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HT Series

MTX Series
PRO Series
Professional Series
Two-Way Portable Radios

Detailed Service Manual

Foreword
The information contained in this manual relates to all models of the Professional Series two-way portable radios, unless
otherwise specified. This manual provides sufficient information to enable qualified service shop technicians to
troubleshoot and repair portable radios to the component level.
For details on the level 1 or 2 maintenance procedures, refer to the applicable manuals, which are available separately. A
list of publications is provided in this manual in the section, "1.3 Related Documents" on page 1-2.

Product Safety and RF Exposure Compliance

!
Caution

Before using this product, read the operating instructions


for safe usage contained in the Product Safety and RF
Exposure booklet enclosed with your radio.
ATTENTION!

This radio is restricted to occupational use only to satisfy FCC RF energy exposure requirements.
Before using this product, read the RF energy awareness information and operating instructions in
the Product Safety and RF Exposure booklet enclosed with your radio (Motorola Publication part
number 6881095C98) to ensure compliance with RF energy exposure limits.
For a list of Motorola-approved antennas, batteries, and other accessories, visit the following web site
which lists approved accessories: http://www.motorola.com/cgiss/index.shtml

Manual Revisions
Changes which occur after this manual is printed are described in FMRs (Florida Manual Revisions). These FMRs provide
complete replacement pages for all added, changed, and deleted items, including pertinent parts list data, schematics,
and component layout diagrams.

Computer Software Copyrights


The Motorola products described in this manual may include copyrighted Motorola computer programs stored in
semiconductor memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other countries preserve for Motorola certain
exclusive rights for copyrighted computer programs, including, but not limited to, the exclusive right to copy or reproduce
in any form the copyrighted computer program. Accordingly, any copyrighted Motorola computer programs contained in
the Motorola products described in this manual may not be copied, reproduced, modified, reverse-engineered, or
distributed in any manner without the express written permission of Motorola. Furthermore, the purchase of Motorola
products shall not be deemed to grant either directly or by implication, estoppel, or otherwise, any license under the
copyrights, patents or patent applications of Motorola, except for the normal non-exclusive license to use that arises by
operation of law in the sale of a product.

Document Copyrights
No duplication or distribution of this document or any portion thereof shall take place without the express written
permission of Motorola. No part of this manual may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose without the express written permission of Motorola.

Disclaimer
The information in this document is carefully examined, and is believed to be entirely reliable. However, no responsibility is
assumed for inaccuracies. Furthermore, Motorola reserves the right to make changes to any products herein to improve
readability, function, or design. Motorola does not assume any liability arising out of the applications or use of any product
or circuit described herein; nor does it cover any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others.

Trademarks
MOTOROLA and the Stylized M logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other products or service
names are the property of their respective owners.
Motorola, Inc. 2002.

Table of Contents

iii

Table of Contents
Foreword

.................................................................................................. ii

Product Safety and RF Exposure Compliance...........................................................................ii


Manual Revisions .......................................................................................................................ii
Computer Software Copyrights ..................................................................................................ii
Document Copyrights.................................................................................................................ii
Disclaimer...................................................................................................................................ii
Trademarks ................................................................................................................................ii

List of Figures ............................................................................................ vii


Intrinsically Safe Radio Information .......................................................... xi
FMRC Approved Equipment .....................................................................................................xi
Repair of FMRC Approved Products........................................................................................ xii
Repair .............................................................................................................................xii
Relabeling ....................................................................................................................... xii
Do Not Substitute Options or Accessories .............................................................................. xiii

Chapter 1
1.1
1.2

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Scope of Manual ........................................................................................................... 1-1


Warranty and Service Support...................................................................................... 1-1
1.2.1 Warranty Period ............................................................................................... 1-1
1.2.2 Return Instructions........................................................................................... 1-1
1.2.3 After Warranty Period ...................................................................................... 1-1
Related Documents ...................................................................................................... 1-2
Technical Support ......................................................................................................... 1-2
1.4.1 Piece Parts Availability..................................................................................... 1-2
Radio Model Chart and Specifications.......................................................................... 1-3
Radio Model Information............................................................................................... 1-3

Chapter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

2.5

Introduction ........................................................................1-1

Theory of Operation...........................................................2-1

Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2-1


Radio Power Distribution .............................................................................................. 2-1
Keypad.......................................................................................................................... 2-2
Controller Board............................................................................................................ 2-3
2.4.1 MCU Digital...................................................................................................... 2-3
2.4.2 Real Time Clock............................................................................................... 2-4
2.4.3 Circuit Description ............................................................................................ 2-4
2.4.4 MODB/VSTBY Supply ..................................................................................... 2-4
2.4.5 Audio/Signaling ................................................................................................ 2-5
UHF Transmitter ........................................................................................................... 2-5
2.5.1 Power Amplifier (PA)........................................................................................ 2-5

iv

Table of Contents

2.6

2.7
2.8
2.9

2.10

2.11
2.12
2.13

2.14

2.15
2.16

2.17

2.5.2 Antenna Switch................................................................................................ 2-6


2.5.3 Harmonic Filter ................................................................................................ 2-6
2.5.4 Antenna Matching Network.............................................................................. 2-6
2.5.5 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC).......................................................... 2-6
2.5.6 Temperature Cut Back Circuit ......................................................................... 2-6
UHF Receiver ............................................................................................................... 2-6
2.6.1 Receiver Front-End.......................................................................................... 2-7
2.6.2 Receiver Back-End .......................................................................................... 2-8
2.6.3 Automatic Gain Control (AGC) ........................................................................ 2-8
2.6.4 Frequency Generation Circuit.......................................................................... 2-9
Synthesizer ................................................................................................................... 2-9
Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)................................................................................ 2-10
VHF Transmitter ......................................................................................................... 2-12
2.9.1 Power Amplifier.............................................................................................. 2-12
2.9.2 Antenna Switch.............................................................................................. 2-12
2.9.3 Harmonic Filter .............................................................................................. 2-13
2.9.4 Antenna Matching Network............................................................................ 2-13
2.9.5 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)........................................................ 2-13
VHF Receiver ............................................................................................................. 2-13
2.10.1 Receiver Front-End........................................................................................ 2-14
2.10.2 Receiver Back-End ........................................................................................ 2-14
2.10.3 Automatic Gain Control (AGC) ...................................................................... 2-15
2.10.4 Frequency Generation Circuit........................................................................ 2-15
Synthesizer ................................................................................................................. 2-16
Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)................................................................................ 2-17
Low Band Transmitter................................................................................................. 2-19
2.13.1 Power Amplifier (PA) ..................................................................................... 2-19
2.13.2 Antenna Switch.............................................................................................. 2-20
2.13.3 Harmonic Filter .............................................................................................. 2-20
2.13.4 Antenna Matching Transformer ..................................................................... 2-20
2.13.5 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)........................................................ 2-20
2.13.6 Temperature Cut Back Circuit ....................................................................... 2-20
2.13.7 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection Circuit........................................... 2-20
Low Band Receiver..................................................................................................... 2-20
2.14.1 Receiver Front-End........................................................................................ 2-21
2.14.2 Receiver Back-End ........................................................................................ 2-22
2.14.3 Automatic Gain Control (AGC) ...................................................................... 2-22
2.14.4 Frequency Generation Circuit........................................................................ 2-22
Synthesizer ................................................................................................................. 2-23
Voltage Control Oscillators (VCO) .............................................................................. 2-24
2.16.1 Receive VCO ................................................................................................. 2-24
2.16.2 Transmit VCO ................................................................................................ 2-24
2.16.3 Buffer ............................................................................................................. 2-24
2.16.4 Diplexer/Output Filters ................................................................................... 2-25
2.16.5 Prescalar Feedback....................................................................................... 2-25
800 MHz Transmitter .................................................................................................. 2-25

Table of Contents

2.18

2.19
2.20

2.21

2.22

2.23
2.24
2.25

2.17.1 Power Amplifier.............................................................................................. 2-25


2.17.2 Antenna Switch .............................................................................................. 2-26
2.17.3 Harmonic Filter............................................................................................... 2-26
2.17.4 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)........................................................ 2-26
800 MHz Receiver ...................................................................................................... 2-27
2.18.1 Receiver Front-End........................................................................................ 2-27
2.18.2 Receiver Back-End ........................................................................................ 2-28
2.18.3 Automatic Gain Control Circuit....................................................................... 2-28
2.18.4 Frequency Generation Circuit ........................................................................ 2-29
Synthesizer ................................................................................................................. 2-30
2.19.1 Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) ................................................................... 2-32
Trunked Radio Systems.............................................................................................. 2-33
2.20.1 Privacy Plus Trunked Systems ...................................................................... 2-33
2.20.2 LTR Trunked Systems................................................................................ 2-33
2.20.3 MPT Trunked Systems .................................................................................. 2-33
2.20.4 PassPort Trunked Systems ........................................................................ 2-34
2.20.4.1 Power Supplies..................................................................................... 2-34
2.20.4.2 Microcontroller (MCU) .......................................................................... 2-34
2.20.4.3 Low Speed Data Filter .......................................................................... 2-34
2.20.4.4 Keyboard Circuit ................................................................................... 2-34
2.20.4.5 BackLight Driver and LED's.................................................................. 2-35
2.20.4.6 Voice Storage ....................................................................................... 2-35
900 MHz Transmitter .................................................................................................. 2-35
2.21.1 Power Amplifier.............................................................................................. 2-36
2.21.2 Antenna Switch .............................................................................................. 2-36
2.21.3 Harmonic Filter............................................................................................... 2-36
2.21.4 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)........................................................ 2-36
900 MHz Receiver ...................................................................................................... 2-37
2.22.1 Receiver Front-End........................................................................................ 2-37
2.22.2 Receiver Back-End ........................................................................................ 2-38
2.22.3 Hear Clear IC ................................................................................................. 2-38
2.22.3.1 Receive Path for Radios with Hear Clear ............................................. 2-39
2.22.3.2 Hear Clear Routing of Data/Signaling .................................................. 2-39
2.22.4 Automatic Gain Control Circuit....................................................................... 2-39
Frequency Generation Circuitry .................................................................................. 2-40
900 MHz Synthesizer.................................................................................................. 2-41
900 MHz Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)................................................................. 2-43

Chapter 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Maintenance .......................................................................3-1

Introduction ................................................................................................................... 3-1


Preventive Maintenance ............................................................................................... 3-1
Inspection...................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.3.1 Cleaning........................................................................................................... 3-1
Safe Handling of CMOS and LDMOS........................................................................... 3-2
General Repair Procedures and Techniques................................................................ 3-2
Recommended Test Tools............................................................................................ 3-4

vi

Table of Contents

3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16

Replacing the Circuit Board Fuse ................................................................................. 3-5


Removing and Reinstalling the Circuit Board ............................................................... 3-7
Power Up Self-Test Error Codes .................................................................................. 3-7
UHF Troubleshooting Charts ........................................................................................ 3-9
VHF Troubleshooting Charts ...................................................................................... 3-15
Low Band Troubleshooting Charts ............................................................................. 3-21
800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts ............................................................................... 3-27
PassPort Trunking Troubleshooting Chart.................................................................. 3-33
Keypad Troubleshooting Chart ................................................................................... 3-34
900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts ............................................................................... 3-35

Chapter 4

Schematic Diagrams, Overlays, and Parts Lists.............4-1

4.1

Introduction ................................................................................................................... 4-1


4.1.1 Notes For All Schematics and Circuit Boards.................................................. 4-1
4.2 Flex Layout ................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.2.1 Keypad-Controller Interconnect Flex Schematic ............................................. 4-3
4.2.2 Keypad-Controller Interconnect Flex Parts List ............................................... 4-3
4.2.3 Universal Flex Connector ............................................................................... 4-4
4.2.4 Universal Connector Flex Schematic............................................................... 4-5
4.2.5 Universal Flex Connector Parts List ................................................................ 4-5
4.3 Keypad Top and Bottom Overlays................................................................................ 4-6
4.4 Keypad Board Section .................................................................................................. 4-7
4.5 Controller Section ....................................................................................................... 4-13
4.6 UHF Section ............................................................................................................... 4-21
4.7 VHF Section................................................................................................................ 4-77
4.8 Low Band Section..................................................................................................... 4-117
4.9 800 MHz Section ...................................................................................................... 4-133
4.10 PassPort Section ...................................................................................................... 4-153
4.11 900 MHz Section ...................................................................................................... 4-155

Appendix A Replacement Parts Ordering............................................ A-1


A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8

Basic Ordering Information ........................................................................................... A-1


Transceiver Board and VOCON Board Ordering Information....................................... A-1
Motorola Online ............................................................................................................A-1
Mail Orders ................................................................................................................... A-1
Telephone Orders......................................................................................................... A-2
Fax Orders.................................................................................................................... A-2
Parts Identification ........................................................................................................ A-2
Product Customer Service............................................................................................ A-2

List of Figures

vii

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. DC Power Distribution Block Diagram ...................................................................... 2-1
Figure 2-2. Keypad Block Diagram ............................................................................................. 2-2
Figure 2-3. Controller Block Diagram .......................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-4. RTC Circuit ............................................................................................................... 2-4
Figure 2-5. UHF Transmitter Block Diagram ............................................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-6. UHF Receiver Block Diagram ................................................................................... 2-7
Figure 2-7. UHF Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram ...................................................... 2-9
Figure 2-8. UHF Synthesizer Block Diagram ............................................................................ 2-10
Figure 2-9. UHF VCO Block Diagram ....................................................................................... 2-11
Figure 2-10. VHF Transmitter Block Diagram ........................................................................... 2-12
Figure 2-11. VHF Receiver Block Diagram ............................................................................... 2-13
Figure 2-12. VHF Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram .................................................. 2-16
Figure 2-13. VHF Synthesizer Block Diagram........................................................................... 2-17
Figure 2-14. VHF VCO Block Diagram...................................................................................... 2-18
Figure 2-15. Low Band Transmitter Block Diagram .................................................................. 2-19
Figure 2-16. Low Band Receiver Block Diagram ...................................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-17. Low Band Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram ......................................... 2-23
Figure 2-18. Low Band Synthesizer Block Diagram.................................................................. 2-24
Figure 2-19. 800 MHz Transmitter Block Diagram .................................................................... 2-25
Figure 2-20. 800 MHz Receiver Block Diagram........................................................................ 2-27
Figure 2-21. 800 MHz Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram ........................................... 2-29
Figure 2-22. 800 MHz Synthesizer Block Diagram ................................................................... 2-31
Figure 2-23. 800 MHz VCO Block Diagram .............................................................................. 2-32
Figure 2-24. Transmitter Block Diagram ................................................................................... 2-35
Figure 2-25. 900 MHz Receiver Block Diagram ........................................................................ 2-37
Figure 2-26. Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram .......................................................... 2-40
Figure 2-27. Synthesizer Block Diagram................................................................................... 2-42
Figure 2-28. VCO Block Diagram.............................................................................................. 2-43
Figure 3-1. UHF/VHF/Low Band/800 MHz/900 MHz Circuit Board Fuse Locations ................... 3-6
Figure 3-2. Circuit Board Removal and Reinstallation ................................................................ 3-7
Figure 4-1. Keypad-Controller Interconnect Flex ........................................................................ 4-2
Figure 4-2. Keypad-Controller Interconnect Flex Schematic Diagram ........................................ 4-3
Figure 4-3. Universal Flex Connector.......................................................................................... 4-4
Figure 4-4. Universal Flex Connector Schematic Diagram ......................................................... 4-5
Figure 4-5. Keypad Top and Bottom Board Overlays ................................................................. 4-6
Figure 4-6: Keypad Board (5000 and 7000 Series) Schematic Diagram ..................................... 4-7
Figure 4-7: 9000 Series Keypad Top and Bottom Board Overlays .............................................. 4-9
Figure 4-8: 9000 Series Keypad Board Schematic Diagram...................................................... 4-10
Figure 4-9: VHF/UHF Complete Controller Schematic Diagram ................................................ 4-13
Figure 4-10: VHF/UHF Controller ASFIC/ON_OFF Schematic Diagram ................................... 4-14
Figure 4-11: VHF/UHF Controller ASFIC/ON_OFF Schematic Diagram ................................... 4-15
Figure 4-12: VHF/UHF Controller Micro Processor Schematic Diagram ................................... 4-16
Figure 4-13: VHF/UHF Controller Micro Processor Schematic Diagram ................................... 4-17
Figure 4-14: Controller Memory Schematic Diagram ................................................................. 4-18
Figure 4-15: Controller Audio Power Amplifier Schematic Diagram........................................... 4-19
Figure 4-16: Controller Interface Schematic Diagram ................................................................ 4-20
Figure 4-17: UHF (403-470 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB
8480450Z03 ................................................................................................................................ 4-21

viii

List of Figures

Figure 4-18: UHF (403-470 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB
8480450Z03 ................................................................................................................................ 4-22
Figure 4-19: UHF (403-470 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB
8480450Z13 ................................................................................................................................ 4-23
Figure 4-20: UHF (403-470 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB
8480450Z13 ................................................................................................................................ 4-24
Figure 4-21: UHF (403-470 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ......................... 4-25
Figure 4-22: UHF (403-470 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-26
Figure 4-23: UHF (403-470 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-27
Figure 4-24: UHF (403-470 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram .......................................... 4-28
Figure 4-25: UHF (403-470 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram ............... 4-29
Figure 4-26: UHF (403-470 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram........................................... 4-30
Figure 4-27: UHF (403-470 MHz) 9000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB ............................... 4-37
Figure 4-28: UHF (403-470 MHz) 9000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB.......................... 4-38
Figure 4-29: UHF (403-470 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ......................... 4-39
Figure 4-30: UHF (403-470 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-40
Figure 4-31: UHF (403-470 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-41
Figure 4-32: UHF (403-470 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram .......................................... 4-42
Figure 4-33: UHF (403-470 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram ............... 4-43
Figure 4-34: UHF (403-470 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram........................................... 4-44
Figure 4-35: UHF (450-527 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB
8485641Z02 ................................................................................................................................ 4-49
Figure 4-36: UHF (450-527 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB
8485641Z02 ................................................................................................................................ 4-50
Figure 4-37: UHF (450-527 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB
8485641Z06 ................................................................................................................................ 4-51
Figure 4-38: UHF (450-527 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Bottom Side
PCB 8485641Z06........................................................................................................................ 4-52
Figure 4-39: UHF (450-527 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ......................... 4-53
Figure 4-40: UHF (450-527 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-54
Figure 4-41: UHF (450-527 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-55
Figure 4-42: UHF (450-527 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram .......................................... 4-56
Figure 4-43: UHF (450-527 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram ............... 4-57
Figure 4-44: UHF (450-527 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram........................................... 4-58
Figure 4-45: UHF (450-527 MHz) 9000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB ............................... 4-65
Figure 4-46: UHF (450-527 MHz) 9000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB.......................... 4-66
Figure 4-47: UHF (450-527 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ......................... 4-67
Figure 4-48: UHF (450-527 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-68
Figure 4-49: UHF (450-527 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-69
Figure 4-50: UHF (450-527 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram .......................................... 4-70
Figure 4-51: UHF (450-527 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram ............... 4-71
Figure 4-52: UHF (450-527 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram........................................... 4-72
Figure 4-53: UHF (450-527 MHz) Voice Storage Schematic Diagram ...................................... 4-73
Figure 4-54: VHF (136-174 MHz) Main Board Top Side PCB 8486062B09 .............................. 4-77
Figure 4-55: VHF (136-174 MHz) Main Board Bottom Side PCB 8486062B09......................... 4-78
Figure 4-56: VHF (136-174 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ......................... 4-79
Figure 4-57: VHF (136-174 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-80
Figure 4-58: VHF (136-174 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram............................... 4-81
Figure 4-59: VHF (136-174 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram .......................................... 4-82
Figure 4-60: VHF (136-174 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram................ 4-83
Figure 4-61: VHF (136-174 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram ........................................... 4-84

List of Figures

ix

Figure 4-62: VHF (136-174 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB
8486062B12 ................................................................................................................................ 4-89
Figure 4-63: VHF (136-174 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB
8486062B12 ................................................................................................................................ 4-90
Figure 4-64: VHF (136-174 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB
8486062B16 ................................................................................................................................ 4-91
Figure 4-65: VHF (136-174 MHz) 5000/7000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB
8486062B16 ................................................................................................................................ 4-92
Figure 4-66: VHF (136-174 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram.......................... 4-93
Figure 4-67: VHF (136-174 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .............................. 4-94
Figure 4-68: VHF (136-174 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram............................... 4-95
Figure 4-69: VHF (136-174 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram........................................... 4-96
Figure 4-70: VHF (136-174 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram................ 4-97
Figure 4-71: VHF (136-174 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram ........................................... 4-98
Figure 4-72: VHF (136-174 MHz) 9000 Series Main Board Top Side PCB ............................. 4-105
Figure 4-73: VHF (136-174 MHz) 9000 Series Main Board Bottom Side PCB ........................ 4-106
Figure 4-74: VHF (136-174 MHz) Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram........................ 4-107
Figure 4-75: VHF (136-174 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram ............................ 4-108
Figure 4-76: VHF (136-174 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram............................. 4-109
Figure 4-77: VHF (136-174 MHz) Synthesizer Schematic Diagram......................................... 4-110
Figure 4-78: VHF (136-174 MHz) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram.............. 4-111
Figure 4-79: VHF (136-174 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram ......................................... 4-112
Figure 4-80: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Main Board Top Side PCB................................ 4-117
Figure 4-81: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Main Board Bottom Side PCB .......................... 4-118
Figure 4-82: Low Band (30-50 MHz) Controls and Switches Diagram..................................... 4-119
Figure 4-83: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Controller Overall Schematic Diagram ............. 4-120
Figure 4-84: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Controller Memory Schematic Diagram............ 4-121
Figure 4-85: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Controller AFSIC Schematic Diagram .............. 4-122
Figure 4-86: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Controller Microprocessor Schematic
Diagram..................................................................................................................................... 4-123
Figure 4-87: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Controller Audio PA Schematic Diagram.......... 4-124
Figure 4-88: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram .......... 4-125
Figure 4-89: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram........... 4-126
Figure 4-90: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Frequency Generation Unit Synthesizer........... 4-127
Figure 4-91: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Frequency Generation Unit VCO Diagram ....... 4-128
Figure 4-92: Low Band (29.7-42/35-50 MHz) Transmitter Schematic Diagram ....................... 4-129
Figure 4-93: 800 MHz (806-870 MHz) Main Board Top Side PCB 84860641Z02 ................... 4-133
Figure 4-94: 800 MHz (806-870 MHz) Main Board Bottom Side PCB 84860641Z02 .............. 4-134
Figure 4-95: 800 MHz Popular/Preferred (806-870 MHz) Main Board Top Side PCB
8480641Z03 (Rev B) ................................................................................................................. 4-135
Figure 4-96: 800 MHz Popular/Preferred (806-870 MHz) Main Board Bottom Side PCB
8480641Z03 (Rev B) ................................................................................................................. 4-136
Figure 4-97: 800 MHz Complete Controller.............................................................................. 4-137
Figure 4-98: 800 MHz Controller ASFIC/ON_OFF.................................................................. 4-138
Figure 4-99: 800 MHz Controller Micro Processor ................................................................... 4-139
Figure 4-100: 800 MHz Controller Memory .............................................................................. 4-140
Figure 4-101: 800 MHz Controller Audio Power Amplifier........................................................ 4-141
Figure 4-102: 800 MHz Controller Interface ............................................................................. 4-142
Figure 4-103: 800 MHz Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ....................................... 4-143
Figure 4-104: 800 MHz Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram ............................................ 4-144
Figure 4-105: 800 MHz Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram............................................. 4-145
Figure 4-106: 800 MHz Synthesizer Schematic Diagram ........................................................ 4-146

Figure 4-107:
Figure 4-108:
Figure 4-109:
Figure 4-110:
Figure 4-111:
Figure 4-112:
Figure 4-113:
Figure 4-114:
Figure 4-115:
Figure 4-116:
Figure 4-117:
Figure 4-118:
Figure 4-119:
Figure 4-120:
Figure 4-121:
Figure 4-122:
Figure 4-123:
Figure 4-124:
Figure 4-125:
Figure 4-126:

List of Figures

800 MHz Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram ............................. 4-147


800 MHz Transmitter Schematic Diagram (Rev A) ........................................... 4-148
800MHz Transmitter Schematic Diagram (Rev B) ............................................ 4-149
PassPort Trunking Controller PCB Board Side 1 & 2 ........................................ 4-153
PassPort Controller Schematic Diagram ........................................................... 4-154
900 MHz (896-941 MHz) Main Board Top Side PCB 8485910Z01 ................... 4-155
900 MHz (896-941 MHz) Main Board Bottom Side PCB 8485910Z01.............. 4-156
900 MHz Complete Controller ........................................................................... 4-157
900 MHz Controller ASFIC/ON_OFF................................................................. 4-158
900 MHz Controller Microprocessor .................................................................. 4-159
900 MHz Controller Memory.............................................................................. 4-160
900 MHz Controller Audio Power Amplifier ....................................................... 4-161
900 MHz Controller Interface............................................................................. 4-162
900 MHz Controls and Switches Schematic Diagram ....................................... 4-163
900 MHz Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram ............................................ 4-164
900 MHz Receiver Back End Schematic Diagram ............................................ 4-165
900 MHz Synthesizer Schematic Diagram ........................................................ 4-166
900 MHz Hear/Clear Schematic Diagram.......................................................... 4-167
900 MHz Voltage Controlled Oscillator Schematic Diagram ............................. 4-168
900 MHz Transmitter Schematic Diagram......................................................... 4-169

FMRC Approved Equipment

xi

Intrinsically Safe Radio Information

FMRC Approved Equipment


Anyone intending to use a radio in a location where hazardous concentrations of flammable
materials exist (hazardous atmosphere) is advised to become familiar with the subject of intrinsic
safety and with the National Electric Code NFPA 70 (National Fire Protection Association) Article 500
(hazardous [classified] locations).
An Approval Guide, issued by Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC), lists manufacturers
and the products approved by FMRC for use in such locations. FMRC has also issued a voluntary
approval standard for repair service (Class Number 3605).
FMRC Approval labels are attached to the radio to identify the unit as being FM Approved for
specified hazardous atmospheres. This label specifies the hazardous Class/Division/Group along
with the part number of the battery that must be used. Depending on the design of the portable unit,
this FM label can be found on the back or the bottom of the radio housing. The FM Approval mark is
shown below.

FM
APPROVED

Do not operate radio communications equipment in a hazardous


atmosphere unless it is a type especially qualified (for example,
FMRC Approved) for such use. An explosion or fire may result.

Do not operate an FMRC Approved Product in a hazardous


atmosphere if it has been physically damaged (for example,
cracked housing). An explosion or fire may result.

Do not replace or charge batteries in a hazardous atmosphere.


Contact sparking may occur while installing or removing batteries
and cause an explosion or fire.

Do not replace or change accessories in a hazardous atmosphere.


Contact sparking may occur while installing or removing
accessories and cause an explosion or fire.

Turn a radio off before removing or installing a battery or


accessory.

Do not disassemble an FMRC Approved Product unit in any way


that exposes the internal electrical circuits of the unit.

!
WARNING

Radios must ship from the Motorola manufacturing facility with the Intrinsically Safe, hazardous
atmosphere capability and FM Approval labeling. Radios will not be upgraded or converted to
Intrinsically safe, and or labeled in the field, after it has been shipped from the manufacturing
location.
Modifications can only be made by the original product manufacturer (Motorola) at one of its FM
audited manufacturing facilities.

xii

Repair of FMRC Approved Products

Failure to use an FMRC Approved portable radio unit with an


FMRC Approved battery or FMRC Approved accessories
specifically Agency approved for that product may result in the
dangerously unsafe condition of an unapproved radio
combination being used in a hazardous location.

Unauthorized or incorrect modification of an FMRC Approved


Product unit will negate the Approval rating of the product.

!
WARNING

Repair of FMRC Approved Products


REPAIRS FOR MOTOROLA PRODUCTS WITH FMRC APPROVAL ARE THE RESPONSIBILITY
OF THE USER.
You should not repair or relabel any Motorola- manufactured communication equipment bearing the
FMRC Approval label (FMRC Approved Product) unless you are familiar with the current FMRC
Approval standard for repairs and service (Class Number 3605). Repairs and service to be done
FM audited locations.

!
WARNING

Incorrect repair or relabeling of any FMRC Approved Product unit


could adversely affect the Approval rating of the unit.

Use of a radio that is not intrinsically safe in a hazardous


atmosphere could result in serious injury or death.

The following are key definitions, from the FMRCs Approval Standard Class Number 3605, 1994.

Repair
A repair constitutes something done internally to the unit that would bring it back to its original
condition-Approved by FMRC. A repair should be done in an FMRC audited facility. Items not
considered as repairs are those in which an action is performed on a unit which does not require the
outer casing of the unit to be opened in a manner which exposes the internal electrical. You do not
have to be an FMRC audited Repair Facility to perform these actions.

Relabeling
The repair facility shall have a method by which the replacement of FMRC Approval labels are
controlled to ensure that any relabeling is limited to units that were originally shipped from the
Manufacturer with an FM Approval label in place. FMRC Approval labels shall not be stocked by the
repair facility. An FMRC Approval label shall be ordered from the original manufacturer, as needed,
to repair a specific unit. Replacement labels may be obtained and applied by the repair facility,
provided there is satisfactory evidence that the unit being relabeled was originally an FMRC
Approved unit. Verification may include, but is not limited to: a unit with a damaged Approval label, a
unit with a defective housing displaying an Approval label, or a customer invoice indicating the serial
number of the unit and purchase of an FMRC Approved model.

Repair of FMRC Approved Products

xiii

Do Not Substitute Options or Accessories


The Motorola communications equipment certified by Factory Mutual is tested as a system and
consists of the FM Approved portable, FM Approved battery, and FM Approved accessories or
options, or both. This FM Approved portable and battery combination must be strictly observed.
There must be no substitution of items, even if the substitute has been previously Approved with a
different Motorola communications equipment unit. Approved configurations are listed in the FM
Approval Guide published by FMRC, or in the product FM product listing. This FM product listing is
shipped from the manufacturer with the FM Approved radio and battery combination.

xiv

Repair of FMRC Approved Products

Notes

1-1

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1

Scope of Manual
This manual is intended for use by service technicians familiar with similar types of equipment. It
contains service information required for the equipment described and is current as of the printing
date. Changes that occur after the printing date are incorporated by a complete manual revision or
alternatively, as additions.
NOTE: Before operating or testing these units, please read the sections, "Product Safety and RF
Exposure Compliance" on page ii and "Intrinsically Safe Radio Information" on page xi.

1.2

Warranty and Service Support


Motorola offers long term support for its products. This support includes full exchange and/or repair
of the product during the warranty period, and service/repair or spare parts support out of warranty.
Any return for exchange or return for repair by an authorized Motorola dealer must be
accompanied by a warranty claim form. Warranty claim forms are obtained by contacting customer
service.

1.2.1

Warranty Period
The terms and conditions of warranty are defined fully in the Motorola dealer or distributor or reseller
contract. These conditions may change from time to time and the following notes are for guidance
purposes only.

1.2.2

Return Instructions
In instances where the product is covered under a return for replacement or return for repair
warranty, a check of the product should be performed prior to shipping the unit back to Motorola.
This is to ensure that the product has been correctly programmed or has not been subjected to
damage outside the terms of the warranty.
Prior to shipping any radio back to a Motorola warranty depot, please contact the appropriate
customer service for instructions. All returns must be accompanied by a warranty claim form,
available from your customer services representative. Products should be shipped back in the
original packaging, or correctly packaged to ensure no damage occurs in transit.

1.2.3

After Warranty Period


After the Warranty period, Motorola continues to support its products in two ways:
First, Motorola's Customer Care and Services Division offers a repair service to both end users and
dealers at competitive prices.
Second, Motorolas service department supplies individual parts and modules that can be purchased
by dealers who are technically capable of performing fault analysis and repair.

1-2

1.3

Introduction: Related Documents

Related Documents
The following documents are directly related to the use and maintainability of this product.
Table 1-1. Related Documents
Title
Professional Radio Portable Level 1&2 Basic Service
Manual- English (North America)
Professional Radio Portable Level 1&2 Basic Service
Manual- English (Latin America)
Professional Radio Portable Level 1&2 Basic Service
Manual- Spanish
Professional Radio Portable Level 1&2 Basic Service
Manual- Portuguese
Professional Radio Portable Service Manual Level 3 English
Professional Radio Portable Service Manual Level 3 Spanish
Professional Radio Portable Service Manual Level 3 Portuguese
Supplement to Professional Radio Portable Level 1&2
Basic Service Manual

1.4

Part Number
68P80906Z54
68P81088C45
68P81088C47
68P81088C49
68P81088C46
68P81088C48
68P81088C50
68P81093C57

Technical Support
Technical support is available to assist the dealer/distributor and self-maintained customers in
resolving any malfunction which may be encountered. Initial contact should be by telephone to
customer resources wherever possible. When contacting Motorola technical support, be prepared to
provide the product model number and the units serial number. The contact locations and telephone
numbers are located in the applicable basic service manual listed in Table 1-1 above.

1.4.1

Piece Parts Availability


Some replacement parts, spare parts, and/or product information can be ordered directly. If a
complete Motorola part number is assigned to the part, and it is not identified as Depot ONLY, the
part is available from Motorola Customer Care and Services Division. If no part number is assigned,
the part is not normally available from Motorola. If the part number is appended with an asterisk, the
part is serviceable by a Motorola depot only. If a parts list is not included, this generally means that
no user-serviceable parts are available for that kit or assembly.

Introduction: Radio Model Chart and Specifications

1-3

Parts Order Entry


7:00 A.M. to 7:00 P.M. (Central Standard Time)
Monday through Friday (Chicago, U.S.A.)

To Order Parts in Latin America and the


Caribbean:
1-847-538-8023

To Order Parts in the United States of


America:
1-800-422-4210, or 847-538-8023
1-800-826-1913, or 410-712-6200 (U.S. Federal
Government)
TELEX: 280127
FAX: 1-847-538-8198
FAX: 1-410-712-4991 (U.S. Federal Government)
(U.S.A.) after hours or weekends:
1-800-925-4357

Motorola Parts
(United States and Canada)
Customer Care and Services Division
Attention: Order Processing
1307 E. Algonquian Road
Schaumburg, IL 60196
Customer Care and Services Division
Attention: Latin America and Caribbean
Order Processing
1307 E. Algonquian Road
Schaumburg, IL 60196
Parts Identification
1-800-422-4210, menu 3

1.5

Radio Model Chart and Specifications


The radio model charts and specifications are located in the Basic Service Manual listed under the
Related Documents paragraph of this chapter.

1.6

Radio Model Information


The model number and serial number are located on a label attached to the back of your radio. You
can determine the RF output power, frequency band, protocols, and physical packages from these
numbers. The example in Table 1-2 on page 1-4 shows one portable radio model number and its
specific characteristics.

1-4

Introduction: Radio Model Information

.
Table 1-2. Radio Model Number
Example: AAH25KC9AA2 and LAH25KDC9AA3
Model
Series

Freq.
Band

Power
Level

Physical
Packages

Channel
Spacing

Protocol

Feature
Level

Model
Revision

Model
Package

25

K
VHF
(136-174
MHz)

C
2.5W

C
No Display

9
Programmable

AA
Conventional

2
2F for AA
4F for LA

R
UHF1
(403-470
MHz)

D
4-5W

D
Keypad

6
25 kHz

DU
LTR

3
16F

S
UHF2
(450-527
MHz)

E
6W

H
1-Line
Display

CK
MPT

5
256F
LTR for
AA only

B
Low Band,
R1 (29.742.0 MHz)

GB
Privacy
Plus

6
128F
256F
LTR

C
Low Band,
R2 (35.050.0 MHz)

GE
Privacy
Plus
Roaming

8
160F

U
800 MHz
(806-824)
(851-869
MHz)

DP
PassPort

7
256F
LTR

FC
Smart
Zone

9
256F
LTR

H = Portable

AA or LA = Motorola Internal Use

AA
or
LA

Type
of Unit

2-1

Chapter 2 Theory of Operation

2.1

Introduction
This chapter provides a detailed theory of operation for the radio components. Schematic diagrams
for the circuits described in the following paragraphs are located in Figures 4-1 through 4-126.

2.2

Radio Power Distribution


A block diagram of the DC power distribution throughout the radio board is shown in Figure 2-1. A
7.5V battery supplies the basic radio power (UNSWB) directly to the electronic on/off control, audio
power amplifier, 3.5V regulator, power amplifier automatic level control (ALC), and low battery detect
circuit. When the radio on/off/volume control is turned on, the switched SWB+ is applied to the
various radio power regulators, antenna switch, accessories 20-pin connector, keypad/option board,
and transmit LED. The Vdda signal from the 3.3V Vdda regulator supplies the microprocessor with
operating power. The Vdd regulator scheme is listed by band in Table 2-1 on page 2-2. Data is then
sent to the controller ASFIC to turn on a DAC which takes over the momentary-on path within 12ms.
The SWB+ signal supplies power until the radio is turned off. Jumpers for configuring the Vdda and
Vddd regulators are shown in Figure 2-1 and described in Table 2-2 on page 2-2.
The radio turns off when either of the two following conditions occur:
Radio on/off/volume control is turned off.
Low battery condition is detected.
If a low battery level is detected by the microprocessor through either of the above conditions, the
radio personality data is stored to EEPROM prior to turning off.
Accessories
20 pin Connector
Keypad/Option Board
Prime Expansion Board
Audio
Power
Amplifier

4.0V/3.3V

UNSWB+
7.5V
Battery

SWB+
Fuse

MECH.
SWB+
3.5V
Reg.

LI Ion

Vdda
Regulator

Vdda

Vddd
Regulator

Vdda

Tx
Led

Control

Switching
Regulator

Int/Ext Vdd

MCU, ROM
and EEPROM

LCD
Driver

ASFIC_CMP

On/Off
Switch
5V
Regulator

Low Battery
Detect

PA, Driver
PCIC(ALC)

5V
Antenna
Switch

RF, AMP, IF AMP


Ext. RX.
Buffer (NU)

Figure 2-1. DC Power Distribution Block Diagram

FRACTN
VCOBIC

LVZIF

2-2

Theory of Operation: Keypad

Table 2-1. VDD Regulator Scheme by Band

Band

Vdd
Regulator
Scheme

Low Band

Dual

VHF

Dual

UHF

Dual

800 MHz

Dual

900 MHz

Dual

Table 2-2. Radio Jumpers

Jumpers

Dual Vdd
Regulator
Scheme

Single Vdd
Regulator
Scheme

R401

R402

R403

R404

R405

R = Regulator Jumper

2.3

Keypad
The keypad block diagram is shown in Figure 2-2. The comparator compares the voltage when any
one of the keypad row or keypad column keys is pressed. Pressing a key sends a message to the
microprocessor through the output (KEY_INT) line signifying that a key has been pressed. The
microprocessor then samples the analog to digital voltages at the keypad row and keypad column,
then makes a comparison with a map table to identify the key pressed. Once the key is identified, a
corresponding message is displayed.
The LED_EN is set by the codeplug. When the value is set to low, the LED lights up during power up.
A high codeplug setting disables this feature.

Keypad Column

Data
Display

18 Pin
Connector

40 Pin Connector
Keypad
Row
Key_Int
LED

Comparator

Figure 2-2. Keypad Block Diagram

Keypad
Button

Theory of Operation: Controller Board

2.4

2-3

Controller Board
The controller board is the central interface between the various radio functions. It is separated into
MCU digital and audio/signalling functions as shown in Figure 2-3.

To Synthesizer

External
Microphone

Mod Out

Internal
Microphone

16.8 / 17.0 MHz


Reference Clock
from Synthesizer

Audio/Signalling

Recovered Audio
Squelch

External
Speaker

Audio Power
Amplifier/Filter

ASFIC

Internal
Speaker

3.3V
Regulator
(Vdda)
To RF Board

SPI

CLK

MCU Digital
3.3V
Regulator
(Vddd)

SCI to Side
Connector

Microcontroller
EEPROM
ROM

RAM

Figure 2-3. Controller Block Diagram

2.4.1

MCU Digital
The digital portion of the controller consists of a microcontroller and associated EEPROM, RAM, and
ROM memories. Combinations of different size RAM and ROM are available to support various
application software. RAM supports 8KB and 32KB sizes. ROM supports 128KB, 256KB, and 512KB
sizes. Table 2-3 lists the ROM, RAM and EEPROM requirements for different radios.

Table 2-3. Radio Memory Requirements


FEATURE LEVEL

ROM (KB)

EXT RAM
(KB)

EEPROM
(KB)

AA,DU

2 or 3

128

AA,DU

128

16

CK, GB, GE, FC

512

32

16

PROTOCOL

2-4

2.4.2

Theory of Operation: Controller Board

Real Time Clock


Radios with displays support a real time clock (RTC) module for purposes of message time stamping
and time keeping. The RTC module resides in the microcontroller. The clock uses a back-up lithiumion battery for operating power when the primary battery is removed.

2.4.3

Circuit Description
The RTC module circuit, shown in Figure 2-4, is powered by the MODB/VSTBY pin and PI6/PI7 from
the crystal oscillator circuit. A clock frequency of 38.4 kHz from a crystal oscillator provides the
reference signal which is divided down to 1 Hz in the processor.
As the RTC module is powered separately from the processor Vdd, the RTC is kept active through
the MODB/VSTBY pin which provides the lithium-ion battery back-up power when the radio is
switched off.
A MOSFET transistor (Q416) switches in the battery supply when Vdd is removed. Q416 also
provides isolation from BOOT_CTRL function. The 3.3V regulator charges the lithium-ion battery.
UNSWB+

Vddd
U410

R461

C435

VIN VOUT

3.3V
3

1 VSS

R460

C434

HC11FL0
MODA
MODB

CR411
5

Q416

4
2

PI6
R420

FL401
38.4kHz

OUT

R419

C436

LI_ION

1
R462

GND
R426

IN
R463

PI7

BOOT_CTRL
C437
TP405
TEST_POINT

Figure 2-4. RTC Circuit

2.4.4

MODB/VSTBY Supply
The supply to the MODB/VSTBY pin varies depending on the conditions listed in Table 2-4.
Table 2-4. MODB/VSTBY Supply Modes
Condition

Circuit Operation

Radio On

Vddd supply voltage via CR411

Radio Off

Vddd turned off


Q416 gate pulled low by R462
Q416 switched on
U410 supplies 3.2V to MODB_VSTBY

Primary battery removed

Vddd turned off


Q416 gate pulled low by R462
Q416 switched on
Lithium-ion battery provides 3.2V to MODB_VSTBY

Theory of Operation: UHF Transmitter

2.4.5

2-5

Audio/Signaling
The audio/signalling/filter/companding IC (ASFIC) and the audio power amplifier (Figure 2-3 on
page 2-3) form the main components of the audio/signalling section of the controller board. Inputs
include a 16.8 MHz clock from the synthesizer, recovered audio and squelch, MCU control signals,
and external or internal microphones. Outputs include a microprocessor clock (CLK), modulator
output to the synthesizer, and amplified audio signals to an internal or external speaker.

2.5

UHF Transmitter
The UHF transmitter consists of the following basic circuits as shown in Figure 2-5.
Power amplifier (PA).
Antenna switch/harmonic filter.
Antenna matching network.
Power control integrated circuit (PCIC).

PCIC
Vcontrol

Vcontrol

Antenna
Matching
Network

Power Amplifier (PA)


From VCO

PA
Driver

PA Final
Stage

Antenna Switch/
Harmonic Filter

Figure 2-5. UHF Transmitter Block Diagram

2.5.1

Power Amplifier (PA)


The PA consists of two LDMOS devices:
9Z67 LDMOS driver IC (U101)
PRF1507 LDMOS PA (Q110)
The 9Z67 LDMOS driver (U101) provides 2-stage amplification using a supply voltage of 7.3V. The
amplifier is capable of supplying an output power of 0.3W (U101pins 6 & 7) with an input signal of
2mW(3dBm) at U101 (pin 16). The current drain is typically 160mA while operating in the frequency
range of 403-470 MHz.
The LDMOS PA is capable of supplying an output power of 7W with an input signal of 0.3W. The
current drain is typically 1300mA while operating in the frequency range of 403-470 MHz. The power
output can be varied by changing the bias voltage.

2-6

2.5.2

Theory of Operation: UHF Receiver

Antenna Switch
The antenna switch circuit consists of two pin diodes (CR101 and CR102), a pi network (C107, L104
and C106), and two current limiting resistors (R101 and R170). In the transmit mode, B+ at PCIC
(U102 pin 23) goes low turning on Q111, which applies a B+ bias to the antenna switch circuit to bias
the diodes on. The shunt diode (CR102) shorts out the receiver port and the pi network. This
operates as a quarter wave transmission line to transform the low impedance of the shunt diode to a
high impedance at the input of the harmonic filter. In the receive mode, the diodes are both off,
creating a low attenuation path between the antenna and receiver ports.

2.5.3

Harmonic Filter
The harmonic filter consists of components C104, L102, C103, L101 and C102. The harmonic filter
for UHF is a modified Zolotarev design optimized for efficiency of the power module. This type of
filter has the advantage that it can give a greater attenuation in the stop-band for a given ripple level.
The harmonic filter insertion loss is typically less than 1.2dB.

2.5.4

Antenna Matching Network


The antenna matching network, which is made up of L116, matches the antenna's impedance with
the harmonic filter to optimize the performance of the transmitter and receiver.

2.5.5

Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)


The transmitter uses the PCIC (U102) to regulate the power output of the radio. To accomplish this,
the current to the final stage of the power module, supplied through R101, provides a voltage
proportional to the current drain. This voltage is then fed back to the automatic level control (ALC)
within the PCIC to regulate the output power of the transmitter.
The PCIC contains internal digital to analog converters (DACs) that provide a programmable control
loop reference voltage.
The PCIC internal resistors, integrators, and external capacitors (C133, C134 and C135) control the
transmitter rise and fall times to reduce the power splatter into adjacent channels.

2.5.6

Temperature Cut Back Circuit


Diode CR105 and associated components are part of a temperature cutback circuit. This circuit
senses the printed circuit board temperature around the transmitter circuits and outputs a DC voltage
to the PCIC. If the DC voltage produced exceeds the set threshold of the PCIC, the transmitter
output power decreases to reduce the transmitter temperature.

2.6

UHF Receiver
The UHF receiver consists of a front end, back end, and automatic gain control circuits. A block
diagram of the receiver is shown in Figure 2-6 on page 2-7. Detailed descriptions of these stages are
contained in the paragraphs that follow.

Theory of Operation: UHF Receiver

Antenna
RFJack

Pin Diode
Antenna
Switch

2-7

Varactor
Tuned Filter

RF
Amp

Varactor
Tuned Filter

Mixer

Crystal
Filter

IF
Amp

AGC

Control Voltage
from ASFIC

AGC
Processing

First LO
from FGU

Recovered Audio
Squelch

Demodulator

RSSI
IF

IC

Synthesizer

16.8 MHz
Reference Clock
SPI Bus

Second
LO VCO

Figure 2-6. UHF Receiver Block Diagram

2.6.1

Receiver Front-End
The RF signal received by the antenna is applied to a low-pass filter. For UHF, the filter consists of
components L101, L102, C102, C103, and C104. The filtered RF signal is passed through the
antenna switch circuit consisting of two pin diodes (CR101 and CR102) and a pi network (C106,
L104, and C107). The signal is then applied to a varactor tuned filter bandpass.
The UHF bandpass filter consists of components L301, L302, C302, C303, C304, CR301, and
CR302. The filter is electronically tuned by DACRx from the ASFIC (U404) which supplies a control
voltage to the varactor diodes (CR301 and CR302) in the filter as determined by the microprocessor
depending on the carrier frequency. Wideband operation of the filter is achieved by shifting the
bandpass filter across the band.
The output of the bandpass filter is coupled to the RF amplifier transistor Q301 via C307. After being
amplified by the RF amplifier, the RF signal is further filtered by a second varactor tuned bandpass
filter, consisting of L306, L307, C313, C317, CR304, and CR305.
Both the pre and post-RF amplifier varactor tuned filters have similar responses. The 3 dB bandwidth
of the filter is approximately 50 MHz. This enables the filters to be electronically controlled by using a
single control voltage from DACRx.
The output of the post-RF amplifier filter is connected to the passive double balanced mixer
consisting of components T301, T302, and CR306. Matching of the filter to the mixer is provided by
C381. After mixing with the first local oscillator (LO) signal from the voltage controlled oscillator
(VCO) using low side injection, the RF signal is down-converted to a 45.1 MHz IF signal.

2-8

Theory of Operation: UHF Receiver

The IF signal coming out of the mixer is transferred to the crystal filter (FL301) through a resistor pad
and a diplexer (C322 and L310). Matching to the input of the crystal filter is provided by C324 and
L311. The crystal filter provides the necessary selectivity and intermodulation protection.

2.6.2

Receiver Back-End
The output of crystal filter FL301 is coupled via R351 and C325 to the input of IF amplifier transistor
Q302. Voltage supply to the IF amplifier is taken from the receiver 5 volts (R5). The IF amplifier
provides a gain of about 7dB. The amplified IF signal is then coupled into U301(pin 3) via C330,
C338 and L330 which provides a high-pass T-match for the IF amplifier and U301.
The IF signal applied to U301 (pin 3) is amplified, down-converted, filtered, and demodulated, to
produce recovered audio at U301(pin 27). This IF IC (U301) is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering, which is dependent on the radio channel spacing, is controlled by the
microprocessor. Additional filtering, once externally provided by the conventional ceramic filters, is
replaced by internal filters in IF IC (U301).
The IF IC uses a type of direct conversion process, whereby the externally generated second LO
frequency is divided by two in U301 so that it is very close to the first IF frequency. The IF IC
synthesizes the second LO and phase-locks the VCO to track the first IF frequency. The second LO
is designed to oscillate at twice the first IF frequency because of the divide-by-two function in the IF
IC.
In the absence of an IF signal, the VCO searches for a frequency, or its frequency will vary close to
twice the IF frequency. When an IF signal is received, the VCO locks onto the IF signal. The second
LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q320. The VCO has a varactor diode, CR310,
to adjust the VCO frequency. The control signal for the varactor is derived from a loop filter consisting
of components C362, C363, C364, R320, and R321.
The IF IC also performs several other functions. It provides a received signal-strength indicator
(RSSI) and a squelch output. The RSSI is a dc voltage monitored by the microprocessor, and used
as a peak indicator during the bench tuning of the receiver front-end varactor filter. The RSSI voltage
is also used to control the automatic gain control (AGC) circuit at the front-end.
The demodulated signal on U301(pin 27) is also used for squelch control. The signal is routed to
U404 (ASFIC) where squelch signal shaping and detection takes place. The demodulated audio
signal is also routed to U404 for processing before being supplied to the audio amplifier.

2.6.3

Automatic Gain Control (AGC)


The front end automatic gain control circuit provides automatic reduction of gain for the front end RF
amplifier via feedback. This prevents overloading of backend circuits by drawing some of the output
power from the RF amplifier output. At high radio frequencies, capacitor C331 provides a low
impedance path to ground for this purpose. CR308 is a pin diode used for switching the path on or
off. A certain amount of forward biasing current is needed to turn the pin diode on. Transistor Q315
provides this current where, upon saturation, current will flow via R347, PIN Diode, collector and
emitter of Q315 and R319 before going to ground. Q315 is an NPN transistor used for switching
here. Maximum current flowing through the PIN is mainly limited by the resistor R319.
The Radio Signal Strength Indicator, RSSI, a voltage signal, is used to drive Q315 into saturation,
hence turning it on. RSSI is produced by U301 and is proportional to the gain of the amplifier and the
input RF signal power to the radio.

Theory of Operation: Synthesizer

2-9

The resistor network at the input to the base of the Q315 is scaled to turn on Q315, hence activating
the AGC at certain RSSI levels. In order to turn on Q315, the voltage across the transistors base to
ground must be greater or equal to the voltage across R319, plus the base-emitter voltage (Vbe)
present at Q315. The resistor network with thermistor RT300 is capable of providing temperature
compensation to the AGC circuit, as RSSI generated by U301 is lower at cold temperatures
compared to normal operation at room temperature. Resistor R300 and Capacitor C397 form an R-C
network used to dampen any transient instability while the AGC is turning on.

2.6.4

Frequency Generation Circuit


The frequency generation circuit, shown in Figure 2-7, is composed of Low Voltage Fractional-N
(LV FracN) synthesizer U201 and VCO/Buffer IC U241. Designed in conjunction to maximize
compatibility, the two ICs provide many of the functions that normally require additional circuitry. The
synthesizer block diagram illustrates the interconnect and support circuitry used in the region. Refer
to the schematic to locate reference designators.
The synthesizer is powered by regulated 5V and 3.3V, which are provided by ICs U247 and U248
respectively. The 5V signal goes to U201(pins 13 and 30) while the 3.3V signal goes to U201(pins 5,
20, 34 and 36). The synthesizer in turn generates a superfiltered (4.5V) signal to power U241.
In addition to the VCO, the synthesizer also interfaces with the logic and ASFIC circuits.
Programming for the synthesizer is accomplished through the microprocessor data, clock, and chip
select lines U409 (pins 7, 8 and 9) respectively. A 3.3V dc signal from U201(pin 4) indicates to the
microprocessor that the synthesizer is locked.
Transmit modulation from the ASFIC is supplied to U201 (pin 10). Internally the audio is digitized by
the LV Frac-N IC and applied to the loop divider to provide the low-port modulation. The audio runs
through an internal attenuator for modulation balancing purposes before going to the VCO (U241 pin
41).

Voltage
Multiplier

Dual
Transistor

VCP
Vmult1
Vmult2

Rx VCO
Circuit

Aux3

Synthesizer
U201

16.8 MHz
Ref. Osc.
Modulating
Signal

Aux4

Rx
Out

TRB

Loop
Filter

Matching
Network

Low Pass
Filter

Attenuator

To PA Driver

To Mixer

VCOBIC
U241
Tx
Out

MOD Out

Tx VCO
Circuit

Figure 2-7. UHF Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram

2.7

Synthesizer
The Low Voltage Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer (U201), shown in Figure 2-8 on page 2-10,
uses a 16.8 MHz crystal (FL201) to provide a reference for the system. The LV FracN IC further
divides this to 2.1 MHz, 2.225 MHz, and 2.4 MHz for use as reference frequencies. Together with
C206, C207, C208, R204 and CR203, they build up the reference oscillator which is capable of
2.5ppm stability over temperatures of -30 to 85C. It also provides 16.8 MHz at U201 (pin 19) for use
by the ASFIC and LVZIF.

2-10

Theory of Operation: Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

The loop filter consists of components C231, C232, C233, R231, R232, and R233. This filter
provides the necessary dc steering voltage for the VCO and determines the amount of noise and
spurs passing through.
To achieve fast locking for the synthesizer, an internal adapt charge pump provides higher current at
U201 (pin 45) to put the synthesizer within lock range. The required frequency is then locked by
normal mode charge pump at U201 (pin 47).
Both the normal and adapt charge pumps get their supply from the capacitive voltage multiplier
made up of C258, C259, C228, triple diode CR201, and level shifters U210 and U211. Two 3.3V
square waves, 180 degrees out of phase, are first shifted to 5V, then along with regulated 5V, put
through arrays of diodes and capacitors to build up 13.3V at U201 (pin 47).

DATA (U409 Pin 100)


CLOCK (U409 Pin 1)
CSX (U409 Pin 2)
MOD IN (U404 Pin 40)
+5V (U247 Pin 4)
(U248 Pin 5)

7
8
9
10

CLK

5,20,34,36

24
25
32
47

LOCK
FREFOUT

CEX

GND

MODIN

IOUT

13,30

23
Reference
Oscillator

DATA

VCC , DC5V
VDD , 3.3V
XTAL1

IADAPT

U201
Low Voltage MODOUT
Fractional-N
AUX4
Synthesizer

XTAL2

AUX3

WARP

SFOUT

PREIN

BIAS1

BIAS2
VCP
VMULT2 VMULT1 AUX1
48
15
14

Voltage
Multiplier

5V

LOCK (U409 Pin 56)

19

FREF (U201 Pin 21 & U404 Pin 34)

6,22,23,24
43
45

Steering
Line

2-Pole
Loop Filter

LO RF
Injection

41
3
2
28

Dual
Transistors
Filtered 5V

Voltage
Controlled
Oscillator

40
TX RF
Injection
(First Stage of PA)

39

Dual
Transistors

R405

Prescaler In

Figure 2-8. UHF Synthesizer Block Diagram

2.8

Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)


The VCOB IC (U241), shown in Figure 2-9 on page 2-11, in conjunction with the LV FracN
synthesizer (U201) generates RF in both the receive and the transmit modes of operation. The TRB
line (U241 pin 19) determines which oscillator and buffer are enabled. A sample of the RF signal
from the enabled oscillator is routed from U241 (pin 12), through a low pass filter, to the prescaler
input (U201 pin 32). After frequency comparison in the synthesizer, a resultant DC control voltage is
received at the VCO. When the PLL is locked on frequency, this voltage can vary between 3.5V and
9.5V.
The VCOB IC is operated at 4.54V (VSF) and LV FracN synthesizer (U201) at 3.3V. This difference
in operating voltage requires a level shifter consisting of Q260 and Q261 on the TRB line. The level
shifter logic is shown in Table 2-5.
In the receive mode, U241 (pin 19) is low or grounded. This activates the receive VCO by enabling
the receive oscillator and the receive buffer of U241. The RF signal at U241 (pin 8) is run through a
matching network. The resulting LO RF INJECTION signal is applied to the mixer at T302.

Theory of Operation: Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

2-11

When PTT is pressed during the transmit condition, five volts is applied to U241 (pin 19). This
activates the transmit VCO by enabling the U241 transmit oscillator and buffer. The TX RF
INJECTION signal at U241 (pin 10) is injected into the input of the PA module (U101 pin 16). Also in
transmit mode, the audio signal to be frequency modulated onto the carrier is received through U201
(pin 41).
When a high impedance is applied to U241 (pin 19), the VCO operates in BATTERY SAVER mode.
In this mode, both the receive and transmit oscillators as well as the receive transmit and prescaler
buffer are turned off.
5V
AUX3 (U201 Pin 2)

Level Shifter
Network

AUX4 (U201 Pin 3)

TRB_IN
Pin 20

Pin 19

Pin 7

Rx-SW

TX/RX/BS
Switching Network

Pin 13

Tx-SW
(U201 Pin 28)

Pin 3

Steer Line
Voltage
(VCTRL)

Vcc-Superfilter

Presc

RX
Tank

RX VCO
Circuit

TX
Tank

TX VCO
Circuit

Rx Active
Bias

Pin 8

Matching
Network

Pin 14

Pin 6

VCC Buffers

Pin 16

TX

U201 Pin 32

LO RF INJECTION
RX

RX

Prescaler Out

U241
VCOBIC

Pin 4 Collector/RF in
Pin 5

Pin 12

Tx Active
Bias

TX

Low Pass
Filter
(U201 Pin 28)

Pin 10
TX RF Injection

Pin 15
Attenuator

Vsens
Circuit
Pin 18
Vcc-Logic

Pin 2
Rx-I adjust

Pin 1 Pins 9,11,17


Tx-I adjust

(U201 Pin 28)

Figure 2-9. UHF VCO Block Diagram


Table 2-5. Level Shifter Logic
Desired Mode

AUX 4

AUX 3

TRB

Tx

Low

High (@3.2V)

High (@4.8V)

Rx

High

Low

Low

Battery Saver

Low

Low

Hi-Z/Float (@2.5V)

2-12

2.9

Theory of Operation: VHF Transmitter

VHF Transmitter
The VHF transmitter consists of the following basic circuits as shown in Figure 2-10.
Power amplifier
Antenna switch/harmonic filter
Antenna matching network
Power control integrated circuit (PCIC)

PCIC
Vcontrol

Vcontrol

Antenna
Matching
Network

Power Amplifier (PA)


From VCO

PA
Driver

PA Final
Stage

Antenna Switch/
Harmonic Filter

Figure 2-10. VHF Transmitter Block Diagram

2.9.1

Power Amplifier
The power amplifier consists of two devices:
9Z67 LDMOS driver IC (U3501)
PRF1507 LDMOS PA (Q3501)
The 9Z67 LDMOS driver IC contains a 2-stage amplifier using a supply voltage of 7.3V.
This RF power amplifier is capable of supplying an output power of 0.3W (pin 6 and 7) with an input
signal of 2mW (3dBm) (pin16). The current drain is typically around 130mA while operating in the
frequency range of 136-174 MHz.
The PRF1507 LDMOS PA is capable of supplying an output power of 7W with an input signal of
0.3W. The current drain is typically around 1800mA while operating in the frequency range of 136174 MHz. The power output is varied by changing the bias voltage.

2.9.2

Antenna Switch
The antenna switch circuit consists of two pin diodes (D3521 and D3551), a pi network (C3531,
L3551, and C3550), and two current limiting resistors (R3572 and R3573). In the transmit mode, B+
at PCIC (U3502), pin 23 goes low to turn on Q3561 applying a B+ bias to the antenna switch circuit
to bias the diodes on. The shunt diode (D3551) shorts out the receiver port, and the pi network,
which operates as a quarter wave transmission line, transforms the low impedance of the shunt
diode to a high impedance at the input of the harmonic filter. In the receive mode, the diodes are both
off, creating a low attenuation path between the antenna and receiver ports.

Theory of Operation: VHF Receiver

2.9.3

2-13

Harmonic Filter
The harmonic filter consists of components C3532 to C3536, L3531, and L3532. This network forms
a low-pass filter to attenuate harmonic energy of the transmitter to specifications level. The harmonic
filter insertion loss is typically less than 1.2dB.

2.9.4

Antenna Matching Network


A matching network, made up of L3538 and C3537, is used to match the antenna impedance to the
harmonic filter. This optimizes the performance of the transmitter and receiver into an antenna.

2.9.5

Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)


The transmitter uses PCIC, U3502 to control the power output of the radio by maintaining the radio
current drain. The current to the final stage of the power module is supplied through R3519 (0.1
ohms), which provides a voltage proportional to the current drain. The voltage is then fed back to the
automatic level control (ALC) within the PCIC to provide loop stability.
The PCIC also contains internal digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that provide the reference
voltage for the control loop. The voltage level is controlled by the microprocessor through the data
line of the PCIC.
The resistors and integrators within the PCIC, and external capacitors (C3562, C3563, and C3565)
control the transmitter rise and fall times. These are necessary to reduce the power splatter into
adjacent channels.
U3503 and its associated components act as a temperature cut back circuit. This provides the
necessary voltage to the PCIC to cut the transmitter power if the radio temperature gets too high.

2.10 VHF Receiver


The VHF receiver consists of a front end, back end, and automatic gain control circuits. A block
diagram of the VHF receiver is shown in Figure 2-11. Detailed descriptions of these features are
contained in the paragraphs that follow.
Antenna
RFJack

Pin Diode
Antenna
Switch

Varactor
Tuned Filter

RF
Amp

Varactor
Tuned Filter

Crystal
Filter

Mixer

AGC

Control Voltage
from ASFIC

First LO
from FGU

Recovered Audio
Squelch

Demodulator

RSSI
IF

IC

Synthesizer

16.8 MHz
Reference Clock
SPI Bus

Figure 2-11. VHF Receiver Block Diagram

Second
LO VCO

2-14

Theory of Operation: VHF Receiver

2.10.1 Receiver Front-End


The RF signal is received by the antenna and applied to a low-pass filter consisting of L3531, L3532,
C3532 to C3563. The filtered RF signal is passed through the antenna switch. The antenna switch
circuit consists of two pin diodes (D3521 and D3551) and a pi network (C3531, L3551, and C3550).
The RF signal is then applied to a varactor tuned bandpass filter which consists of L3301, L3303,
C3301 to C3304, and D3301. The filter is tuned by applying a control voltage to the varactor diode
(D3301) in the filter.
The bandpass filter is electronically tuned by the DACRx from IC 404 which is controlled by the
microprocessor. Depending on the carrier frequency, the DACRx supplies the tuning voltage to the
varactor diodes in the filter. Wideband operation of the filter is achieved by shifting the bandpass filter
across the band.
The output of the bandpass filter is coupled to the RF amplifier transistor Q3302 via C3306. After
being amplified by the RF amplifier, the RF signal is further filtered by a second varactor tuned
bandpass filter, consisting of L3305, L3306, C3311 to C3314, and D3302.
Both the pre and post-RF amplifier varactor tuned filters have similar responses. The 3dB bandwidth
of the filter is about 12 MHz. This enables the filters to be electronically controlled by using a single
control voltage which is DACRx.
The output of the post-RF amplifier filter is connected to the passive double balanced mixer which
consists of T3301, T3302, and CR3301. Matching of the filter to the mixer is provided by C3317,
C3318, and L3308. After mixing with the first LO signal from the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)
using high side injection, the RF signal is down-converted to the 45.1 MHz IF signal.
The IF signal coming out of the mixer is transferred to the crystal filter (Y3200) through a resistor pad
(R3321 - R3323) and a diplexer (C3320 and L3309). Matching to the input of the crystal filter is
provided by C3200 and L3200. The crystal filter provides the necessary selectivity and
intermodulation protection.

2.10.2 Receiver Back-End


The output of crystal filter Y3200 is coupled to the input of IF amplifier transistor Q3200 by capacitor
C3203. Voltage supply to the IF amplifier is taken from the receiver 5 volts (R5). The controlled gain
IF amplifier provides a maximum gain of about 10dB. The amplified IF signal is then coupled into
U3220, pin 3 via L3202, C3207, and C3230 which provides impedance matching for the IF amplifier
and U3220.
The IF signal applied to U3220, pin 3 is amplified, down-converted, filtered, then demodulated to
produce the recovered audio at U3220, pin 27. This IF IC is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering, which is dependent on the radio channel spacing, is controlled by the
microprocessor. Additional filtering, once externally provided by the conventional ceramic filters, is
replaced by internal filters in the IF IC (U3220).
The IF IC uses a type of direct conversion process, whereby the externally generated second LO
frequency is divided by two in U3220 so that it is very close to the first IF frequency. The IF IC
(U3220) synthesizes the second LO and phase-locks the VCO to track the first IF frequency. The
second LO is designed to oscillate at twice the first IF frequency because of the divide-by-two
function in the IF IC.
In the absence of an IF signal, the VCO searches for a frequency, or its frequency will vary close to
twice the IF frequency. When an IF signal is received, the VCO locks onto the IF signal. The second
LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q3270. The VCO has a varactor diode (D3270)
to adjust the VCO frequency. The control signal for the varactor is derived from a loop filter consisting
of C3278 to C3280, R3274, and R3275.

Theory of Operation: VHF Receiver

2-15

The IF IC (U3220) also provides a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) and a squelch output.
The RSSI is a dc voltage monitored by the microprocessor and is used as a peak indicator during the
bench tuning of the receiver front-end varactor filter. The RSSI voltage is also used to control the
automatic gain control (AGC) circuit in the front-end.
The demodulated signal on U3220, pin 27 is also used for squelch control. The signal is routed to
U404 (ASFIC) where squelch signal shaping and detection takes place. The demodulated audio
signal is also routed to U404 for processing before going to the audio amplifier for amplification.

2.10.3 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)


The front end automatic gain control circuit provides automatic reduction of gain of the front end RF
amplifier via feedback. This prevents overloading of backend circuits and is achieved by drawing
some of the output power from the RF amplifier output. At high radio frequencies, capacitor C3327
provides the low impedance path to ground for this purpose. Pin diode CR3302 switches the path on
or off. A certain amount of forward biasing current is needed to turn the pin diode on. Transistor
Q3301 provides this current.
Radio signal strength indicator, RSSI, a voltage signal, drives Q3301 to saturation i.e. turned on.
RSSI is produced by U3220 and is proportional to the gain of the RF amplifier and the input power to
the radio.
Resistors R3304 and R3305 make up a voltage divider designed to turn on Q3301 at certain RSSI
levels. To turn on Q3301, the voltage across R3305 must be greater or equal to the voltage across
R3324 plus the emitter-base voltage (Vbe) present at Q3301. Capacitor C3209 dampens any
instability while the AGC is turning on. The current flowing into the collector of Q3301, a high current
gain NPN transistor, is drawn through the pin diode to turn it on. Maximum current flowing through
the pin is limited by resistors R3316, R3313, R3306, and R3324. Feedback capacitor C3326
provides some stability to this high gain stage.
An additional gain control circuit is formed by Q3201 and associated components. Resistors R3206
and R3207 are voltage dividers designed to turn on Q3201 at a significantly higher RSSI level than
the level required to turn on pin diode control transistor Q3301. In order to turn on Q3201, the voltage
across R3207 must be greater or equal to the voltage across R3208 plus the emitter-base voltage
(Vbe) present at Q3201. As current starts flowing into the collector of Q3201, it reduces the bias
voltage at the base of IF amplifier transistor Q3200 and in turn, the gain of the IF amplifier. The gain
is then controlled in a range of -30dB to +10dB.

2.10.4 Frequency Generation Circuit


The frequency generation circuit, shown in Figure 2-12 on page 2-16, is composed of two main ICs,
the LV FracN synthesizer (U3701), and the VCO/Buffer IC (U3801). Designed in conjunction to
maximize compatibility, the two ICs provide many of the functions that normally would require
additional circuits. The synthesizer block diagram illustrates the interconnect and support circuit
used in the region. Refer to the schematic for the reference designator.

2-16

Theory of Operation: Synthesizer

Voltage
Multiplier

Dual
Transistor

VCP
Vmult1

Rx VCO
Circuit

Aux3

Synthesizer
U3701

Vmult2

16.8 MHz
Ref. Osc.

Rx Out

To Mixer

VCOBIC
U3801

Loop
Filter
MOD Out

Modulating
Signal

TRB

Tx Out

To PA Driver

Tx VCO
Circuit

Figure 2-12. VHF Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram


The synthesizer is powered by regulated 5V and 3.3V which is provided from ICs U3711 and U3201
respectively. The 5V signal is supplied to pins 13 and 30 and the 3.3V signal is applied to pins 5, 20,
34 and 36 of U3701. The synthesizer in turn generates a superfiltered (4.5V) which powers U3801.
In addition to the VCO, the synthesizer must interface with the logic and ASFIC circuitry.
Programming for the synthesizer is accomplished through the data, clock and chip select lines (pins
7, 8 and 9) from the microprocessor, U409. A 3.3V dc signal from the synthesizer lock detect line (pin
4) indicates to the microprocessor that the synthesizer is locked.
Transmit modulation from the ASFIC is supplied to U3701, pin 10. Internally the audio is digitized by
the LV FracN IC and applied to the loop divider to provide low-port modulation. The audio runs
through an internal attenuator for modulation balancing purposes before going out at pin 41 to the
VCO.

2.11 Synthesizer
The Low Voltage Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer, shown in Figure 2-13 on page 2-17, uses a
16.8 MHz crystal (Y3761) to provide a reference for the system. The LV FracN IC (U3701) further
divides this to 2.1 MHz, 2.225 MHz, and 2.4 MHz as reference frequencies. Together with C3761,
C3762, C3763, R3761, and D3761, they build up the reference oscillator that is capable of 2.5 ppm
stability over a temperature range of -30 to 85C. A 16.8 MHz signal at U3701, pin 19 is also
provided for use by ASFIC and LVZIF.
The loop filter, which consist of C3721, C3722, R3721, R3722, and R3723, provides the necessary
dc steering voltage for the VCO and determines the amount of noise and spur passing through.
In achieving fast locking for the synthesizer, an internal adapt charge pump provides higher current
at U3701, pin 45 to put the synthesizer within lock range. The required frequency is then locked by
normal mode charge pump at pin 43.
Both the normal and adapt charge pumps get their supply from the capacitive voltage multiplier
made up of C3701 to C3704 and triple diodes D3701 and D3702. Two 3.3V square waves (180
degrees out of phase) are first multiplied by four and then shifted, along with regulated 5V, to build up
13.5V at U3701, pin 47.

Theory of Operation: Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

DATA (U409 Pin 100)


CLOCK (U409 Pin 1)
CSX (U409 Pin 2)
MOD IN (U404 Pin 40)
+5V (U3711 Pin 4)
(U3201 Pin 5)

7
8
9
10

CLK

5,20,34,36

24
25
32
47

LOCK
FREFOUT

CEX

GND

MODIN

IOUT

13,30

23
Reference
Oscillator

DATA

2-17

VCC , DC5V
VDD , 3.3V
XTAL1
XTAL2

IADAPT

U3701
Low Voltage MODOUT
Fractional-N
AUX4
Synthesizer
AUX3

WARP

SFOUT

PREIN

BIAS1

BIAS2
VCP
VMULT2 VMULT1 AUX1
48
15
14

Voltage
Multiplier

5V

LOCK (U409 Pin 56)

19

FREF (U3220 Pin 21 & U404 Pin 34)

6,22,23,24
43
45

Steering
Line

2-Pole
Loop Filter

LO RF
Injection

41
3
2
28

Filtered 5V

Voltage
Controlled
Oscillator

40
39

TX RF
Injection
(First Stage of PA)
Dual
Transistors

R405

Prescaler In

Figure 2-13. VHF Synthesizer Block Diagram

2.12 Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)


The VCOB IC (U3801), shown in Figure 2-14 on page 2-18, in conjunction with the LV FracN
synthesizer (U3701) generates RF in both the receive and transmit modes of operation. The TRB
line (U3801, pin 19) determines which oscillator and buffer are enabled. A sample of the RF signal
from the enabled oscillator is routed from U3801, pin 12, through a low pass filter, to the prescaler
input (U3701, pin 32). After frequency comparison in the synthesizer, a resultant control voltage is
received at the VCO. This voltage is a DC voltage typically between 3.5V and 9.5V when the PLL is
locked on frequency.
The RF section of the VCOB IC (U3801) is operated at 4.54 V (VSF), while the control section of the
VCOBIC and LV FracN synthesizer (U3701) is operated at 3.3V. The operation logic is shown in
Table 2-6 on page 2-18.
In the receive mode, U3801, pin 19 is low or grounded. This activates the receive VCO by enabling
the receive oscillator and the receive buffer of U3801. The RF signal at U3801, pin 8 is routed
through a matching network. The resulting LO RF INJECTION signal is applied to the mixer at
T3302.
During the transmit condition, when PTT is pressed, 3.2 volts is applied to U3801, pin 19. This
activates the transmit VCO by enabling the transmit oscillator and the transmit buffer of U3801. The
RF signal at U3801, pin 10 is injected into the input of the PA module (U3501, pin16). This RF signal
is the TX RF INJECTION. Also in transmit mode, the audio signal to be frequency modulated onto
the carrier is received through U3701, pin 41.

2-18

Theory of Operation: Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

When a high impedance is applied to U3801, pin19, the VCO is operating in battery saver mode. In
this case, both the receive and transmit oscillators as well as the receive transmit and prescaler
buffer are turned off.

AUX3 (U3701 Pin 2)


TRB_IN
Pin 20

Pin 19

Pin 7

Rx-SW

TX/RX/BS
Switching Network

Pin 13

Tx-SW
(U3701 Pin 28)

Pin 3

Steer Line
Voltage
(VCTRL)

Vcc-Superfilter

Presc

RX
Tank

RX VCO
Circuit

TX
Tank

TX VCO
Circuit

Rx Active
Bias

Pin 8

Matching
Network

Pin 14

Pin 6

VCC Buffers

Pin 16

TX

U3701 Pin 32

LO RF INJECTION
RX

RX

Prescaler Out

U3801
VCOBIC

Pin 4 Collector/RF in
Pin 5

Pin 12

Tx Active
Bias

TX

Low Pass
Filter
(U3701 Pin 28)

Pin 10
TX RF Injection

Pin 15
Attenuator

Vsens
Circuit
Pin 18
Vcc-Logic

Pin 2
Rx-I adjust

Pin 1 Pins 9,11,17


Tx-I adjust

(U3701 Pin 28)

Figure 2-14. VHF VCO Block Diagram


Table 2-6. VCO Control Logic
Desired Mode

AUX 4

AUX 3

TRB

Tx

Not Used

High (@3.2V)

High (@3.2V)

Rx

Not Used

Low

Low

Battery Saver

Not Used

Hi-Z/Float
(@1.6V)

Hi-Z/Float (@1.6V)

Theory of Operation: Low Band Transmitter

2-19

2.13 Low Band Transmitter


The low band transmitter consists of the following basic circuits as shown in Figure 2-15.
Power amplifier (PA).
Antenna switch/harmonic filter.
Antenna matching network.
Power control integrated circuit (PCIC).

Antenna Switch Bias

SPI Bus
PCIC

Gate Bias

Vcontrol

Antenna
Matching
Network

Power Amplifier (PA)


PA
Driver

From VCO

PA Final
Stage

Antenna Switch/
Harmonic Filter

Figure 2-15. Low Band Transmitter Block Diagram

2.13.1 Power Amplifier (PA)


The PA consists of two LDMOS devices:
PA driver, U101.
PA final stage, Q100.
The LDMOS driver (U101) provides 2-stage amplification using a supply voltage of 7.3V. The
amplifier is capable of supplying an output power of 0.3W (pins 6 and 7) with an input signal of 2mW
at (pin16). The current drain is typically 120mA while operating in the frequency range of 29.7 50 MHz. The power output of this stage is varied by the power control loop which controls the voltage
on pin 1.
The LDMOS PA is capable of supplying an output power of 8W with an input signal of 0.3W. The
current drain is typically 2000 mA while operating in the frequency range of 29.7 - 50 MHz. The final
stage gate is bias by a voltage from PCIC, pin 24. This voltage is the output of a programmable DAC
inside the PCIC and the output is adjustable with the radio tuner.

2-20

Theory of Operation: Low Band Receiver

2.13.2 Antenna Switch


The antenna switch circuit consists of two pin diodes (D100 and D101), a RF network (C147 and
L103), and a DC feed network (L104, C144, and current limiting resistor R101). In the transmit mode,
PCIC (U102) pin 32 goes high supplying current via the feed network to bias the diodes on. The
shunt diode (D101) shorts out the receiver port and L103 is connected from the RF path to ground.
L103 and the input capacitance of the lowpass filter form a parallel resonant circuit, effectively
disconnecting the receiver port from the antenna while not loading the transmit path. In the receive
mode, pin 32 goes low and the diodes are off. D100 looks like a high impedance effectively
disconnecting the transmitter from the antenna while L103 and C147 form a series resonant circuit
effectively connect the receiver to the antenna.

2.13.3 Harmonic Filter


The harmonic filter consists of components C103, C106, C103, C107,C110, C111, C114, C115 and
inductors L100, L101, and L102 which are a part of the SH100 assembly. The harmonic filter for
lowband is pole zero design. This feature gives greater attenuation in low frequencies where the
harmonic energy of the transmitter is the greatest and less attenuation in high frequencies where
there is less harmonic energy. The harmonic filter insertion loss is typically less than 0.8 dB.

2.13.4 Antenna Matching Transformer


The antenna matching transformer (T100) matches the antenna impedance with the harmonic filter
to optimize the performance of the transmitter and receiver.

2.13.5 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)


The transmitter uses the PCIC (U102) to regulate the power output of the radio. To accomplish this,
the voltage across R102 is sensed. This voltage drop is directly proportional to the current drawn in
the final stage of the transmitter. This voltage is compared to a programmable reference inside the
PCIC and the voltage on PCIC pin 4 adjusted. Pin 4 connects to the PA driver IC (U101) pin 1 via
resistor R100 and varies RF output power of the driver. This controls the current drain of the final
stage and sets the output power.

2.13.6 Temperature Cut Back Circuit


Temperature sensor VR101 and associated components are part of a temperature cut back circuit.
This circuit senses the printed circuit board temperature around the transmitter circuits and outputs a
DC voltage to the PCIC. If the DC voltage produced exceeds the set threshold of the PCIC, the
transmitter output power decreases to reduce the transmitter temperature.

2.13.7 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection Circuit


The LDMOS PA device (Q100) is very sensitive to static discharge. To protect the device from ESD,
a protection circuit consisting of single high-speed Schottky Diode (D104) is connected from the
Antenna Nut (J102) to ground. This diode effectively shorts ESD energy to ground, but looks like an
open circuit to normal RF energy. The diode turns on when the voltage at the antenna nut exceeds
150V.

2.14 Low Band Receiver


The low band receiver consists of a front end, back end, and automatic gain control circuits. A block
diagram of the receiver is shown in Figure 2-16 on page 2-21. Detailed descriptions of these stages
are contained in the paragraphs that follow.

Theory of Operation: Low Band Receiver

2-21

Antenna
RFJack

Lowpass
Filter

Antenna
Switch

Highpass
Filter

RF
Amp

Lowpass
Filter

Mixer

IF
Crystal
Amp
Filter

AGC
Processing

First LO
from FGU

Recovered Audio
Squelch

Demodulator
IF IC U303

RSSI

Synthesizer

17.0 MHz
Reference Clock
SPI Bus

Second
LO VCO

Figure 2-16. Low Band Receiver Block Diagram

2.14.1 Receiver Front-End


The RF signal received by the antenna is routed through the transmitter lowpass filter and antenna
switch. These circuits are described in the transmitter section.The signal next passes through a
highpass filter consisting of L501, L502, C538, C533 and C504. This filter serves to reject below
band signals and has a 3 dB corner frequency of 27 MHz.
The output of the highpass filter is connected to an RF amp consisting of Q509 and associated
biasing components. This is a BJT amplifier powered off 5 volts and has 13 dB of gain. The amplifier
drives a lowpass filter consisting of L503, L504 L507, C534, C535, C536, C537 and C515. This filter
is a pole zero design that filters off harmonic components from the RF amp. The 3 dB corner of this
filter is at 56 MHz.
The output of the lowpass filter is connected to the passive double balanced mixer consisting of
components T501, T502, and D501. After mixing with the first local oscillator up-converted to a
109.65 MHz IF signal.
The IF signal coming out of the mixer is transferred to the crystal filter (FL301) through a resistor pad
(R507, R508 and R509) and a diplexer (C516 and L508). Matching to the input of the crystal filter is
provided by L301, L302, C301 and C302. The 3 pole crystal filter provides the necessary selectivity
and intermodulation protection.

2-22

Theory of Operation: Low Band Receiver

2.14.2 Receiver Back-End


The output of crystal filter FL301 is connected to the input of IF amplifier transistor U301.
Components L303 and C348 and R301 form the termination for the crystal filter and the signal is
coupled to one gate of U301 by C303. The IF amplifier is a dual gate MOSFET powered off of the 5
volt supply. The first gate receives the IF signal as indicated previously. The second gate receives a
DC voltage from U302 which serves as an AGC control signal. This signal reduces the gain of the IF
amplifier to prevent overload of the IF IC, U303. The gain can be varied from a maximum of 13 dB to
an attenuation of 55 dB. The output IF signal from U301 is coupled into U303 (pin 3) via C306, R304
and L304 which provides matching for the IF amplifier and U303.
The IF signal applied to pin 3 of U303 is amplified, down-converted, filtered, and demodulated, to
produce recovered audio at pin 27 of U303. This IF IC is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering, which is dependent on the radio channel spacing, is controlled by the
microprocessor. Additional filtering, once externally provided by the conventional ceramic filters, is
replaced by internal filters in IF IC U303.
The IF IC uses a type of direct conversion process, whereby the externally generated second LO
frequency is divided by two in U303 so that it is very close to the first IF frequency. The IF IC (U303)
synthesizes the second LO and phase-locks the VCO to track the first IF frequency. The second LO
is designed to oscillate at twice the first IF frequency because of the divide-by-two function in the IF
IC.
In the absence of an IF signal, the VCO searches for a frequency, or its frequency will vary close to
twice the IF frequency. When an IF signal is received, the VCO locks onto the IF signal. The second
LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q301. The VCO has a varactor diode, CR301,
to adjust the VCO frequency. The control signal for the varactor is derived from a loop filter consisting
of components C308, C309, and R310.
The IF IC (U303) also performs several other functions. It provides a received signal-strength
indicator (RSSI) and a squelch output. The RSSI voltage is also used to control the automatic gain
control (AGC) circuit at the back end.
The demodulated signal on pin 27 of U303 is also used for squelch control. The signal is routed to
U404 (ASFIC) where squelch signal shaping and detection takes place. The demodulated audio
signal is also routed to U404 for processing before going to the audio amplifier for amplification.

2.14.3 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)


The automatic gain control circuit provides automatic reduction of gain to prevent overloading of
backend circuits. This is achieved by lowering the voltage on one gate of U301 which will reduce the
drain current in that part and lower its gain.
The Radio Signal Strength Indicator (RSS I) voltage signal for the IF IC (U303) is used to drive the
AGC processing circuitry consisting of R306, R307, R308, R309 C307 and U302. As the received
signal gets stronger, the RSSI line will rise. When the RSSI line passes a certain threshold, the
voltage at the output of U302 will begin to drop. This voltage is connected to one gate of IF amplifier
U301 through resistor R305. As this voltage decreases, it will lower the drain current in U301 and
reduce the gain of the stage. This will limit the power incident on the IF IC, U303.

2.14.4 Frequency Generation Circuit


The frequency generation circuit, shown in Figure 2-17 on page 2-23, is composed of Low Voltage
Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer U205 and discrete RX VCO, TX VCO, and buffers as well as
other supporting circuitry. The synthesizer block diagram illustrates the interconnect and support
circuitry used in the region. Refer to the schematic for the reference designators.

Theory of Operation: Synthesizer

2-23

The synthesizer is powered by regulated 5V and 3.3V. The 5 volt signal to the synthesizer as well as
the rest of the radio is provided by U204. The 3.3 v signal is provided by U200 in the controller. The
5V signal goes to pins 13 and 30 while the 3.3V signal goes to pins 5, 20, 34 and 36 of U201. The
synthesizer in turn generates a superfiltered 4.3V which powers the VCOs and buffers.
In addition to the VCO, the synthesizer also interfaces with the logic and ASFIC circuitry.
Programming for the synthesizer is accomplished through the data, clock and chip select lines (pins
7, 8 and 9) from the microprocessor, U409. A 3.3V dc signal from pin 4 indicates to the
microprocessor that the synthesizer is locked.
Transmit modulation from the ASFIC is supplied to pin10 of U205. Internally the audio is digitized by
the LV FracN IC and applied to the loop divider to provide the low-port modulation. The audio runs
through an internal attenuator for modulation balancing purposes before going out at pin 41 to the
VCO.

Voltage
Multiplier

VCP

VSF

Switching
Network

Vmult2

Aux2

Synthesizer
U205

Vmult1

17.0 MHz
Ref. Osc.

Rx VCO
Circuit

Aux3

MOD Out
Prescaler Input

To Mixer

Loop
Filter
Tx VCO
Circuit

Buffer

To PA Driver

Amplifier

Modulating
Signal
Figure 2-17. Low Band Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram

2.15 Synthesizer
The Low Voltage Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer, shown in Figure 2-18 on page 2-24, uses a
17.0 MHz crystal (Y201) to provide a reference for the system. Along with being used in the
LV FracN synthesizer, the 17.0 MHz signal is provided at pin 19 of U205 for use by the ASFIC and
LVZIF.
The LV FracN IC (U205) further divides this by 8 internally to give 2.125 MHz to be used as the
reference frequency in the frequency synthesis. While UHF and VHF can use other references,
(divide by 7 or divide by 7/8), only the divide by 8 function is valid for lowband.
The internal oscillator device in the LV FracN IC together with C236, C237, C242, R219, CR211and
Y201 comprise the reference oscillator. This oscillator is temperature compensated is capable of 2.5
ppm stability over temperatures of -30 to 85C. There is temperature compensation information that
is unique to each crystal contained on Y201 that is programmed into the radio when built.
The loop filter consists of components C256, C257, C259, R224, R225 and R228. This circuit
provides the necessary dc steering voltage for the VCO and determines the amount of noise and
spur passing through.
To achieve fast locking for the synthesizer, an internal adapt charge pump provides higher current at
pin 45 of U205 to put the synthesizer within lock range. The required frequency is then locked by
normal mode charge pump at pin 43.

2-24

Theory of Operation: Voltage Control Oscillators (VCO)

Both the normal and adapt charge pumps get their supply from the capacitive voltage multiplier
made up of C247, C283, C284, C285, C286, and triple diodes D210 and D211. This circuit provides
13.3V at U205, pin 47.

DATA (U409 Pin 100)

CLOCK (U409 Pin 1)

CSX (U409 Pin 2)

10

MOD IN (U404 Pin 40)


+5V (U204 Pin 4)
(U400 Pin 1)

LOCK

DATA
CLK

FREFOUT

CEX

GND

MODIN

IOUT

13,30
5,20,34,36
23

Reference
Oscillator

24
25
32
47

Voltage
Multiplier

VCC , DC5V
VDD , 3.3V
XTAL1

IADAPT

U205
Low Voltage MODOUT
Fractional-N
AUX2
Synthesizer

XTAL2

AUX3

WARP

SFOUT

PREIN

BIAS1

VCP
VMULT2

BIAS2

14

LOCK (U409 Pin 56)

19

FREF (U303 Pin 21 & U404 Pin 34)


6,17,22,29,31,33,44
43
45

2-Pole
Loop Filter

Steering
Line
LO RF
Injection

41
1
2
28

Switching
Network
Filtered 4.3V

Voltage
Controlled
Oscillators

40
39

VMULT1
15

TX RF
Injection
(First Stage of PA)

Prescaler In

Figure 2-18. Low Band Synthesizer Block Diagram

2.16 Voltage Control Oscillators (VCO)


2.16.1 Receive VCO
The receive VCO is a Colpitts type design and using two active devices in parallel, Q202 and Q204.
The oscillator is powered off of the 4.3 volt super filter supply when the AUX3 line goes low. The
oscillator operates from 139 to 152 MHz for range 1 and 145 to 160 MHz for range 2. The frequency
is tuned by varactor diodes CR201 and CR202.

2.16.2 Transmit VCO


The transmit VCO is a Hartley-type design with active devices Q203. The oscillator is powered off of
the 4.3 volt super filter supply when the AUX2 line goes low. The oscillator operates from 29.7 to 42
MHz for Range 1 and 35 to 50 MHz for Range 2. The frequency is tuned by varactor diodes in U203.
Note that the values of the inductive tap, L208 and L209, and the capacitor C215 which couples the
varactor to the oscillator tank vary between the ranges.

2.16.3 Buffer
Both the receive and transmit VCO are fed to a buffer amplifier Q201. This is a BJT amplifier that
boosts the signal levels to +4 dBm and provides reverse isolation to the oscillators. The amplifier is
powered off the 4.3 volt super filter supply and the feed network is combined with the transmit filter.

Theory of Operation: 800 MHz Transmitter

2-25

2.16.4 Diplexer/Output Filters


The output of the buffer drives a pair of parallel filters forming a diplexer. One filter is a lowpass filter
in the TX pass that passes 29.7 - 50 MHz signals for the transmitter into the power amplifier while
rejecting the receive LO injection signals at 139 - 160 MHz. This filter is comprised of L204, L211,
L212, C230 and C231.
The other filter is a highpass filter which passes 139 - 160 MHz signals for the receive LO into the
mixer while rejecting the transmit injection signals at 29.7 -50 MHz. This filter is comprised of C228,
C229, C235 and L215.

2.16.5 Prescalar Feedback


The prescalar input signal for receive and transmit is tapped off of the outputs of each filter by
resistors R234 and R238. This signal is routed to the buffer amplifier consisting of components
C287, Q288, R287, R288, and R289. The output of this buffer feeds U205, pin 32. After frequency
comparison in the synthesizer, current is transferred in the loop filter and a control voltage is
generated at the output of the loop filter to adjust the frequency of the VCO. This voltage is a DC
voltage between 3.5V and 9.5V when the PLL is locked on frequency.

2.17 800 MHz Transmitter


The 800 MHz transmitter contains four basic circuits as shown in Figure 2-19:
Power Amplifier (PA)
Antenna Switch
Harmonic Filter
Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC).

PCIC
Vcontrol

Vcontrol

Antenna
Jack

Power Amplifier (PA)


PA
Driver

From VCO

PA Final
Stage

Antenna Switch/
Harmonic Filter

Figure 2-19. 800 MHz Transmitter Block Diagram

2.17.1 Power Amplifier


The power amplifier consists of two devices:
63J66 driver IC (U101) and
85Y73 LDMOS PA (Q101).
The 63J66 driver IC contains a 2 stage amplification with a supply voltage of 7.5V.

