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Anna Campanholi

E344:Spring2016
Problem Set 10: Elasticity and Mechanical Testing
Due: April 26th by the START of Class
1) The elastic behavior of materials can be described by atomic-scale bond-energy curves. When a
material is subjected to a force, the materials atomic bonds act like springs to resist the forcethis
is called elastic deformation. This spring-like
behavior comes from the energy versus atomic
separation (r) shown at right. The position
represents the equilibrium position when no
external forces are applied. When the force is
removed, the atoms will return to their
original positions if bonds did not break. This
stretching of the atomic bonds is the source
of elastic deformationdeformation that is
recovered after the force is removed.
a) The following diagrams are plots of the force exerted on a bond as a function of the distance
between the atoms (a positive force corresponds to tension and a negative force corresponds
to compression). If the material's response is based on only the energy (such as the E vs r
curve above), which of these diagrams is the most accurate?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a) Because of the paralabolic shape and the slopes of the curve is initially
large so there is more force

b) A rod is subjected to a tensile stress of 30 MPa, held for a period of time, and then the force is
removed. The resulting stress-strain diagram of the rod is shown below, along with several
numbered points. Several images representing the bond energy between neighboring atoms in
the loading direction are also provided. For each of the following conditions in the loading
process (see Table) provide the number of point corresponding the position on the stress strain
diagram and the letter corresponding to the bond energy figure that best represents the bond
state at that point. (Note: Both the numbered points and the energy curves CAN BE USED
MORE THAN ONCE.)

Load State

Position on
vs plot

Corresponding
Energy Curve

Initial State
No Load

Loading
50% Load

Loading
Full Load

Unloading:
50% Load

Final State
No Load

A - Given
B

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
and the
In the figures above the solid red line corresponds to the atomic separation at equilibrium
dotted line corresponds the separation
under load. Also note, that in figures D and E the shape
and position of the bond energy curve and the position of have changed from the original conditions
A.

2) (COMPUTER/GRAPHING Problem) The following data were collected from a 12-mm-diameter


test specimen of magnesium (gauge length, lo = 30.00 mm). With the help of a computer, construct
an engineering stress-strain plot. (NOTE: Data are in load and total length you have to
CALCULATE engineering stress and strain).

3) Usetheabovegraph(problem2)tocalculatethefollowing:(a)the0.2%offsetyieldstrength,(b)
thetensilestrength,(c)themodulusofelasticity,(d)the%elongation,(e)the%reductioninarea,
(f)theengineeringstressatfracture,and(g)thetruestressatfracture.Afterfracture,thegage
lengthwas32.61mmandthediameterwas11.74mm.

4) Answer the following question about tensile loading of rods and bars.
a) Aforceof100,000Nisappliedtoa10mm20mmironbarhavingayieldstrengthof400
MPaandatensilestrengthof480MPa.Determinewhetherthebarwillplasticallydeform
andwhetherthebarwillexperiencenecking.
b) Calculatethemaximumforcethata0.2in.diameterrodofAl2O3,havingayieldstrengthof
35,000psi,canwithstandwithnoplasticdeformation.Expressyouranswerinpoundsand
Newtons.

5) AthreepointbendtestisperformedonabarofZrO2thatis8in.long,0.50in.wide,and0.25in.
thickandisrestingontwosupports4in.apart.Whenaforceof400lbisapplied,thespecimen
deflects0.037in.andbreaks.Calculate(a)theflexuralstrengthin(MPa)and(b)theflexural
`
modulus(GPa),assumingthatnoplasticdeformationoccurs.Theequationfortheelastic(or
flexural)modulus
ina3pointbendtestcanbeobtainedfromthefollowingequation:
whereFistheappliedforce,Llengthofbetweenthesupports,bisthebeam(or
widthofthesample),disthedepth(orheight)and isthedeflectionatF.
Equationsneeded:
4PointBending:
3PointBending:
where: istheflexuralstrength(MOR), istheloadafailure, isthelengthbetweenthe
outerloadingpoints, isthewidth(orbeam)ofthebeam,and isheightorthicknessofthe
beam.

3PointBending: