peak resultant particle acceleration, g's

v
c

Vertical particle acceleration, g's


Airblast propagation velocity, ft/sec

Cp

Peak stress propagation velocity, ft/sec

Cs

Seismic propagation velocity in the surface material, ft/sec

d
~

P
P
so
P
1
R

Measurement depth, feet


Shallower depth, feet
Stress at depth, psi
Surface overpressure, psi
Initial stress or stress at prior depth

Rise time, seconds

Uh

Horizontal particle velocity, ft/sec

Peak resultant particle velocity, ft/sec

U
v
Z

Vertical particle velocity, ft/sec

, psi

Horizontal range, feet

T
a
T
r

Arrival time, msec

Depth, feet

The angle of the trailing wave intersection with the ground surface, degrees

Soil density, pcf

12

CONVERSION FACTORS, BRITISH TO METRIC UNITS OF MEASUREMENT


British units of measurement used in this report can be converted to metric
units as follows.

Multiply
feet

To Obtain

By
0.3048

meters

inches

25.4

millimeters

pounds per cubic foot

16.01846

kilograms per cubic meter

pounds per square inch


tons

6.894757
0.9071847

Fahrenheit degrees

5/9

kilonewtons per square meter


megagrams
Celsius or Kelvin degrees a

a To obtain Celsius (C) temperature readings from Fahrenheit (F) readings, use the following formula: C = (5/9)(F - 32). To obtain
Kelvin (K) readings, use: K = (5/9)(F - 32) + 273.15.
13

CHAPI'ER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1

BACKGROUND
Operation Distant Plain consisted of a series of high-explosive (HE)

and detonable-gas experiments conducted in Alberta, Canada, during FY 1967


under the auspices of the Tripartite Technical Cooperation Program.

This
1
operation is a continuation of a test program begun in 1959 with a 5-ton
shot, and followed by a 20-ton shot in 1960, a 100-ton shot in 1961, and

more recently, a 500-ton shot in 1964.


This current test series was designed to provide airblast, cratering,
and ground-shock data from spherical shots above and at the surface in a
particular soil type for both summer and winter conditions for testing prototype instrumentation, determining response of military equipment, and
conducting experiments in blast biology.

In addition, tree blowdown and

defoliation data were to be obtained from a surface burst in a coniferous


forest.

Table 1.1 lists the events.

Event 1 was a spherical 20-ton TNT charge mounted on a tower with a


height of burst (HOB) of 85 feet.

Event 2 was a 20-ton-equivalent

detonable-gas-filled balloon located at the same HOB and ground zero (GZ)
as Event 1.

Because of destruction of the gas balloon during the inflation

process, Event 2 was rescheduled for testing in October 1966.

Event 2A was

a 20-ton-equivalent detonable-gas-filled bag (surface), similar to Event 2.


Both Events 2 and 2A were to utilize remaining operable instrumentation
from Event 1.

These detonable-gas shots were aimed at producing blast and

thermal effects for target response without creating ejecta and debris.
Both Events 3 and 5 were spherical 20-ton half-buried stacks of TNT.
-Event 3 served -a-s -a normal environrlle-ntal
frozen-ground shot, Event
Series (Reference 1).

~untrol

shot for an identical

5, and to provide correlation with the Flat Top

Event 5 was detonated during the winter when the

1 A table of factors for converting British units of measurement to metric


units is presented on page 13.
14

ground was partially frozen.

The main objectives of this event were to

study cratering and ground-shock effects in a frozen medium.

For Event 5,

a unique test situation was hoped for: that the ground shock from the detonation would be induced into a three-layered system with a relatively slowVelocity layer sandwiched between the top (frozen) layer and the saturated
layer at the water table.

Complex ground-wave interactions were expected.

Little specific scientific knowledge has been assimilated on HE effects in a forested area.

The mechanics of tree blowdown and defoliation

need to be related to air shock and ground motions.

Since the resultant

conditions directly affect troop, helicopter, and surface vehicle movements, considerable effort has been directed toward this problem.

A pro-

totY:Pe shot, Blowdown I, was conducted in a tropical rain forest in Australia.

Event 4 (Blowdown II) was designed to expand the empirical knowledge

to include typical coniferous forest response.


A test site for Event 4 was selected near Hinton, Alberta, Canada, in
the Dominion Forest Preserve.

The soil of the area is primarily saturated

glacial. till in a clayey matrix intermixed with occasional thin layers of


saturated clay, extending down to bedrock, perhaps at 100 feet.

The upper

6 to 8 inches is mostly decaying organic material and root networks.

The

nature of the soil prevents deep root penetration so that the trees are
Only loosely anchored.

Intuitively, it was felt that, because of these

conditions, the directly transmitted ground shock from an explosive source


WOUld be transmitted to the root bundle and perhaps contribute to the blowdown mechanism.
1.2

OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE


The objectives of Project 3.02a were to measure earth motions and

stresses produced by these detonations, and to analyze and correlate the


resuits with data obtained on other similar shots (Flat Top II and III).
This report covers Project 3.02a participation in Events 1, 2A, and 3
(summer alluvium tests), the Event 4 forest shot (Blowdown II), and
Event 5, the frozen-ground shot, of the Operation Distant Plain Test
Series.
For each event, vertical. and horizontal. acceleration, velocity, and

15

displacement data were obtained for various ranges and depths.


stress data were als9 obtained for all events except Event

4.

Vertical
The number

of data channels employed on each shot is included in Table 1.1.


data obtained is given in Appendix A, except for Event

The raw

4. Event 4 data

traces are given in Chapter 5.


1.3

PREDICTIONS
Predictions for instrument range settings were made from existing

equations derived from one-dimensional theory and empirical data.

Stress

attenuation with depth was determined from the empirical expression developed in Reference 2.
p = p

Where:

d )-0.37

(1)

( dl

P = stress at depth, psi


P = initial stress or stress at shallower depth, psi
1

d = working depth, feet


d = prior depth, feet
1
This equation permits incremental stresses to be calculated; however, an
initial depth-stress input must be assumed.

To set up initial conditions

for solution, a depth of 0.5 foot, where the pressure level approximates
the ground surface overpressure, was assumed.
Particle velocity was calculated from Equation 2, extracted from the
Air Force Design Manual (Reference 3), using pressure inputs previously
calculated from Equation 1 above.
p
pC

Where:

(2)
p

Ur= peak resultant particle velocity, ft/sec


p = soil density (assumed to be approximately

cp

100 pcf)

peak stress propagation velocity, ft/sec

Particle velocity rise times were calculated from Equation 3 (from


Reference 3).

16

(3)

cs
Where:

T = rise time, sec


r

depth, feet

Cs = seismic propagation velocity in the surface material, ft/sec


The peak resultant particle acceleration was predicted using Equation

4.
Ar

Where:

( 4)

=peak resultant particle acceleration, ft/sec/sec

For acceleration in g's Equation 4 becomes:

2U

The angle

= 32.2Tr

(5)
r

is defined as the angle of the trailing wave intersec-

tion with the normal ground surface (Figure 1.1).

This angle may be deter-

mined either graphically or by the expression:


sin
Where:

cs

(6)

c = airblast velocity, ft/sec

The included angle between the resultant and vertical vectors (Figure 1.1)
is equivalent to

e ,

the trailing wave angle.

The vertical and horizontal acceleration components may now be calculated from Equations 7 and 8:

Av = Ar cos

( 7)
(8)

The vertical and horizontal particle velocity components may similarly


be computed.

17

uv

ur

cos

(9)

uh = ur

sin

(10)

Table 1.2 lists the predicted values for airblast-induced ground motions computed for Project 3.02a.

18

TABLE 1.1

DISTANT PLAIN EVENTS

Event

Charge Configuration

20 tons, spherical, TNT, 85-foot


tower
20-ton equivalent 62.5-foot radius,
hemispherical, detonable gas (propane and oxygen), surface

7 ,July 1966

Drowning Ford Test Range, DRES (Defence


Research Establishment, Suffield)

22 July 1966

Drowning Ford Test Range, DRES

20 tons, spherical, TNT, halfburied


50 tons, hemispherical, TN'r,
surface

27 July 1966

Drowning Ford Test Range, DRES

16 August 1966

Hinton, Alberta

20 tons, spherical, TNT, halfburied

9 February 1967 Drowning Ford Test Range, DRES

2A

4
5

TARLE 1.2
Surface

(}ar;e

Depth
d

so

Location

No. Data
Channels

34

PREDICTION DA'rA r"OR AIBBIAST-INDUCED GROUND MOTIONS

Overpressure
p

Date

Pressure
at Depth
p

Resultant
Particle
Velocity

ur

Rts-e-

Resuitant-

Hori--

Time

Particle
Acceleration
A
r

zontal
Particle
Particle Acceleration
Velocity

']'

psi

feet

psi

ft/sec

.seconds

g's

1,000

1.5
5.0
10.0

667.0
1126.0
330,0

0.0025
0.0060
0.0110

1,540.0
415.0
174.o

5)0

1.5
5.0
10.0

364.o
234,o
182.0

62.0
40.0
31.0
3lf,O
22.0
17 .o

0.0025
0.0060
0.0110

300

1.5
5,0
10.0
16.o

200.0
128.0
99.0
83.0

19.0
12.0
9,5
7,7

0.0025
0.0060
0.0110
0.0145

850.0
227.0
95,0
470,0
1211,0
53.0
2).0

200

1.5
5 .o
10.0

12.0
8.0
6.2

0.0025
0.0060
0.0110

310.0
82.0
35,0

100

1.5
5.0
10.0

133.0
85.0
66.o
6c{ ,0
43.0
33,0

6.3
lf,0
3,1

0.0025
0.0060
0.0110

50

1.5
5.0
10.0

33,0
21.0
16.o

3,1
1.9
1.5

0.0025
0.0060
O.OllO

30

1.5
16.o

20.0
7,6

1.9
o.8

20

1.5
5.0

13.0
8.o

10

1.5

1.5

6.7
3,4

Harizontal

uh
ft/sec

g's

Vertica-1

Vertical

Particle Particle
Velocity Acceleration

uv

rt/sec

g's

62.0
4o.o
31.0

1,540.0
415.0
174.o
840.0
224.o
94.o

5 .6
3.(i
2.8

140.0
37.0
16.o

4.2
2.6
2.1
1.5
3,2
2.1
l.6

103.0
28.0
12.0
5.6
82.0
22.0
9,3

458.0
121.0
52.0
25 .o

160.0
42.0
17.0

2.2

56.0
15.0
5,9

149.0
39,0
16.o

1.4
0.94
0.74

0.0025
0.0145

77,0
20.0
9.0
47.0
2.6

1.1
o.48

38.0
9.9
4.5
28.0
1.5

69.0
18.o
8.1
38.0
2.1

1.2
o.8

0.0025
0.0060

30,0
8.3

0.80
0,53

20.0
5,5

22.0
6.1

0.62

0.0025

15.0

o.49

12.0

9,3

0,33

0.0025

8.2

0.30

7,4

3.6

19

1.4
1.1

298.0
79.0
34.o

AIRBLAST PROPAGATION

Uh,Ah

Figure 1.1 Wavefront diagram and force vectors.

20

CHAPTER 2
INSTRUMENTATION
2.1

DROWNING FORD TEST RAIDE


2.1.1

Layout.

Test operations for the summer series were to include

Events 1, 2, 2A, and 3, held at the Defence Research Establishment, Suffield (DRES), Drowning Ford Test Range; Event 2 was postponed as mentioned
in Section 1.1.

Because of the compressed shot schedule, gages were em-

placed and checked out at the Events.land 3 sites simultaneously.


recovered from Event

3 were immediately reused on Event 4.

Gages

All gages were

placed essentially along a single radial blast line in each test area (Figure 2.1).

Gage signal cables were run in a covered trench to the recording

instrumentation located in an 8- by 15-foot concrete bunker.


was located approximately 1,200 feet from GZ.
two steps.

The bunker

The cable runs were made in

A trunkline approximately 700 feet long was permanently em-

placed from the instrument bunker toward the test area, terminating in a
hardened junction box.

Individual gage cables were run in a covered trench

from the placement locations to the junction box.


Events 1, 2, and 2A gagelines were first connected to the recording
instrumentation through the junction box.

After completion of Events 1 and

2A, the gagelines from the Event 3 site were connected in place of those
from the previous setups.
Sixty-five channels of instrumentation were employed for Events 1
and 2A.

The area instrumented was greater for these events because of

Planned measurements directly under the point of burst.

The stresses ex-

pected to be generated by the high reflected overpressures from Shots 1


and 2A were of particular interest; therefore, the majority of the gages
were in this region.

Only the most distant stations were located in the

mach reflection region.


10 psi.

The overpressures expected ranged from 1,000 to

The gage array is shown in Figure 2.2.

marily at depths

1.5, 5.0, and 10.0 feet.

Gages were positioned pri-

Two additional horizontal ve-

locity gages were included, one at the 16-foot depth and 80-foot range and
one at the 18-foot depth and 210-foot range.
For each of the surface (i.e. half buried) bursts, Events 3 and 5,
21

34 instrument channels were used.

Measurements were made in the surface

overpressure region of 300 to 20 psi as shown in Figure 2.3.

The array was

designed to determine the different propagation phenomena expected between


the frozen and unfrozen ground on Event 5,

The array was positioned in

order to remain generally in the elastic region of earth response.

Proj-

ects 3.04a (Sandia Corporation) and 3.04b (Stanford Research Institute)


obtained complementary data in the hydrodynamic and plastic (close-in) regions; however, these projects did not participate on Event 5.
2.1.2

Placement Methods.

The particle motion canisters used at the

Drowning Ford Test Range were placed in

8-inch-diamet~r

augered boreholes.

The holes in the Event 1 area were initially drilled by a local contractor
using a mud drill.

This method proved to be quite unsatisfactory due to

the ragged nature of the hole and sidewall wetting.

The holes had to be

reamed out later by the DRES field crew using an air auger.

This latter

method was used for the remainder of the instrument holes at Drowning Ford.
In the process of drilling the holes, a fine, free-flowing gray sand
was encountered at a depth of 8 to 12 feet.

This sand layer, which made it

quite difficult to place gage canisters deeper than this level, appeared to
be extensive and was observed in all drill holes.

Several 3-inch-diameter

Shelby-tube samples were taken near the Event 1 area and were analyzed by
the Eric H. Wang Civil Engineering Research Facility, Albuquerque, New
Mexico.

A description of the subsurface material (References 4 and 5) is

given in Table 2.1.


The instrument placement technique was as follows.

The bottom of the

drill hole was tamped smooth and a thin layer of density-matched, lowstrength grout was placed in the hole with a 4-inch-diameter plastic pipe.
The instrument package was lowered into the hole with a placement tool,
properly aligned, and leveled by optical and electrical reference.

The

canister was held in this position until initial set occurred in the grout.
Sufficient additional grout was then added to cover the canister about
4 inches.

After the grout had cured, dry masonry sand was rained into the

hole and tamped in layers until the next instrument level was reached.
Typical gage columns are shown in Figure 2.4.
The stress gages were placed in a separate hole parallel to the
22

Particle motion gage canisters.

Gages were placed downhole with a place-

ment tool and the hole was backfilled with dry masonry sand as in the particle motion hole; however, no grout was used.
2.2

HIN'I'ON TEST SITE


Particle motion transducers recovered from canisters used in Events 1

and 2A were employed for Event

4.

Twenty-four accelerometers and 12 ve-

locity gages were used for a total of 36 channels.


Used for this test.

No stress gages were

Figures 2.5 and 2.6 show the Event 4 location plan and

gage geometry.
Numerous obstacles were encountered in preparing the test site for
gage emplacement.

The nature of the glacial till was such that vertical

gage holes were difficult to drill.

Boulders and cobblestones held in a

clayey matrix predominated the geology of the area.

A backhoe was finally

employed to cut a vertical trench to the desired depth for instrwnent


Placement.

A cavity the size of the gage canister was then dug in the un-

disturbed sidewall.

The canister was placed in the slot, properly aligned,

and grouted in place (Figure 2.7).


tamped.

The trench was then backfilled and

Cables were run in a shallow ditch in both sectors.

sector cable was covered with sand and then indigenous soil.

The cleared
The forest

trench was covered only with indigenous material.


Adverse weather conditions prevailed during most of the site preparation.

Only 2-1/2 days of good weather were available for canister instal-

lation, and all but one of the canisters were emplaced in this period.
Figure 2.8 shows the typical surface condition in the cleared sector.
2.3

:EXiUIPMEN'I'
Ground shock was measured with velocity, acceleration, and earth

stress gages.

The motion gages (Pace A-18 accelerometers, Reference 6,

and Sandia DX velocity gages, Reference 7), which were available commercially, were variable-reluctance-type gages.

The stress gages (References

8 and 9) were designed and fabricated by the Waterways Experiment Station

(WES).

The motion gages and associated calibration and signal conditioning

modUles were assembled on-site and installed in sealed canisters.


23

Usually,

one vertical and one horizontal accelerometer, and a horizontal velocity


gage were employed in each can.

The canisters were potted with wax to

eliminate mount vibrations and prevent water leakage.

The instrument pack-

age was designed to approximately match the density of the native alluvium.
Soil density ranged from about 82 to 85 pcf for the ranges instrumented;
the instrument canister density was 82.5 pcf.
All gages were calibrated in the laboratory before shipment to the
test site.

The accelerometers were statically calibrated on a spin table,

the velocity gages by means of the free-fall method, and the stress gages
in a static pressure chamber.
prior to shot time.

All gages were electrically calibrated just

The stress gages were electrically calibrated at the

amplifier; however, the particle motion gages were calibrated at the


transducer.
The basic electronic system consisted of a 3-kHz carrier amplifierdemodulator system for the particle motion gages and a de signal
conditioner-amplifier system (operational amplifier) for the stress gages.
Gage signals were recorded on both FM magnetic tape and light-beam galvanometer oscillographs.

These methods have been used with a high degree of

success on previous operations.

All systems were activated by means of

hard-wire signals provided by DRES through the Master Control Countdown


System.
The 3-kHz carrier amplifier system response frequency is limited by
the amplifier, but is flat up to 600 Hz.

The amplifier system used with

the stress gages was a de signal conditioner and amplifier with a flat
frequency response up to 20 kHz

and a gain of 1.DD.

Tne frequency limit-

ing factor here was the optical galvanometer of the recording osGillograph,
which limited the signal frequency to about 2.5 kHz.

This limitation is

not imposed when coupling this electronic system to high-frequency magnetic


tape recorders.
Two developmental accelerometers (Kaman Nuclear Model KA-1100) were
mounted along with the Pace gages at the 1.5-foot depth at Locations D and
F (Figure 2.1) in Event 2A.
reluctance gages.

Both the Pace and Kaman gages are variable-

The Pace gage is a relatively low-frequency gage (up

to 1,200 Hz, depending on range), whereas the Kaman gage is a higher

24

frequency gage with stated response up to 3,000 Hz, also dependent on range.
Generally, the higher the acceleration tolerance of the gage (range), the
higher its response frequency.
of the Kaman gage.

Figure

2.9 shows the internal configuration

Signal conditioning for this gage was accomplished

through an in-line signal conditioner/amplifier located at the gage.

Gage

balancing, calibration, and data recording were done in the Ballistic Research Laboratories (BRL) bunker by Kaman Nuclear and BRL personnel.

The

recorded waveforms and calibrations were provided by BRL.

2.4

GAGE ANNOTATION
The gages were alphanumerically coded by event number, horizontal

range from GZ, depth of burial, sector, parameter, and orientation.


For example

1 0

2 A

\
_
l

AV

Orientation
Parameter
Sector1

Depth, ft
Horizontal Range, ft
Event
The parameters are identified as:

A Acceleration
V = Velocity
E = Stress

and orientation as:

H =Horizontal radial
V = Vertical

Single and double integrations of measured data are indicated by the symbols
2.5

and

ff ,

respectively, preceding the gage designation.

DATA REDUCTION
The oscillographic paper was processed innnediately after recovery,

Whereas the magnetic

ta~e

was scanned with an oscilloscope, then sent back

to the WES for controlled playback and analysis.


Data reduction consisted of a system of digitizing the analog signal
data, along with amplitude and timing code factors, processing the

Used for Event 4 only:

F = forested sector; C

= cleared

sector.

25

70346

digitized data to punched cards for computer input, and running the card
decks on the appropriate computer code.

Computer input parameters were

integrated (either singly or doubly) and processed to hard-copy printout


and parameter versus time plots.
Data reduction techniques for Events 1 through

4 consisted of opti-

cally digitizing paper oscillograms with an electromechanical curve follower.

Each time the scan field boundary was reached, the plot was ad-

vanced and reindexed.

Paper stretch, reindexing, and operator error all

contributed to accummulative error, increasing with length of scan.

The

accummulated error was compounded with numerical integration, necessary to


obtain secondary and in some cases tertiary parameters.
By the time Event 5 data were ready for processing, a new analog-todigital data converter was operational which could convert the FM analog
magnetic tape into computer-compatible digital tape.

This advanced process-

ing technique greatly enhanced data reliability for this event.


Because of additional costs required to reprocess the bulk of the test
data for increased accuracy, no reprocessing will be attempted.

26

TABLE 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF DROWNING FORD SOIL

Sample

Description

Depth
feet

0 to 3

Brown silty clay with considerable organic matter in


the form of vertical root systems.

3 to 5.8

Tan silty clay, horizontal stratification, small


amount of organic matter.

5.8 to 6.3

Light brown silty clay, horizontal stratification.

6.3 to 7.9

Light brown silty clay.

7.9 to 10.8 Alternating layers of light tan to light brown silty


clay and fine, clean, gray sand.

10.8 to 13.3

Alternating layers of light tan to light brown silty


clay and fine, clean, gray sand.

27

BUNKER

SCALE
SO

SO

100 1SO FT

JUNCTION BOX

GZ, EVENT 3
GZ, EVENTS 1 & 2a

GZ, EVENT 5

Figure 2 .1

Field locations, Events 1, 2A, 3 , and 5.

28

EVENT I CHARGE

GAGE KEY:

VERTICAL PARTICLE VELOCITY, VERTICAL


PARTICLE ACCELERATION, AND VERTICAL
EARTH STRESS.

RADIAL PARTICLE VELOCITY, RADIAL


PARTICLE ACCELERATION, VERTICAL
PARTICLE ACCELERATION, ANO VERTICAL
EARTH STRESS.

'\/

RADIAL PARTICLE VELOCITY, RADIAL


PARTICLE ACCELERATION, AND VERTICAL
PARTICLE ACCELERATION.

/j,

RADIAL PARTICLE VELOCITY ONLY.

----1----~EVENT
....

2A GAS BAG
ENVELOPE

.....

"'.,"'

'

'\
\

v"
~J

~'I'

\
\

./'

I
\

STA

....

1.5

l1J
l1J

u.

:i

10

'--~

....

a.

l1J

0
15 -

'
20

50

80

95

125

210

390

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

NOTE:

1.

EVENT2A GZ ACTUALLYt.OCATED10FEET FROM.E-\.IENT 1 GZ ON A 7928'11" ARC


OFF NORTH.

2.

STATION

PREDICTED OVERPRESSURE, PSI

EVENT 1

1,000

600.0

MEASURED OVERPRESSURE, PSld


EVENT 2A

500

400.0

300

230.0

120.0

200

170.0

75.0

100c

115.0

44.0

30c

33.0

21.0

1oc

9.4

7.2

A VERTICAL KAMAN NUCLEAR ACCELEROMETER WAS ALSO INCLUDED AT THIS LOCATION.

A VERTICAL KAMAN NUCLEAR ACCELEROMETER WAS ALSO INCLUDED AT THIS LOCATION.


TWO VERTICAL ANO TWO HORIZONTAL ACCELEROMETERS WERE ALSO INCLUDED AT THIS
RANGE BUT ON DIFFERENT AZIMUTHS.

INCIDENT PRESSURE IN MACH REFL.ECTION REGION.

BRL PROJECT 1.01.

Figure 2.2

Cross section of gage test plan, Events 1 and 2A.

29

STA

PREDICTED SURFACE OVERPRESSURE, PSI

.,

CHARGE

/"""/1.;""

300 200

100

50

"'"'V-"'

20
'.>'/~/""

.'"'"'~"'

I-

w
w
IJ..

:z::

I0..

10

15
60

70

105

150

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET


GAGE KEY:

RADIAL PARTICLE VELOCITY, RADIAL PARTICLE ACCELERATION,


VERTICAL PARTICLE ACCELERATION, ANO VERTICAL EARTH STRESS

VERTICAL PARTICLE ACCELERATION ONLY

Figure 2.3

Cross section of gage test plan, Events 3 and 5,

30

225

ORGANIC MATERIAL AND


ROOT NETWORKS

PARTICLE MOTION

COLUMN

STRESS GAGE COLUMN

~ { I 7 ~ \. <.''.' .':":
\ ..
l 1 ( ' l .( c
~

:'.'

...
CABLE

TRENCH

.. :: ..

CABLE

TRENCH

..... :

MASONRY SAND
BACKFILL

INSTRUMENT CABLE

I-

w
w

ALLUVIUM
4

u.

i
Ia.
w
0

INSTRUMENT CANISTER

SE SOIL STRESS GAGE


LOW-STRENGTH, DENSITYMATCHED GROUT

. . '.':: .: . . ... '

11

...

FINE

...
. . ......
..

FREE-FLOWING
GRAY SAND

12

Figure 2.4

Typical gage columns, Drowning Ford Test Site.

31

GZ, EVENT 4

CA

CLEARED
SECTOR

SCALE
200

200

Figure 2.5

400

600 FT

Field locations, Event

32

4.

..

CHARGE
["\
~~

STA

IIJJ
IJJ
ll.

I
ICL
IJJ

10

D
~~"<(

~".

~~,,~

1.5

1.5

240

320

450

700

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

a. FORESTED SECTOR
CHARGE
STA

IIJJ
IJJ
ll.

320

450

700

ICL

IJJ

10

1.5

240

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

b. CLEARED SECTOR
GAGE KEY:

'il

RADIAL PARTICLE VELOCITY, RADIAL PARTICLE ACCELERATION,


AND VERTICAL PARTICLE ACCELERATION

Figure 2.6

Cross section of gage test plan, Event

33

4.

Figure 2.7

Figure 2.8
Event 4.

Partially grouted instrument canister, 10.0-foot depth, Event

4.

Photograph of cleared sector main blast line from GZ, preshot,

34

ELECTRICAL CABLES

ASSEMBLY SCREWS

GAGE CASE

-,
I t0...........,.
'

'\I

MOUNTING HOLES

O/*(

FLAT COIL

I ,

0
Figure 2.9

Kaman Nuclear experimental accelerometer.

35

CHAPI'ER

RESULTS, EVENTS 1 AND 2A


3.1

EVENT 1
No data were recorded by Project 3.02a for Event 1.

All data channels

were operable prior to evacuation of the instrument bunker for remote operation.

Failure to properly receive and translate the -30-second primary

start signal or the -2-second backup signal from DRES Control resulted in
no recording equipment turn-on.

Manual shorting of the DRES signal console

relay (simulating a start signal) after the shot resulted in a normal turn-

A check of the transducers confirmed all units were


still in operable condition after the event.
It must be concluded that if either the -30-second primary or -2second backup signal had been properly received and translated, data would
on of all systems.

have been acquired.


3.2

EVENT 2A
3.2.l Data Recovery.

Good data recovery was made on Event 2A.

Sixty-four of sixty-five data channels yielded information.

Peak values

and arrival times are given in Tables 3.1 through 3.4.


3.2.2
channels.

Ground-Shock Arrival Time.

Arrival times were obtained on all

The horizontal velocity calculated from propagation times re-

corded from the gages l.5 feet deep underlying the gas bag was 8,500 ft/sec,
which compares favorably with the computed gas detonation velocity of approximately 8,ooo ft/sec.

Near-surface horizontal propagation rates com-

pared well with the airblast propagation outside the gas bag.
The seismic velocity of the upper 10 feet of soil was determined by
seismic refraction survey before this shot to be approximately 800 ft/sec.
The underlying layer, extending beyond 45 feet in depth, had an apparent
velocity of 1,400 ft/sec.

Propagation velocities for a string of vertical

gages near the surface approximated 875 ft/sec and compared well with the
seismic velocity for the upper layer.

No significant effects of layering

were detected in the data.


Figure 3.1 is a plot of near-surface (1.5-foot depth) ground-shock

arrival times versus horizontal range.

Good comparison is noted between

ground instrumentation and BRL surface airblast arrival (References 4


and 5).
Figure 3.2 is a shock-front diagram constructed from vertical motion
and BRL surface airblast arrival times.

Normal wavefront progression was

observed outside the gas bag; however, an apparent anomaly is indicated for
the region beneath the bag.

The vertical wave front near the center of the

bag appears to lag that near the edge.

A possible cause for this occur-

rence could be a low density in the recompacted material in the area near
the center of the bag.

This area was dug out for the tower footings on

Event 1 and the gas manifold on this event.

Initial propagation through a

less dense backfill would tend to lag that in a denser in situ material.
However, it is doubtful that lag times on the order of those recorded could
be effected aver the short distance traveled.

A mislocated canister was at

once suspected since both motion gages were mounted together and yielded
the same arrival time.

But postshot inspection indicated that the gages

were in their proper locations and the stress gages located in a parallel
hole support the motion gage data.
3.2.3

Particle Acceleration.

Table 3.1 lists the peak acceleration

data for this event.


Vertical accelerations, as shown in Figure 3.3, varied from 702 g's
directly under the bag to 7 g's at 390-foot range for the near-surface
(l.5-foot depth) stations.

Peak accelerations at the 5- and 10-foot depths

Progressively decreased with depth and range with a rate of attenuation


like the near-surface stations.

Outrunning ground motions were not ob-

served over the ground range instrumented for this shot.


To determine the effect of the gas bag, vertical acceleration waveforms at progressive depths for selected stations beneath the gas bag and
outside the bag are compared in Figure 3.4.

The pulse width is noted to be

less for gages near the edge of the gas bag than near the center or just
outside.
Vertical acceleration and velocity were normalized to surface overpressure (Table 3.5) and plotted versus depth (Figure 3,5) to yield a
family of response curves relating to the surface airblast loading.
37

Because points of measurement for surface airblast and ground motion instruments were not coincident, overpressures were derived by interpolation
of the BRL data.

No pressure data were available for regions within the

gas bag; hence, ratios presented are related to positions beyond the bag
radius.
ratios were as high as 2.13 g's/psi and exceeded
A/P
so
unity except at the region of lowest overpressure. A trend of decreasing
Near-surface

A/P

and
so
indicated.

U /P
v

so

ratios with increasing surface overpressure was

Waveforms for the developmental Kaman Nuclear accelerometers placed at


95- and 210-foot ranges can be compared with those for the Pace gages in
Figure 3.6.

Peak values are plotted in Figure 3.3.

Good comparison in

waveforms was noted; however, amplitude disparities were evident at both


positions.

The 95-foot-range Kaman gage measured exactly one-half the

value of the Pace gage, whereas at the 210-foot range the Kaman gage reading was 1.5 times greater than the Pace gage reading.
is strongly suspected for the Kaman gages.

A calibration error

The 95-foot-range Kaman gage

apparently underread as compared with the data trend.

The rise time for

this gage was noted t.o be 1 msec longer than that for the Pace gage, indicating a possible damping problem.

Rise times were identical for Pace and

Kaman gages at the 210-foot range.

Noise with a frequency of approximately

1,000 Hz was superimposed on the signal of the 210-foot-range Kaman gage.


The source of this noise was not determined, but incomplete demodulation of
carrier signal is suspected.
In conjunction with a General American Transportation Corporation
(GATX) project for Event 1 (References 4 and 5), two vertical accelerometers were placed at the 210-foot range by WES.

The GATX project was not

part of Event 2A; however, since the depth and range of these gages gave a
direct radial comparison with the vertical gage (2A-210-l.5-AV) in the main
gageline, output signals were recorded.

3.7.

Waveforms are compared in Figure

The two auxiliary gages (2A-210-l.5-AV1 and 2A-210-l.5-AV2) compared

well in both amplitude and waveform; however, a slight phase shift occurred
between these and the primary gage (2A-210-l. 5-AV).

In addition, the ini-

tial pulse duration was much shorter for 2A-210-l.5-AV.

For horizontal acceleration (Figure 3.8), peak near-surface values


varied from 58 g's directly under the gas bag to 4 g's at 390-foot range.
Figure 3.8 shows a zone extending from 80- to 125-foot range in which there
is considerable scatter in the data.
zontal velocity data.

A similarity was noted in the hori-

The data points at 80- and 95-foot horizontal ranges

(Gages 2A-80-l.5-AH and 2A-95-l.5-AH) appear quite low.

Upon analyzing the

waveforms (Figure 3.9), it was found that the initial peaks had apparently
been clipped, possibly due to malfunction in the transducers or some unexpected response in the soil medium.

Amplifier and recorder bandpass ranges

were well above the data input and are, therefore, not considered sources
of error.
It should be noted that peak value for the 10-foot depth at this range
also shows a decreased value from the data trend.
3.2.4

Particle Velocity.

Peak velocity data are listed in Table 3.2.

Direct vertical particle velocity was measured only under the center of the
bag at three depths.

Peak values ranged from 33 ft/sec at 1.5-foot depth

to 7.9 ft/sec at 10-foot depth.

The integrated acceleration and measured

Velocity for these stations are in excellent agreement.

Peak vertical ve-

locities for all other stations were obtained by single integration of


Vertical accelerometer data, and are shown in Figure 3.lO.

V'ertical veloc_-

ity for the near-surface stations attenuated from 33 ft/sec directly under
the bag to 0.5 ft/sec at 390-foot horizontal range.

Peak downward velocity

attenuated with both depth and range.


Maximum vertical velocity normalized to surface overpressur_e (Table

3.5) shows the near-surface ratio peaking at 21-psi overpressure, followed


by a gentle decrease at higher overpressures.

This trend is supported by

data from other depths and by the acceleration ratio trends (Figure 3.5).
The peak outward horizontal velocity (Figure 3.11) attenuated relatively little with range at the 5-foot depth.

At depths of 10 feet and

below, the horizontal velocity showed a consistent pattern of attenuation with both depth and range.
imately 4 to

Peak measured horizontal velocity (approx-

~/sec) was greatest at the 1.5-foot depth and 50-foot

range (under the bag).

No horizontal measurements were made closer than

39

this station to GZ.

Integrated acceleration gave a comparable peak value

of approximately 3.1 ft/sec.

As noted earlier, the near-surface velocity

data show an anomalous region at the same general range as do the horizontal acceleration values.

A consistent trend does develop with increas-

ing range; however, the rate of attenuation is quite low.


3.2.5

Displacement.

Particle displacements were computed from nu-

merical integration of acceleration and velocity parameters.


scatter was apparent in the computed values.

Considerable

In many instances, reliable

peak values could not be determined due to the shape of the computed curves,
which were greatly affected by noise, drift (baseline shift), and error in
numerical sampling.

Computed values are listed in Table 3,3,

Vertical displacement attenuated with range outside the gas envelope


at similar rates for all depths instrumented (Figure 3.12). Maximum tran_sient displacement occurred at the center of the gas bag as expected and
was on the order of 1.1 feet at 1.5-foot depth.

This attenuated to a low

of 0.004 foot at the farthest station (390-foot range).


Horizontal displacements ranged from 0.075 foot under the edge of the
balloon (50-foot range) to 0.006 foot at 390-foot range and 1.5-foot depth.
Significantly greater scatter was present in the horizontal data (Figure
3.13) than in the vertical.
3.2.6

Earth Stress.

For the 1.5-foot depth, vertical stress was ap-

proximately 890 psi directly under the gas bag, decaying to 9 psi at the
390-foot range (Table 3.4).

The near-surface measurements past 50-foot

horizontal range are in good agreement with BRL surface airblast data (References 4 and 5), as shown in Figure 3.14. Stress decrease with depth was
much more rapid than had been anticipated, producing only marginal output
signals.

Amplitude accuracy was consequently diminished, and relatively

low confidence levels are placed on the data.


Near-surface waveforms are shown in Figure 3.15.

Typical airblast

loading profiles do not appear to develop in the ground-stress pulse until


the wave front is in a free area, outside the containment zone (i.e., the
zone directly beneath the gas bag).
Direct comparison is made between near-surface stress and surface airblast waveforms at 80- and 210-foot ranges in Figure 3.16.
40

The loading

fronts appear to be retarded in the alluvium as evidenced by increasing


rise times and rapid release of the energy shortly after peaking.

41

TABLE 3.1 ACCELERATION DATA, EVENT 2A


Gage

Ground
Range

feet
Vertical (Positive Downward):
0
2A-0-1.5-AV
2A-0-5-AV
2A-0-10-AV
2A-50-l.5-AV
50
2A-50-5-AV
2A-50-10-AV
80
2A-80-1.5-AV
2A-80-5-AV
2A-80-10-AV
2A-95-1. 5-AV
95
2A-95-5-AV
2A-95-10-AV
125
2A-125-l. 5-AV
2A-125-10-AV
210
2A-210-1.5-AV a
2A-210-l. 5-AVla
2A-210-1.5-AV2

Depth

Arrival
Time

Peak
Positive
Acceleration

Time of
Peak

feet

msec

g's

msec

1.5
5.0
10.0

3.2
12.5
27.4

1.5
5.0
10.0

7.9
12.7
16.4
13.2
17.1
21.5
16.1
19.7
24.7
26.8
33.7
68.9

454
98.8
40.2
702
139
77.3
191
110
35.7
124
14.o
27.0

4.4
16.6
34.8
9.1
16.6
23.0

1.5
5.0
10.0
1.5
5.0
10.0
1.5
10.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1. 5

2A-390-1.5-AV
390
Horizontal (Positive Outward):
2A-50-l.5-AH
50
1.5
2A-50-5-AH
5.0
2A-50-10-AH
10.0
80
2A-80-1.5-AH
1.5
2A-80-5-AH
5.0
10.0
2A-80-10-AH
2A-95-1.5-AH
2A-95-5-AH
2A-95-10-AH
2A-125-l.5-AH
2A-125-10-AH
2A-210-l.5-AH a
2A-210-l.5-AH1
2A-210-l.5-AH2 a
2A-390-l. 5-AH

95

1.5
5.0
10.0

125

1.5
10.0

(3.0

29.1

73.1
188

27.6
7.01

7.6
11.3
16.7
14.2
19.0
27.0

58.3
42.8
18.3
10.6
20.7
7-.47
11.7
28.0
8.49
22.6
5.52

19.5
26.2
34.o
28.7
44.4

5.54
6.30

70.3
72.7

15 .7
23.3
28.9
27.0
33,8
68.6
70.8

210

1.5
1.5
Malfunction
1.5
390

188

a Located on different azimuth.


42

95.9
14.9
38.7

15.3
23.5
30.9
18.9
26.2
34.2
28.2
45.2
72.0
76.5
75.3
191

4.2

9.3
15.8
22.8
23.0
30.5

194

VELOCITY DA'l'A, EVENT 2A

TABLE 3.2

Gae;e

Ground Hange

Depth

Arrival Time

feet

feet

msec

Peak
Positive Velocity

Time of Peak

ft/sec

msec

24.3

Vertical (Positive Downward):

2A-O-l. 5- \N

f2A-0-1. 5-AV
2A-0-5-UV
f2A-0-5-AV

l.J

3.8

33.4

l. 5

3.2

31.3

23.3

5.0

16.9

15.0

30.6

16.6

28.8

5.0

12.5

10.0

28.5

10.0

27 .4

1.5

7.9

17.9

11.2

).0

12.7

10.9

20.B

10.0

lG.11

1. 5

13.2

f2A-80-5-AV

5.0

17.1

7.66

27.4

f2A-80-10-AV

10.0

21.5

4.98

34.8

1.5
5.0

16.1
19.'I

4.46

27.9

10.0

~l~. 7

3 .12

37 .8

1.')

26.8

6.03

36.4

10.0

31.7

2.30

48.o

2A-0-10-\N
f2A-0-10-AV
f2A-50-l .5-AV

50

f2A-50-5-AV
f2A-50-10-AV
f2A-80-l.5-AV

f2A-95-1. 5-AV

80

95

f2A-9'3-5-AV
f2A-9S-10-AV

f2A-125-1. 5-AV

125

f2A-1?5-)0-AV

7.90

39.0

7.90

38.8

7 .17
11.5

8.611

27.9
18.6

21.6

l.)

m.9

2.10

75.0

f2A-210-l. 5-AVl"

1.5

73.0

3.09

79.4

f2A-210- l. 5-AV':/l

1.5

73.l

3.09

f2A-390-l. )-AV

3'JO

1.5

50

f2A-210-l .5-AV

210

188

o.49

78.0
193

Horizontal (Positive Outvta.rd):

1.5

8.1

5b

f2A-'j0-1.5-All

1.5

7.6

3.12

27 ,0

2A-50-5-Ull

5.0

13.9

1.48

f2A-50-5-All

5.0

11. 3

1.42

16.9
lG.-4

2A-50-10-\JH

10.0

16. 3

0.90

21.8

f2A-50-10-Al!

10.0

16. 7

0.92

25. 7

l.')

12.4

1. 55

18.l

1.5

14.2

o.68

2A-80-5-1JH

5.0

19.0

1.20

21..

f2A-80-5-All

5. 0

19.0

1.04

27.1

2A-50-1.5-U1!

2 A-80-1. 5-U1!

r,o

f2A-80-l.5-All

2A-80-10-Ull

10.0

29.2

0.56

3H.8

f2A-80-10-All

10.0

27.0

o. 73

)8.7

2A-80-16-U1i

lG.o

29.8

0.54

41.2

1.5

16.o

0.62

21. 2

1.5

15. 7

0.72

21. 7

5.0

21.G

1.18

26. 7

2A-95-1.5-Ull

95

f2A-95-1. 5-1.JI
2A-95-5-U11

5.0

23.3

o.88

2G.8

2A-95-lO-U11

10.0

29. 3

0.29

311.0

f2A-95-10-All

10.0

28.9

0.53

35. 3

1. 5

27.4

32.6

f2A-125-l.5-All

1.5

2'{.0

0.60
o.28b

2A-125-l0-U1!

10.0

38.5

f2A-125-10-All

10.0

33.8

0.30
o.62b

f2A-95-5-All

2A-1~5-l.

5-Ull

2A-210-l. 5-Ul!

125

29.0
4G.r)

46.G

1.5

69.G

o.45

f2A-210-l.5-All

1.5

68.6

o. 31

71. ~~

f2A-210-l.5-Alll"

1.5

70.8

o.4G

79.4

78.9

210

18.0

2A-210-18-Uli
2A-390-l. 5-Ull

390

f2A-)90-l. 5-All

11.2

0.10

1011

1.5

189

0.24

191

1.5

188

0.15

194

~ I,ocl'.ted on different <tzimuth.


~estionable.

43

'l'ABLE 3,3

DISPLACEMENT DATA, EVENT 2A

Gage

Ground
Range

Depth

Peak
Positive
Displacement

feet

feet

feet

Gage

Vertical (Positive Downward):


f2A-O-l.5-W

ff 2A-0-l. 5-AV
f2A-0-5-W

f f2A-0-5-AV
f 2A-0-10-W
ff 2A-0-10-AV
f f2A-50-l.5-AV
f f2A-50-5-AV
f f2A-50-10-AV

50

f f2A-80-l. 5-AV
f f2A-80-5-AV
f f2A-80-10-AV

80

f f2A-95-l. 5-AV
f f2A-95-5-AV
f f2A-95-10-AV

95

f f2A-125-1. 5-AV
f f2A-125-10-AV

125

Jf2A-210-l. 5-AV

1.5
5,0

0.936

5,0

0.3611

10.0

0.110

10,0

0.094

390

f2A-80-1. 5-llH

0.296

10.0

0.077

1.5

0.147

0.107

f2A-95-1. 5-UH

f 2A-50-5-illl

50

feet

1.5

0,032

0.060
0.070c

1.5
5,0
5,0

95

d
0.014

10,0

0.022

10.0

0.014

16.o

0.026

1.5
5,0

o.o4o
0.024

125

1.-5

0.048

f2A-125-10-IBI

1.5
10.0

0.012

f f2A-125-10-AH

10.0

0.024

1.5

0.008

1.5

0.014

18.o

0.003

1.5

0.006

1.5

0.004

0.075

f f2A-390-1. 5-Al!

f2A-390-l. 5-UH

44

1.5

0.029

f2A-210-1. 5-UH

~ Questionable.
Located on different azimuth.
~ Approximate.
Excessive baseline shift,

0.039

10.0

ff 2A-210-l. 5-AII
f 2A-210-18-mr

0,034

10.0

ff 2A-95-10-Al!
ff 2A-125-1. 5-Afl

0.030

0.012

0.018

1.5

0.007

0.018

f2A-125-l.-5-'illl

0.018

80

5,0
10.0

5,0

o.18oa

1.5

50

10.0

1.5

1.5
5,0

feet

f2A-95-10-IBI

10.0

Horizontal (Positive Outward):


Jf2A-50-l. 5-AH

feet

f 2A-95-5-UH
ff 2A-95-5-Afl

0.059
o.o41f

1.5

Peak
Positive
Displacement

ff 2A-80-1. 5-AH
f 2A-80-5-UH
ff 2A-80-5-Afl
f 2A-80-10-UH
f f2A-80-10-Af!
f 2A-80-16-UH

0.191
0.122
0.138

10.0
210

f f2A-50-5-Afl
f 2A-50-10-UH
f f2A-50-10-Af!

0,302

1.5
5,0

5,0

f f2A-210-l.5-AVlb
f f2A-210-l.5-AV2b
Jf2A-390-l. 5-AV

1.080

10.0

Depth

Horizontal (Positive Outward) Continued:

1.5

1.5
5,0

Ground
Range

210

390

0.021

TABLE 3.4 VERTICAL STRESS DATA, EVENT 2A


Ground Range

Depth

Arrival Time

Peak Stress

Time of Peak

feet

feet

msec

psi

msec

2A-O-l. 5-EV
2A-0-5-EV
2A-0-10-EV

1.5
5.0
10.0

4.2
8.6
24.5

2A-50-l.5-EV
2A-50-5-EV
2A-50-10-EV

50

1.5
5.0
10.0

9.5
15 .4
23.4

889
210
113
130
5.72a
15 .4

14.6
30.8
39.4
11.4
21.2
31.0

2A-80-l. 5-EV
2A-80-5-EV
2A-80-10-EV

80

1.5
5.0
10.0

15.5
22.2
29.8

137
b
b

18.0
25.5
34.8

2A-95-l.5-EV
2A-95-5-EV

95

1.5
5.0

23.0
23.0

2A-125-1. 5-EV
2A-210-1.5-EV

125
210

1.5

29.6

1.5

2A-390-1. 5-EV

390

1.5

69.5
188

Gage

21.9
32.8

90.7
16.o
17.4a

36.9
73.2

17.5
9.0

198

~ Questionable amplitude.
Low signal, questionable waveform and amplitude.

TABLE 3.5

AIRBLAST-INDUCED VERTICAL ACCELERATION AND VELOCITY RATIOS,


EVENT 2A

Overpressure
psi

Gage Depth Maximum


Acceleration/Overpressure

Maximum
Velocity/Overpressure

feet

g's/psi

ft/sec/psi

120

1.5
5.0
10.0

1.59
0.92
0.30

0.096
0.064
0.042

73

1.5
5.0
10.0

1.70
1.01
0.37

0.118
0.061
0.043

45

1.5
10.0

2.13
0.33

0.134
0.051

21

1.5
1.5
1.5

1.85
1.39
1.32

0.100
0.147
0.147

1.5

o.88

0.062

7.9

45

0-C....~~~~.l.-~~~---"'--~~~--'~~~~-'-~~~~-'-~~~~...._~~~~~~~~--'

100

50

150

200

250

300

350

400

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.1 Ground-shock arrival time versus horizontal range, 1.5-foot


depth, Event 2A.

BRL AIRBLAST DATA


(PROJECT 1.01)

....

f-

w
w

10

IL
I

f0.

9',,''
I

15

20

25

,,
,, ..... _
\ ',

I
I

30
0
'k_

Figure 3.2

100

200

300

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Ground-shock profile, Event 2A.

46

400

500

1,000
800
LEGEND
600

400

1 .5-FOOT DEPTH
0 KAMAN GAGE

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

!::.

10.0FOOT DEPTH

200

Ill

Cn

80

70.0-FOOT DEPTH/.-0..,,

60

,,,,,.....,,,,,....-

,.

40

7.5-FOOT DEPTH

<{

0::

_J

u
u

0
I-

20

<{

~
8
6
BENEATH GAS BAG
4

OUTSIDE GAS BAG

20

40

60

BO

100

200

400

600

BOO 1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.3 Peak airblast-induced downward acceleration versus


horizontal range, Event 2A.

47

1.5 FOOT DEPTH


2AO l.5-AV

100

1.5- FOOT DEPTH


2A-50-l.5-AV

200

0
y-E'LASTIC RE'BOUNO

200

UP

I
400

"'
z0
~

0
40

a: 60
w
...J 80
w
u
u 100

oJ----J.,......,r--~--=:::::,,.==::::::~~~~~~~~

eo
100
120
140

-98.ars

<(

5.0-FOOT DEPTH
2A50-5-AV

7;,,=12.1MSE'C

20
40
60

_ f 102g'S

20

I
I

20

DOWN

600

5.0- FOOT DEPTH


2A0-5-AV

20

400

DOWN

40

-CJ)

II

-454g'S

UP

200

-IJ9g'S

'r-AtR_BLAST /NOUCE'O MOTION

40

10.0- FOOT DEPTH


2A-50-IO-AV

20

10.0FOOT DEPTH
2A-0-IO-AV

20

20

40
20

60
-11.Jg'S

80

40
0

25

50

75

100

125

25

50

75

100

125

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

a. CENTER OF GAS BAG


0-FOOT RANGE

b. NEAR EDGE OF GAS BAG


50-FOOT RANGE

1.5- FOOT DEPTH


2A-80-l.5-AV

T,,:/J.2MSE'C

401
0

~J--..-2.,.-4'..._::.,.,,:::::::==:=.--_L.:::::::::=.~~~-

40
80

25

50

120
160
200

75
100

-19/g'S

'fQ =17. I MSE'C

"'

-CJ)

z
0
~a:

1.5 FOOT DEPTH


2A-95 l.5AV

(r,,:16./MSE'C

251

20
0

_Jl24g'S
'TQ=l9.1MSE'C

125

5.0 FOOT DEPTH


2A-805-AV

20
40
60

5.0-FOOT DEPTH
2A-95-5-AV

20
40

w 80
...J
w 100

60
-1/0g'S

~ 20

-14.0g'S

80
10

10.0-FOOT DEPTH
2A-80-IOAV

10.0 FOOT DEPTH


2A95- 10-AV

0
10
20
20
-35.1g'S

-21.0g'S

30

40
0

25

50

75

100

125

25

50

75

100

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

c. OUTSIDE GAS BAG


80-FOOT RANGE

d. OUTSIDE GAS BAG


95-FOOT RANGE

Figure 3.4 Vertical accelerograms, Event 2A.

48

125

ACCELERATION/OVERPRESSURE

0.1

0.2

0.4

Av /P so,

o.s

0.6

9' S/PSI
2

o.-~~~~~"T-~~~~~-.-~~~....-~---.~--..~~~~~~.....-~~~~---.

Uv/Pso

.....-----.
I

I I/

I I

Av/Pso

.-----.,

I
I

45 P S l - ! - 1
73 PSl---.f./'/

120 PSI~/

OVERPRESSURE / I

II I

II

I/ I
It I

LI.

I/ I

f-

11

f-

I/

0..
l.Ll
0

f
8

10

12 .......~~~~~-'-~~~~~-'-~~~.J.-~-J,~-J,~~~~~~.._~~~~--'

0.01

0.02

0.04

0.06

VELOCITY/OVERPRESSURE

0.08

0.1

U v /P so,

0.2

0.4

FT/SEC/ PSI

Figure 3.5 Ratio of maximum airblast-induced vertical acceleration and


Velocity to surface overpressure versus depth, Event 2A.

KAMAN AV

62

g's

AT 19.8 MSEC
HORIZONTAL RANGE= 95 FEET

PACE 2A-95-1.5-AV

18.9 MSEC

KAMAN

AV

HORIZONTAL RANGE= 270 FEET

PACE 2A-210-1.5-AV

39

g's

AT 72.0 MSEC

10

20

30

40

TIME, MSEC

Figure 3.6 Vertical accelerogram comparisons, 1.5-foot depth, Kaman Nuclear and Pace transducers.

50

UP

30

20
2A-210-l.5-AVI
T - 73.0 MSEC
0

10

DOWN

-------'-----~~--

-N-

--~=---=----

2A-210-1.5-AV2
2A-210-1.5-AV1

~ 2A-210-1.5-AV
30

GZ
40

50~~~~~....__~~~~-'--~~~~--'-~~~~~~~~~~'--~~~~....__~~~~-'--~~~~--'

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

TIME- F-ROM- DET-ON-A.T.lON-.-MS.E.C_

Figure 3,7 Vertical accelerograms, radially deployed gages, 1.5-foot


depth, 210-foot horizontal range, Event 2A.

51

60

''

LEGEND

0 \.

40

'

0
0
fl

\.

"'

~
U'.A

/0

\
Ill

i:n

0
I<{

'

Pc,.

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

5-FOOT _ / ,
DEPTH
o\.
20

1.5-FOOT DEPTH
5.0-FOOT DEPTH

'

1,.\SI

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

<

\,)-

10

'
8

\fl

O'.

w
_J
w

u
u

JO.FOOT
DEPTH

'~

40

60

80

100

200

1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.8 Peak airblast-induced outward acceleration


versus horizontal range, Event 2A.

52

40
50-FOOT RANGE
2A-50-1.5-AH

20
0
20

TOWARD

40
60

AWAY

8
80-FOOT RANGE
2A-80-1.5-AH

Cf)

C>

-i
0

~PROBABLE

j:::

CLIPPED PEAK

<(

ct'.

w
...J
w
u
u

12
95-FOOT RANGE
2A-95-1 .5-AH

<(

4
0
4
8

~ PROBABLE

CLIPPED PEAK

12
12
125-FOOT RANGE
2A-125-1.5-AH

6
0
6
12
18
24
0

25

75

50

100

125

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 3,9
Event 2A.

Horizontal accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth,

53

50

LEGEND
40

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

f:.

10.0FOOT DEPTH

20

-- -- --

--------~

5.0FOOT DEPTH

I/)

t-="
LL

>-

1-

\~

...J

J.S.FOOT DEPTH

>

0.8
0.6
BENEATH GAS BAG

0 .4

OUTSIDE GAS BAG

0.2

0.1'--~U-~-L~~~~...._~~"'-~..__._~~~~...._~~~--''--~__.,~_._............

20

40

60

80

100

200

400

600 800 1 .ooo

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.10 Peak airblast-induced downward particle velocity versus horizontal range, Event 2A. Except for those at 0 foot, points are based on
integrated acceleration.

LEGEND
1.5-FOOT DEPTH

MEASURED

AH

5.0FOOT DEPTH

0
I

MEASURED

AH

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

.
fl

MEASURED

AH

16- OR 18-FOOT DEPTH

MEASURED

({)

~ '

Il1.

>-

0.8

I-

u
0

_J

w
>

\
0.6

~
0

0.4

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

\
'
JO.FOOT DEPTH~

\
6.

.\

0.2

'

0.1~~~~-'-~~-'-~--<~~~~~~~~0---~~~~~--'
40

60

80

100

200

400

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.11 Peak airblast-induced outward particle


velocity versus horizontal range, Event 2A.

55

0.8

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

0.6

0.4

.... ........

-- ----

0.2

5.0FOOT DEPTH

1::J\
\

<\QUESTIONABLE

\
\
\
0.1

- - -

- -

6.

.\

0.08

1-

0.06

10.0.FOOT DEPTH

LL

1-

'D

- - - -,.--T--n-

/::;.\

___),\O \
/::;.

0.04

\
\

w
~

w
0
<!
.J
Q_
<fl

0.02

0 .. 0 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

o.oos

LEGEND

0.006

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

0.004

I
II

UV

AV

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

I
D

I
II

UV

AV

10.0-FOQT DEPTH

0.002

A
!::.

I
II

UV

AV

o.oo 1
0

20

60

so

100

200

400

600

800 1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.12 Peak airblast-induced downward displacement versus horizontal


range, Event 2A.

1.0
Q.8
0.6

._

0.2

1.SFOOT DEPTH

.....

0.4

LEGEND

UH

fJ

AH

UH

{f

AH

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

UH

ff

AH

16- OR 18-FOOT DEPTH


0.1
0.08

.....

w
w

0.06

......

I-

0.04

......

I-

LL

w
~
w

U)

..J

0.02

a.

UH

A D

.....

0
~

A
0.01
0.008

......

Q.006

......

0.004

.-

0.002

0.001
10

20

40

60

so

100

200

400

600 800 1.000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.13 Peak airblast-induced outward displacement versus horizontal range, Event 2A.

57

1,000.---------,r----------r-----r---r---r---------r---------,.-----,----,~~

800

''

600

LEGEND

'

''

400

200

''

''

''

' ' ....

\~5.0-FOOT DEPTH

''

60

0
0

5,0-FOO T DEPTH

!:!:.

10.0FOOT DEPTH

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

',,

' '

80

........

BRL AIRBLAST
(PROJECT 1,01)

..

100

',~1.5-FOOT DEPTH

"" ' '


''

(/)

a..

'

40

(/)
(/)

0::

1-

(/)

'

'\'

'

"

..

'

!0~0-r=oD LDEPTH >.~'\

20

"-h.
.

(
'

---OUESTIUNABLE

8
6

QUESTIONABLE-0

BENEATH GAS BAG

OUTSIDE GAS BAG

'-----r;------...._______
0

20

~----_.

40

___..__...._________.._________'-----.Jl...--.Jl...-..J

60

80

100

200

400

600 800 1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 3.14 Peak airblast-induced vertical stress versus horizontal range, Event 2A.

58

2A-390-1.5-EV
390.0-FT RANGE
.01 SEC

.02

.04

.06

.10

.08

.12

.14

.16

.18

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 3,15
Event 2A.

Vertical stress waveforms, 1.5-foot depth,

59 .

,.,-- 178 PSI

---v

80-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


BRL SURFACE AIRBLAST
(PROJECT 1.01)