2-26

Theory of Operation: 800 MHz Transmitter

This RF driver IC is capable of supplying an output power of 0.3W (pin 13 and 14) with an input
signal of 2.5mW (4dBm) (pin16). The current drain would typically be 200mA while operating in the
frequency range of 806-870 MHz.
The 85Y73 LDMOS PA is capable of supplying an output power of 4.5W with an input signal of 0.3W.
The current drain would typically be 1100mA while operating in the frequency range of 806-870
MHz. The power out can be varied by changing the biasing voltage and the drive level from the driver
IC.

2.17.2 Antenna Switch


The antenna switch circuit consists of two PIN diodes (CR101 and CR102), a pi network (C109,
L103 and C110), and three current limiting resistors (R101, R102, R103). In the transmit mode, B+ at
PCIC (U102) pin32 will go high, applying a B+ bias to the antenna switch circuit to bias the diodes
on. The shunt diode (CR102) shorts out the receiver port, and the pi network, which operates as a
quarter wave transmission line, transforms the low impedance of the shunt diode to a high
impedance at the input of the harmonic filter. In the receive mode, the diodes are both off, and
hence, there exists a low attenuation path between the antenna and receiver ports.

2.17.3 Harmonic Filter


The harmonic filter consists of C104, L102, C105, C106,C107, L101 and C109. It has been
optimized for efficiency of the power amplifier. This type of filter has the advantage that it can give a
greater attenuation in the stop-band for a given ripple level. The harmonic filter insertion loss is
typically less than 1.2dB.

2.17.4 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)


The transmitter uses the Power Control IC (PCIC), U102 to regulate the power output of the radio.
The current to the final stage of the power module is supplied through R104, which provides a
voltage proportional to the current drain. This voltage is then fed back to the Automatic Level
Control (ALC) within the PCIC to regulate the output power of the transmitter.
The PCIC has internal digital to analog converters (DACs) which provide the reference voltage of the
control loop. The reference voltage level is programmable through the SPI line of the PCIC.
There are resistors and integrators within the PCIC, and external capacitors (C126, C130 and C132)
in controlling the transmitter rising and falling time. These are necessary in reducing the power
splatter into adjacent channels.
U103 and its associated components are part of the temperature cut back circuitry. It senses the
printed circuit board temperature around the transmitter circuits and provides a DC voltage to the
PCIC. If the DC voltage produced exceeds the set threshold in the PCIC, the transmitter output
power will be reduced so as to reduce the transmitter temperature.

Theory of Operation: 800 MHz Receiver

2-27

2.18 800 MHz Receiver


The receiver functions are shown in Figure 2-20 and are described in the paragraphs that follow.

Antenna

Pin Diode
Antenna
Switch
RFJack

3-Pole
Ceramic
Block Filter

RF
Amp

3-Pole
Ceramic
Block Filter

Mixer

Crystal
Filter

IF
Amp

AGC
Processing
First LO
from FGU
Recovered Audio
Squelch

Demodulator
U351

RSSI
IF

IC

Synthesizer

16.8 MHz
Reference Clock
SPI Bus

Second
LO VCO

Figure 2-20. 800 MHz Receiver Block Diagram

2.18.1 Receiver Front-End


The RF signal is received by the antenna and applied to a low-pass filter. For 800 MHz, the filter
consists of L101, L102, C104, C105, C106, C107, C109. The filtered RF signal is passed through the
antenna switch. The antenna switch circuit consists of two PIN diodes(CR101 and CR102) and a pi
network (C109, L103 and C110).The signal is then applied to a fixed tuned ceramic bandpass filter,
FL300.
The output of the bandpass filter is coupled to the RF amplifier transistor Q302 via C300. The RF
amplifier provides a gain of approximately 12 dB. After being amplified by the RF amplifier, the RF
signal is further filtered by a second fixed tuned ceramic bandpass filter, FL301.
Both the pre and post-RF amplifier ceramic filters have similar responses. The insertion loss of each
filter across the 851-870 MHz band is typically 1.8dB.
The output of the post-RF amplifier filter is connected to the passive double balanced mixer, U301.
After mixing with the first LO signal from the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) using low side
injection, the RF signal is down-converted to the 109.65 MHz IF signal.
The IF signal coming out of the mixer is transferred to the crystal filter (FL350) through a resistive
pad and a diplexer (C312 and L306). Matching to the input of the crystal filter is provided by
L353,L354, C377, and C378. The crystal filter provides the necessary selectivity and intermodulation
protection.

2-28

Theory of Operation: 800 MHz Receiver

2.18.2 Receiver Back-End


The output of crystal filter FL350 is matched to the input of the dual gate MOSFET IF amplifier
transistor U352 by components L355, R359 and C376. Voltage supply to the IF amplifier is taken
from the receive 5 volts (R5). AGC voltage is applied to the second gate of U352. The IF amplifier
provides a gain of about 11dB. The amplified IF signal is then coupled into U351(pin 3) via L352,
R356 and C365 which provides the matching for the IF amplifier and U351.
The IF signal applied to pin 3 of U351 is amplified, down-converted, filtered, and demodulated, to
produce the recovered audio at pin 27 of U351. This IF IC is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering (which is dependent on the radio channel spacing) is controlled by the
microprocessor. Additional filtering, once externally provided by the conventional ceramic filters, is
replaced by internal filters in the IF module (U351).
The IF IC uses a type of direct conversion process, whereby the externally generated second LO
frequency is divided by two in U351 so that it is very close to the first IF frequency. The IF IC (U351)
synthesizes the second LO and phase-locks the VCO to track the first IF frequency. The second LO
is designed to oscillate at twice the first IF frequency because of the divide-by-two function in the IF
IC.
In the absence of an IF signal, the VCO will search for a frequency, or its frequency will vary close
to twice the IF frequency. When an IF signal is received, the VCO will lock onto the IF signal. The
second LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q350. The VCO has a varactor diode,
CR350, to adjust the VCO frequency. The control signal for the varactor is derived from a loop filter
consisting of R365, C391, and C392.
The IF IC (U351) also performs several other functions. It provides a received signal-strength
indicator (RSSI) and a squelch output. The RSSI is a dc voltage monitored by the microprocessor,
and used to control the automatic gain control (AGC) circuit in both the front-end and the IF.
The demodulated signal on pin 27 of U351 is also used for squelch control. The signal is routed to
U404 (ASFIC) where squelch signal shaping and detection takes place. The demodulated audio
signal is also routed to U404 for processing before going to the audio amplifier for amplification.

2.18.3 Automatic Gain Control Circuit


The automatic gain control circuit provides automatic gain reduction of both the low noise amplifier in
the receiver front end and the IF amplifier in the receiver backend. This action is necessary to
prevent overloading of the backend IF IC.
The IF automatic gain control circuit provides approximately 50 dB of attenuation range. The signal
strength indicator (RSSI) output of the IF IC produces a voltage that is proportional to the RF level at
the IF input to the IF IC. This voltage is inverted by U350, R351, R353, R352, R354 and C355 and it
determines the RF level at which the backend end AGC is activated as well as the slope of the
voltage at the output of U350 vs. the strength of the incoming RF at the antenna. The inverted output
of U350 is applied to the second gate of the IF amplifier U352 via R355. As the RF signal into the IF
IC increases the following occurs:
The RSSI voltage increases,
The output of inverter U350 decreases, and
The voltage applied to the second gate of the FET is reduced thus reducing the gain of the IF
amplifier.
The output of inverter U350 is also used to control the receiver front end AGC.
The receiver front end automatic gain control circuit provides and additional 20 dB of gain reduction.
The output of the receiver backend inverter U350 is fed into the receiver front end AGC inverter
U302. The components R317, R314, and C318 determine:

Theory of Operation: 800 MHz Receiver

2-29

The RF level at which the front end AGC is activated, and


The slope of the voltage at the output of U302 vs. the strength of the incoming RF at the antenna.
As the RF into the antenna increases the following occurs:
The output voltage of the receiver backend inverter U350 decreases.
The voltage at the output of the front end inverter U302 increases.
The result is the forward biasing of pin diode CR301.
As the diode becomes more and more forward biased the following occurs:
C310 loads the output of the low noise amplifier Q302 thus reducing the gain of the low noise
amplifier.
R315 and R318 provide a DC path for CR301 and also limit the current through CR301.
The blocking capacitor C317 prevents DC from the AGC stage from appearing at the input of the
filter FL301.

2.18.4 Frequency Generation Circuit


The frequency generation circuit is shown in Figure 2-21. The circuit is composed of the two main
ICs:
Low Voltage Fractional-N Synthesizer, U201
VCO/Buffer IC, U250

Voltage
Multiplier

Dual
Transistor

VCP
Vmult1
Vmult2

Rx VCO
Circuit

Aux3

Synthesizer
U201

16.8 MHz
Ref. Osc.
Modulating
Signal

Aux4

Rx
Out

TRB

Loop
Filter

To Mixer

Buffer
Amplifier

To PA Driver

VCOBIC
U250
Tx
Out

MOD Out

Injection
Amplifier

Tx VCO
Circuit

Figure 2-21. 800 MHz Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram


Designed in conjunction to maximize compatibility, the two ICs provide many of the functions that
normally would require additional circuitry. The synthesizer block diagram illustrates the interconnect
and support circuitry used in the region. Refer to the relevant schematics for the reference
designators.
The synthesizer is powered by regulated 5V and 3.3V which come from U247 and U248 respectively.
The synthesizer in turn generates a superfiltered 4.5V which powers U250.

2-30

Theory of Operation: Synthesizer

In addition to the VCO, the synthesizer must interface with the logic and ASFIC circuitry.
Programming for the synthesizer is accomplished through the data, clock and chip select lines from
the microprocessor. A 3.3V dc signal from synthesizer lock detect line indicates to the
microprocessor that the synthesizer is locked.
Transmit modulation from the ASFIC is supplied to pin10 of U201. Internally the audio is digitized by
the Low Voltage Fractional-N synthesizer and applied to the loop divider to provide the low-port
modulation. The audio runs through an internal attenuator for modulation balancing purposes before
going out to the VCO.

2.19 Synthesizer
The Low Voltage Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer (U201) shown in Figure 2-22 on page 2-31
uses a 16.8 MHz crystal (FL201) to provide a reference for the system. The LV FracN IC further
divides this to 2.1 MHz, 2.225 MHz, and 2.4 MHz as reference frequencies. Together with C235,
C236, C237, R211 and CR203, they comprise the reference oscillator which is capable of 2.5ppm
stability over temperatures of -30 to 85C. It also provides 16.8 MHz at pin 19 of U201 to be used by
ASFIC and LVZIF.
Some models are equipped with a packaged 1.5ppm reference oscillator, Y200. On these models
components C235, C236, C237, CR203, FL201, and R211 are not placed. Components C238,
C239, C241, R212, R213, R214 and Y200 are placed instead.
The loop filter which consists of C220, C225, C226, R204, R209 and R210 provides the necessary
dc steering voltage for the VCO and provides filtering of noise and spurs from U201.
In achieving fast locking for the synthesizer, an internal adapt charge pump provides higher current
at pin 45 of U201 to put the synthesizer within the lock range. The required frequency is then locked
by the normal mode charge pump at pin 43.
Both the normal and adapt charge pumps get their supply from the capacitive multiplier which is
made up of D201, D202, C244, C245, C246, C247, R200, R218, C208, C243, R219, and R220. Two
3.3 V square waves (180 degrees out of phase) are applied to R219 and R220. These square waves
switch alternate sets of diodes from D201 and D202, which in turn charge C244, C245, C246, and
C247 in a bucket brigade fashion. The resulting output voltage that is applied to pin 47 of U201 is
typically 12.8V and allows the steering line voltage (VCO control voltage) to reach 11V.

Theory of Operation: Synthesizer

DATA (U409 Pin 100)

CLOCK (U409 Pin 1)

CSX (U409 Pin 2)

10

MOD IN (U404 Pin 40)

5,20,34,36
23

Reference
Oscillator

24
25
32

12.8V

Voltage
Multiplier

DATA
CLK

47

LOCK
FREFOUT

CEX

GND

MODIN

IOUT

13,30

+5V (U247 Pin 4)


(U248 Pin 5)

2-31

VCC , DC5V
VDD , 3.3V
XTAL1

IADAPT

U251
Low Voltage MODOUT
Fractional-N
AUX4
Synthesizer

XTAL2

AUX3

WARP

SFOUT

PREIN

BIAS1

BIAS2
VCP
VMULT2 VMULT1 AUX1
48
14
15
3.3Vp-p
5V
3.3Vp-p
Prescaler In

LOCK (U409 Pin 56)

19

FREF (U201 Pin 21 & U404 Pin 34)

6,22,23,24
43
45

Steering
Line
11.0V

2-Pole
Loop Filter

41

LO RF
Injection

3
2
28

Dual
Transistors
Filtered 5V

Voltage
Controlled
Oscillator

40
TX RF
Injection
(First Stage of PA)

39

Dual
Transistors

Figure 2-22. 800 MHz Synthesizer Block Diagram

R405

2-32

Theory of Operation: Synthesizer

2.19.1 Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)


The voltage controlled oscillator block diagram is shown in Figure 2-23.

5V
AUX3 (U201 Pin 2)

Level Shifter
Network

AUX4 (U201 Pin 3)

TRB_IN
Pin 20

Pin 19

Pin 7

Rx-SW

TX/RX/BS
Switching Network

Pin 13

Tx-SW
(U201 Pin 28)

Presc

Vcc-Superfilter

Pin 3

Pin 8

RX
RX

RX
Tank

RX VCO
Circuit

TX
Tank

TX VCO
Circuit

Rx Active
Bias

Injection
Amplifier
VSF

Pin 14

Pin 6

VCC Buffers

Pin 16

U201 Pin 32

LO RF INJECTION

Pin 4 Collector/RF in
Pin 5

Prescaler Out

U250
VCOBIC

VSF
Steer Line
Voltage
(VCTRL)

Pin 12

TX

Tx Active
Bias

TX

Pin 10
TX RF Injection

Pin 15

Buffer
Amplifier

Vsens
Circuit
Pin 18
Vcc-Logic

(U201 Pin 28)

Pin 2
Rx-I adjust

Pin 1 Pins 9,11,17


Tx-I adjust

VSF
(U201 Pin 28)

Figure 2-23. 800 MHz VCO Block Diagram


The VCOBIC (U250) in conjunction with the Low Voltage Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer (U201)
generates RF in both the receive and the transmit modes of operation. The TRB line (U250 pin 19)
determines which oscillator and buffer will be enabled. A sample of the RF signal from the enabled
oscillator is routed from U250 pin 12, through a low pass filter, to the prescaler input (U201 pin 32).
After frequency comparison in the synthesizer, a resultant CONTROL VOLTAGE is received at the
VCO. This voltage is a DC voltage between 2.0V (low frequency) and 11.0V (high frequency) when
the PLL is locked on frequency.
The VCOBIC(U250) is operated at 4.54 V (VSF) and LV FracN synthesizer (U201) at 3.3V. This
difference in operating voltage requires a level shifter consisting of Q200 and Q252 on the TRB line.
The operation logic is shown in Table 2-7.
Table 2-7. Level Shifter Logic
Desired Mode

AUX 4

AUX 3

TRB

Tx

Low

High (@3.2V)

High (@4.8V)

Rx

High

Low

Low

Battery Saver

Low

Low

Hi-Z/Float (@2.5V)

Theory of Operation: Trunked Radio Systems

2-33

In the receive mode, U250 pin 19 is low or grounded. This activates the receive VCO by enabling the
receive oscillator and the receive buffer of U250. The RF signal at U250 pin 8 is run through an
injection amplifier, Q304. The resulting RF signal is the LO RF INJECTION and it is applied to the
mixer at U301 (refer to Figure 4-104: 800 MHz Receiver Front End Schematic Diagram on page 4144).
During the transmit condition, when PTT is depressed, five volts is applied to U250 pin 19. This
activates the transmit VCO by enabling the transmit oscillator and the transmit buffer of U250. The
RF signal at U250 pin 10 is amplified by Q251 and injected into the input of the PA module (U101
pin1). This RF signal is the TX RF INJECTION. Also in transmit mode, the audio signal to be
frequency modulated onto the carrier is received through the U201 pin 41.
When a high impedance is applied to U250 pin19, the VCO is operating in BATTERY SAVER mode.
In this case, both the receive and transmit oscillators as well as the receive transmit and prescaler
buffer are turned off.

2.20 Trunked Radio Systems


Trunked systems allow a large number of users to share a relatively small number of frequencies or
repeaters without interfering with each other. The airtime of all the repeaters in a trunked system is
pooled, which maximizes the amount of airtime available to any one radio and minimizes channel
congestion. A benefit of trunking is that the user is not required to monitor the system before
transmitting.

2.20.1 Privacy Plus Trunked Systems


Privacy Plus is a proprietary trunking protocol developed by Motorola which allows a large number of
users to share small amounts of frequencies without interfering with each other. The Privacy Plus
configuration consists of shared multiple channel repeaters. The Privacy Plus Trunked system
includes a Central Controller, which directs the users to the open channels. This kind of Trunked
system requires no monitoring of the channel as in conventional systems. The Central Controller
places the user in a queue to wait for a free channel. The Central Controller does the monitoring and
channels selection for the user.

2.20.2 LTR Trunked Systems


LTR is a transmission based trunking protocol developed by the E. F. Johnson Company for primarily
single site trunking applications. In transmission trunking, a repeater is used for only the duration of a
single transmission. Once a transmission is completed, that repeater becomes available to other
users.

2.20.3 MPT Trunked Systems


MPT (Ministry of Post and Telecommunications) developed a signalling standard (MPT1327) for
trunked private land mobile radio systems. This standard defines the protocol rules for
communication between a trunking system controller (TSC) and users radio units. The protocol
offers a broad range of options which can be implemented in subsets according to user
requirements. Also, there is scope for customization for special requirements, and provision made to
further standardized features to be added to the protocol in the future. The standard defines only the
over-air signalling and imposes only minimum constraints on system design.

2-34

Theory of Operation: Trunked Radio Systems

2.20.4 PassPort Trunked Systems


PassPort is an enhanced trunking protocol developed by Trident Microsystems that supports wide
area dispatch networking. A network is formed by linking several trunked sites together to form a
single system. This offers users an extended communication coverage area. Additionally, users with
PassPort can seamlessly roam among all sites within the network. Seamless roaming means that
the radio user does not have to manually change the position on the radio when roaming from siteto-site.
For models which feature PassPort Trunking operation, the standard keypad board is replaced with
the PassPort Trunking Controller Board (PTCB). This board also provides advanced voice storage
features. Refer to Figure 2-2 on page 2-2 for connector and signal routing from, to and through the
Radio, PTCB and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) sub-systems.

2.20.4.1 Power Supplies


The radio supplies regulated Vdd of 3.3 VDC. This is used to power the Low Speed Data Filter and
Voice Storage circuits. The radio also supplies Switched Battery Voltage (SWB+). U612 regulates
the SWB+ to 3.3V which is applied to the PTCB microcontroller U601. A filtered voltage (Vdda) of _
Vdd is developed by U603-4 and is used to supply a clean reference bias for the Low Speed Data
filter and Voice Storage circuits. The circuit of Q607 which can limit the voltage applied to the Voice
Storage chip is not used in portable applications and is disabled by 0 Ohm resistor R614.

2.20.4.2 Microcontroller (MCU)


PassPort Trunking operation is managed by the reprogrammable FLASH ROM based
microcontroller (U601). The MCU clock oscillator uses 8 MHz crystal Y601 as a stable resonator.
The PTCB communicates with the main radio microcontroller by attaching to the same Serial
Peripheral (SPI) bus that passes though the PTCB to the LCD on the CLK, DATA, RDY, and MISO
lines. The OPT_EN line is strobed low only for communications with U601.
The MCU includes an on-chip Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The received and filtered subaudible low speed trunking data waveform is applied to one of the ADC inputs. The software in the
MCU decodes and acts upon the trunking data.
The MCU includes a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). As required, the MCU software generates
appropriate PassPort Low Speed Trunking Data waveforms. These are applied to the Low Speed
Data Filter and then to the radio transmitter modulation point. The amplitude of this waveform and
the resulting transmitted deviation is controlled by software.

2.20.4.3 Low Speed Data Filter


This analog circuitry is a 4 pole, 150 Hz cutoff low pass filter comprised of U603-1, U603-2 and
associated passive components. In receive mode, it removes noise and voice band signals leaving
only the low speed data waveform which is applied to the ADC input of the MCU. U608-4 isolates the
receive signal from the filter in transmit mode. When the radio is transmitting PassPort data, the
MCU DAC low speed data waveform is applied to the input of the filter which removes harmonics
that would interfere with voice and applies the resulting sub-audible data to the radio transmitter
modulation point.

2.20.4.4 Keyboard Circuit


The keyboard consists of a matrix of key switches and resistors as described in section 2.3. U605-2
monitors the column voltage and applies an interrupt signal to the radio microcontroller when any
key is pressed.

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Transmitter

2-35

2.20.4.5 BackLight Driver and LEDs


The logic level signal from the radio microcontroller is translated via Q611 and applied to Q610 which
uses Switched Battery Voltage (SWB+) to operate the keypad backlight LEDs.

2.20.4.6 Voice Storage


The Voice Storage (VS) can be used to store audio signals coming from the receiver or from the
microphone. Any stored audio signal can be played back over the radios speaker or sent out via the
radios transmitter.
The PTCB hosts the Voice Storage circuitry. Voice Storage IC U611 provides all the required
functionality and is powered from the regulated 5 volts. The mP controls U611 via SPI bus lines CLK
(U611-8), DATA (U611-10) and MISO (U611-11). To transfer data, the mP first selects the U611 via
line VS CS and U611 pin 9. Then the mP sends data through line DATA and receives data through
line MISO. Pin 2 (RAC) of U611 indicates the end of a message row by a low state for 12.5 ms and
connects to mP pin 65. A low at pin 5 (INT), which is connected to mP pin 55, indicates that the Voice
Storage IC requires service from the mP.
Audio, either from the radios receiver or from one of the microphone inputs, emerges from the
ASFIC CMP (U404) at pin 43, through switch U608-1 that is selected by the mP via ASFIC CMP pin
5 (DACR) and then enters the voice storage IC U611 at pin 25. During playback, the stored audio
emerges from U611 at pin 20. To transmit the audio signal, it is fed through resistive divider R657 /
R658, through switch U608-3 and through line EXT MIC. When this path is selected, the audio signal
enters the ASFIC CMP at pin 48 and is processed like normal transmit audio. To play the stored
audio over the radios speaker, the audio from U611 pin 20 is buffered by op-amp U605-1, through
switch U608-2 and fed via line FLAT RX SND to ASFIC CMP pin 10 (UIO). In this case, this ASFIC
CMP pin is programmed as input and feeds the audio signal through the normal receiver audio path
to the speaker or handset. Switches U608-2 and U608-3 are controlled by the mP via ASFIC CMP
pin 6 (DACG) and feed the stored audio only to the ASFIC CMP port UIO when it is programmed as
input.

2.21 900 MHz Transmitter

PCIC
Vcontrol

Vcontrol

Antenna
Jack

Power Amplifier (PA)


From VCO

PA
Driver

PA Final
Stage

Figure 2-24. Transmitter Block Diagram

Antenna Switch/
Harmonic Filter

2-36

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Transmitter

The 900 MHz transmitter shown in Figure 2-24 on page 2-35 contains the following basic circuits:
Power amplifier
Antenna switch
Harmonic filter
Power control integrated circuit (PCIC).

