PS10

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PS10

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E344:Spring2016

Problem Set 10: Elasticity and Mechanical Testing

Due: April 26th by the START of Class

1) The elastic behavior of materials can be described by atomic-scale bond-energy curves. When a

material is subjected to a force, the materials atomic bonds act like springs to resist the forcethis

is called elastic deformation. This spring-like

behavior comes from the energy versus atomic

separation (r) shown at right. The position

represents the equilibrium position when no

external forces are applied. When the force is

removed, the atoms will return to their

original positions if bonds did not break. This

stretching of the atomic bonds is the source

of elastic deformationdeformation that is

recovered after the force is removed.

a) The following diagrams are plots of the force exerted on a bond as a function of the distance

between the atoms (a positive force corresponds to tension and a negative force corresponds

to compression). If the material's response is based on only the energy (such as the E vs r

curve above), which of these diagrams is the most accurate?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a) Because of the paralabolic shape and the slopes of the curve is initially

large so there is more force

b) A rod is subjected to a tensile stress of 30 MPa, held for a period of time, and then the force is

removed. The resulting stress-strain diagram of the rod is shown below, along with several

numbered points. Several images representing the bond energy between neighboring atoms in

the loading direction are also provided. For each of the following conditions in the loading

process (see Table) provide the number of point corresponding the position on the stress strain

diagram and the letter corresponding to the bond energy figure that best represents the bond

state at that point. (Note: Both the numbered points and the energy curves CAN BE USED

MORE THAN ONCE.)

Load State

Position on

vs plot

Corresponding

Energy Curve

Initial State

No Load

Loading

50% Load

Loading

Full Load

Unloading:

50% Load

Final State

No Load

A - Given

B

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

and the

In the figures above the solid red line corresponds to the atomic separation at equilibrium

dotted line corresponds the separation

under load. Also note, that in figures D and E the shape

and position of the bond energy curve and the position of have changed from the original conditions

A.

test specimen of magnesium (gauge length, lo = 30.00 mm). With the help of a computer, construct

an engineering stress-strain plot. (NOTE: Data are in load and total length you have to

CALCULATE engineering stress and strain).

3) Usetheabovegraph(problem2)tocalculatethefollowing:(a)the0.2%offsetyieldstrength,(b)

thetensilestrength,(c)themodulusofelasticity,(d)the%elongation,(e)the%reductioninarea,

(f)theengineeringstressatfracture,and(g)thetruestressatfracture.Afterfracture,thegage

lengthwas32.61mmandthediameterwas11.74mm.

4) Answer the following question about tensile loading of rods and bars.

a) Aforceof100,000Nisappliedtoa10mm20mmironbarhavingayieldstrengthof400

MPaandatensilestrengthof480MPa.Determinewhetherthebarwillplasticallydeform

andwhetherthebarwillexperiencenecking.

b) Calculatethemaximumforcethata0.2in.diameterrodofAl2O3,havingayieldstrengthof

35,000psi,canwithstandwithnoplasticdeformation.Expressyouranswerinpoundsand

Newtons.

5) AthreepointbendtestisperformedonabarofZrO2thatis8in.long,0.50in.wide,and0.25in.

thickandisrestingontwosupports4in.apart.Whenaforceof400lbisapplied,thespecimen

deflects0.037in.andbreaks.Calculate(a)theflexuralstrengthin(MPa)and(b)theflexural

`

modulus(GPa),assumingthatnoplasticdeformationoccurs.Theequationfortheelastic(or

flexural)modulus

ina3pointbendtestcanbeobtainedfromthefollowingequation:

whereFistheappliedforce,Llengthofbetweenthesupports,bisthebeam(or

widthofthesample),disthedepth(orheight)and isthedeflectionatF.

Equationsneeded:

4PointBending:

3PointBending:

where: istheflexuralstrength(MOR), istheloadafailure, isthelengthbetweenthe

outerloadingpoints, isthewidth(orbeam)ofthebeam,and isheightorthicknessofthe

beam.

3PointBending:

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