T 0 = 10.2 MSEC

,;--- 137 PSI

WES STRESS GAGE


1.5 FEET DEEP
2A-80-1.5-EV
T

= 15.5 MSEC

210-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

,.,--21.6 PSI

,,-;---~-------------..._...__~B~R~L~S~U~R:F~A~C~E~A~IR::B~L~A:S~T--~

T 0 = 66.6 MSEC

~~~ 7-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

WES STRESS GAGE


1.5 FEET DEEP
2A-210-1.5-EV

____L_ T
0

= 69.5 MSEC

10

12

14

TIME, MSEC

Figure 3,16 Comparison of surface airblast and near-surface


(1.5-foot depth) stress waveforms, Event 2A.

60

CHAPI'ER

RESULTS, EVENTS 3 AND 5


4.1

SHOT CONDITIONS
An anomalous airblast wave was noted in Event 3.

DRES high-speed

photography showed a gas jet and associated bow wave which preceded the
primary airblast wave and propagated along Projects 1.01 (BRL) and 3.02a
(WES) gagelines.

Project 1.01 noted a double-spiked pressure pulse (both

spikes of similar magnitude at approximately 6 msec separation) at ground


level, beginning at the 105-foot horizontal range and extending to about
310 feet (References

4, 5, and 10). No effects of this double-peaked wave

were seen in the ground motion data, pointing out the integrating (smoothing) characteristics of the Drowning Ford alluvium on fast transient airblast inputs.
The winter conditions hoped for on Event 5 failed to materialize.
There was practically no snow cover, only a thin layer of ice and slush.
Ground temperatures were relatively high, approximately 20 F at a depth of
2 feet as measured in the WES instrument holes (Figure 4.1).

Project

3.05 ground temperature measurements were somewhat lower than those made by
WES.

However, the Project 3.05 thermocouple lines were located along radii

different from the ground motion gageline and were covered by more snow and
ice, which would have insulated the ground better in those areas.

Observa-

tion of preshot drillings from the test area indicated that only the upper

6 inches or so of the ground contained enough moisture to be considered


truly frozen.

No water table was detected.

As a result of these condi-

tions, the anticipated three-layered system, i.e., frozen upper layer,


transitional zone, and saturated under layer, was not present.

Therefore,

major differences in ground-shock propagation between Events 3 and 5 were


not expected.
4.2

DATA RECOVERY
Detonation of Event 5 occurred 3.5 seconds prematurely; as a conse-

quence, the automatic channel calibrator was still in sequence since it


Was programmed to cut off at -2.5 seconds.

61

Five gages recorded signals

while electrically offset in the calibration mode.

The light-beam galva-

nometer oscillographs, which were programmed to switch from slow to fast


record at -2 seconds, began recording in slow speed.

The speed of these

recorders increased as the data were being recorded, giving a nonlinear


time base; however, the FM magnetic tape units were operating at normal
speed and 33 of 34 data channels were successfully recorded.
this event were taken from tape playback.
detonation time posed a problem.

All data for

Determination of true zero or

A small-amplitude electrical signal was

detected on the fiducial channel which could have been generated by the detonation and fed back through the system.

This signal was consistent with

respect to time on all recorders and was determined to be actual event zero.
Of 34 channels of information, 32 were successfully recorded for
Event 3 and 33 for Event 5.

Peak values are listed in Tables 4.1 through

4.4.
For Event 3, Projects 3.04a and 3.04b obtained complementary data in
the hydrodynamic and plastic (close-in) regions (References 4 and 5).

How-

ever, these projects did not participate on Event 5.


4.3

GROUND-SHOCK .ARRIVAL TIME


Arrival times are listed in Table 4.1 and near-surface (1.5-foot depth)

arrival times versus distance are shown in Figure 4.2.

Ground-shock arrival

times for near-surface vertical accelerations were earlier for Event 5 than
for Event 3 out to a range of 105 feet.

First motion arrivals ranged from

about 8 msec at the 60-foot station to 18 msec at 105 feet for Event 5 as
compared to 11 msec and 21 msec for Event 3.

At the 150-foot station, the

arrival times for the two events were about equal, and at the 225-foot station, the arrival was slightly later for Event 5.

From the 105-foot station

outward, the first arrivals approximated those of the airblast for Event 3,
but were outrunning slightly in Event 5.
A spatial shock-front diagram (Figure 4.3) constructed from BRL (Project 1.01) surface airblast-arrival data (References 4, 5, 10, 11, and 12),
Sandia Corporation (Project 3.04b) hydrodynamic data (Reference 4), and
WES (Project 3.02a) subsurface arrival measurements shows the wavefront
propagation.

Outrunning ground motion was observed at the 225-foot station


62

for Event 5,

outrunning was not observed on Event 3 on the relatively

close-in WES array.

4.4 PARTICLE ACCELERATION


4.4.1

Near-Surface Vertical Acceleration.

Modification of near-

surface waveforms with range for Event 3 is shown in Figure 4.4.


forms are characteristic for airblast-induced accelerations.

The wave-

The pulses

are characterized by a sharp initial downward spike followed by a lower


amplitude, longer duration upward peak.
Near-surface waveforms for Events 3 and 5 are compared in Figure 4.5.
Both earlier arrival times and higher frequencies are noted for the Event 5
data, except at the 225-foot range where arrival time is later for Event 5,
An initially upward-going precursor was also noted at the 225-foot range
for Event 5,

This motion, along with the arrival time data, indicates an


1
outrunning ground motion.
No outrunning was noted for the range measured
on Event 3,
Near-surface vertical acceleration waveforms and peak values for
Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III (Reference 1) are compared in Figures 4.6 and 4.7.

Good agreement is noted in both waveform and amplitude.

Slight phasing differences are evident (Figure 4.6), but are perhaps attributable to material property variance between test sites and slight
detonation and coupling disparities.
In Figure 4.7, the Event 5 accelerations are shown to be generally
Similar to, but higher than, those measured on Event 3.

Data for both

events fall within the general range of the Flat Top measurements.

Atten-

uations with range for the four events are tabulated on the following
Page.

Significantly higher values were measured for both vertical and horizontal (Section 4.4.3) accelerations at the 70-foot range and 1.5-foot

Reference 13 and unpublished memorandum by D. W. Murrell, "On Outrunning


Ground Motion," September 1968, Nuclear Weapons Effects Division, U. S.
Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.

Maximum
Acceleration

Range

Minimum
Acceleration

Range

g's

feet

g's

feet

3
5

196

60

12

225

164

60

20

225

Flat Top II

145

65

27

150

Flat Top III

137

65

10

250

Event

Attenuation
Rate
R-2.00
R-1.68

depth for Event 5 compared to Event 3 (Figures 4.7 and 4.14).

The higher

frequencies and amplitudes of Event 5 were influenced by the thin frozen


surface layer which allowed greater coupling and transmission of the highfrequency shock components.

The vertical component at this station was

higher than the Event 3 measurement by a factor of 2, and the horizontal


component by a factor of 3.
Ratios of peak near-surface vertical acceleration to surface overpressure for Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III are listed in Table 4.5
and plotted in Figure 4.8.
ure for comparison.

Data for Event 2A are also included in the fig-

There is a general decrease in the ratio values around

100 psi for all events except Flat Top III, for which there was an increase.
Averaged data indicate little attentuation between 10- and 200-psi overpressures.

Flat Top measurement locations extended closer to the detona-

tion point than did those on Distant Plain, and the

Av /P so

ratios tended

to attenuate at this higher pressure region.


4.4.2

Vertical Acceleration for Deeper Gages.

Event 3 acceleration

pulse modification with depth is displayed in Figure 4.9.

The initial

downward spike diminishes in amplitude and broadens with increasing depth,


and is no longer the predominant feature at the 10-foot level.
Vertical accelerograms for three locations at the 10-foot depth are
compared in Figure 4.10 for Event 3.

Initial downward motion was followed

by an oscillating upward phase and finally a second downward pulse.

The

initial peaks at this depth attenuated little with increasing horizontal


range.

The third upward peak shows definite attenuation and is indicative

of the direct (crater-induced) ground shock.


Events 3 and 5 waveforms for the 10-foot depth are compared at 60- and
64

70-foot horizontal ranges in Figure 4.11.

Although a considerably higher

frequency perturbation is imposed on the Event 5 waveforms, with corresponding faster rise times, the overall similarity between Events 3 and 5
is apparent.
4.4.3

Horizontal Acceleration.

Event 5 horizontal acceleration

waveforms for all 1.5-foot depth stations are shown in Figure 4.12.

Wave-

form comparisons between Events 3 and 5 are shown for the 60- and 70-foot
stations in Figure 4.13.

The Event 5 waveforms exhibit higher frequency

and amplitude components than the Event 3 signals.


Peak airblast-induced horizontal accelerations are plotted versus
range for the near-surface gages in Figure 4.14.

A trend of amplitude at-

tenuation with increasing range is noted for the near-surface data.

Event

5 values ranged from 34 g's at 60-foot horizontal range to 3 g's at 225-

foot range for the near-surface stations.

Comparable values from Event 3

ranged from 19 to 2 g's. Near-surface attenuation rates were nearly iden86


tical, R- 1 68 for Event 3 and R- 1
for Event 5.
4.5

PARTICLE VELOCITY
A composite velocity data listing for Events 3 and 5 is given in

Table 4.2.

No vertical velocity gages were used in either Event 3 or 5,

Therefore, vertical velocities were computed by singly integrating vertical


acceleration.
4.5.1

Vertical Velocity.

Near-surface vertical velocity waveforms at

60-foot range are compared between Events 3 and 5 in Figure 4.15.

Event 5

waveforms are characteristically of faster rise time and higher frequency


in the airblast-induced phase than Event 3, but are otherwise similar in
appearance.

Near-surface vertical waveforms at various ranges are compared

between Events 3 and 5 in Figure 4.16.

Outrunning gr0und motion on Event 5

is indicated by the upward-going precursor on Gage 5-225-1.5-AV (225-foot


range).
A plot of the computed peak airblast-induced (early time) velocity
Versus horizontal range is shown in Figure 4.17.

This plot includes

E:vents 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III data for comparison.

The Event 5
data are lower valued and appear to attenuate more rapidly (R- 1 84 ) with

65

1
increasing horizontal range than the Event 3 (R- 33 ) or Flat Top data.
Both Events 3 and 5 data fall below those of the Flat Top Series.
Ratios of airblast-induced vertical velocity to surface overpressure
above the point of reference are listed in Table 4.6.

Event 5 ratios did

not exceed 0.032, while Event 3 values reached 0.061.

Figure 4.18 shows

these ratios as a function of the corresponding surface overpressure.


Events 3 and 5 data trend similarly, the Event 5 data falling about 50 percent lower than Event 3.
the Event 3 points.

The Flat Top III data fall some 25 percent above

All data are consistent at overpressures exceeding

40 psi, showing attenuation with increasing pressure.


4.5.2

Horizontal Velocity.

Horizontal particle velocity waveforms

are characterized by an initially outward-going pulse of relatively fast


rise time and short duration induced by the surface airblast.

This is fol-

lowed by a later arriving pulse with longer rise time, higher amplitude,
and considerable duration (approximately twice that of the airblast motion)
produced by the crater-induced motion.
compared in Figure 4.19.

Waveforms for Events 3 and 5 are

The Event 5 motions have higher frequencies and

_faster_rise _times for both airblast- and crater-induced phases than Event 3
Figure 4.20 shows measured near-surface horizontal velocity and integrated
acceleration waveforms from Event 5.
waveform is quite high.

The amplitude of the 105-foot range

This is an unreasonable value and was probably

caused by a malfunction in the calibration module.

Good waveform compari-

son is noted at later times between the measured and integrated data.

Note

the lower integrated value at 105-foot range as compared to the questioned


value from the direct measurement.
Direct waveform comparison between Event 3 and Flat Top II and III was
made for the 150-foot horizontal range.
Figure 4.21.

This composite piot is shown in

Typically, the early airblast-induced motions showed scatter

and waveform variance.

Later direct-induced motions show general agreement

Airblast-induced horizontal velocity is plotted as a function of range


in Figure 4.22.

Near-surface values tend to increase from 60- to 105-foot

range, then rapidly decrease.

Deeper stations show no clear trends.

Peak outward particle velocities from the direct-induced (latearriving) ground shock for Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III are

66

plotted versus range in Figure 4.23.

Event 5 near-surface values ranged

from 7.8 ft/sec at 60-foot horizontal range to 0.33 ft/sec at 225-foot


range.

These compare to 7,3 ft/sec and 0.47 ft/sec for Event 3.

Flat Top

II values at 1-foot depth ranged from 3.7 ft/sec at 65-foot range to 0.43
ft/sec at 150-foot range.

No Flat Top III data were available at 65-foot

range; the 150-foot range value was 0.82 ft/sec.

These data, as with the

horizontal acceleration, attenuate with increasing horizontal range.


To achieve a degree of scaling, peak crater-induced particle velocity
was ratioed to the square root of crater radius and plotted as a function
of the ratio of range to crater radius.

Comparison of Flat Top and Distant

Plain data (Figure 4.24) shows similar slopes but varying offsets.

Event 3

compared well with Flat Top III, Flat Top II data falling below these and
Event 5 data falling above.
4.6

The values are listed in Table 4.7.

DISPIACEMENT
All displacement data (Table 4.3) are derived from particle

acceleration- and velocity-time histories.

Confidence levels are less

for displacement than for the measured parameter.


Peak vertical airblast- and crater-induc-ed transient displacements- are
Plotted as a function of range for Events 3 and 5 in Figure 4.25.
Cratering-induced (upward) displacement predominated in both events, as
for the Flat Top Series.

The crater-induced motion predominated out to

150-foot range on Event 3 and out to 190-foot range on Event 5.


induced motion predominated beyond these ranges.

Airblast-

Near-surface motion at-

tenuations were similar for both events. The airblast-induced motion attenuated with range as R-1 17 for Event 3 and as R- 1 55 for Event 5. Event
3 amplitudes were greater.

Cratering motion attenuated about three times


more rapidly than the airblast motion. Values were R-4 24 for Event 3 and
R-4.60 for Event 5. Amplitudes were similar on both events.
Peak horizontal displacements (Figure 4.26) are about equal to the
vertical values at ranges less than 100 feet.
zontal motions increase over the vertical.

At greater ranges, the hori-

Event 3 horizontal displace-

ments are generally higher than are those of Event 5.

Attenuation with

range (Figure 4.26) approximates R- 3 15 for Event 3 and R- 2 91 for Event 5,


67

4.7 STRESS
Peak stress data are tabulated in Table

4.4.

The near-surface

stresses appeared to attenuate with range roughly as did the airblast for
. bl as t at t enuated with range as R-o.94
Event 3. The Event 3 surface air
0
and the near-surface stress approximately as R- 83 . Event 5 airblast
61
2 20
attenuated as R- 0
and near-surface stress as R- .
Signal levels from Events 3 and 5 stress gages were excessively low,
resulting in poor resolution of late-time (low-amplitude) data.

The stress

waveforms for Event 3 show initial compression decaying to zero followed by


a second compressive pulse.

Waveforms from Event 5 are likewise initially

compressive, but pulse to tension (apparent) after some 60 msec.

For both

cases, the second pulse is caused by the crater-induced ground shock (Fig-

4.27). Typical waveforms are compared between Events 3 and 5 in Figure 4.28.
ure

Since stress is a tensor quantity, motion vectors are indeterminate


from its waveform.

Velocity, however, is vector related and may be uti-

lized to determine motion polarity or direction.

Waveforms from similarly

located vertical velocity gages compared with vertical stress waveforms


clearly show the pulses are of opposite polarity, the first being airblast
induced and downward, the second crater induced and upward.

Both motions

should be seen as compressive stress.


The cause of the second stress pulse sign reversal in Event 5 stress
signals is unclear at this time.

It may be related to unloading of some

prestress in the gage diaphragms or mechanical edge-loading effects.

As-

suniing a nominal prestress (due to placement, etc.), the diaphragms would


respond linearly to the compressive loads that were applied.

But, on un-

loading, the gage output would appear to go into tension (the recorded
magnitude being highly improbable for soils of such low cohesion). In actuality, the diaphragms would be returning to the normal unloaded point
below the initial prestress.

Prestresses, unfortunately, were not measured.

Gages were electrically nulled just

~rior

to the event, thus effectively

shifting the zero base if prestresses were indeed present.

Under certain

loading conditions, edge loads could induce strains in the sensors bonded

68

to the diaphragms, thus causing a spurious output, the polarity of the signal generated being dependent upon the sensor(s) most affected.
Theoretical computations (Reference

14)

indicate that large amounts of

energy are dissipated in the first few inches of dry alluvium such as that
of Drowning Ford.

This is in support of the at first surprisingly low

stresses measured at relatively shallow depths.


expected in stress data for several reasons:

Higher scatter is to be

(1) stress is perhaps the

most sensitive parameter to variance in soil properties (stiffness, density, impedance, etc.); (2) it is difficult to achieve adequate and consistent coupling of the gage to the soil under field conditions; and
(3) the state of stress will vary as the rate of loading varies and as the
load vector changes.

TABLE 4.1 ACCELERATION DATA, EVENTS 3 AND 5

Gage, 3- or 5-

Ground
Range

Depth

Arrival Time
Event 3

feet

feet

msec

Peak Positive
Acceleration

Event 5

msec

Event 3

Event 5

g's

g's

165
24.5
12.5

Vertical (Positive Downward):


60-1.5-AV
60-5-AV
60-10-AV

60

70-1.5-AV
70-5-AV
70-10-AV

1.5
5.0
10.0

10.6
11.8
16.8

13.3

195
59.0
12.4

70

1.5
5.0
10.0

11.5
14.2
18.0

9.96
10.9
14.5

104
29.8
10.1

225
30.3
11.1

105-1.5-AV
105-10-AV

105

1.5
10.0

21.0
27.3

18.3
21.6

53.9
11.4

58.3
14.3

150-1.5-AV

150

1.5

38.7

38.7

44.2

36.5

225-1.5-AV

225

1.5

73.4

78.5

12.1

20.4

18.7
12.2
1.88

34.4
a
2.13

14.o
5.45

44.3
5.76

7 .99b

10.0b

8.17
8.24

Horizontal (Positive Outward):


60-1.5-AH
60-5-AH
60-10-AH

60

70-1.5-AH
70-5-AH

70

1.5
5.0
10.0

11.4
12.4

8.04
a

17.2

13.7

1.5
5.0

11.8
15.7

9.88
11.6

105-1.5-AH

105

1.5

21.8

16.9

150-1.5-AH

150

1.5

37.9

36.0

225-1.5-AH

225

1.5

74.4

77.2

~ No signal recorded.

Quest ion ab le
70

12.3
1.91

14.4
3.40

TABLE 4.2 VELOCITY DATA, EVENTS 3 AND 5

Gage, 3or 5-

Ground
Range

feet

Arrival
Time

Depth

feet

Peak AirblastInduced Velocity

Peak CraterInduced Velocity

Event 3

Event 5

Event 3

Event 5

Event 3

Event 5

msec

msec

ft/sec

ft/sec

ft/sec

ft/sec

8.17
8.24

9.17
7.72
2.64

6.02
3.61
2.64
5.71
3.37
2.44

Vertical (Positive Downward):


1.5
5.0
10.0

10.6
11.8
16.8

13.3

1.5
5.0
10.0

11.5
14.2
18.o

9.96
10.9
14.5

6.92
4.02

1.5
10.0

21.0

5.08
2.15

2.21

27.3

18.3
21.6

150

1.5

38.7

38.7

3.26

1.24

225

1.5

73.4

78.5

1.15

0.52

1~5-

10~5

44a

7.77

11.4
12.6
12.4
18.2
17.2

8.78
1.12
4.26
o.44

4.15

4.99
a
5.2

13.7

4.93

2.57
8.03
1.06
a
0.90
b

7.26

1.5
5.0
5.0
10.0
10.0

iL3a
8.04
10.6
a
10.0

1.5
1.5
5.0
5.0

13.6
11.8
16.ob

10.2

0.69
b
o.4ob
3.ob

2.90
6.00
0.90
0.50

3.92

5.71

9.88
11.2
11.6

2.56

3.8
7.0

1.5
1.5

23.1
21.8

18.6

5.55b

17.7d

16.9

1.00

3.59
2.05

1.5
1.5

40.5

0.90
o.47

1.82
0.20

o.45

0.96

37.9

38.7
36.o

1.5

75.0
74.4

75.9
77.2

0.26
o.54b

0.22

o.47b

0.33

f60-1.5-AV
f 60-5-AV
f 60-10-AV

60

f70-l.5-AV
f 70-5-AV
f70-10-AV

70

fl05-1.5-AV
f 105-10-AV

105

fl50-l.5-AV
f225-1.5-AV

2.33

1.87

Horizontal (Positive Outward):


60-1.5-UH

60

f60-1.5-AH
60-5-UH
f 60-5-AH
60-10-UH
f 60-10-AH
70-1.5-UH
f70-l.5-AH

70

70-5-UH

f 70-5-AH
105-1.5-UH
flo5-1. 5-AH

105

150-1.5-UH
fl50-1.5-AH

150

225-1.5-UH

225

f225-1.5-AH

1.5

15.7

: No signal recorded.
Questionable
~ Clipped peak.
Erroneous amplitude due to instrument tilt.

71

0.50

3.10

TABLE 4,3

DISPLACEMENT DATA, EVENTS 3 AND 5

Gage, 3or 5-

Ground
Range

feet

Depth

Peak AirblastInduced Displacement

Peak CraterInduced Displacement

Event 3

Event 3

Event 5

Event 5

feet

feet

feet

feet

feet

1.5
5,0

0.07

0.04

1.40

0.07

0.03

10.0

0.03

0.27

0.76
0.20

0.95
o.45

1.5

0.04

0.76

0.50

5.0
10.0

o.o4

0.30
0.04

o.4o

0.28

0.03

0.30

0.65

1.5
10.0

0.05
0.02

None

0.20

0.05

0.02

0.03

0.02

Vertical (Positive Downward):

f f60-l.5-AV
f f60-5-AV
f f60-10-AV

60

f f70-l.5-AV
f f70-5-AV
f f70-10-AV

70

f fl05-l.5-AV
f fl05-10-AV

105

f fl50-l.5-AV

150

1.5

0.03

None

0.02

0.03

f f225-1.5-AV

225

1.5

0.01

0.006

o.005a

0.007

1.5

a
a

1.90
a

0.92

0.33

0.75
o.2oa

Horizontal (Positive Outward):


f60-1.5-UH

60

f f60-l.5-AH

1.5

f60-5-UH
f f60-5-AH

5,0
5.0
10.0
10.0

f 60-10-UH
f f60-10-AH
f70-l.5-UH
f f70-l.5-AH

70

f70-5-UH

f f70-5-AH
fl05-l.5-UH

105

f f105-1.5-AH
fl50-l.5-UH

150

f fl50-1.5-AH
f225-1.5-UH
f f225-l.5-AH

225

a
a

0.87

o.68

a
a

a
b

a
o.47

0.60

b
0.54
0.34

1.5
1.5
5.0
5,0

0.92

a
b
b

a
b
b

a
0.29

1.5

1.5

1.5

0.30
o.48

0.19

1.5

0.71
b

0.12

1.5
1.5

b
b

b
b

0.03

0.02
0.02

~ No signal recorded.
Questionable.

72

0.02

TABLE 11,4

Gar;e,

or

VERTICAL STRESS DATA,

<~VENTS

Ho.nr;e

5-

F.vent 5

Event 3
feet

feei.:;

(,Q-5-EV
60-10-EV
70

70-1. 5-F.V
70-5-EV

msec

msec

1.5

60

h0-1. 5-EV

Peak AirblastInduced Stress

Arrival
Time

Depth

Ground

3-

3 Arm 5

F.vent 3
psi

psi

37,6

9,9

7 ,59

Event

8.111

5.0

10.0

22.7b

16.8

l.')

11,l,

10.7

63

29.2

5.0

i8.o

11.5

38

11.0

20

25.0

3.8b

6.4

105-1. 'J-F:V

10)

1.5

2l<. 3

18.fl

1')0-1. 5-EV

150

l.')

39.8

37.6

3,11

3.6

225-1.5-EV

2?5

1.5

78.0

77,!1

9,3

3,7

~ no sir,n~l record~d.
Questionable.

TABLE 11. 5

TIF:AH-SHRFACE A rnm,AST-WDIJr:EJl VF:rrr !CJ\], 1\cr:1:T,F:Hl\TJO!I RJ\TTOS'


!lTSTATI' PLl\Tlf EVE!l'1'3 3 Mm 5 Alm FLAT TOP II AND III

Distant Plain Event 3

Overpresc:ure

psi

Maxir:nun
AccelerQ.LiDn/
Overpre;;sure

f'.'s/psi

Overpressure

Maximum

Overpressure

380

g's/poi

0.32

0.82

221,_'i

0.71,

o.63

21'.J

LOii

210

0.(9

93,5

o.63

llO

o.48

o.83

39,0

o.'}1

0.58

17 .')

J. l(,

'?370.
1(,5
110

o.49

53.5
21.0

45.0

"" Extrapolated.

73

Overpressure

0.60

Maximum

Acee lera ti on/


Overpressure

Overpressure

psi

r's/psi

Maximum

Acceleration/

Acceleration/
Overpressure

pci

Flat Top III

Flat Top II

Distant Plain Event 5

psi

r,'s/psi

980

0,311

500

o.!n

280

o.49

130

1.48

42.0

0.98

15.0

0.67

TABLE

4.G NEAR-SURFACE AIRBLAST-I!IDUCED VERTICAL VELOCITY Rf\TIOS, DISTANT PLAIN


EVENTS 3 A!ID 5 A!ID FLAT TOP II AND III

All velocity data listed are from integrated vertical acceleration.


Distant Plain Event 5

Distant Plain Event 3


Overpressure

psi

Flat Top II

Maximum

Flat Top III

Velocity/

Velocity/

Velocity/

Maximum
Velocity/

Overpressure

Overpressure

Overpressure

Overpressure

Overpressure

MaximlU!l

ft/sec/psi

500

0.0?4

280

0.037

0.027

140

0.117

130

0.075

45

0.038

42

0.083

15

0.053

llO

0.046

93.5

0.023

53.5

0.0(,1

39,0

0.032

21.0

0.055

17 .5

0.030

VF.WC TTY,

Gace
Depth

EVENTS 3 A.'lD 5

Rance/
Crater Radius

Crater-Induced
Velocity

F.vent

3 Event

feet

feet

feet

feet

35.1

32.8

60

60

1.5

1.5

1.71

35.1

32.8

60

Go

).0

').O

1.71

1.83

35.1

32.8

60

Go

10.0

10.0

1.71

1.83

35.1

32.8

70

70

1.5

l.'.)

1.99

2.13

35.1

32.8

70

70

5.0

5.0

1.99

2.13

35.1

32.8

105

105

l.5

1.5

2.99

3.20

35 .1

32.8

150

150

1.5

1.5

4.27

4.58

o.45

35.1

32.8

225

225

1.5

1.5

6.42

6.86

o.47

Event. 3
feet

0.023

0.050

215

Event. ')

980
O.OZ/

0.0!12

Even:; 3

ft/sec/psi

210

1()

Gace
Rance

psi

380
0.039

Crater

ft/sec/psi

Overpressure

0.027

237

TABLE 11. 7 l/OHMAf, JZED PEAK IKJHlZONTAL PAR'rlCLE

Maximum

psi

ft/sec/psi

psi

22!1

Radius

Overpressure

Event

Event 3 Event

feet

~ Clipped peak.
Questionable.

74

1.83

Velocity/
Crater Radius 1/ 2

F:vent 3

Event

Event 3

Event 5

ft/sec

ft/sec

ft/sec/rt 1/ 2

ft/sec/rt 1/ 2

7.26

7 .77

1.23

1.36

4.15

4.99

0.10

o.88

3.10

10.0b

0,53

3.92

5.71

o.66

1.00

2.56

1.47

o.43

0.26

"

17 .7b
0.96

o.os

0.17

0.33

0.08

0.06

I-

w
w

:c
Ia.

ll.

LEGEND

10

CABLE B, 8 FEB 67, PROJECT 3.05


-

12

CABLE C, 9 FEB 67, PROJECT 3.05

- - - WES, 9 FEB 67
........~~'--~~~~.._~_._~~...._~__,'--~......_~~"'-~-u
12
16
20
24
28
32
40
8
36
4

14..._~

TEMPERATURE, F

Figure 4.1 Preshot ground temperatures, Event 5. Project 3.05 temperatures were obtained by U. S. Army Cold
Regions Research Engineering Laboratories (CRREL) and
were supplied by J. Smith of CRREL.

75

jJ
/

/
/
60

w
(/)

'/

w
~

I-

40
EVENT 3 (SUMMER)~/

_J
<(

>

a::
a::

<(

EVENT 5 (WINTER)

/
/

J)/

20
/
/

~
HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 4.2 Ground-shock arrival time versus horizontal


range, 1.5-foot depth, Events 3 and 5.

76

BRL AIRBLAST (PROJECT 1.01)


\
I

\
I
I
I

18

46

'21
I
I

I
I

I
I
I

SANDIA CORP. (PROJECT 3.04 h)

77

"

lJMSC

50
60-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE
3-60-1.5-AV
0

50

UP

100

150

DOWN

195 g's
200

-"'
z0
II>

70-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


3-70-1.5-AV

25
0

i=
<(

Ta = 11.5 MSEC

0::

w
_J
w 50

u
u

<(

104 g's

100

1.7

25

Ta

105-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


3-105-1.5-AV

=21MSEC

53.9 g's

50
25

150-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


3-150-1.5-AV

50
225-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE
Ta = 73.4 MSEC

~ __,..L_r---__::::=~--3--2-2_5_-_1._5=-A~V------==~ ~s

50

100

150

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure

4.4 Vertical accelerogra.ms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 3.


78

200

100
60-FOOT RANGE

50

,1

50

100

UP

+
DOWN

150
~
C>

0
I-

200

<(

0::

w
...J
w

u
u

105-FOOT RANGE
25

<(

0
25

EVENT 3 (3-105-1.5-AV)

50

225-FOOT RANGE
10

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 4.5 Comparison of vertical accelerograms, 1.5-foot


depth, Events 3 and 5.

79

200

40
~FLAT TOP

30

~
O>

EVENT 5 (WINTERl-.._j

10

i=

1\

,1

:\ /\,

EVENT J (SUh'MER)

20

UP

ID (6 AVI)

11 ~

I
I

FLAT TOP JI (6 AVI)

I
\
I

---

DOWN

----

<(

0:

w
w
u
u

10

...J

20

<(

30

~
40

41 g'S

50

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

BO

90

100

110

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 4.6 Vertical accelerograms at 150-foot range, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III.

80

400

LEGEND
1.SFOOT DEPTH

0
0

--

200

--

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

1.0FOOT DEPTH

FLAT TOP Il

<>FLAT TOP ID

6
100

"'
i:n

.
z

0
I<(

80
\

60

a::
w
_J
w

u
u
<(

40

'\ \~0
a..

\'(~.---EVENT 5

(WINTER)

\
\

20

~\
\
\

8'-----'----'-~---'--'-......&..-------------'---------'"----~

40

60

80

100

200

400

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 4.7 Peak airblast-induced downward acceleration


versus horizontal range, near-surface, Distant Plain
Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III.

LEGEND
6

DISTANT PLAIN

4
(/)

a..

',

0::
::J

EVENT 3

EVENT 5

EVENT 2A

FLAT TOP

"'
i:n

/!; Il

-- m

(/)
(/)

w
0::

a..

0::

>
0
'

0.8

0
I-

,,:<'\ '
I

/
/
/

0.6

<{

0::

.J

w
u

0.4

u<{

Q,1

.......~~.._~...............~~~~-'-~~~---''--~--0.~---__,
200
400
40
60
so 100
600 soo 1 .ooo

'--~~~--o.~~~~

10

20

OVERPRESSURE, PSI

Figure 4.8 Ratio of maximum airblast-induced downward acceleration


to overpressure, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 2A, 3, and 5
and Flat Top II and III.

82

10
Ta

10

"'

3-60-10-AV
60-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

12.4 g's

10

UP

'

Ta

3-70-10-AV
70-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

i=
<{
a::

w
_J
w

DOWN

u
u

10. 1 g's

<{

10

10

3-105-10-AV
105-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

11.4

10

g's

50

100

150

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 4.10

Vertical accelerograms, 10-foot depth, Event 3.

84

200

40
60-FOOT RANGE
UP

30

20

DOWN

10

!:'1
O>

0
I<!'.
0:

w
w
u
u

\
I
I I

.J

~. .>JI

10

12.4 9 s

112.5 g'S

<!'.

20
70-FOOT RAN-GE

10

EVENT 3

~~-~----~-- ~

10

100

50

150

200

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 4.11 Comparison of vertical accelerograms, 10-foot depth,


Events 3 and 5.

85

EVENT 5

5-60-1.5-AH

60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

~
0

0
CD

5-70-1.5-AH
70.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

=r
0
0

=r

TOWARD
0
CD

en

J,

5l

.....
~
i..J

a:

5-105-1.5-AH

AWAY

105.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

5l

5-150-1.5-AH

...

150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

"'
2
~

...
...

5-225-1.5-AH
225.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

...
...
1

.oo .ot .02 .03 .O'I .os .os .ftl .1111 .09 to .11 tz tl t'I ts t8 11 t8 t9 .zo

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure 4.12

Horizontal accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 5.

86

40

60-FOOT RANGE

20

20
TOWARD

40

!:"

80

70-FOOT RANGE

O>

AWAY

0
I-

60

<!

a::
w

.J

40

<!

20

2.0

40

20

20

AO

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 4.13 Comparison of horizontal accelerograms, 1.5-foot depth,


Events 3 and 5.

60

LEGEND

40
1.SFOOT DEPTH

0 \

0
0

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

\
\

\
\

20

\
\
\

.,,

"'z.

10

I-

<{

\
\

0::

w
.J
w
u
u

\~EVENTS
6

<{

\
\

a,
\
\
\
\

\
2

1 ......._____________..____._____________

40

60

80

~------------~

200

100

400

HORIZONTAL RANGE. FEET

Figure 4.14 Peak airblast-induced outward acceleration versus horizontal range, 1.5-foot depth, Events
3 and 5,

88

EVENT 3
}3-60-1.5-AV

UP

j
AIRULAST
INDUnD
MOTION

CRATER
INDUCE:.[J
MOTION

,,.

(To

(r

--------

--- ---

;:::
"-

>-

,,.,,.

; ;

B 17 MSEC)

--- ---

()

:;:

10.6 MSEC)

~---BASELINE SHIFTED

1()

0
_J

UJ

>

10

0.02

0.04

0 06

0 09

0. 10

0. 12

0.14

0 16

0. 18

0.'20

0.22

TIME. SECONDS

Figure 4.15 Vertical velocity waveforms from integrated acceleration, 1.5foot depth, 60-foot range, Events 3 and 5.

] v~

60-FOOT RANGE

~~ ::l~r=-----~-~;::--f-5-60-1.5-_AV
70-FOOT RANGE

f 5-70-1 .5-AV
5.ool~~=====
~

+ v
105-FOOT RANGE

u
~

....

u.

,:

....

u
0

5.0

UP

f3-105-l .5-AV

20[

o~~~~~~__,_~~~~~~~~==~f-5_-1~0~5-_1_.5_-A_v~-

DDWN

~;;:--------=---

-------=-==

2.0

_J

w
>

150-FOOT RANGE

.v

:l-r--.. . .-7'-~-------f_5_15_0-_1.5_-A_v_

f3-150-1.5-AV

""""~

1.ol
225.fOOT RANGE

v
0.050

0.075

0.100

0.125

0.150

0.175

0.5

L""\ f3-2251 .5-AV


~

0.025

PRECURSOR

0.5

0.200

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

EVENT 3, SUMMER

EVENT 5, WINTER

Figure 4.16 Vertical velocity waveforms from integrated acceleration, 1.5foot depth, various ranges, Events 3 and 5.

90

...

4-

10
8

'\
o'

'o
u

'\

(/)

'\

'f-

.
\
\

lL

EVENT

>-

5~\

f-

\
\

_J

>

''\

'

...

LEGEND

DISTANT PLAIN

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

0.6

.
...
l:l

--

q
\

INTEGRATED

FLAT TOP Il

0.8

MEASURED
INTEGRATED
FLAT TOP ill

'' \

--

'\ \
\

MEASURED
INTEGRATED

ci,
\
\

0.4
40

60

so

100

200

400

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 4.17 Peak airblast-induced downward velocity


(integrated values) versus horizontal range, nearsurface, Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top
II and III.

91

0.8

LEGEND
0.6

DISTANT PLAIN

0.4

Ui

a..
u
w

..

0.2

w
0::

:::>

(/)
(/)

w
a..
0::
w
0::

>-

"
0.1

...... ,

.y

0.06

,..,,. _,,........

.. ..------

./'

-~.

'''\
\

u
_J

EVENT 2A

tJ. n
--m

.'

0 08

f-

EVENT 3

,,,,---------..._-...
,,

>

EVENT 5

FLAT TOP

(/)

fLL

0
0

0.04

o-- -- __ ...a.---...

>

...... .....

0.02

Q,01

~------__.,

10

---- --

~-~
-.

""
'll'

'

~-----

_________,_____....___..__._________..._________._____,,,__

20

40

60

80 100

200

400

500

~---

000 1 ,ooo

OVERPRESSURE, PSI

Figure 4.18 Ratio of maximum airblast-induced downward velocity to


overpressure, near-surface, Distant Plain Events 2A, 3, and 5 and
Flat Top II and III.

92

60-FOOT RANGE

,,,,,,.,,.,,,,.-----------

Oi.rt-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,_-,----=~~~~~~~~~~~~~---"''"--

.,,..,,, . - - - - - /
/

//~EVENTS

I
I

I/

I
I

t;:

EVENT 3
(SUMMER)

I
I

I
I I

AWAY

""

I
I

>f-

TOWARD

I
I
I

u
w
(/)

(WINTER)

70-FOOT RANGE

_J

__ ,,,,

>

_......---

----- --

-- -

......

/
I

I
I
I

I
I

I ,___EVENT 5
\/
(WINTER)
v
6

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 4.19

Horizontal velocity waveforms, 1.5-foot depth, Events 3 and 5.

93

60-FOOT RANGE
2

5-<;0-1.5UH

l~AIRBLAST
4

I
8

5-70 1 .5-UH

~
I

u.

"'....
;
>::
0

..J

I
I
I

10
12

:[

:[

51501.5UH

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

f 5-1501.5-AH

'

225-FOOT RANGE

0.12

5-225-1.S..UH

0.14

AWAY

150 FOOT RANGE

1--~~~~~~~'~-~~~~~~~~~-

0.02

-~

'-

TOWARD

I
I

'Q_/

........:::::::

' ....
....

5-70-1.5 AH

f5-1051.5AH

"")

I
I

IP'....

I
I
I

AMPLITUDE UNRELIABLE
DUE TO INSTRUMENT

~[

h~

I
I
I

I
I

'I

I
I

14
_16

5-105-1.5-UH

I
I

>

(_

r
0

I
I

CRATER INDUCED
MOTION

70-FOOT RANGE

II ~

BLAST
INDUCED
MOTION

2[

~AIR

CRATER-INDUCED
MOTION

INDUCED
MOTION

5-60-1.5-AH

0,16

0.18

0.20

',

2:[-~~~~-~'-'~~~============--~~
, ,

0.02

0.04

006

0.08

f52251.5AH

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

TIME FROM OETONATION, SECONDS

MEASURED

Figure 4.20

INTEGRATED ACCELERATION

Horizontal velocity waveforms, 1.5-foot depth, Event 5,

020

TOWARD

150-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

1.0
0.8

0.53 FT/SEC

0.6
I
I

u 0.4
w
(/)
',
IlJ..

DISTANT PLAIN

I1" '

0.2

'\

--.

<FLAT TOP 11 (6 VRJ)

\ /'\

>-

I-

AWAY

_J

w 0.2

>

0.4
I

0.6

0.8

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

TIME FROM DETONATION, MSEC

Figure 4.21 Horizontal velocity waveform comparison, nearsurface, 150-foot range, Distant Plain Event 3 and Flat Top
II and III.

95

LEGEND

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

0
0

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

()

II

(,Q

'I-lJ..
0.8

I-

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

0.4

>

II

0.6

0
...I

fl

l)

>-

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

0
0.2

0.1

40

60

I
80

100

200

400

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 4.22 Peak airblast-induced outward particle velocity versus range, Events 3 and 5.

10
\

6
8

<>-

~\

LEGEND
10.0-FOOT DEPTH

EVENT 3

EVENT 5

s.OFOOT DEPTH

() EVENT 3

II

\!:J.

()

0
0

EVENT 5

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

EVENT 3
EVENT 5

1 .0-FOOT DEPTH

6
\

FLAT TOP II

"-FLAT TOP Ill

(/)

.......
ILJ..

\~EVENTS
\
1.5-FOOT DEPTH
(WINTER)
\

'

>-

I-

EVENT 3
1.5-FOOT DEPTH
(SUMMER)

.J

>

'

Q.B

0.6

0
6

0.4

\
\

60

so

100

200

'\
400

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 4.23 Peak crater-induced outward particle


velocity versus ran~e, Distant Plain Events 3 and
5 and Flat Top II and III.

97

10

LEGEND
6

\ t.
4

fl

FLAT TOP II

--

FLAT TOP III

0
0

DISTANT PLAIN 3
DISTANT PLAIN 5

\'

\'

FLAT TOP II

......

1-

u.

.......

l/J
.......

1-

u.

......
\

:J
0
<t:

0.8

\
\
\

'r

-t:., \

<t:

\
\

Q:'.

u
>-

\\

\:-\

0.6

1-

.......

'

Q:'.
Q:'.

Vi

0.4

1-

\
\

\\

_J

>

DISTANT PLAIN 3

\\

DISTANT PLAIN 5

'
\\

\\

0.2

\
\
\

\",\

\~

'o
\

\
\
\

\
\

0.10t--~~~~~-t-~~~~~~~~~~-+;-;-~~.--~~~--1

b
\

b
.........._~~~~~-'-~~~-'-~~..._~.....__..~..._...._........~
1.0
2
4
8
10
6

0.05'--....L.~'---'-

0.5

RANGE/CRATER RADIUS

Figure 4.24 Peak crater-induced outward particle velocity


normalized to crater radius, Distant Plain Events 3 and 5
and Flat Top II and III.

2.0

1.0

I
I

o.e

0.2

I
I

0.2

l.5FOOT DEPTH
AIRBLAST INDUCED
(DOWNWARD)
CRATER INDUCED
(UPWARD)
0.5-FOOT DEPTH

I
1

.~

Al RB LAST INDUCED

CRATER INOUCE:O

10.0FODT DEPTH
6
A

(UPWARD)~

AIRBLAST INDUCED

CRATER INDUCED

0.1 1--------------4~---+---~--~~~
0.08

...... o.oe
io.04
...
...::>

I-

0.1

~- 0,08

...

a o.oe
u

<

"'0

1.5-FOOT DEPTH
CRATER INDu!:O

1.5-FOOT DEPTH
CRATER INDUCED
(UPWARD)

ii

I
I
I

......
...

0.4

.,

0.4

\I
\

o.e

LEGEND

I
A

o.e

1.0

~--~-----~-~---~

0.8

0.04

0.02

ii

1.5-FOOT DEPTH
AIRBLAST
INDUCED
(DOWNWARD)

1.5-FOOT DEPTH
AIRBLAST
INDUCED
(DOWNWARD)

0.02

"'0

0.01

l--------------ll---"""1r---------;

0.008
0.008
0.01

0,008

t
I

0.004

:~J._ _.....____._~~~~~
I
\

I
I

o.ooe

0.002'----'----.l.--.J...-L--l----'----..JL---'--....J......I
40
80 80 100
200
400 eoo aoo 1poo
20
10
HORIZONl"L RANGE, FEET

EVENT 3

Figure 4.25
and 5.

10

20

40
200
eo 80 100
HORIZONT"L RANGE1 FEET

400

.J

eoo eoo 1,000

EVENT 5

Peak vertical displacement versus horizontal range, Events 3

99

LEGEND

1.5-FOOT DEPTH

EVENT 3

EVENT 5

5,0FOOT DEPTH

0,8

1-

0.6

w
lL

1-

z
w

0.4

:E

u
<(

EVENT 3

II

EVENT 5

10,0-FOOT DEPTH

EVENT 3

EVENT 5

.
\

[J \

~\

EVENT 5 __.r'\\
1.5-FOOT DEPTH
\
(WINTER)
~
\
-EVENT 3
1.SFOOT DEPTH
(5UMMER)

....I

--a.

II)

0.1

0.08

0.06

\
\
\

0.04

\
\
\
\
\

0.02

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 4.26 Peak crater-induced horizontal displacement versus horizontal 'range, Events 3 and 5.

100

60

COMPRESSION

(ii

a. 40
~

Ill
Ill

a::

TENSION

70-FOOT RANG

IIll

J:
I-

a:: 20
<
w

0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.06

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.12

0.14

0.16

TIME FROM DETONATION 1 SECONDS