2.21.1 Power Amplifier


The power amplifier consists of two devices:
5185130C65 driver IC (U101) and
4813828A09 LDMOS PA (Q101).
The 30C65 driver IC contains a 2 stage amplification with a supply voltage of 7.5V.
This RF driver IC is capable of supplying an output power of 0.3W (pin 6 and 7) with an input signal
of 2.5mW (4dBm) (pin16). The current drain would typically be 200mA while operating in the
frequency range of 896-941 MHz.
The 28A09 LDMOS PA is capable of supplying an output power of 4.5W with an input signal of 0.3W.
The current drain would typically be 1100mA while operating in the frequency range of 896-941
MHz. The power out can be varied by changing the biasing voltage and the drive level from the driver
IC.

2.21.2 Antenna Switch


The antenna switch circuit consists of two PIN diodes (CR101 and CR102), a pi network (C115, L109
and C138), and three current limiting resistors (R102, R103, R106). In the transmit mode, B+ at
PCIC (U102) pin32 will go high, applying a B+ bias to the antenna switch circuit to bias the diodes
on. The shunt diode (CR102) shorts out the receiver port, and the pi network, which operates as a
quarter wave transmission line, transforms the low impedance of the shunt diode to a high
impedance at the input of the harmonic filter. In the receive mode, the diodes are both off, and
hence, there exists a low attenuation path between the antenna and receiver ports.

2.21.3 Harmonic Filter


The harmonic filter consists of L104, L105, C114, C115, C124,C125, and C126. It has been
optimized for efficiency of the power amplifier. This type of filter has the advantage that it can give a
greater attenuation in the stop-band for a given ripple level. The harmonic filter insertion loss is
typically 0.9 dB, and less than 1.2 dB.

2.21.4 Power Control Integrated Circuit (PCIC)


The transmitter uses the Power Control IC (PCIC), U102 to regulate the power output of the radio.
The current to the final stage of the power module is supplied through R101, which provides a
voltage proportional to the current drain. This voltage is then fed back to the Automatic Level Control
(ALC) within the PCIC to regulate the output power of the transmitter.
The PCIC has internal digital to analog converters (DACs) which provide the reference voltage of the
control loop. The reference voltage level is programmable through the SPI line of the PCIC.
There are resistors and integrators within the PCIC, and external capacitors (C156, C157, and C158)
in controlling the transmitter rising and falling time. These are necessary in reducing the power
splatter into adjacent channels.

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Receiver

2-37

U103 and its associated components are part of the temperature cut back circuitry. It senses the
printed circuit board temperature around the transmitter circuits and output a DC voltage to the
PCIC. If the DC voltage produced exceeds the set threshold in the PCIC, the transmitter output
power will be reduced so as to reduce the transmitter temperature.

2.22 900 MHz Receiver


Antenna

Pin Diode
Antenna
Switch
RFJack

3-Pole
Ceramic
Block Filter

RF
Amp

3-Pole
Ceramic
Block Filter

Mixer

Crystal
Filter

IF
Amp

AGC
Processing
First LO
from FGU
Recovered Audio
Squelch

Demodulator
U351

RSSI
IF

IC

Synthesizer

16.8 MHz
Reference Clock
SPI Bus

Second
LO VCO

Figure 2-25. 900 MHz Receiver Block Diagram

2.22.1 Receiver Front-End


The RF signal is received by the antenna and applied to a low-pass filter. For 900 MHz, the filter
consists of L104, L105, C114, C115, C124, C125, and C126. The filtered RF signal is passed
through the antenna switch. The antenna switch circuit consists of two PIN diodes(CR101, and
CR102) and a pi network (C115, L109, and C138). The signal is then applied to a fixed tuned
ceramic bandpass filter, FL300.
The output of the bandpass filter is coupled to the RF amplifier transistor Q302 via C300. The RF
amplifier provides a gain of approximately 14 dB. After being amplified by the RF amplifier, the RF
signal is further filtered by a second fixed tuned ceramic bandpass filter, FL301.
Both the pre and post-RF amplifier ceramic filters have similar responses. The insertion loss of each
filter across the 935-941 MHz band is less than 2 dB.
The output of the post-RF amplifier filter is connected to the passive double balanced mixer, U301,
through matching components C321, and L311. After mixing with the first LO signal from the voltage
controlled oscillator (VCO) using low side injection, the RF signal is down-converted to the
109.65 MHz IF signal.

2-38

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Receiver

The IF signal coming out of the mixer is transferred to the crystal filter (FL350) through a resistor pad
and a diplexer (C312, and L306). Matching to the input of the crystal filter is provided by L353,L354,
C377, and C378. The crystal filter provides some of the necessary selectivity, and intermodulation
protection.

2.22.2 Receiver Back-End


The output of crystal filter FL350 is matched to the input of the dual gate MOSFET IF amplifier
transistor U352 by components L355, R359, and C376. Voltage supply to the IF amplifier is taken
from the receive 5 volts (R5). AGC voltage is applied to the second gate of U352. The IF amplifier
provides a gain of about 11dB. The amplified IF signal is then coupled into U351(pin 3) via L352,
R356 and C365 which provides the matching for the IF amplifier and U351.
The IF signal applied to pin 3 of U351 is amplified, down-converted, filtered, and demodulated, to
produce the recovered audio at pin 27 of U351. This IF IC is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering (which is dependent on the radio channel spacing) is controlled by the
microprocessor. Additional filtering, once externally provided by the conventional ceramic filters, is
replaced by internal filters in the IF module (U351).
The IF IC uses a type of direct conversion process, whereby the externally generated second LO
frequency is divided by two in U351 so that it is very close to the first IF frequency. The IF IC (U351)
synthesizes the second LO and phase-locks the VCO to track the first IF frequency. The second LO
is designed to oscillate at twice the first IF frequency because of the divide-by-two function in the IF
IC.
In the absence of an IF signal, the VCO will search for a frequency, or its frequency will vary close
to twice the IF frequency. When an IF signal is received, the VCO will lock onto the IF signal. The
second LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q350. The VCO has a varactor diode,
CR350, to adjust the VCO frequency. The control signal for the varactor is derived from a loop filter
consisting of R365, C391, and C392.
The IF IC (U351) also performs several other functions. It provides a received signal-strength
indicator (RSSI) and a squelch output. The RSSI is a dc voltage monitored by the microprocessor,
and used to control the automatic gain control (AGC) circuit in both the front-end and the IF.
The demodulated signal on pin 27 of U351 is also used for squelch control. The signal is routed to
U851 where a flutter fighter process is implemented. The signal leaves U851 via pin F4 and is then
routed to U404 (ASFIC) where squelch signal shaping and detection takes place. The demodulated
audio signal is also routed to U404 for processing before going to the audio amplifier for
amplification.

2.22.3 Hear Clear IC


Hear Clear (HC) IC is typically used for 900 MHz radios. The HC IC comprises three main internal
circuit blocks:
Compressor,
Flutter Fighter
Expander Circuits.
Only the Flutter Fighter section of this IC is used by this radio. The Compressor and the Expander
are included in the ASFIC. There are six enable/control lines on the Hear Clear IC which determine
the ICs mode of operation. The Flutter Fighter Enable line (U851-E3) is controlled by ASFIC DACRX
line (U404-4). The logic control and the IC status is summarized in Table 2-8 on page 2-39.

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Receiver

2-39

Table 2-8. Hear Clear Logic and IC Status


Name

Ref. Des

Set By

RX1*

RX2**

IC Enable

U851-C4

SWB+

Flutter Fighter Enable

U851-E3

DACRX

LO Clamp Disable

U851-A5

SWB+

LO Clamp Disable

U851-C2

GND

HCI Disable

U851-B6

SWB+

LO Clamp Disable

U851-D1

GND

*RX1:receive voice with carrier squelch, PL or DPL (Flutter Fighter can be on or off).
**RX2:refers to receive mode with all other data HST/MDC/DTMF (Flutter Fighter must be off).

2.22.3.1 Receive Path for Radios with Hear Clear


The audio signal enters Hear Clear controller from DEMOD_OUT signal on DISC. The detected
audio DISC enters the Hear Clear Flutter Fighter through C857 and C859. C857 connects the
signal to FF IN (U851-E4). C859 is a beginning of a noise sampling circuit consisting of components
C859, R853, C860, R854, C861, R855 and C862; and Hear Clear Ports Ref, Noise Filter In, and
Noise Filter Out, Noise Hold.
After exiting Hear Clear at the FF OUT (U851-F4), the signal enters ASFIC at DISC (U404-2).
Within the ASFIC, the signal passes through a low pass filter and high pass filter limiting the audio
bandwidth to 300 Hz-3 kHz. It then goes through de-emphasis and exits the ASFIC at AUDIO (U40441). The audio is then routed to the Audio PA in the same manner as the standard receive audio.
The purpose of the Flutter Fighter is to sample the amount of Noise in the receive audio between 1020 kHz using the Noise Filter (U851-B5), Noise Filter Out (U851-C6), and Noise Hold (U851-D5). In
addition, it monitors the rate of change of RSSI (Receive Signal Strength In) (U303-1). The detected
audio DISC enters into the Hear Clear IC at FF IN (U851-E4). The circuit then reduces the amount
of popping Noise associated with fading. The improved audio exits the IC at FF OUT (U851-F4).

2.22.3.2 Hear Clear Routing of Data/Signaling


While receiving, sub-audible signals PL/DPL go through the Flutter Fighter along with the audio, and
is unaffected by the Flutter Fighter operation. On entering the ASFIC, the sub-audible signaling is
separated from the voice and decoded.
While receiving other signals HST/MDC (not sub-audible), the Flutter Fighter is set to the pass
through mode. In this mode, the Flutter Fighter is routed from FF IN to FF OUT without any
processing.

2.22.4 Automatic Gain Control Circuit


The automatic gain control circuit provides automatic gain reduction of both the low noise amplifier in
the receiver front end and the IF amplifier in the receiver backend. This action is necessary to
prevent overloading of the backend IF IC.

2-40

Theory of Operation: Frequency Generation Circuitry

The IF automatic gain control circuit provides approximately 50 dB of attenuation range. The signal
strength indicator (RSSI) output of the IF IC produces a voltage that is proportional to the RF level at
the IF input to the IF IC. This voltage is inverted by U350, R351, R353, R352, R354 and C355 and it
determines the RF level at which the backend end AGC is activated as well as the slope of the
voltage at the output of U350 vs. the strength of the incoming RF at the antenna. The inverted output
of U350 is applied to the second gate of the IF amplifier U352 via R355. As the RF signal into the IF
IC increases the following occurs:
The RSSI voltage increases,
The output of inverter U350 decreases, and
The voltage applied to the second gate of the FET is reduced thus reducing the gain of the IF
amplifier.
The output of inverter U350 is also used to control the receiver front end AGC.
The receiver front end automatic gain control circuit provides and additional 20 dB of gain reduction.
The output of the receiver back end inverter U350 is fed into the receiver front end AGC inverter
U302. The components R317, R314, and C318 determine:
The RF level at which the front end AGC is activated, and
The slope of the voltage at the output of U302 vs. the strength of the incoming RF at the antenna.
As the RF into the antenna increases the following occurs:
The output voltage of the receiver back end inverter U350 decreases.
The voltage at the output of the front end inverter U302 increases.
The result is the forward biasing of pin diode CR301.
As the diode becomes more and more forward biased the following occurs:
C310 loads the output of the low noise amplifier Q302 thus reducing the gain of the low noise
amplifier.
R315 and R318 provide a DC path for CR301 and also limit the current through CR301.
The blocking capacitor C317 prevents DC from the AGC stage from appearing at the input of the
filter FL301.

2.23 Frequency Generation Circuitry


Voltage
Multiplier

Dual
Transistor

VCP
Vmult1
Vmult2

Rx VCO
Circuit

Aux3

Synthesizer
U201

16.8 MHz
Ref. Osc.
Modulating
Signal

Aux4

Rx
Out

TRB

Loop
Filter

To Mixer

Buffer
Amplifier

To PA Driver

VCOBIC
U250
Tx
Out

MOD Out

Injection
Amplifier

Tx VCO
Circuit
Figure 2-26. Frequency Generation Unit Block Diagram

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Synthesizer

2-41

The Frequency Generation circuitry is comprised of two main ICs, the Low Voltage Fractional-N
(LV FracN) synthesizer (U201), and the VCO/Buffer IC (U250). Designed in conjunction to maximize
compatibility, the two ICs provide many of the functions that normally would require additional
circuitry. The synthesizer block diagram illustrates the interconnect and support circuitry used in the
region. Refer to the relevant schematics for the reference designators.
The synthesizer is powered by regulated 5V and 3.3V which come from U247 and U248 respectively.
The synthesizer in turn generates a superfiltered 4.5V which powers U250.
In addition to the VCO, the synthesizer must interface with the logic and ASFIC circuitry.
Programming for the synthesizer is accomplished through the data, clock and chip select lines from
the microprocessor. A 3.3V dc signal from synthesizer lock detect line indicates to the
microprocessor that the synthesizer is locked.
Transmit modulation from the ASFIC is supplied to pin10 of U201. Internally the audio is digitized by
the LV FracN IC and applied to the loop divider to provide the low-port modulation. The audio runs
through an internal attenuator for modulation balancing purposes before going out to the VCO.

2.24 900 MHz Synthesizer


The Low Voltage Fractional-N (LV FracN) synthesizer (U201) uses a 16.8 MHz packaged 1.5 ppm
reference oscillator (Y200) to provide a reference for the system. The LV FracN IC further divides the
16.8 MHz to 2.1 MHz, 2.225 MHz, and 2.4 MHz. Y200, together with C238, C239, C241, R212,
R213, and R214 comprise the reference oscillator which is capable of 1.5 ppm stability over
temperatures of -30 to 85C. It also provides 16.8 MHz at pin 19 of U201 to be used by ASFIC and
LVZIF.
The loop filter which consists of C801, C802, C803, C804, C805, C225, C226, R204, R209, and
R210 provides the necessary dc steering voltage for the VCO and provides filtering of noise and
spurs from U201.
In achieving fast locking for the synthesizer, an internal adapt charge pump provides higher current
at pin 45 of U201 to put the synthesizer within the lock range. The required frequency is then locked
by the normal mode charge pump at pin 43.

2-42

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Synthesizer

Both the normal and adapt charge pumps get their supply from the capacitive multiplier which is
made up of CR201, CR202, C244, C245, C246, C247, R200, R218, C208, C243, R219, and R220.
Two 3.3 V square waves (180 degrees out of phase) are applied to R219 and R220. These square
waves switch alternate sets of diodes from CR201 and CR202, which in turn charge C244, C245,
C246, and C247 in a bucket brigade fashion. The resulting output voltage that is applied to pin 47 of
U201 is typically 12.8V and allows the steering line voltage (VCO control voltage) to reach 11V.

DATA (U409 Pin 100)

CLOCK (U409 Pin 1)

CSX (U409 Pin 2)

10

MOD IN (U404 Pin 40)

5,20,34,36
23

Reference
Oscillator

24
25
32

12.8V

Voltage
Multiplier

CLK

47

LOCK
FREFOUT

CEX

GND

MODIN

IOUT

13,30

+5V (U247 Pin 4)


(U248 Pin 5)

DATA

VCC , DC5V
VDD , 3.3V
XTAL1

IADAPT

U251
Low Voltage MODOUT
Fractional-N
AUX4
Synthesizer

XTAL2

AUX3

WARP

SFOUT

PREIN

BIAS1

BIAS2
VCP
VMULT2 VMULT1 AUX1
48
14
15
3.3Vp-p
5V
3.3Vp-p
Prescaler In

LOCK (U409 Pin 56)

19

FREF (U201 Pin 21 & U404 Pin 34)

6,22,23,24
43
45

Steering
Line
11.0V

2-Pole
Loop Filter

41

LO RF
Injection

3
2
28

Dual
Transistors
Filtered 5V

Voltage
Controlled
Oscillator

40
TX RF
Injection
(First Stage of PA)

39

Dual
Transistors

Figure 2-27. Synthesizer Block Diagram

R405

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

2-43

2.25 900 MHz Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)


5V
AUX3 (U201 Pin 2)

Level Shifter
Network

AUX4 (U201 Pin 3)

TRB_IN
Pin 20
Rx-SW
Tx-SW
(U201 Pin 28)

Pin 19

Pin 7
TX/RX/BS
Switching Network

Pin 13

Presc

Vcc-Superfilter

Pin 3

RX
RX

RX
Tank

RX VCO
Circuit

TX
Tank

TX VCO
Circuit

Rx Active
Bias

Pin 8

Injection
Amplifier
VSF

Pin 14

Pin 6

VCC Buffers

Pin 16

TX

Tx Active
Bias

TX

TX RF Injection
Buffer
Amplifier

Vsens
Circuit
Vcc-Logic

(U201 Pin 28)

Pin 10

Pin 15

Pin 18

U201 Pin 32

LO RF INJECTION

Pin 4 Collector/RF in
Pin 5

Prescaler Out

U250
VCOBIC

VSF
Steer Line
Voltage
(VCTRL)

Pin 12

Pin 2
Rx-I adjust

Pin 1 Pins 9,11,17


Tx-I adjust

VSF
(U201 Pin 28)

Figure 2-28. VCO Block Diagram


The VCOBIC (U250) in conjunction with the LV FracN synthesizer (U201) generates RF in both the
receive and the transmit modes of operation. The TRB line (U250 pin 19) determines which oscillator
and buffer will be enabled. A sample of the RF signal from the enabled oscillator is routed from U250
pin 12, through a low pass filter, to the prescaler input (U201 pin 32). After frequency comparison in
the synthesizer, a resultant CONTROL VOLTAGE is received at the VCO. This voltage is a DC
voltage between 2.0V (low frequency) and 11.0V (high frequency) when the PLL is locked on
frequency.
The VCOBIC (U250) is operated at 4.54 V (VSF) and LV FracN synthesizer (U201) at 3.3V. This
difference in operating voltage requires a level shifter consisting of Q200 and Q252 on the TRB line.
The operation logic is shown in Table 2-9.
Table 2-9. Level Shifter Logic
Desired Mode

AUX 4

AUX 3

TRB

Tx

Low

High (@3.2V)

High (@4.8V)

Rx

High

Low

Low

Battery Saver

Low

Low

Hi-Z/Float (@2.5V)

2-44

Theory of Operation: 900 MHz Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

In the receive mode, U250 pin 19 is low or grounded. This activates the receive VCO by enabling the
receive oscillator and the receive buffer of U250. The RF signal at U250 pin 8 is run through an
injection amplifier, Q304. The resulting RF signal is the LO RF INJECTION and it is applied to the
mixer at U301.
During the transmit condition, when PTT is depressed, five volts is applied to U250 pin 19. This
activates the transmit VCO by enabling the transmit oscillator and the transmit buffer of U250. The
RF signal at U250 pin 10 is amplified by Q251 and injected into the input of the PA module (U101
pin1). This RF signal is the TX RF INJECTION. Also in transmit mode, the audio signal to be
frequency modulated onto the carrier is received through the U201 pin 41.
When a high impedance is applied to U250 pin19, the VCO is operating in BATTERY SAVER mode.
In this case, both the receive and transmit oscillators as well as the receive transmit and prescaler
buffer are turned off.

3-1

Chapter 3 Maintenance

3.1

Introduction
This chapter of the manual describes:
Preventive maintenance
Safe handling of CMOS devices
Repair procedures and techniques

3.2

Preventive Maintenance
The radios do not require a scheduled preventive maintenance program; however, periodic visual
inspection and cleaning is recommended.

3.3

Inspection
Check that the external surfaces of the radio are clean, and that all external controls and switches
are functional. It is not recommended to inspect the interior electronic circuitry.

3.3.1

Cleaning
The following procedures describe the recommended cleaning agents and the methods to be used
when cleaning the external and internal surfaces of the radio. External surfaces include the front
cover, housing assembly, and battery case. These surfaces should be cleaned whenever a periodic
visual inspection reveals the presence of smudges, grease, and/or grime.
NOTE: Internal surfaces should be cleaned only when the radio is disassembled for servicing or
repair.
The only recommended agent for cleaning the external radio surfaces is a 0.5% solution of a mild
dishwashing detergent in water. The only factory recommended liquid for cleaning the printed circuit
boards and their components is isopropyl alcohol (70% by volume).

CAUTION: The effects of certain chemicals and their vapors can have harmful results on
certain plastics. Aerosol sprays, tuner cleaners, and other chemicals should be avoided.

1. Cleaning External Plastic Surfaces


The detergent-water solution should be applied sparingly with a stiff, non-metallic, shortbristled brush to work all loose dirt away from the radio. A soft, absorbent, lintless cloth or
tissue should be used to remove the solution and dry the radio. Make sure that no water
remains entrapped near the connectors, cracks, or crevices.
2. Cleaning Internal Circuit Boards and Components
Isopropyl alcohol may be applied with a stiff, non-metallic, short-bristled brush to dislodge
embedded or caked materials located in hard-to-reach areas. The brush stroke should direct
the dislodged material out and away from the inside of the radio. Make sure that controls or
tunable components are not soaked with alcohol. Do not use high-pressure air to hasten the
drying process since this could cause the liquid to collect in unwanted places. Upon
completion of the cleaning process, use a soft, absorbent, lintless cloth to dry the area. Do
not brush or apply any isopropyl alcohol to the frame, front cover, or back cover.

3-2

Maintenance: Safe Handling of CMOS and LDMOS

NOTE: Always use a fresh supply of alcohol and a clean container to prevent contamination by
dissolved material (from previous usage).

3.4

Safe Handling of CMOS and LDMOS


Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and lateral diffusion metal oxide semiconductor
(LDMOS) devices are used in this family of radios. Their characteristics make them susceptible to
damage by electrostatic or high voltage charges. Damage can be latent, resulting in failures
occurring weeks or months later. Therefore, special precautions must be taken to prevent device
damage during disassembly, troubleshooting, and repair.
Handling precautions are mandatory for the circuits and are especially important in low humidity
conditions. DO NOT attempt to disassemble the radio without first referring to the CMOS CAUTION
paragraph in the Disassembly and Reassembly section of the basic manual (See Chapter 3).

3.5

General Repair Procedures and Techniques


Parts Replacement and Substitution
When damaged parts are replaced, identical parts should be used. If the identical replacement
component is not locally available, check the parts list for the proper Motorola part number and
order the component from the nearest Motorola Communications parts center listed in the Piece
Parts section of this manual (See Chapter 1).
Rigid Circuit Boards
The family of radios uses bonded, multi-layer, printed circuit boards. Since the inner layers are not
accessible, some special considerations are required when soldering and unsoldering
components. The printed-through holes may interconnect multiple layers of the printed circuit.
Therefore, care should be exercised to avoid pulling the plated circuit out of the hole.
When soldering near the 20-pin and 40-pin connectors:
- Avoid accidentally getting solder in the connector.
- Be careful not to form solder bridges between the connector pins.
- Closely examine your work for shorts due to solder bridges.
Flexible Circuits
The flexible circuits are made from a different material than the rigid boards and different
techniques must be used when soldering. Excessive prolonged heat on the flexible circuit can
damage the material. Avoid excessive heat and excessive bending.
For parts replacement, use the ST-1087 Temperature-Controlled Solder Station with a 600-700
degree tip, and use small diameter solder such as ST-633. The smaller size solder will melt faster
and require less heat to be applied to the circuit.
To replace a component on a flexible circuit:
1. Grasp the edge of the flexible circuit with seizers (hemostats) near the part to be removed.
2. Pull gently.
3. Apply the tip of the soldering iron to the component connections while pulling with the seizers.
Do not attempt to puddle out components. Prolonged application of heat may damage the
flexible circuit.

