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Bacillus cereus ‘Emetic form : — Toxin : preformed, heat-stable enterotoxin — Short incubation : 1-6 hours =S. aureus food poisoning — Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps — Commonly contaminated food : fried rice held in warm temperatures for hours 1 \ I \ \ I \ I \ \ \ Diarrheal form I \ \ \ \ \ ' I \ \ I \ I I — Toxin: heat-labile enterotoxin = intestinal fluid secretion — Long incubation : 8-16 hours. - Abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea = C.perfringens — Meat / vegetable-containing foods after cooking + Usually symptoms lasts < 24hours * Diagnosis confirmed by the isolation of > 10° B. cereus organisms per + Treatment : — Rehydration — Symptomatic + Prevention : food hygiene — Before and afer cooking — The left over food should be refrigerated promptly and preheated before eating C.perfringens + eating food contaminated by C.perfringens > releases toxin in intestine > diarrhea (mild), intestinal damage and death (severe) * onset : 6 to 24 hours > watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, abdominal distention, severe diarrhea, dehydration, and shock + Diagnosis : local outbreak> Isolation of C. perfringens, detection of toxin Staphylococcus aureus + Pathogenesis — dirty hands, coughing, sneezing into ready to eat foods > the organism mutiplies > enterotoxin production on the food — The toxin is heat-stable (resists autoclaving) — Commonly contaminated food : meat products, poultry, egg products, mayonnaise-based salads, cream-iilled pastries, dairy products — Bacteria resist higher salt levels > can also live in cured foods * Short incubation: 0,5 - 6 hours + Duration of symptoms : <24 hours > severe nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, watery diarrhea + Diagnosis : detection of toxins/ organisms