EVENT 3

COMPRESSION

40

TENSION

20
Ill

a.

20

40
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

O.OB

0.10

TIME FROM DETONATION 1 SECONDS

EVENT 5

Figure 4.27

Composite stress plot, 1.5-foot depth, Events 3 and 5.

101

60

70-FOOT RANGE
COMPRESSION

40

TENSION

I\

20

I\\

:iw

I I
I

Cl'.

!;;

I
I {'

f-

a:
<i

I
\
or---\jr-~1--~-=--~~=-~~~-="----==:::::::=====::;::;:==:===:=

'

'\

' '......

20

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.09

---- ------~EVENTS
//

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 4.28 Vertical stress waveform comparison, 1.5-foot depth, 70-foot


range, Events 3 and 5.

102

CHAPI'ER 5
RESULTS, EVEN'I'
5.1

DATA RECOVERY
pata recovery for this event was good.

failed to produce data.

Only one channel out of 36

Due to a 1-1/2-hour delay in detonation, the trace

(an accelerometer) drifted beyond its range.

Reentry into the test area

was not permitted at that time and no adjustments could be made.

A large

number of particle impacts (ejecta) were noted upon postshot site inspection.

All but one of the cleared-sector instrument cables were severed

near the recording bunker shortly after detonation.

Fortunately, the cable

damage occurred late enough not to interfere with the data.


It should be noted that the transducers employed for Event

4 were

high-range gages utilized from the Drowning Ford (Events 1 and 2A) instrument packages.

Initial set range values were later reduced and no compen-

sation could be made for the higher range calibration resistor sealed inside the instrument canisters.

Sufficient signal level could be achieved

only by increasing amplifier gain.

Motions were lower than expected, re-

sulting in low signal-to-noise ratios.

Additionally, ground runs for the

primary power supplies for all project bunkers were strung on top of the
saturated ground (some actually submerged in pools of water), resulting in
considerable stray currents induced in most signal cables.

Induced tran-

sient voltage levels in these cables ran as high as 38 volts.


The overall effect of the aforementioned conditions was high noise
level and amplifier drift.

Consequently, numerical integrations of the

data contain inherent inaccuracies which limit the reliability.

Error ac-

cumulation was such that second integrals are useful, in large measure,
only for qualitative purposes.

Significant baseline shifts occurred on a

major portion of the recorded data, rendering even first integrals highly
suspect at all but very early times.

Treatment of the data in this section,

therefore, will concern primarily the measurand.

Newly developed digital

filtering techniques will allow retrieval of much data contained within the
noise; however, due to the additional effort and costs involved, it is not
planned to reprocess the data at this time.
103

Listings of peak values for

the data taken are given in Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3.
5.2

GROUND-SHOCK ARRIVAL TIME


Arrival times (Table 5.1) for the near-surface (1.5-foot depth) ac-

celerations ranged from 71 msec at 240-foot horizontal range to 393 msec at


700-foot horizontal range in the forested sector.

For the same region, the

times ranged from 63 to 351 msec in the cleared sector.

Both initial and

peak motion arrival times were earlier for the cleared sector (Figure 5.1).
This is in agreement with surface airblast measurements made by BRL Project 1.01 (References 1and15).
The computed near-surface horizontal propagation velocity was higher
in the cleared sector than in the forested sector, 1,610 versus 1,430
ft/sec.

This was also noted in Project 1.01 surface airblast which propa-

gated at a rate of approximately 2,080 ft/sec in the cleared sector, compared with 1,780 ft/sec in the forested sector.

Outrunning ground motion

was observed for both instrument lines, with surface emergence (i.e., the
projected point on the ground surface where outrunning first occurs) closer
-fur

the cleared -s-ector.

This is shown _graphkally in J'igure 5 .2.

probable critical path is indicated by a dashed line.

The

Significantly higher

refraction is seen in the cleared sector, indicating a very high-velocity


(probably saturated) layer occurring near the 15-foot depth with accompanying higher impedance in the upper layers.
for this event.
5.3

Seismic profiles were not taken

PARTICLE ACCELERATION
A prime objective was to measure the upthrust ground-shock component

(caused by cratering action and refraction) and to attempt a determination


of its effect on the tree blowdown mechanism.

To accomplish this, two

components of acceleration and one of velocity were measured along radial


lines in both the forested and cleared sectors.

Peak accelerations are

listed in Table 5.1.


5.3.1 Vertical Acceleration.

Peak downward accelerations are plotted

against horizontal range in Figure 5.3 and range from about 11 g's at the
1.5-foot depth and 240-foot horizontal range to 3 g's at the 1.5-foot depth
104

and 700-foot horizontal range for the forested sector.

At comparable

ranges in the cleared sector, values were 5 g's at the 5.0-foot depth and
2.5 g's at the 1.5-foot depth.

A trend of attenuation with increasing

range is noted for the 1.5-foot-deep gages in both sectors.

Little atten-

uation of the vertical component is observed at depths greater than 1.5


feet.
Peak upward acceleration is plotted against horizontal range in Figure 5.4.

The 1.5-foot-depth data do not show any trend of attenuation with

increasing range in the forested sector.

All other locations show the ex-

pected attenuation.
Peak downward and upward accelerations were normalized to surface
overpressure directly above the point of measurement.

Surface overpres-

sures were extrapolated where measurement locations did not coincide.


Ratios in no case exceeded 0.8 g's/psi, with forested sector values generally exceeding those of the cleared areas (Table 5.4).

Normalized data

are plotted versus overpressure in Figure 5.5 and show little change for
the downward near-surface (1.5-foot depth) motion.

Data at the 5-foot

depth and below appear to increase with decreasing overpressure; however,


only two data points are available for this depth in each test area, limiting their statistical significance.

The upward motion generally increases

with decreasing overpressure at all depths for which a pattern could be


established except 5 feet in the forested area.
Downward acceleration was ratioed against the upward component (Table
5.5) and plotted versus ground range in Figure 5.6.

The ratio is seen to

attenuate with range in both sectors at the shallow depth (1.5 feet), indicating an increase in direct (upward) ground-shock retransmission at larger
distances due to energy refraction and surface airblast attenuation.

The

direct-transmitted energy at the 5-foot depth attenuated rapidly between


the two locations monitored (240- and 320-foot horizontal ranges) in both
sectors, resulting in an increase in the acceleration ratios.

The ratio

attenuated rapidly from near-surface downward to the 10-foot depth at the


close-in stations.
Vertical waveforms are compared between both sectors in Figures 5.7

105

and 5.8.

A secondary spike is seen at later times, first downward, then

upward.
5.3.2

Horizontal Acceleration.

versus range in Figure 5.9.

Horizontal accelerations are plotted

Peak outward values ranged from 5 to o.6 g in

the forest and from 1.5 to 0.5 g in the cleared sector for the ranges
instrumented.
Waveform comparisons between the two sectors are shown in Figures 5.10
and 5.11.

The waveforms exhibit rather typical shapes, a leading high-

frequency outward-going spike followed by an apparent inward motion of


about the same magnitude or greater than the initial motion.

Frequencies

of early motion components tend to be lower in the forested sector, with


corresponding lower amplitude.

In all cases, first motions were outward

going (away from the charge).

The deeper gages along the forested sector

generally exhibited a more oscillatory character at early t:imes than companion gages along the cleared sector.
Both peak vertical and horizontal accelerations in the forested sector
exhibited a low value out of the normal data trend at the 320-foot range
and 1. 5-foot depth. -Wis was not eviu."'-enced by the ho-rizontal velocity
measurement at the same point.
5.4

(Compare in Figures 5.7, 5.10, and 5.15.)

PARTICLE VELOCITY
5.4.1 Vertical Velocity.

this event.

No vertical velocity gages were used for

Consequently, data presented were obtained solely from inte-

grated acceleration.

Low signal-to-noise ratios and instrument drift

created much difficulty in producing realistic late-t:ime portions of the


velocity envelope.

First peaks are reasonably accurate, but reliability

steadily degrades with increasing time.


Derived peak airblast-induced vertical velocities are listed in Table
5.2.

The 1.5-foot data plotted as a function of range (Figure 5.12) at-

tenuated with increasing range.


depths.

No clear trend was indicated for greater

Forest sector amplitudes were higher near surface (1.5 feet), but

lower at the 5-foot depth than those from the cleared sector.
Ratios of peak vertical velocity to surface overpressure above the
point of measurement (Table 5.6) are plotted as a function of range in
106

Figure 5.13.

Little attenuation is indicated for near-surface measurements,

but considerable attenuation is seen at depth.


5.4.2

Horizontal Velocity.

Horizontal velocities (Table 5.2) were

directly measured and enjoy higher confidence than the vertical computation.
Horizontal data were higher in the forested sector near surface and about
equal at a depth of 5 feet as evidenced by the velocity-range plot of Figure 5.14.
Forest and cleared area near-surface horizontal velocity waveforms are
compared in Figure 5.15.
to a range of 450 feet.
become nearly equal.
ure 5.16.

A pronounced outward-going spike predominates out


Beyond this station, inward and outward motions

Waveforms from deeper locations are compared in Fig-

Waveforms are quite similar except for 4-320-5-F-UH which ap-

pears to have lost part of the energy.

Improper coupling of the instru-

ment package to the soil or a soft area in front of and near the package
could have contributed to this response.
In some cases, reasonable integrations were performed on accelerationtime histories.

Selected comparisons are made for directly measured hori-

zontal velocity and integrated acceleration in Fig_ure 5.17.

Excellent

comparison is had at the 240-foot range station, cleared sector, at 10-foot


depth as seen in the upper portion of Figure 5.17a.

The measured and inte-

grated histories are superposed for the first cycle and a half, with phase
shift occurring past that point.

Both yielded 0.39-ft/sec peak outward ve-

locity caused by direct-coupled (crater-induced) energy.

Coincidentally,

these stations are exceptions in that the cratering energy was dominant.
The velocity values listed in Table 5.2 and plotted in Figures 5.12 and
5.14 are related to the surface airblast loading.
the same location for the forest sector.

Figure 5.l7b compares

Amplitude disparities exist at

all points for this comparison, the integrated values being about twice
those of the direct measurement.

107

TABLE 5.1

ACCELERATIOll DATA, EVEJIT 4

G:roun1l
Thr.i:e

Forested S._:ctor

Dept;h

Arriv,i.l
'rime

fee+
Vertic~tJ

Positive

Hee;ative

PP-"ik

leak

T'eCJ.k

Pe:i.k

Value

Time

V:Llue

Time

g's

msec

m:-;ec

Prediction
Vulue

Cleared Sector

Arrival
Time

Negative

Positive

Peak
Vnlue

Peak
'l'ime

Peak
V'.llue

Peak
'rime

msec

g's

msec

g's

msec

g's

(Po~i +..ive Dow~1w.L!"d):

a.NJ

4-?1+0-1.')-

40

lt-?ll-Q-10-

AV

l+- '~:;Q-1. '.!-

71.?

'.:.o

h-:'lt0-5-_AV

3~'0

AV

l+-3~0-5-_J\.V

l-i--1+50- l .'.)-_AV

l;i_:;O

4-700-J.)-_AV

700

'/7.2

l0.8

1.75

75.8

1.80

111.0

P.<J.O

1.31

114.o

63.5

4.91

70.8

l.b7

(,4.6

2. 34

72. 8

1. 211

83.6

80.11

10.0

1.5

120.0

11.58

12e.o

l.90

i110.o

107.o

11.20

lO'.).O

1.59

i26.o

22.0

5.0

99.'7

2.4cl

131.0

0.74

14(,.0

91.0

5.40

n8.o

1.50

l:l6.0

6.1

\J

9.3

l. S

3.(,

lforizo11t,'ll (l'OsitJvP 0ut:w.i.r:l):


1i-:'l;0-1. ~)-_AH

1+-2h0-5-

h-320-1.5h--',:'0-)-

2ltO

J\H

AH

l.'3

s .o

i.119

r:r.1

10.0

1.111

69.5

n2.o

o.G~

3?0

1
0.73'

Al!

107.0

o.79c

l 10.0

110.0

0.<)5

llSJ.O

20.0

l?.O

lt-700-1, ')-_AH

700

351.0

~ 1'' f'or ''o;o::s~~ 1 1; (' for ~l~.irA'l

r:r_)

~ Que,';i,ionr1ble recorcl.
Second por:i tive pectk.

rec01rj.

leak value.s for '.HT '.lre for '.lirblo.:-::,-induce'l n:otion.

Depth

Jt'ore:~

led Sec ~.ur

T're.Jic~.ion

Cleared Sector

V'.llU>:>

.-\rrivil

l'o:oil.i.ve

l\.rrivfll
Time

Tir.i.i<!

msec

fli-~'!r(i-1,'> _a1\V
Jlt-2li0-'j-

c,.o

r ,-21+0-1 o-_,',,/

Value

'I'bne

Vri.lue

rime

ft/sec

"'"ec

ft/sec

m.:.ee

T'oci t.i Vf!


Peak
Value

msec

ft./oec

f'eak
'i'ime

J1=~;1k

VJ.. lu~

re:ik
1'ime

msec

ft./cec

T~.5

0.?9

O.ll8

o.rr,

m2ec

rt/sec

1
AV

700

.!1 -~'.l;CJ-1. )- _rnr

240

L-~'110-5-_UH

ID!

320

4-320-'.J-_tn!

0.78

0.97

1.07

::;.o

1;-V0-1.5-_1m

l'eri.k

320

f'-'.~0-5- _JV

11-;'110-10-

T'r>8.k

0.'10
b

10.0

fi:-700-1.C,-

T'e8.k

~~l:O

J..V

f''-c~o-1.';-_;1v

T'er.l}~

!JJ'.1

<"

0.28

1. 5

'(?.

o.~.r)

~l

3.110.0

i.li

'. 0

1 .1 ~'

01 ~. 0

O.?fi,

(/J

10.1)

O. l(

8?.0

()~

.8

0.2f

,,1.

,~

70.0

0.37

1.5

LO'J

ni.o

0 .r.

lO?.O

O.liJ

l?5.0

0.25

0.80

').0

o.~-1

l'Hl.o

O.rJ/

103.0

O.~(,

12').0

O.ll

0.53

o.~o

1,_1,50-l.5-_1JH

450

234 .o

o. ~8 211.c.o

!1-700-1.5-_1n1

700

39'.0

0.27

1,1,2.0

0.119

352.0

~ F for f'0reste:1; r for c1elr>:!:J,


r:o rceord.
c ~n,::.:t:iO?nble re::-orci.

108

o. "30

TABLE 5.3

DISPLACEMENT DATA, EVENT 4


Ground
Range

Gage

feet

Peak Displacement

Depth

feet

Forested Sector

Cleared Sector

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

feet

feet

feet

feet

Vertical (Positive Downward):

J!4-240-1.5- a AV
f !4-240-5.0-- AV
f !4-240-10- AV

240

J!4-320-1.5-f !4-320-5.0-

320

AV
AV

1.5

0.036

5.0

0.014

0.012

10.0

0.008

1.5

o.05oc

o.05oc

5.0

0.050

0.040

f f4-450-l.5-_AV

450

1.5

0.007

f f4-700-l.5-_AV

700

1.5

0.004

Horizontal (Positive Outward):


f4-240-1.5-_UH
f4-240-5.0-

240

UH

J4-240-10-_UH
!4-320-1. 5-

!4-320-5.0-

UH

320

UH

1.5
5.0
10.0

0.023
0.012
o.017e

0.012

0.013

0.062

0.032

0.014

1.5

0.010

0.034

0.028

5.0

0.031

0.070

0.017

0.002

0.004

rl

!4-450-1.5-

UH

450

1.5

0.008

0.005

!4-700-1. 5-

UH

700

1.5

0.059

0.032

a
b F for forested; C for cleared.
No record.
~ Approximate.
Indetenninate.
e
Second peak.

109

'rABLE 5.4

AIRBLAST-INDUCED VERTICAL ACCELERATION RATIOS, EVENT 4

Overpressure
Forested
Sector

Depth

Maximum Acceleration/Overpressure

Cleared
Sector

Downward

Upward

Forested
Sector

Cleared
Sector

Forested
Sector

Cleared
Sector
g's/psi

psi

psi

feet

g's/psi

g's/psi

g 1 s/psi

24.o

4o.o

1.5
5,0
10.0
1.5
5,0
1.5
1.5

o.450
0.073

0.075
0.055

14.o

20.0

9,5
4.8

11.0
5.0

0.123
0.058
0.560
0.270

0.328
0.177
o.64o
0.620

0.042
0.031
0.080
0.075

0.136
0.053
0.248
0.359

o.497

0.126

: Not instrumented,
No record.

TABLE 5,5

RATIO OF MAXIMUM DOWNWARD TO UPWARD ACCELERATION, EVENT 4


Depth

Ground
Rane;e

Acceleration Ratio
AV Down/AV Up
Forested Sector

feet

feet

240

1.5
5.0
10.0
1.5
5,0
1.5
1. 5

320
450
700

Cleared Sector

8.0
1.3

2.9
1.9
7,0
3.6

2.4
3,3
2.6
1.7

3,9

~ Not instrumented,

No record.

TABLE 5,6

AIRBLAST-INDUCED VERTICAL VELOCITY PATIOS, EVENT 4


Overpressure

Forested Sector
psi

24.o

Depth

Cleo.red Sector
psi

feet

4o.o

1.5
5.0
10.0
1.5
5,0
1.5
1.5

14.o

20.0

9,5
4.8

11.0
5,0

~ Not instr=ented,
No record.

110

Maximum Velocity/Overpressure
Forested Sector

Cleared Sector

ft/sec/psi

ft/sec/psi
a

0.058
0.029
b

0.079
0.051
0.097
0.086

0.020
0.013
0,059
0.043
a

0.056

500

LEGEND
CLEARED SECTOR

400

"'

PEAK TIME

AIRBLAST ARRIVAL IBRL)

"

300

:!'

ARRIVAL TIME

FORESTED SECTOR

,El

ARRIVAL TIME

FORESTED SECTOR

PEAK TIME

,,,,,."

1,430 FT/SEC

AIRBLAST ARRIVAL IBRL)

w
:!'
f:
...J
<(

a:
a:

,.. ,,"'

200

,, ,,"'

,,

,, ,,

,, ,,"

,,"'

"

<(

/,,,,,-"''---_CLEARED SECTOR
..,"'
1,610 FT/SEC

,,"'

,..~

100

Ol..-oK:1"'1:;:..=:..:..::....J.~~~~~-'-~~~~~-'-~~~~~"'-~~~~--l~~~~~--1.~~~~~...L~~~~~J

100

200

300

400

500

500

700

800

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.1 Ground-shock arrival time versus horizontal range, 1.5-foot


depth, Event 4.

111

,,,,,,

,,

60 MSC

GZ

I
I

1'

1\

104 MSEC

II
~

I
I

I
I

T0 =107 , / ' \
/

5.0

1.5

....
w

I
I
I

,,,"

SUPERSEISMIC
REGION

...w

OUTRUNNING
REGION

....
a.

TRANSSEISMIC REGION

10.0

15.0'-~~~~~~~~~~--~~-'-'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

100

200

400
300
500
HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

a.

600

700

800

CLEARED SECTOR

I
I

l/OMSEC

\I

I
I
I
I

I
\

.... ...... ......

7;,=120

... .....

OUTRUNNING
REGION
TRANSSEISMIC REGION

15.0L-~~~---'-~~~~--'-~--'-~~-'---'--~~~'--~-'-~--'-~~~~-'-~~~~-'-~~~--'

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

b. FORESTED SECTOR

Figure 5.2 Ground-shock profiles, Event

112

4.

800

60

LEGEND
40
1.5-FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED
CLEARED

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

I
D

20

FORESTED
CLEARED

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

fj.

CLEARED

"'
;,,
.

10

I-

<t:

0::

w
-'
w

u
u

<t:

1 '---~~~~~--'-~~~~~~...__~~~'--~--'-~-'
100
400
600
800 1 ,000
200

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.3 Peak airblast-induced downward acceleration versus horizontal range, Event 4.

113

'''

Ill

Ci

o.s

I<!

a::
w
--'
w
u
u
<!

0.6

''

' 'Q

'

0.4

LEGEND
1.SFOOT DEPTH

FORESTED
CLEARED

5,0FOOT DEPTH
0.2

FORESTED
CLEARED

10.0FOOT DEPTH

[),,

CLEARED

0.1~~~~~~~-'-~~~~~~-....~~~~..._~~"'-~-'

100

200

400

600

800

1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.4 Peak crater-induced upward acceleration


versus horizontal range, Event 4.

114

1 0
0.8
0 6

0
0

0.4

.... '

(ii
Q_

'"'

Ol

' ..... .....

0.2

0::
::J

\
0

Q_

)a

(f)
(f)

0::

..... ~

'

0 1

0::

w
>

o.os

'z

0.06

0
0

-f0::

w
_J
w

0.04

'~,,

LEGEND
DOWN-

1 5-FOOT D-EPTH

<t

'

_...L_

FORESTED
CLEARED

A-

4-

U-P

LI

[j,

'iJ

5 0-FOOT DEPTH

u
u

FORESTED

<t

CLEARED
0 02

t::.

10.0-FOOT DEPTH
CLEARED

10

20

40

60

so

100

OVERPRESSURE, PSI

Figure 5.5 Ratio of maximum vertical acceleration to surface overpressure, Event 4.

115

LEGEND
1.5-FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED

CLEARED

s.0-FOOT DEPTH

a.

:J

FORESTED

>

CLEARED

<{
,

''

3:
0
0

>

<{

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

''

'''

0
f<{

0::

0
f--4:

CLEARED
'x....----:-:
1.5-FOOT DEPTH
''
''
'

' ' 'O,

FORESTED
1.5-FOOT DEPTH

oc
w
_J
w

CLEARED

u
u
<{

........~~~~~~~~~-'-~~~~~...._~~~~~~~

OL-~~~~~~~~

100

200

400

600

800

1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.6 Vertical acceleration ratio as a function of ground


range, Event 4.

116

CLEARED SECTOR

FORESTED SECTOR

240-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


2
UP

I
l+-

2
4

DATA QUESTIONABLE PAST


THIS POINT

DOWN

4-240-1.5-F-AV

8
10
12

320-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

ELECTRICAL OFFSET

0
2

j:

'!'

en

4-320-1.5-F-AV

<!.

4-320-1.5-C-AV

a::

UJ

_J

UJ

u
u

\0

<!.

12

450-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

4-450-1.5-F-AV

0
2
4

700-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

~[
0

~
lw.
'

l'=-v

4-700-1.5-F-AV

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

4-700-1.5-C-AV

1.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 5.7 Vertical acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and


cleared sectors, 1.5-foot depth, Event 4.

117

CLEARED SECTOR

FORESTED SECTOR

240FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

5.0-FOOT DEPTH
1.6

1.6

4-240-5-F -AV

0.8

4-240-5-C-A V

0.8

l.- DATA QUESTIONABLE


PAST THIS POINT

0.8

0.8

1.6

1.6

2.4

2.4

3.2

3.2

4.0

4.0

PAST THIS POINT

UP

+
DOWN

4.8

4.8

10.0-FOOT DEPTH
0.8

4-240-10-C-AV

0.8

I<(

Cl'.

1.6

-!

w
u
u

2.4

<(

LI

320-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

5.0-FOOT DEPTH
1,6
0.8

4-320-5-F-AV

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.6

1,6

2.4

2.4

4-3205-C-A V

3.2
4.0
4.8
5.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION. SECONDS

Figure 5.8 Vertical acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and


cleared sectors, 5.0- and 10.0-foot depths, Event 4.
118

~
"'
Cn
z

0
j::
<l'.

0.6

w
_J
w

0.6

0::

u
u

.........

..............

<l'.
0.4

..........
..... ""O,

LEGEND
1.5-FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED
CLEARED

5,0-FOOT DEPTH
0.2

FORESTED
CLEARED

10.0-FOOT DEPTH
FORESTED

Di, CLEARED

0.1
100

400

200

600

BOO 1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.9 Peak airblast-induced outward acceleration versus horizontal range, Event 4.

119

CLEARED SECTOR

FORESTED SECTOR

240-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


2.4
1.6
TOWARD

0.8

4-240-1,5-F'-AH

0
i._ DATA QUESTIONABLE
PAST THIS POINT

0.8

AWAY

1.6
2.4

NOTE:

3.2

HASH APPEARING AT LATE TIMES ON EVENT 4


WAVEFORMS IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE VERY LOW
SIGNAL-TONOISE RATIOS OF THE DATA AND TO
THE DATA PROCESSING METHODS AVAILABLE.

4.0

-"'

O>

0
I-

4.8

320-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

1.6

<{

4-320-1.5-F-AH

a::
w . {},8
..J
w

u
u
<{

.wwJ'~/VV"\vv-

~DATA

o.st~
0

QUESTIONABLE

PAST THIS POINT

0.8

Q,

4-320-1.5-C-AH

t--1-r-'.llv-~-----------

1.6

450-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

0.8

4-450-1.5-F-AH

i._ DATA QUESTIONABLE


PAST THIS POINT

0.8

700-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


0.8
4-700-1.5-F-AH

1.6
0.8

1.6

4-700-1.5-F-AH

t--------....,,,..,_,_.__________

~~

1-- DATA QUESTIONABLE PAST THIS


POINT

0.8

0.2

0,4

0.6

0.8

ABLE PAST THIS

0.8

POINT

I
1.0

0,2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 5.10 Horizontal acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and


cleared sectors, 1.5-foot depth, Event 4.
120

CLEARED SECTOR

FORESTED SECTOR

240-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


5.0-FOOT DEPTH
2.4

2.4

1.6

1.6
4-240-5-C-AH

4-240-5-F-AH

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1,6

1.6

DATA QUESTIONABLE
PAST THIS POINT

TOWARD

10.0-FOOT DEPTH
1.6

1.6

AWAY

Ill

Cl

z
2
f<(

a::
w
_J
w
u
u

<(

0.8

0.8

4-240-10-F-AH

4-240-10-C-AH

0
1.6
2.4

320-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


5.0-FOOT DEPTH
1.6

1.6
4-320-5-F-AH

4-320-5-C-AH

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.6

1.6

2.4

2.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

PAST THIS POINT

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 5.11 Horizontal acceleration waveform comparisons, forested and


cleared sectors, 5.0- and 10.0-foot depths, Event 4.

121

LEGEND
1 .5-FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED

CLEARED

5.0-FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED

CLEARED

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

fj,

CLEARED

(/)

"

0.8

I-

>-

I0
0
.J

LL

0.6

>

0.4

0.2

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.12 Peak airblast-induced downward velocity


versus horizontal range, Event 4.

122

0.8

LEGEND

0.6

1 .5-FOOT DEPTH

0.4

FORESTED

CLEARED

S.0-FOOT DEPTH

I
0

(/)

a.

'0

FORESTED
CLEARED

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

(/)

'I-

0.2

/:l

LL

CLEARED

n::

:::>
(/)
(/)

n::

a.
n::
w

>

o------

;:

l-

0.04

...J

>

0.02

A
0.01

L-~~~--''--~~~--'~~--'-~_..~...._~~~~~~~~~..._~__.....___.....__.

10

20

40

60

80

100

OVERPRESSURE, PSI

Figure 5,13 Ratio of maximum airblast-induced downward velocity to


overpressure, Event 4.

123

LEGEND
1.SFOOT DEPTH

FORESTED

CLEARED

5,0FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED

CLEARED

10.0FOOT DEPTH

FORESTED

t::.

CLEARED

u
UJ

(/)

'I-

0.8

LL

>-

I-

0,6

u
-o
_J
w

>

o,

0.4

\
\

0.2

''

\
\

\
\
\

\
\
\

'o

'

0.1

--~~~~~~........~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

100

200

400

600

800 1,000

HORIZONTAL RANGE, FEET

Figure 5.14 Peak airblast-induced outward velocity


versus horizontal range, Event 4.

124

CLEARED SECTOR

FORESTED SECTOR

240-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


0.4

4-240-1.5-F-UH
0
TOWARD

0.4

-0.8

AWAY

--1.2

-1.6

-2.0

-2.4

u
w

320-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

U)

r:
lL
;

0.4

....

...J

>

-o

4-320-1.5-F-UH

~~::::::::::=::::- ~:

4-320-1.5-C-UH

w-.. .

~v---y---

1---r-E

-0.8

450-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

':[

d\

4-450-1.5-F-UH
,+...

-0.4

700-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE

0.4[
Ot---~~-rl\'\J_f\_,__..~~- 01--~~~v~f\-~c=----/\-+""7~~-

__

4-700-1.5-F-UH

- 0 . 4 -

0 2

0.4

0 6

C/

0.8

0.4 [

4-700-1.5-C-UH

-0.4

1.0

0 2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 .o

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 5.15 Horizontal velocity waveform comparisons, forested and cleared


sectors, 1.5-foot depth, Event 4.

125

CLEARED SECTOR

FORESTED SECTOR

240-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


5.0-FOOT DEPTH
0.4

4-240-5-C-U H

ELECTRICAL
OFFSET

-0.4

4-240-5-F-U H

TOWARD

-0.8

-0.8

-1.2

-1.2

+
AWAY

u
w

10.0-FOOT DEPTH

(/)

LL

4-240-10-C-U H

or (\

>-

f-

o~rv~~

_J

>

-o.4 L

'J

320-FOOT HORIZONTAL RANGE


5.0-FOOT DEPTH
0.4

0.4

4-320-5-F-UH

-0.4

4-320-5-C-U H

-0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure 5.16 Horizontal velocity waveform comparisons, forested


and cleared sectors, 5.0- and 10.0-foot depths, Event 4.

126

TOWARD
0.4

4-240-10-C-AH

......

\
\
\
AIRBLAST
INDUCED
MOTION

0.4
0

+
__
AWA

...._

...... ......

..,,,

'-../

CRATER.INDUCED MOTION
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

a. CLEARED SECTOR

1.0

(/)

'f-IJ..
-

J4-240-10-F-AH

>f--

0.5

>

4-240-10-F-UH

AIRBLAST
INDUCED
MOTION

0.5

0.74 FT/SEC

CRATER-INDUCED
MOTION
1.0

'---~~~~~-'-~~~~~-'--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.8

1.0

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

b. FORESTED SECTOR
Figure 5.17 Measured horizontal velocity waveforms compared to integrated
acceleration, 10-foot depth, cleared and forested sectors, Event 4.

127

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
Project 3.02a failed to record any data from Event 1.

Failure

to

either receive or properly translate sequence start signals from DRES timing and control resulted in no equipment turn on.

The equipment was set

for automatic mode and the bunker was not manned.

On all subsequent tests

except Event 4, the instrument bunkers were :f'ully manned.


Ground motions at the Drowning Ford Test Site were similar for Events
3 and 5, although Event 5 exhibited higher frequency signals and somewhat
higher output in the horizontal plane near the ground surface.

This was an

influence of the thin frozen surface layer which allowed greater coupling
and transmission of the high-frequency components.

High-frequency pertur-

bations are normally attenuated quite rapidly by dry alluvial soils.


Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 correlated well with the Flat Top Series

on all motion parameters in both amplitude and waveform.

Observed dispar-

ities and scatter are largely attributed to slight differences in test


site soils, explosive coupling, and instrument canister placement.
blast induction predominated in-verti-cal -a.ml

hori~untal

Air-

acceleration over

the ranges instrumented, while crater induction predominated in horizontal


displacement out to a range of 150 feet for Event 3 and to 190 feet for
Event 5.

Vertical velocity was influenced about equally by both loading

modes.
The detonable gas bag experiment (Event 2A) produced no crater.
Airblast-induced ground motions for this event were greater than for Events
3 and 5 or Flat Top.

This was a result of significant explosive energy

going directly into airblast formation rather than partitioning to the


ground through crater formation coupled with a much larger initial volume
and effective area loaded.
Stress measurements attempted in this test series yielded only limited
success.

Amplitude attenuation with depth appeared to be excessively

rapid, but is supported by recent findings as discussed in Reference 15.


Stresses were higher for Event 3 than for Event 5, but both were significantly lower than the surface airblast.

128

Event 2A stresses, however, were

very nearly the magnitude of the airblast above the point of measurement.
Stress measurements below 1.5 feet were generally of marginal signal level,
which limited resolution.
Ground shock was not found to be a significant factor influencing the
tree blowdown mechanism on Event

4. Primary motions in the blowdown region

were down and away from the point of detonation at early times, then upward
due to elastic rebound and, later, due to cratering action and refracted
energy from depth.

Measured upthrust motions were small in the regions in-

strumented and are felt to have provided only minimal enhancement to the
translation effects imposed on the trees by airblast drag forces.

129-130

APPENDIX A
DATA WAVEFORMS, EVENTS 2A,

3, AND 5

The data presented in this appendix are uncorrected


for baseline shift and are representative of the
original data recorded.

131

EVENT 2A
2A-0-1.5-AV

GROUND ZERO
1.5 FT DEPTH

"'

8::r

UP

+
DOWN

Iii

2A-0-5-AV
GROUND ZERO
5.0 FT DEPTH

I/)

J,
0

:if

~
~

l&J
....I

2A-0-10-AV
GROUND ZERO
10.0 FT DEPTH

.000

.025

.050

.075

.100

.125

TIME FRM DET SEC

Figure A.l

.150

.175

.200

Vertical acceleration, Event 2A (Sheet 1 of

132

.225

6).

.250

EVENT 2A

2A-50-1.5-A V
50.0 FT RANCE
1.5 FT DEPTH

~
~

UP

+
DOWN

(I)

2A-50-5-AV

'

(.D

I-

50.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

2
0

:E
LI.I

a7

~
u
cc

...J

2A-50-10-A V
50.0 FT RANGE
I 0 .0 FT Df.PTH

"'

.ooo

.025

.oso

.075

.100

.125

.ISO

.175

TIME FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.l

(Sheet 2 of

133

6).

.200

.zzs

.250

EVENT 2R
2A-80-1.5-AV
0

80.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

JJ

UP

+
DOWN

u;>

2A-80-5-AV
80.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

l.D
0

I-

a:
a:

'ii

IU
..J

8a:

al
0
~

2A-80-10-A V
80.0 FT RANGE
10.0 FT DEPTH
o+-~~ef>'...J~::::;::::-~~~~~~~~~-

:r

000

.025

.oso

.075

ICIO

.125

ISO

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.l

(Sheet 3 of 6).

134

.175

.mo

.225

.zso

EVENT 2A
2A-95-1.5-A V

95.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
0

"'

UP

0
Q

DOWN

2A-95-5-AV

95.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

"'
0
0
If)

i.D

....~

i.J

'"
~
0

"'
"'
0

2A-95-10-A V
Q

"'
0

"'

.000

.025

.050

.075

.100

.125

ISO

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.l

(Sheet

135

4 of 6).

.175

.200

.225

.250

EVENT 2A

2
2

2A-125-1.5-AV

125.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

"

~
0

~
0

"

2
i

UP

(/)

'

(.!)

:z

DOWN

I-

cc:
a:

.....
.....
u

2A-125-10-AV

__J

cc:

,,,
..,
0

..,

,,,
.,,

~
--

~J

.ooo

.025

.050

.075

.100

.IZS

.ISO

.175

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.l

(Sheet 5 of 6).

136

.2()()

.2Z5

.250

EVENT 2A
2

2A-210-1.5-AV

Cl

210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

!<l

51

...

"

2A-210-1.5-AV1
210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.
2

UP

lit
Ul

c.b

~-

-.....
~

LU

...J

~
u
a:

2-

2A-210-1.5-AV2

DOWN

210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.,--

~
111

.ooo

.025

.050

.075

.100

.125

.150

.175

.200

.225

.250

TJHE FRH OET - SEC

2A-390-1.5-A V
N

..

"
IO

.
.oso

.075

.100

.125

ISO

.175

.200

.225

TIHE FRH OET - SEC

Figure A.l

(Sheet 6 of 6).

137

.250

.175

.300

j~
~]~
u
w

IL4..

>-

....
u

I-

..J

>

~...

EVENT 2R
2A-0-1.5-UV
GROUND ZERO
l.5FT DEPTH

I 2A-0-1.5-AV
GROUND ZERO
1.5 FT DEPTH
UP

2A-0-5-UV
GROUND ZERO
5.0 FT DEPTH

DOWN

j2A-0-5-AV
GROUND ZERO
5.0 FT DEPTH

..

C>

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:j

v
2A-0-10-UV

j
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C>

.000

.025

.050

.075

.100

.IZS

.150

.175

.200

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.2

Vertical velocity, Event 2A (Sheet 1 of

138

.225

4).

.250

EV:::NT 2R

12A-50-1.5~A V_
0

50.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

,,.

..
~

I 2A-50-5-Av
50.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

,,.

UP

..
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I 2A-50-10-A v

DOWN

50.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH
0

LI

IQ
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I 2A-80-1.5-Av
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80.0 FT RANGE
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0
N

.,,

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80.0 FT RANGE
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.000

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.050

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IZS

.100

TIHE FRH DET

Figure A.2

ISO

.175

SEC

(Sheet 2 of 4).

139

.200

.225

.250

EVENT 2A

I 2A-95-1.5-A v

:J

95.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.......-==

I 2A-95-5-AV

..,

...

95.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

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UP

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j 2A-95-10-AV

DOWN

IL.
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f 2A-125-1.5-AV

125.0 FT RANGE
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Figu.re A.2

(Sheet

140

of

4).

.200

.225

.250

EVENT 2A

J2~210:.5-~

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210 0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

UP

"'

I 2A-210-1.5-AV1

DOWN

210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.
....

I 2A-210-1.5-AV2

UJ

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390.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.100

.125

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.175

.m
.200
TIHE FRH OET - SEC

Figure A.2

(Sheet

141

.250

.275

4 of 4).

.JOO

.3ZS

.350

EVENT 2A

,,.0

2A-50-1.5-AH

50.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

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AWAY

50.0 FT RANGE
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2
c

g
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.125

.150

.175

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TIHE FRH OET - SEC

Figure A.3

Horizontal acceleration, Event 2A (Sheet 1 of 3).


142

.250

!2

EVENT 2A

..,,.

2A-95-1.5-AH
95.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

,,.

.
~

2A-95-5-AH

95.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

2
Q

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cc
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a
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it;

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a

00

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.tzs

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TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.3

(Sheet 2 of 3).

143

.t7S

.zoo

.ttS

.zso

.
.

EVENT 2A
2A-210-1.5-AH
210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

:r

:r

TOWARD

...

2A-210-1.5-AH 1

AWAY

....
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210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

:r

...
(/')

J,

.ooo

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cc
w
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.ozs

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.100

.125

.ISO

.175

.200

.225

TIME FRH OET - SEC

....
.
.
...

2A-390-1.5-AH
390.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

:r

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I

100

.125

.ISO

.175

.200

.225

.250

TIME FRM OET - SEC

Figure A.3

(Sheet 3 of 3).

144

.Z7S

.300

.us

.250

EVENT 2A

j 2A-50-1.5-AH
50.0-FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

2A-50-5- UH
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50.0-FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH
0-1--~,....---::::::------------------------~

I 2A-50-5-AH

AWAY

50.0-FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

(/)

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f-

u.
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2A-50-5'UH
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I 2A-50-10-AH
50.0FT RANGE
~+------------------!-'...,___ 10.0 FT DEPTH - - -

.000

.ozs

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TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure A.4

Horizontal velocity, Event 2A (Sheet 1 of 5).

.250

EVENT 2A

0....---.------,,_...,----=,----------- 2A-80-1.5-U H - - -

I 2A-80-1.5-AH
80.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

2A-80-5-UH
800 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

I 2A-80-5-AH

~
1-

...

80.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

EVENT 2A

2A-80-10-UH
80.0 FT RANGE
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~l

7
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J2A-80-10-AH
80.0 FT RANGE
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~+-~r.---r=~--:;:::=-<====::::::::7'.c::=~~====-~
2A-80-18-U H
80.0 FT RANGE
18.0 FT DEPTH

..
.000

.025

.050

.015

,100

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.175

TIHE FRH DET SEC

Figure A.4 (Sheet 2 of

146

5).

.200

.225

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EVENT 2A
2A-95-1.5-U H
95 0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
0

I 2A-95-1.5-AH
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95.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

-=-=

2A-95-5-UH
95.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

......-=:-=----

'{

TOWARD

II&..
~

I-

g
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>

f 2A-95-5-AH

95.0 FT RANGE
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2A-95-10-U H

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95.0 FT RANGE
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TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.4

(Sheet 3 of 5).

147

.175

.200

.225

.250

EVENT 2A
2A-125-1.5-UH

\V;J

125.0 FT RANGE
1.5FT DEPTH

-Clc::z::::

TOWARD

+
AWAY

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I 2A-125-1.5-AH

-----

125.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