Maintenance: General Repair Procedures and Techniques

3-3

Chip Components
Use either the RLN-4062 Hot-Air Repair Station or the Motorola 0180381B45 Repair Station for
chip component replacement. When using the 0180381B45 Repair Station, select the TJ-65 minithermojet hand piece. On either unit, adjust the temperature control to 700 degrees F. (370
degrees C), and adjust the airflow to a minimum setting. Airflow can vary due to component
density.
To remove a chip component:
1. Use a hot-air hand piece and position the nozzle of the hand piece approximately 1/8 (0.3
cm) above the component to be removed.
2. Begin applying the hot air. Once the solder reflows, remove the component using a pair of
tweezers.
3. Using a solder wick and a soldering iron or a power desoldering station, remove the excess
solder from the pads.
To replace a chip component using a soldering iron:
1. Select the appropriate micro-tipped soldering iron and apply fresh solder to one of the solder
pads.
2. Using a pair of tweezers, position the new chip component in place while heating the fresh
solder.
3. Once solder wicks onto the new component, remove the heat from the solder.
4. Heat the remaining pad with the soldering iron and apply solder until it wicks to the
component. If necessary, touch up the first side. All solder joints should be smooth and shiny.
To replace a chip component using hot air:
1. Use the hot-air hand piece and reflow the solder on the solder pads to smooth it.
2. Apply a drop of solder paste flux to each pad.
3. Using a pair of tweezers, position the new component in place.
4. Position the hot-air hand piece approximately 1/8 (0.3 cm) above the component and begin
applying heat.
5. Once the solder wicks to the component, remove the heat and inspect the repair. All joints
should be smooth and shiny.
Shields
Removing and replacing shields will be done with the R-1070 station with the temperature control
set to approximately 415F (215C) [445F (230C) maximum].
To remove the shield:
1. Place the circuit board in the R-1070s holder.
2. Select the proper heat focus head and attach it to the heater chimney.
3. Add solder paste flux around the base of the shield.
4. Position the shield under the heat-focus head.
5. Lower the vacuum tip and attach it to the shield by turning on the vacuum pump.
6. Lower the focus head until it is approximately 1/8 (0.3 cm) above the shield.
7. Turn on the heater and wait until the shield lifts off the circuit board.
8. Once the shield is off, turn off the heat, grab the part with a pair of tweezers, and turn off the
vacuum pump.
9. Remove the circuit board from the R-1070s circuit board holder.

3-4

Maintenance: Recommended Test Tools

To replace the shield:


1. Add solder to the shield if necessary, using a micro-tipped soldering iron.
2. Next, rub the soldering iron tip along the edge of the shield to smooth out any excess solder.
Use solder wick and a soldering iron to remove excess solder from the solder pads on the
circuit board.
3. Place the circuit board back in the R1070s circuit board holder.
4. Place the shield on the circuit board using a pair of tweezers.
5. Position the heat-focus head over the shield and lower it to approximately 1/8 (0.3 cm) above
the shield.
6. Turn on the heater and wait for the solder to reflow.
7. Once complete, turn off the heat, raise the heat-focus head and wait approximately one
minute for the part to cool.
8. Remove the circuit board and inspect the repair. No cleaning should be necessary.

3.6

Recommended Test Tools


Table 3-1 lists the recommended tools used for maintaining this family of radios. These tools are also
available from Motorola.

Table 3-1. Recommended Test Tools


Motorola Part
Number

Description

Application

RSX4043

Torx Driver

Tighten and remove chassis screws.

6680387A70

T-6 Torx Bit

Removable Torx driver bit.

R1453A

Digital readout solder station

Digitally controlled soldering iron.

0180386A78

Illuminated magnifying glass


with lens attachment.

0180386A82
6684253C72
6680384A98
1010041A86

Anti-static grounding kit


Straight prober
Brush
Solder (RMA type),
63/37, 0.5mm diameter
1 lb. spool
SMD tool kit (included with
R1319A)

Used during all radio assembly and disassembly


procedures.

R1319A (110V)

ChipMaster Surface Mount

Removal and assembly of surface-mounted


integrated circuits and shields includes 5 nozzles.

or R1321A(220V)

Rework Station

R1364A

Digital Heated Tweezer


System

Chip component removal.

R1427A

Board Preheater

Reduces heatsink on multi level boards.

8880309B53

Rework Equipment Catalog

Contains application notes, procedures and technical


rework equipment.

1080303E45

Maintenance: Replacing the Circuit Board Fuse

3.7

3-5

Replacing the Circuit Board Fuse


In cases where the radio fails to turn on when power is applied, the circuit board fuse should always
be checked as a probable cause of the failure. The locations of the fuse for both the UHF and VHF
boards are shown in Figure 3-1 on page 3-6. The radio must be disassembled to replace the fuses
as described in the Basic Service Manual (see section 1.3 on page 1-2), then the circuit board
separated from the radio chassis as described in the paragraphs that follow.

Maintenance: Replacing the Circuit Board Fuse


3-6

J102

SH322
C359
C358

R344

C344

C361

C360

R350

L307

CR305

C338

C318

L330

R311
R312

SH304

CR306

C170

E101

C150

C503

C130

C128

C123

C152
C138 C151

CR501

C133
R109

L505

SH242

CR241

SH202

C522

R201

C219
R202

C234

C232

C243 C245

37

C263

R349

24
25

36
37

C224

U201

C264
C223

L261

VR441

L281

R242

C250 C246
R241

CR501

SH3702

C3735

R3763

C3726

C372

Q310

R331

U3701

VR442

C254

C523

C208

R281
C265

3
4 U211

R204

C204

25

13

C371
R330

C373

Y3762

R3703

C252

VR442

D3761

C3751

C3705

R3702

C3703 D3701
C3701

C3708
R3705

R3704 C3702
13
12

1
C3734
48
R3726

C437

R419

R460

R436

R415
C433

R462

C434

C431

37

C481

C479

R475

C410

C409

C408

C440

SH402
C436
C437

R460

R419

51
SH403

U404

R463
R415

C434

R462

C433
C431

C407

SH403
R445 C479

R475
36
37

C411

48
1
C446

25

R400

13

C430

50

75

SH402

20

R432

R457

11

L411

R409

R431

C475

10

C475

R471

C476

R411
C456

R472

CHECKER

DATE

DATE

C445

ENGINEER

DWG. NO.

PROGRAM

ISS.

REVISION

DISK

RLSE.

RLSE.

(
O.K. AS IS
O.K. AS MARKED (

CHECK
ONE

ZWG0130073
CORRECTED
AS
MARKED

Illustrator

S502

S501

S502

J102

S502

J101

J101

S501

J101

C379

SH353

C374

C360

C373

SH301

C337

C336

C332

C335

C333

C343

L501

C146

R101

L303

36
37

24
25

M300
SH300
C331

48

13
12

R505

D502

C350

R350

R318
C319
L307

C326

C327

C328

C330

C324
C323
L305

C127

L502

C507

C358
C354

L351

U103

R350

C358

C369

C367

C370

L350

C350

C354

L351

Q101

C126

C125

C307
R309

R335

R307

R314

R351

R330

U303

C144

R352
R351

C302

C138

17

R306

R308

R110

R111

U102

C136 C135

R104

R118

M100

B501

R113

E100

C124

VR503

L505

U203

C211

C259

R264
R282
R275
C252
L254
C261
R253 C284

C202
R208

R204

C282

CR252
CR253

L263

C291

C226

C273

R223

VR200

L211

VR201

25
24

13
12

CR204

U205

SH201

VR203
C503

36
37

48
1

SH202

C216

R206

Q203

A5

C234

C231

U851

R255

R223
R222
R200

C271

C268

C281

C280

U200

C523

C236

L207

C242

L225

E1

B1

U203

A2

F2

R212

C237

CR203

C215

D201

C276
C277

R269

CR203

R219

C853

C209

C203

Q252
43

C805

R257

C265
C287
R261

R263

C238

L250

L253

C205
R211

C229

13

25

C222

L250

C254

L253

R255 C255

R254
C290

R271

F5

B6

E6

20

11

R200

C264

U250

R271

R251

R254 C256

R214

C228

SH202

U201

C227

C213

SH250

37

L203

M300

F1

CR200

C255
C261

L212

M202

C861
R852 R854
C859 R855
C862

C856

C857

10

L204

C242

R216

R209

R210 R221

C232 R206

U248

C210

VR503

L505

C293

R222

L851

C522

VR505

C240

R219

C247
C244
C245
C243
R220 C246

C217

C210

SH201

SH250

L260

C259

C204 C231

C205 C226
R202
C230

C201 C214
C222
L202
C221
R204
C219
R210
C223
R209

C202

L200

R273 C266
R280
R262

C274

R236

SH402

VIEWED FROM SIDE 2


M301

J1

TP100

TP200

C133
C128

R109

L109

C104
C105
C106

C157
C156

C154

C527

C164

C163

C162

CR501

C503 C525
C524

C125
C148
C132
C130
C126
C134
C149
R116 R117 R115

C108

C123

CR501

C503 C525

C524

C150

C158

C133

E101

M501

R108 R110 R117

25
C155
C101
R102

R354

C355

R103

C110

R352

VIEWED FROM SIDE 1

C355
R354

R314

R307

C108

C143

U103

C146 C157

C145 C156

FL301

L350
C370
C367
C369

M101

FL301

13

C394

17

25

U303

SH500

Q509

M502

U102

C533

C504

R503

R114

U351

M101

C141

CR301

R312

C301

L303

R315

C306

M100

SH353

C383

C383

37

25

C138

C381
C380

SH301
SH102

R315

CR301

C301
R312
C306

C381
C380

R318

C372

C124

C310

C372

C300

Q302

C305

L304

SH102

C125

C360

C373

C374

C310
R318

C300

Q302

C305

L304

C105

C104

SH402

C437

FL401

R419

C437

C436

FL401

R460

R419

C408

R415

R462

C431

C479

R475

C434

C481

C412

C433

R415

R462

C431

C434

C481

76

51

36
37

48
1

C412

R434
C405

C410

C433

R415

37

R462

C431

SH403
C479

R475

C409

C408

R434

C410

C437

FL401

R460

C481

C434

37

C412

U404

U404

C479

R475

R419

C408

C410

C409

R434

R426

E405
E404

DATE

23/Nov/1998

C483
R473
C442
C484
VR448

C334
C342

E406

E402

C466

C442

E400

C459

C458

RK

C445

E400

C459

C458

C466

C449

C463

E401

E403
E402

E406

E404

E405

LETTERING SIZE:
REQUIRES:

EDITOR

DATE

WARIS VHF RF Board


8486062B12D BOT SIDE
ILLUSTRATOR

25

1
100

R457
R409
L411

C477

11

10
C478
C476

C450

U420

R423
R431

20

C447

R424

C453

U409

C450
Q410
3
4

U420

R472
R423

R424

U409

C416 C447

R400

R461

C481

25
24

13
12
C415 C451
C430

U404

C414

51

76

C430

SH403

R400

25
24

13
12

C416

U404

R400

25

13

R400

25

13

C416

SH403

C430

C416

C430

20

M400

20

3
4

10

26

26

E402

C466

C459

C458

E406

E404

E405

E402

C445

VR448

VR446

VR445

C442

E400

E400

C459

C458

C466

C442

VR446

VR445

C445

VR448

E402

E400

C459

C458

C466

C442

C445

E406

E404

E405

VR448

VR446

FL0830703O

C492

VR445

FL0830475O

E405

E406

E404

10

11

R431

L411

R409

R457

C475

11

R409
L411

R457

R471

C476

U420

R472

C450

Q410

M401

R438

C475

R431

C476

U420

R472

C450

R471

R457

10

11

L411

R409

C475

R431

C476

R471

U420

Q410

3
4

U409

SH402

U409

M400

R472

20

C450

3
Q410
4

M401

Low Band Board

S502

C343

L314

C380

SH302

CR304

C316

R132

F501

VIEWED FROM SIDE 2

B501

C535

C3336

C503

C3725

C3827 R3830
R3829

R436

L410

C383

C306

C313

R172

R130
R131

C3227

C3221
C3228

CR3301

C279

C3823

R3812

C3815
C408

Figure 3-1. UHF/VHF/Low Band/800 MHz/900 MHz Circuit Board Fuse Locations

E403

E401

C449 C463

R473

R426

R434

C409
C410

CR411

R463 R414

C433

C346

L340

L305

C172

CR105

R3222

C3219
R3219

C3243

12

C3244

L3221

C3230
R3220

C3337
C3317

R3803
C3803
R3804

20

R3831
L3816
R3832

VR202
R225

C357
C390

C315

C310

R170

13

C3223

1
48

C3339
C3315

R3301 RT3301

R3324

C278

SH3802
R3801

C3801

U3801

Q416

U410

C298

10
11
R3816
C3806
C3816
C3818
R3817
R3818
C3812
L3813

C448

R303 C309

Q111
3
4

24
25

C3241

R3306

CR3302

C3229

C3226

U3220

C3239

36
37

C3325

C3324

C3508

L3812

R103

R420

R413

VR441

R3805

C506

C436
CR411

E403

ZWG0130073-B

C298

26
1

R471

C325

U248

L3826

1
5

R461

S501

J101

C3240

SH3202

C3237 R3223

C3236 R3224

C3235

C3323

L3303

R3320

L3519

U3502

R3561
R3570
25
24

C3509
C3507
C3506
C3566

R3567
32
1

C456 R411

Q410

3
4

C299

R420

C440

VR432

VR433

R424

R423

C453

R432

C447

C452

R232

C334

C3302 C3303 C3305


C3304

R3305

R3519

C3515

C3562

R3564

C3561

C3563

17
16

L410

B501

C3568

C339

U301

D3301 R3303

C3322

SH3301

L3301

C3326

C3516

H3501

C3564

C3569 R3566

R411

C3526

C3560

R3565
C3565

VR432

VR433

900 MHZ Board

800 MHz Board

E403

E401

C449 C463

E403

E401

C456

R116

Q302

TP3502

L410

C439 R439

C456 R411

R432

R424

R423

C456 R411

26

R473

R473

R313

R3571

C214

C435

C409

R425

R420

C422

U409

R432

R424

R423

C421

C422
C448

R449

C436

C411

C407 R445

R426

R463 R414

C419

C421

CR411

Q416

C451

C453

C447

C452

C453

C448

C447

C452

C415

C451

C435

C407

C420

C422

C451

R460

R445

R449

R461

C414

C257

C258
L208

C341
R504

C204
R228
U207

R224
R239
C222
R238

C236
VR506

C414

76

C421

C411

C420

C415

51

C420

C415

R413

R420

U410

C405

C436

R425

R426

R463 R414

C419

R461

C419

C435

CR411

Q416

U410

C414

C407

C405

R445

R449

R413

R425

C411

C263
C235
C246

CR202
C260

C215
L261

L204

C208

C212
C801

L209

C242

C804
C251

C803
R261 C265

C244
CR251

C255

C268
L256
C250
C287
L256

R218
C802
C292
C262
C256 R263

C449 C463

VR432

VR433

U250

C254

C290
Y200
C206

C225
R231
C226
C230

C852

C221
C227

C851

L215

C216
C253

R115

C256
R204

R853
R856
R851

C860

C297
R234
VR505

C218

U202
C225

R203

C225

C257
R274
L252
C211
C217
C249

C218

C286
C240

R107

C122

C134
R119

C129

C131

R281

VR507
R317

C139

C280
L265

CR201
1

L259
C267

C279

C241
10

C522
R262

C278

C266
L259

C233
20
11
R251

C286

C291
R264 C267

Q251
Q251

R250
R217
C220

C135
R113

L262

R118
C160 C161

U302
R353
R101

C132

F501

R307

C165
C102

U302
C137

L108
B501

C107

R108
3
F501
E101

R102
C318

R332
R336
R333
C302
R121
R353

C103
VR502

C160
VR507
C154 C117

R334 R329 R331


U102

U350
VR101
U350
C318

C136

Fuse
C139

VR502
1
9
1

C356

C117
C152

R317
U302
R102 C155

C359

C326

R343

R3572

C353

C320
C143

C321
C353

C340
C538
R117

R512
C137

R513

C356
C359
13
1

C352

F1
17
25

C153
R108
R101

U351
C352

C364
C308

VR101

C363
C317

C140
25

L301

C142
R309 C303 C317

C126

C366
CR300

C363
R310

UHF Board
VHF Board

L410
R473

C449 C463 E401


VR448 VR446 VR445
VR432

R432

C453
C452

C293

FL401
C407

CR203
C218 C207

C277
C201
C231

C206
C296 3
C258 4

VR506
R233

C382

R3573

C528

C357
C303
L302
C364
L301

C357
L302

R309
R310
C308
CR300

37
C107

J3501

L3523

S501

R306
C379
C366

R306

8
C
2

1
C
4

C159
C158

C420
C421

VR433

L410

C416 C422
C451

C448
C447

C422

2
3

VR432
VR433

C448
C452

F501

C345
25
37

L331
C355
C336

R463 R414
Q416
U410
R425

C435
R445
R449

76
C421
C415

R420

R231 R232

C244

R461

R414 R426
R425

R434

C419
C414

Fuse
F501
CR411

C3763
R3761

R413

FL401
C435

C3707

C420

R413
C419

Q416
U410

R3760

CR243 CR242

U210
R252
CR251

C3709 C3704

C411

R449

D3702
L3731

R254
R251 C255

L251

C3733

C259
R332

C202

C3731

R245 10
C281

C3761

20
11

C3813

U241

C3732
R3825
R3824 C3821
R3826
R3806

C378

R244
R111 C295

VR506

L242

VR439
R3727

L505
C3762
R3762

R3808

R112 R110

L3701
C3755

2
3
C135

1
9
1

L112
C134

VR439
25

L241

R3807
C3804

C3802

C241

R3569

C3727
Q3801
C3811 L3811

17

R3222

C341
CR303

C329
R307

L306

R315

L3308

C242

L3801
L3809 C3808

C3805

C3810
R3811

R3802
C3809

R3562

S502

S501

J3502
3

Q3561

C126
C105

C3218
R3319

C3211

R306

L303

C330
C327
R329
R102

R3221

C174

R3563

C3220
C3238

C173

Q3301

C3316

H101

1
R133

C311 R347

13
C337

R3315
R3307
R3314

C317

R3304

U102

U3503

C3321

C314

C348
C395
C312
C132

C356

C3224

C340
Q301
R304

C342
C321

C339
C108

8
C
2

C347
P100

C3234

L304

C3232

R305

C3242
C3233

R101

C3231
C3301

R340 C307
R328

C
4

C528

Maintenance: Removing and Reinstalling the Circuit Board

3.8

3-7

Removing and Reinstalling the Circuit Board


Both the UHF and VHF circuit boards are removed from the radio chassis in the following manner:
1. Refer to the Basic Service Manual (see Table 1-1, Related Documents, on page 1-2) for
radio disassembly, then use a Torx driver and a T-6 bit to remove the four Torx screws shown
in Figure 3-2.
2. Lift the circuit board out of the radio chassis, then remove and discard the thermal pad
located between the circuit board and chassis.
3. After repairs, replace the thermal pad (Motorola P/N 7580556Z01) then reinstall the circuit
board into the radio chassis.
4. Reinstall and tighten the four Torx screws to secure the circuit board to the chassis.
5. Refer to the Basic Service Manual to reassemble the radio.
T-6 Torx screw locations
R410
PB503

R437
32

PB504

PB502

PB501

VR444

VR440
R352

R322
C354

R324

R319

RT300

R327
C322

C131

R507
R502

C305

CR301

C514

C511

C303
C302

L102

L101

C140

C102
CR101

C112

L116

CR102

L104

C106

C103

R120

3
R173
C171

C109

L105

C166
L114

C107

C101

L107
C110

C125

C122

C161

R104

L108

C117

16

L113
C129 C165

TP415

CR503
R501
C520

SH100

Q110

C113

U101

R171

C127
8

R103
C119

C114

C276

L243

R161

L321

R333
C374

R339 C386

R402

VR443

C115
C116
R106

R108
R107

C271

R243
L271

C160

L109

L160

C118

C121

L273

Q400

R405

R302
R301

PB505

C120

SH101

L115

C286

4
3

C289

R260

C285

CR440

R253
L253

C401

R401

C308 CR302

L302

C273
L282

Q241

C169

TP406

R248

4
3
Q417

CR412

C492

C247 C248

Q502

C304

CR308

C381

6
C319

L309

C513

SH301

C331

R336

T301
C320

C375

C230

C233

TP202
C238

C211

Q261

C370 C272

R406

U400
5

R403

R476
R427

CR413

R421

C403

4
R407

R477

L400

C512

C333
R317

L310

R308

T302

L232

C301

SH241
C251
C253

C402

C400

C493
C490

VR434

R447
R481
C467

R450

J403

C494

VR450

Q403

3
4

C491
C441

R448

C480

Q405

C495

22

R345
R346

R320

VR300

C391

R326
C323
3

R310

R309

TP302
C203
R348

4
3

R505

L301

R446

C471

C497
C496

R416

C472

C482

L401

VR447

VR449

C473

Q505

C350

Q315

R318

SH401

20

Q320

C396
SH303

R255
R256

C213

R506

C385
C353 C384

R355

TP410

21

L332
L325

C349

L202

L201
C297

C229
C292

C257

RT400

VR501

C363

C352

C104

C444

4
3

CR310

C362

C351

R342

C443

Q210

SH321 R321

R325

Q316

C291

C235
C217

R435

C260

C214

CR201

R492

C424
R408

Q260

R478

C427 C428

C212

C429

R428

R429

TP401

C228

16

U407

40

L311

L203

C426 C425

TP402

C324

C220
22

C210

Radio
chassis

C294

C432

U406

SH201

1
7

R335
R338

U247

R316

R314 RT301
C328

C325
TP201

C364

R351

B503

B504

C397

FL301
U405
J400

C521

R300

C502

SH323

FL201

C505

17

21

R334

E408

C423

E407

R418

SH400
E409

C141

L106
C111

TP405

Figure 3-2. Circuit Board Removal and Reinstallation

3.9

Power Up Self-Test Error Codes


Turning on the radio starts a self-test routine that checks the RAM, ROM checksum, EEPROM
hardware and EEPROM checksum. If these checks are successful, the radio generates two highpitched self-test pass tones. If the self-test is not successful, one low-pitched tone is heard. Radios
with displays are able to display the error codes. The displayed error codes and related corrections
are as follows:
Table 3-2. Power Up Self-Test Error Codes
If the error code
displayed is ...

Then, there is
a ...

To correct the problem ...

RAM TST ERROR

RAM test failure.

retest the radio by turning it off and turning it on again. If


message reoccurs, replace RAM (U405).

ROM CS ERROR

wrong ROM checksum.

replace ROM (U406).

EEPRM HW ERROR

codeplug structure
mismatch or non
existence of
codeplug.

reprogram codeplug with correct version and retest radio. If


message reoccurs, replace EEPROM (U407).