~
ILL.

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ti
0
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.ms

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1111

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.175

TII FAH OCT - SEC

Figure

A.4 (Sheet 4 of 5).

148

.mo

.!ZS

.ESD

EVENT 2A
2A-210-1.5-UH

'":

210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.
~

'":

f 2A-210-1.5-AH

\f
TOWARD

,.
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2A-210-18-UH

AWAY

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210.0 FT RANGE
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210.0 FT RANGE
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0

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.025

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.100

.125

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.175

.200

.225

.250

TIME FRH DEJ - SEC-

2A-390-1.5-U H
0

390.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

+-----------'-4~,.....t----->.~~~~~-~

I 2A-390-1.5-AH
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390 0 FT RANGE

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.100

.125

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.175

.200

.225

.250

.275

TIME FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.4

(Sheet 5 of 5).

149

FT DEPTH
.300

.325

.3SO

EVENT 2A
2A-0-1.5-EV
GROUND ZERO
1.5 FT DEPTH

2A-0-5-EV
GROUND ZERO
5.0 FT DEPTH

~ 1----~~.L.---~..::..~::::-:=-=::::-:__~~~~2A~-0--10__EV----~
GROUND ZERO
10.0 FT DEPTH

2A-50-1.5-EV
50.0 FT RANGE
1.5FT DEPTH

2A-50-5-EV
50.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

2A-50-10-EV
50.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

.02

.04

.06

.08

.10

.12

.14

.16

TIHE FRH OET SEC

Figure A.5

Vertical stress, Event 2A (Sheet 1 of 2).

150

.18

EVENT 2A
2A-80-1.5-EV

80.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
~

COMPRESSION

Fil

2A-95-1.5-EV
95.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

2A-95-5-EV
95.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

s:

;;:;
a..

en
en

s:

2A-125-1.5-EV

I-

en

125.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

:c:

....~
Fil

2A-210-1.5-EV

s:

210.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

2A-390-1.5-EV
390.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
.01 SEC

.02

.04

.06

.08

. ID

.12

TIME FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.5

(Sheet 2 of 2).

151

.14

.16

.18

EVENT 3
3-60-1.5-A V

60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

~
~

3-60-5-AV
60.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH
UP

3-60-10-A\J

DOWN

60.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

enI

I-

3-70-1.5-A V

70.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

j
Si

3-70-5-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

3-70-10-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
;-~-,-~t-~~~-1r7~'"==...,.==--~ 10.0FT DEPTH

-.DO .01 .02 .03

I
.Qll

TIHE FRH DET -

Figure A.6

.OS .Oii .07 .Oii ,09 .10 II .12 Ill l'I IS Ill .17 .18 .19 .20
s~c

Vertical acceleration, Event 3 (Sheet 1 of 2).


152

-.DO .01

.oz

.03 .D'I .OS .08 .07 .08 .09 .10 .11 .12 .13 .1'1 .15 .111 .17 .111 .19 .20

Tl HE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.6

(Sheet 2 of 2).

153

EVENT 3

J3-60-1.5-AV
60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

+
DOWN

f3-60-5-AV
60.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

~t-

"-

>-

- t-

~
...I

f 3-60-10-AV

.....
>

60.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

-.000

.ozs

.oso

.07S

.100

.125

.150

, 175

.200

TIME FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.7 Vertical velocity, Event 3 (Sheet 1 of 2).

154

EVENT 3

f3-70-1.5-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
I .'5 FT DEPTH
UP

-l-

f 3-70-5-AV

DOWN

70.0 FT RANGE
5 0 FT DEPTH

f3-70-10-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
10.0 FT DEPTH
u

~.....

.....

....
.....

-....
u

f3-105-1.5-AV

_J

>

105.0 FT RANGE
I 5 FT DEPTH

f 3-150-1.5-AV
150 0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

I 3-225-1.5-AV
225 0 FT RANGE
I 5 FT DEPTH

.000

.025

.oso

.D7S

.100

.!ZS

.ISO

TIME FRM DET SEC

Figure A.7

(Sheet 2 of 2).

155

.175

.200

EVENT 3
3-60-1.5-AH
60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

3-60-5-AH
60.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH
D

TOWARD

3-60-10-AH
60.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

------

UI

-:E
t o-

L&.I

...I

~
u

ct:

~1

3-70-1.5-AH
70.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

~
~

3-70-5-AH
70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

.02

O'I

.06

.08

.10

.12

.I~

TIHE FRH OET - SEC

Figure A.8

Horizontal acceleration, Event 3 (Sheet 1 of 2).

156

EVENT 3
II)

3-105-1.5-AH
105.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

TOWARD

II)

Cf)

lD

AWAY

3-150-1.5-AH

;:::

150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

LU

_J

t1

er
~

3-225-1.5-AH

.--~--.~~--.-~~--.~~-.~~.-~~-.~~,------,

.02

.O'f

.06

.06

.10

TIME FRM DET - SEC

Figure A.8

(Sheet 2 of 2).

157

.IZ

.I~

.16

EVENT 3

3-60-1.5-U H
60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

f 3-60-1.5-AH
60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

TOWARD

+
AWAY

3-60-5-UH
60.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

t.J

~....
...

........

8-'
IA.I

>

~1

""V

""

~~
.

3-60-5-AH
60.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

3-60-10-UH

C>

600 FT RANGE
10.0 FT DEPTH

.
,.

3-60-10-AH

60.0 FT RANGE
10.0 FT DEPTH

..

-.00 .01

.oz

.03

,QI!

.DS .06 .ftl .08 .09 .10 ,II .12 .13

.I~

.IS .18 .17 .18 .19 .20

TIHE FR/1 DET - SEC

Figure A.9

Horizontal velocity, Event 3 (Sheet 1 of 3).

158

EVENT 3
3-70-1.5-UH
70.0 FT RANGE
1.5FT DEPTH

TOWARD

+
AWAY

3-70-1.5-AH
70.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

3-70-5-UH
70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

3-70-5-AH
700 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

.00.01

.02 .03 .O'l

.05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .11

.12 .13 .14

TIME FRM DET - SEC

Figure A.9

(Sheet 2 of 3).

159

.15 .16 .17 .16 .19 .20

EVENT 3
3-105-1.5-UH
105 0 FT RANGE
I 5 FT DEPTH

3-105-1.5-AH
105.0 FT RANGE
I. 5 FT DEPTH

]
-

3-150-1.5-UH

150.0 FT RANGE
l.5FT DEPTH

(..)

~
,_
"-

....
,_
g_.

....>

TOWARD

-1
~

AWAY

) 3-lS0-1:5-AH
150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

3-225-1.5-UH

l (l

225.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

l(l

3-225-1.5-AH
225.0 FT RANGE
I 5 FT DEPTH

.00.01 .02 .03 .O'I .OS .06

.rn

TIME FRH DET SEC

Figure A.9

.08 .09 .10 .II .12 .13 .I~ .IS .16 .17 .18 .19 .20

(Sheet 3 of 3).
160

EVENT 3

3-60-10-EV
60.0-FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH
0

COMPRESSION
0

"'
l(l

3-70-1.5-EV
70 0-FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

iii

0.

vi
(/)

..
0

3-70-5-EV
70.0-FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

er

I-

(/)

I-

er

<(

g
!<l

3-105-1.5-EV

105.0-FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

3-150-1.5-EV

150.0-FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
0

3-225-1.5-EV

"'

225.0-FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
0

.02

,O'I

.06

.08

.10

.12

, 1q

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure A.10

Vertical stress, Event 3.

.16

EVENT 5
5-60-1.5-A V

..

60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

5-60-5-AV
60.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

.
UP

+
DOWN

en

J,

5-60-10-AV
60 .0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

5-70-1.5-AV

70.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

:1

5-70-5-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

5-70-10-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

.
-.00 ,01

.oz

.03 .O'I .OS .06 .07 .06 .09 .10 ll .12 .13 . l~ IS .18 .17 , 18 .19 .20

TIHE FRH OET - SEC

Figure A.11

Vertical acceleration, Event 5 (Sheet 1 of 2).


162

EVENT 5
5-105-1.5-AV

Iii

105.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
a

Iii
2

5-105-10-AV
105.0 FT RANGE
10.0 FT DEPTH

UP

U'l
I

CJI

DOWN

5-150-1.5-AV
150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

er.

5-225-1.5-AV
225.0 FT RANGE.
1.5 FT DEPTH
a

-.00 .DI

.D2 .03 .O'f .OS .06 .D7 .D8 .09 .ID .II .12 .13

.I~

TIME FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.11

(Sheet 2 of 2).

.15 .16 .17

.~D

EVENT 5

f 5-60-1.5-AV

"'

60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

Cl

UP

"'

DOWN

I-

i...

"'

>-

....
i..l

I-

_J

LI.I

>

"'

j 5-60-10-A V

..."'

60.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

"'...

.oo .01 .02 .03 .11'1 .os .OB .rn .oe .09 to .11 t2 t3 tlf ts te t7 us

. ts

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.12

Vertical velocity, Event 5 (Sheet 1 of 3).

164

.20

EVENT 5

f 5-70-1.5-AV
70.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

f 5-70-5-AV
U'I

70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

.
U'I

(.J

~
I....

>-

I-

g
d
>

70.0 FT RANGE
10.0 FT DEPTH

UP

DOWN

"] v

fo-105-1.5-A V

~J-

=--

105.0FTRA~
1.5 FT DEPTH

t<

f 5-105-10-AV
I 05.0 FT RANGE
I 0.0 FT DEPTH

-.00 .01 .02 ,03 .11'1 .OS .OS .ftl .OS .09 .10 .II .12 .13 .l'I .IS .Ill .11 .18 .19 .20

Tl HE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.12

(Sheet 2 of 3).

165

EVENT 5

f 5-105-1.5-AH
150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

UP

+
DOWN

f5-225-1.5-AV
225.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

O_

-.oo .ot .02 .03 .D'I .os .1111 .01 .1111 .09 to .11 t2 t3 t'I ts 11 t7 ta ta .20

TI HE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.12

(Sheet 3 of 3).

166

EVENT 5
i

5-60-1.5-AH
60.0FT RANGE

..
:r

0
CIO

5-70-1.5-AH
70.0-FT RANGE

:r

0
0

:r

TOWARD
0
CIO

~
c:n

0
Icl:
0::

w
_J
w
0
0
cl:

fil

5-105-1.5-AH

AWAY

105.0-FT RANGE

fil

5-150-1.5-AH

...

150.0-FT RANGE

...
2

...

5-225-1.5-AH

..,

225.0-FT RANGE

.
..,
.
t

,00 .Ol .02 .03 .11'1 .OS .08

.rn

TIME FROM DETONATION, SECONDS

Figure A.13

.08 .09 .10 ll .12 .13 l'I IS II .17 US .19 .20

Horizontal acceleration, Event 5,

EVENT 5

..

5-60-1.5-U H

0"t-Ttl't";:;:::=====~~~~~~~~~~6~0~.0~F~T;:-;:::R~A~N~G~E~~~

1.5 FT DEPTH

5-60-1.5-AH

..

60.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH
TOWARD

co

...

.
.

5-70-1.5-UH

AWAY

70.0 FT RANGE
I. 5 FT DEPTH

~I-

"-

,...

I-

u
0

...J

w
>

I 5-70-1.5-AH

:~

70.0 FT RANGE

tv

:j

~~
5-105-1.5-UH
105.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

yo

I 5-150-1.5-AH
105.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

~]

.DO .01 .02 .03 .11'1 .OS .Oii .111 .Oii .09 , 10 II , 12 .13 I~ IS .18 , 17 UI 19 .20

TIHE FRH DET - SEC

Figure A.14

Horizontal velocity, Event 5 (Sheet 1 of 3).

168

EVENT 5
5-150-1.5-UH
~

150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

t-:
'"!

f 5-150-1.5-AH
<.J

,.. .

;J

150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

...........

TOWARD

I-

LL.

>-

I-

is

-....

5-225-1.5-UH

AWAY

t-:
Q

t-:
,,,.

f 5-225-1.5-AH
225.0 FT RANGE

C>i-~~~~~~~~--~~r-~~~~~l.~S~F~T~D~E~P~T~H~~-

.00 .DI

.or

.03

I
,()II

.OS .08 .07 .08 .09 ID .11 .12 tl I~ ts .18 .17 .18 .19 .20

TIHE FRH DET SEC

Figure A.14

(Sheet 2 of

3).

EVENT 5
l'J

5-50-5-l.JH

0 +-~~.__~......::~~~~~---~~~~~~so.-0

FT RANGE

5.0 FT DEPTH
!\I

TOWA~O

..,.

Vl

ID

AWAY

(..)

u.J

en

.........

CJ

t-

u..

>t-

.......
c.J
0

=i
\!:.

5-60-10-UH

\=r

_J

u.J

>

5-70-5-UH

N-.

--- ' '

....

l'J

..,.
l!l

''

'\

__ ...

''

ID

-D.OOC

0-~25

0.030

0-"75

'

......

.,,,.--- ----- ---------

___ -- --- ------ f

0.100

0.125

0.)50

5-70-5--AH
70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

0.!75

TIME FROM DET - SECS


Figure

A.l4 (Sheet 3 of 3)

170

-------

0.200

0.225

0.250

SI

!<3

5-70-1.5-EV

iC
(/)
(/)

a:

t-

(/)

:I:

5-70-5-EV

t-

cc
a:
UJ

70.0 FT RANGE
5.0 FT DEPTH

---SI

5-105-1.5-EV

!<3

105.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

...

!<3

5-150-1.5-EV
150.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

......
5-225-1.5-EV
225.0 FT RANGE
1.5 FT DEPTH

.02

.04

.06

.08

.10

.12

.14

Tit Fllt OCT SEC

Figure A.15

Vertical stress, Event 5.


171

'16

.18

REFERENCES
F. M. Sauer and C. T. Vincent; "Ferris Wheel Series, Flat Top
Event, Project Officer's Report - Project l.2/l.3a, Earth Motion and Pressure Histories"; POR-3002 (WT-3002), 12 April 1967; Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California; Unclassified.
1.

2. W. R. Perrett and V. L. Gentry; "Free-Field Measurements of Earth


Stress, Strain and Ground Motion"; Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Project 1.4,
WT-716, February 1955, Sandia Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico,
Unclassified.
3. N. M. Newmark and J. D. Haltiwanger; "Air Force Design Manual:
Principles and Practices for Design of Hardened Structures"; AFSWC-TDR-62138, December 1962; Air Force Special Weapons Center, Kirtland Air Force
Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Unclassified.
4. "Operation Distant Plain Preliminary Report"; DASA 1876-1 (DASIAC
Special Report 53-1), Volume I, December 1966; Defense Atomic Support
Agency Information and Analysis Center, General Electric, TEMPO, Santa
Barbara, California; For Official Use Only.
5. "Operation Distant Plain Symposium"; DASA 1947-1 (DASIAC Special
Report 60-1), Volume I, September 1967; Defense Atomic Support Agency Information Analysis Center, General Electric, TEMPO, Santa Barbara, California; For Official Use O;nly.
6. "Pace A-18 Accelerometer Tech Bulletin"; Revised February 1965,
Pace Engineering Co., North Hollywood, California; Unclassified.

7. J. -W. -Wistor; ''An Ext-ended Ha..'1ge Velocity Gage for Measurements


in High-Shock Environment"; Sandia Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico;
Unclassified.
8. J. K. Ingram; "Procedure for Assembling SE-Type Soil Stress
Gages"; Instruction Report No. 8, March 1967; U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Mississippi; Unclassified.
9. J. K. Ingram; "Development of a Free-Field Soil Stress Gage for
Static and Dynamic Measurements"; Technical Report No. 1-814, February
1968; U. S. Arm:y Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg,
Mississippi; Unclassified.
10. R. E. Reisler and others; "Airblast Parameters for SUilllller and
Winter 20-Ton Explosions, Operation, Distant Plain, Events 3 and 5";
Memorandum Report No. 1894, November 1967; U. S. Army Materiel Connnand,
Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland;
Unclassified.
11. "Operation Distant Plain Preliminary Report"; DASA 1876-3, Volume III, January 1968; Defense Atomic Support Agency Information and Analysis Center, General Electric, TEMPO, Santa Barbara, California; For Official Use Only.

12.

M. J. Dudash, ed.; "Operation Distant Plain Symposium II";


172

DASA 2207 (DASIAC Special Report 83), May 1968; Defense Atomic Support
Agency Information and Analysis Center, General Electric, TEMPO, Santa
Barbara, California; For Official Use Only.
13. F. M. Sauer, G. B. Clark, and D. C. Anderson; "Nuclear Geoplosics;
Part Four, Empirical Analysis of Ground Motion and Cratering"; DASA
1285(IV), May 1964; Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California;
Unclassified.
14. J. M. McCormick, M. 1. Baron, and I. Nelson; "Studies on the
Distant Plain lA Event"; DASA 2213, July 1968; Paul Weidlinger Consulting
Engineer, New York, New York; Unclassified.
15. "Operation Distant Plain Preliminary Report"; DASA 1876-2 (DASIAC
Special Report 53-2), February 1967; Defense Atomic Support Agency Information and Analysis Center, General Electric, TEMPO, Santa Barbara, California; For Official Use Only.

173

DIS~RIBUTION

LIST FOR TECHNICAL REPORT N-71-3

Address

Chief of Research and Development


Headquarters, Department of the Army
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Address

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185-186

Unclassified
Securitv Cl asstricahon

DOCUMENT CONTROL DAT A R & D


(Security clealflcatlon ol title, body ol bttact and /nder/na annotation muat be entered when the overall report I clllld)
(Corporal author)
2a. REPORT SECURITY CL.AISIFICA flON

I. ORIGINATING ACTIVITY

u. s.

Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station


Vicksburg, Mississippi

Unclassified
2b, GROUP

3. REPORT TITLE

PROJECT OFFICER'S FINAL REPORT, OPERATION DISTANT PLAIN, EVENTS 1, 2A, 3, 4, AND 5,
PROJECT 3.02a, EARTH MOTION AND STRESS MEASUREMENTS
ol raport .nd JncludV dt)

4. DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (1)-p

Final report
15, AUTHOR(!> (Fltt name, middle Initial, lat name)

James K. Ingram
e.

REPORT DATE

May

7a, TOTAL. NO. OF PAGES

1971

185

la. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO.

l'b.

NO. OFl;EFS

Oa. ORIGINATORS REPORT NUM'llER(I)

b. PROJECT NO.

Technical Report N-71-3

NWER Subtask 96x4902

Ob. OTHER REPORT NOCS> (Any other numbeor. lhat may be lllnd
th/a Npotl)

d.
10. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

ti SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

12. SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY

Defense Atomic Support Agency


Washington, D. c.
II. ABSTRACT

Ground motions and stresses within the upper 10 feet of soil were measured on the Distant Plain events detonated in Canada in 1966-67. Ground motion measurements were unsuccessful for Event 1. Motion data of good quality were obtained for the remaining
detonations (Events 2A, 3, 4, and 5). Vertical and horizontal acceleration and velocity and a limited number of vertical stress measurements were made. The surface gas
bag, Event 2A, produced no crater. Airblast-induced ground motions for this event were
greater than for Distant Plain Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III as the result of
significant explosive energy going directly into airblast formation rather than partitioning to the ground through crater formation. Events 3 and 5 and Flat Top II and III
were identical in yield and geometry, but differed in site location. An additional
variant, frozen ground, was introduced in Event 5. In spite of these variations,
ground motions were similar in amplitude and waveform. Variance& between Event 3 and
Flat Top are attributed to slight differences in test site soils, explosive coupling,
and instrument canister placement. The effect of frozen ground on Event 5 motions was
generally limited to the horizontal vector near the surface. This was manifested as
higher amplitude and frequency accelerations. The thin frozen surface layer allowed
greater coupling of high-frequency components which are attenuated by dry alluvium.
For Distant Plain Event 4, primary ground motions in the region of tree blowdown were
down and away from the point of detonation at early times, then upward due to elastic
rebound and, later, to refracted energy from depth. Measured upthrust motions were
small and did not contribute significantly to blowdown.

DD .'=:.. 1473

111aP1LACI DD fl'OlllM 171, I JAN WHICH 18

oeoLT ... o .. Alll'MY u

187

Unclassified
security ClaulflcaUon

Unclassified

...

Security Classification
LINK A

LINK B

LINK C

KEV WORDS

ROLIE

WT

ROLE

WT

ROLE

WT

Distant Plain (Operation)


Explosion effects
Ground motion
Soil stresses

II

188

Unclassified
Security Claulflcatlon