EEPRM CS ERROR

wrong codeplug
checksum.

reprogram codeplug.

3-8

Maintenance: Power Up Self-Test Error Codes

Table 3-2. Power Up Self-Test Error Codes (Continued)


If the error code
displayed is ...
No Display

Then, there is
a ...
improperly connected
display module or
damaged display
module.

To correct the problem ...


check connection between main board and display module or
replace with new display module.

For LTR Models:


Table 3-3. Power Up Self-Test Error Codes (LTR Models)
Then, there is
a ...

If the error code


displayed is ...

To correct the problem ...

ESN BAD

defective PTCB

return to factory for PTCB replacement.

AppCode Fail

defective PTCB
firmware

reflash PTCB firmware.

EER: Watchdog

firmware failure

restart radio

Unprogrammed

programming error

use CPS to properly program radio and PTCB.

ERROR: NO PTG

no primary talk group

use CPS to program zone with a Primary Talk Group.

Backdoor

---

turn radio off and restart.

Maintenance: UHF Troubleshooting Charts

3-9

3.10 UHF Troubleshooting Charts


MCU Check

PTT

Press PTT. Red


LED does not
light up

INT
AUDIO
J403 Audio NO
at Pin 2 &
Pin 3

Audio at
AudioPA
(U420)
input

YES

YES

NO

Audio from Pin 41


ASFIC, U404?

Check Spk. Flex


Connection

NO

PTT U409
Pin 53
low?

Check
Audio PA
(U420)

YES

Power Up
Alert Tone
OK?

Check
PB504

Press PTT
Q502-2
High?

NO

NO

Speaker
OK?

NO

Audio at
Pin 2
U404?

Check
ASFIC U404

Replace
Speaker

YES

YES

U409 EXTAL=
7.3728 MHz?

Check
Q502-2
voltage

Read Radio
OK?

LED should
light up

YES

Radio could
not PTT
externally

LED
Q502,R501
OK?

U201 Pin 19
16.8 MHz

NO

YES

NO

YES

EXT
PTT

NO

YES

No

Check
U301
LV ZIF

Before replacing
MCU, check SPI
clock, SPI data,
and RF IC select

YES Not able to program RF Board


ICs

NO

Check
Setup

Reprogram the
correct data.

See FGU
Troubleshooting

No

Replace
Faulty
Component
J403
OPT_SEL_1 &
OPT_SEL_2
Pin 8 & 9
low?
YES

EXT
SPKR

J403 Pin 9 low?


Pin 8 high?

NO

NO

5V at U247?
3.3V at
U248?

Check
Accessories

U409 YES
Pin 52, 6
low?

Check
Accessories

YES

ASFIC U404
Pin 14 & 15
high?

NO

NO

Check
U404

YES

NO

7.5V at
Pin 3/5 U247? NO
4/3.3V at Pin 1
U248
YES

YES

Check
MCU

See FGU
Troubleshooting chart

U409 Reset
Pin 94
High?

NO

Check
Q400

Replace
U247/U248

Check any short to


SWB+,
Vdda or Vddd

YES

MCU is OK

YES

Check
U420 Audio PA

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Controller

3-10

Maintenance: UHF Troubleshooting Charts

START

Bad SINAD
Bad 20dB Quieting
No Recovered Audio

Audio at
pin 27
of U301?

Yes

Check Controller

No
Induce or inject 1st IF into
XTAL Filter
IF Freq: 45.1 MHz

Check Q320 bias circuitry for faults

Yes
Audio heard?

Rotate Freq. Knob

No
Check 2nd LO Control
Voltage at C363

No

Activity on
U301 sel pin?

Yes
B

VCO locked?

Check controller

Yes

No

No
Check FGU

16.8 MHz
check at
pin 22
U301?

Before replacing U301, check 2nd VCO


Q320. Check VCO O/P level, C351,
C352

Yes
A

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 1 of 2)

Maintenance: UHF Troubleshooting Charts

3-11

Inject RF into J101

Trace IF signal
from L311 to
Q302. Check for
bad XTAL filter

Yes

IF Signal
at L311?

Q302 collector
OK?
IF signal
present?

No
Yes
RF Signal
at T301?

1st LO O/P
OK?
Locked?

No
Yes
RF Signal
at C310?

Yes

No

No
Check FGU

Yes
Before replacing
U301, check
U301 voltages;
trace IF signal
path

Check T301, T302, CR306,


R308, R309, R310

Check filter between C310


& T301

Check for 2.6


VDC

Yes
A

No
RF Signal
at C307?

No

Yes
Check RF amp (Q301)
Stage

No or
weak RF

Is R5 present?

Check filter between C301


Yes & C307; program filter to
schematic test freq and
RF Signal
check varactor voltages
at C301?

No
Check Q210, U201
(pin 48) voltages and
U247

No
Check harmonic filter L101 & L102 and
antenna switch CR101, CR102, L104

Yes

Are varactor
voltages OK?

Yes

Check varactor filter

No
Check U404 voltage. U404
can be selected by MCU
before replacing U404

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 2 of 2)

3-12

Maintenance: UHF Troubleshooting Charts

START

No Power

Is There B+
Bias for Ant
switch

Yes

Check Q111

Low

No

Yes

No

Is Control Voltage
High or Low

Is Current
OK?

Check PCIC

High
Check Drive to
Module
1. Check Pin Diodes
2. Check Harmonic Filter
Is Drive
OK?
Inspect/Repair Tx. Output Network

Yes
Inspect PA Network/Check
Power Out of U101 at Cap
C160

No
Is Power
OK?

Yes

Yes

Is Power
OK?

Done

No
Done
Replace U101

Yes

Is Power
OK?

Done

No
Replace Q101

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Transmitter

No
Troubleshoot
VCO

Maintenance: UHF Troubleshooting Charts

3-13

3.3V at U201
pins 5, 20, 34
& 36

Start

Check CR201,
U210, U211, C258,
C259 & C228

Check U248,
L201 & L202

YES

Visual
check of the
Board OK?

NO

Correct
Problem

NO

YES
YES
5V
NO
at pin 6 of
CR201

Is U201 Pin
47
YES

NO

NO
YES

Check
L202

Check Q260,
Q261 & R260

Is
16.8MHz
signal at
U201 pin
23?

NO

+5V at U201
Pins
13 & 30?
YES

Are signals
at Pins 14 &
15 of U201?

YES

Replace
U201

NO

Check 5V
Regulator

NO

Is U241 Pin 19
<0.7 VDC in RX &
>4.3 VDC in TX?

Is 16.8MHz
Signal at
U201 Pin 19?

Check FL201, C206,


C207, C208, CR203
& R204

NO
Are Waveforms
at Pins 14 & 15
triangular?

NO

YES
YES

YES
U201 pin 2 at
>3V in Tx and
<0.7V in Rx

YES
NO

NO
Is U201 Pin
18

NO
Replace U201

NO

Is there a short
between Pin 47 and
Pins 14 & 15 of
U201?

Check programming
lines between U409
and U201 Pins 7,8 & 9

YES
YES

NO

Remove
Shorts
Check uP U409
Troubleshooting
Chart

Is RF level at
U201 Pin 32
>-30 dBm?

If L261, C263 & C264


are OK, then see VCO
troubleshooting chart

NO

Do Pins 7,8 & 9


of U201 toggle
when channel is
changed?

YES

Is information
from mP U409
correct?

YES

Replace U201

YES

Are R231,R232,
R233,C231,C232,
& C233 OK?

NO

Replace or
resolder
necessary
components

YES
Replace U201

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Synthesizer

3-14

Maintenance: UHF Troubleshooting Charts

START

Change
U241

No

L253 O/C?

Yes

Yes
No LO?

Change
L253

No
Yes
No

No

Yes

Pin 10
>1V?

TRB = 5V?

Tx Carrier?

Yes
No
VCO OK
Check R245 for dry
joint or faulty
AUX 3
High?

Check
R260

No
Check U201
Pin 2 for 3.2V

Change
L243

Yes

Pin 19 =0V

Yes

V ctrl 0V or
13V?

Yes

No
No
AUX 4
High?

Check for faulty parts or dry


joints of L271, L273, C370,
C386, R339 & L320

No

Yes
Change
Q261

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for VCO

Change
U201

L243 Open
Circuit?

No
Change
U241

Maintenance: VHF Troubleshooting Charts

3-15

3.11 VHF Troubleshooting Charts


MCU Check

PTT

Press PTT. Red


LED does not
light up

INT
AUDIO
NO
J403 Audio
at Pin 2 &
Pin 3

Audio at
AudioPA
(U420)
input

YES
NO

PTT U409
Pin 53
low?

Check
Audio PA
(U420)

YES

YES

NO

Check
PB504

Audio from Pin 41


ASFIC, U404?

Check Spk. Flex


Connection

Power Up
Alert Tone
OK?

Press PTT
Q502-2
High?

NO

NO

Speaker
OK?

NO

Audio at
Pin 2
U404?

Check
ASFIC U404

Replace
Speaker

YES

YES

U409 EXTAL=
7.3728 MHz?

Check
Q502-2
voltage

Read Radio
OK?

LED should
light up

YES

Radio could
not PTT
externally

LED
Q502,R501
OK?

U3701 Pin 19
16.8 MHz

NO

Check
Setup

YES

NO

YES

EXT
PTT

NO

YES

No

Check
U3220
LV ZIF

Before replacing
MCU, check SPI
clock, SPI data,
and RF IC select

YES Not able to program RF Board


ICs

NO

Reprogram the
correct data.

See FGU
Troubleshooting

No

Replace
Faulty
Component
J403
OPT_SEL_1 &
OPT_SEL_2
Pin 8 & 9
low?
YES

EXT
SPKR

J403 Pin 9 low?


Pin 8 high?

NO

NO

5V at U3711?
3.3V at U3201?

Check
Accessories

U409 YES
Pin 52, 6
low?

Check
Accessories

YES

ASFIC U404
Pin 14 & 15
high?

NO

NO

Check
U404

YES

NO

7.5V at
Pin 3/5 U3711? NO
7.5V at Pin 1
U3201
YES

YES

Check
MCU
U409 Reset
Pin 94 High?

See FGU
Troubleshooting chart

NO

Check
Q400

Replace
U3711/U3201

Check any short to


SWB+,
Vdda or Vddd

YES

MCU is OK

YES

Check
U420 Audio PA

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Controller

3-16

Maintenance: VHF Troubleshooting Charts

START

Bad SINAD
Bad 20dB Quieting
No Recovered Audio

Audio at
pin 27 of
U3220?

Yes

Check Controller

No
Induce or inject 1st IF into
XTAL Filter
IF Freq: 45.1 MHz

Check Q3270 bias


circuitry for faults.

Yes
Audio heard?

Rotate Freq. Knob

No
Check 2nd LO Control
Voltage at C3279

No

Activity on
U3220 sel pin?

Yes
B

VCO locked?

Check controller.

Yes

No

No
Check FGU

16.8 MHz
check at pin 21
U3220?

Before replacing U3220, check 2nd VCO


Q3270. Check VCO O/P level, C3272,
C3273

Yes

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 1 of 2)

Maintenance: VHF Troubleshooting Charts

3-17

Inject RF into J3501

Trace IF signal from


C3200 to Q3200.
Check for bad XTAL
filter.

Yes

IF Signal at
C3200?

Q3200
collector OK?
IF signal
present?

Before replacing
U3220, check
U3220 voltages;
trace IF signal
path

No
Yes
RF Signal at
T3301?

1st LO O/P
OK?
Locked?

No
Yes
Yes
RF Signal at
R3313?

No

Yes

No
Check FGU

Check T3301, T3302,


CR3301, R3321, R3322,
R3323

Check filter between C3313


& T3301

Check for 2.9


VDC

Yes
A

No
No

Yes
RF Signal at
C3306?

Check RF amp (Q3302)


Stage.

No or
weak RF

Is R5 present?

Check filter between


C3302
& C3306; program
Yes
filter to schematic test freq
RF Signal at
and check varactor
C3302?
voltages

No
Check Q3721, U3701
(pin 48) voltages and
U247

No
Check harmonic filter L3531 & L3532, C3532
and ant. switches D3521, D3551, L3551,
R3551, C3551, C3552, L3552

Yes

Are varactor
voltages OK?

Yes

Check varactor filter

No
Check U404 voltage and if
U404 can be selected
by MCU before
replacing U404

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 2 of 2)

3-18

Maintenance: VHF Troubleshooting Charts

START

No Power

Is there
B+ Bias for
Ant switch

No

Check Q3561

Yes

Yes

Low

No

Is Control Voltage
High or Low

Is Current
OK?

Check PCIC

High
Check Drive to
Module
1. Check Pin Diodes
2. Check Harmonic Filter
Is Drive
OK?
Inspect/Repair Tx
Output Network

Yes
Inspect PA Network/Check
Power Out of U3501 at Cap
C3512

Is Power
OK?

No

Yes

Yes

Is Power
OK?

Done

No
Done
Replace U3501

Yes

Is Power
OK?

Done

No
Replace Q3501

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Transmitter

No
Troubleshoot
VCO

Maintenance: VHF Troubleshooting Charts

3-19

3.3V at U3701
pins 5, 20, 34
& 36

Start

Check D3701,
D3702, U3701,
C3701 - C3707

NO

Correct
Problem

NO

Check U3201,
L3731

YES

Visual
check of the
Board OK?
YES

YES
5V
NO
at pin 6 of
D3701

Is U3701 Pin 47
AT = 13 VDC

NO

NO
YES

Check
L3701,
R3701

Check Q260,
Q261 & R260

YES

YES

Are signals
at Pins 14 &
15 of U3701?

Is
16.8MHz
signal at
U3701 pin
23?

NO

YES

Replace
U3701

NO

Check 5V
Regulator

NO

Is U3701 Pin 19
<0.7 VDC in RX &
>4.3 VDC in TX?

+5V at
U3701
Pins
13 & 30?

Is 16.8MHz
Signal at
U3701 Pin

Check Y3761,
C3761, C3762,
C3763, D3761 &
R3761

NO
Are Waveforms
at Pins 14 & 15
triangular?

NO

YES
YES

YES
U3701 pin 2 at
>3V in Tx and
<0.7V in Rx

Is U3701
Pin 18 at
4.54 VDC?

YES
NO

NO
NO

NO

Replace
U3701

Is there a short
between Pin 47 and
Pins 14 & 15 of
U3701?

Check programming
lines between U409
and U3701 Pins 7,8 & 9

YES
YES

NO

Remove
Shorts
Check uP U409
Troubleshooting
Chart

Is RF level at
U3701 Pin 32
>-30 dBm?

If R3727, C3726 & C3727


are OK, then see VCO
troubleshooting chart

NO

Do Pins 7,8 & 9


of U3701 toggle
when channel is
changed?

YES

Is information
from mP U409
correct?

YES

Replace
U3701

YES

Are C3721,
C3722,C3723,
R3721, R3722,
R3723 OK?

NO

Replace or
resolder
necessary
components

YES
Replace
U3701

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Synthesizer

3-20

Maintenance: VHF Troubleshooting Charts

START
Change
U3801

No
L3831,
Yes
L3832,
L3833 O/C?

Yes

Change L3831,
L3832

No LO?

No
Yes
No

Yes

Pin 10
>1V?

No
TRB = 3.2V?

Tx Carrier?

Yes
No
VCO OK
Check R3811, L3811
for dry joint or faulty

Yes

AUX 3
High?

Check
R3829

No
Change
L3821,
L3822,
L3823,L243

Check U3701
Pin 2 for 3.2V

Yes

Pin 19 =0V

Yes

V ctrl 0V or
13V?

Yes

No
No

AUX 3
Low?

Check for faulty parts or dry


joints of L3812 C3806, R3806,
R3802 & L3801

No

Yes
Change
U3801

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for VCO

Change
U3701

L3821, L3822,
L3823 Open
Circuit?

No

Change
U3801

Maintenance: Low Band Troubleshooting Charts

3-21

3.12 Low Band Troubleshooting Charts


MCU Check

PTT

Press PTT. Red


LED does not
light up

INT
AUDIO
NO
J403 Audio
at Pin 2 &
Pin 3

Audio at
AudioPA
(U420)
input

YES
NO

PTT U409
Pin 53
low?

Check
Audio PA
(U420)

YES

YES

NO

Check
PB504

Audio from Pin 41


ASFIC, U404?

Check Spk. Flex


Connection

Power Up
Alert Tone
OK?

Press PTT
CR502-2
High?

NO

NO

Speaker
OK?

NO

Audio at
Pin 2
U404?

EXT
PTT

Replace
Speaker

YES

YES

U409 EXTAL=
7.3728 MHz?

Check
CR502-2
voltage

Read Radio
OK?

LED should
light up

YES

Radio could
not PTT
externally

LED,
CR502,R501
OK?

U205 Pin 19
17.0 MHz

NO

YES

NO

YES

Check
ASFIC U404

NO

YES

No

Check
U303
LV ZIF

Before replacing
MCU, check SPI
clock, SPI data,
and RF IC select

YES Not able to program RF Board


ICs

NO

Check
Setup

Reprogram the
correct data.

See FGU
Troubleshooting

No

Replace
Faulty
Component
J403
OPT_SEL_1 &
OPT_SEL_2
Pin 8 & 9
low?
YES

EXT
SPKR

J403 Pin 9 low?


Pin 8 high?

NO

NO

5V at U204?
3.3V at U400?

Check
Accessories

U409 YES
Pin 52, 6
low?

Check
Accessories

YES

ASFIC U404
Pin 14 & 15
high?

NO

NO

Check
U404

YES

NO

7.5V at
Pin 5 U204?
7.5V at Pin 8
U400

NO

YES

YES

Check
MCU
NO

See FGU
Troubleshooting chart

U409 Reset Pin


94 High?

Check
Q400

Replace
U204/U400

Check any short


to SWB+,
Vdda or Vddd

YES

MCU is OK

YES

Check
U420 Audio PA

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Controller

3-22

Maintenance: Low Band Troubleshooting Charts

START

Bad SINAD
Bad 20dB Quieting
No Recovered Audio

Yes
Audio at pin 27
of U303?

Check Controller

No
Spray of inject 1st IF into
XTAL Filter
IF Freq: 109.65 MHz

Check Q301 bias circuitry for faults.

Yes
Audio heard?

Rotate Freq. Knob

No
Check 2nd LO Control
Voltage at C308

No

Activity on
U303 sel pin?

Yes
B

VCO locked?

Check controller.

Yes

No

No
Check FGU

17.0 MHz
check at pin 22
U303?

Before replacing U303, check 2nd VCO


Q301. Check VCO O/P level, C315,
C316

Yes
A

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 1 of 2)

Maintenance: Low Band Troubleshooting Charts

3-23

Inject RF into J101

Trace IF signal
from L301 to
U301. Check for
bad XTAL filter

Yes
IF Signal at
L301?

U301 drain OK?


IF signal
present?

No
Yes
RF Signal at
T501?

No
Yes
RF Signal
at collector
Q509?

Yes

No

1st LO O/P
310OK?
Locked?

No

Yes

Before replacing
U303, check U303
voltages; trace IF
signal path

Check FGU
Check T501, T502, D501,
R507, R508,
R509,C516,L508

Check filter between Q509&


T301

Biasing on
U301 OK?

Yes
A

No
No

Yes
RF Signal at
C504?

Check RF amp (Q509)


Stage

No or
weak RF

Troubleshoot
biasing, AGC
circuits and U301

Yes Check filter between C147


RF Signal at
C147?

& C504

No
Check transmit harmonic filter, antenna switch
and J101

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 2 of 2)

3-24

Maintenance: Low Band Troubleshooting Charts

START

No Power

Yes

Is Current ~
2 A?

No

No

Is control voltage at
U101 Pin 1 > 5
VDC

Check PCIC

Yes
Check input to
U101, Pin 16
1. Check Pin Diodes
2. Check Harmonic Filter
3. Check PA Bias
Is voltage
> 1 Vpp?
Inspect/Repair Tx. Output Network

No

Troubleshoot
VCO

Yes
Check level
U101, Pin 6

Is Power
OK?

Yes

No
Yes
Check components
around Q100

Is level
>5 Vpp?

No
Check components
around U101

Done

No
Is Power
OK?

No
Replace
Q101

Is Power
OK?

Yes

Yes
Done

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Transmitter

Done

Replace
U101

Maintenance: Low Band Troubleshooting Charts

3-25

3.3V at U205
pins 5, 20, 34
& 36

Start

NO

Correct
Problem

NO

Check U200
and L225

YES

Visual
check of the
Board OK?
YES

Check C247, C249,


C283, C284, C285,
C286, D210, D211,
R285, and R286

NO
Is U205 Pin
47 > 12V
YES
NO
YES

+5V at U205
Pins
13 & 30?

Is 17.0 MHz
Signal at
U205 Pin 19?
YES

Signals
at Pin 14 and
15 of U205?

NO

NO
YES

Is U205, pin
18 at 4.54
VDC?

NO
Replace U205

Check programming
lines between U409
and U205 Pins 7,8 & 9

NO
YES

Check uP U409
Troubleshooting
Chart
Is RF level at
U205 Pin 32
>-30 dBm?

If R234, R238 & C297


are OK, then see VCO
troubleshooting chart

NO

Replace
U205

Check Y201,CR211,
C236,C237,C242,
R219

YES
NO

YES

NO

Check 5V
Regulator

In receive, is
Pin 1 < 0.7 V and Pin 2
> 3 Vplus in transmit is
Pin 1 > 3 V and Pin 2 <
0.7 V?

Is
17.0MHz
signal at
U201 pin
23?

NO

Do Pins 7,8 & 9


of U205 toggle
when channel is
changed?

YES

Is information
from mP U409
correct?

YES

Replace U205

YES

Are loop filter parts


R224,R225,R227,R
228,R229,C256,C2
57,C259 and C260
OK?

NO

Replace or
resolder
necessary
components

YES

Replace U201

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Synthesizer

3-26

Maintenance: Low Band Troubleshooting Charts

No RX LO or No signal at U205 Pin 32 in


RX

No TX LO or No signal at U205 Pin 32 in


TX

Check signal at
collector of Q201

Level >
+2 dBm

Check signal at
collector of Q201

Yes

Check L204, L211, L212,


L215, C221, C228, C229,
C230,C231, C235,C297,
R204, R234, R238

Yes

No

No

Check signal at
drain of Q202 and
Q204

Check signal at
drain of Q203

Level >
-3 dBm?

Yes

Yes

Replace Q201

Level >
+7 dBm?

No

No

Check DC voltage
across R203

Check C215, C216,


L207, L208, L209,
U203

Problem
fixed?

Level >
+10 dBm?

No

Replace Q203

Yes

Replace Q202
and Q204

No

Level >
500 mV?

Yes

Done
Check C200, C202, C203,
C222, C223, L201, L203,
TR201, CR202

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for VCO

Maintenance: 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

3-27

3.13 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts


MCU Check

PTT

INT
AUDIO

NO

J403 Audio at
Pin 2 & Pin 3

Press PTT. Red


LED does not light
up

Audio at
Audio PA (U420)
input
(U447)

YES

Power Up
Alert Tone
OK?

YES

PTT U409 Pin


53
low?

Check
Audio PA
(U420)

NO

YES

NO

Before replacing MCU,


check SPI clock, SPI
data, and RF IC select

Not able to program RF Board


ICs

NO

Check
PB504

Speaker
OK?

NO

Replace Speaker

Audio from Pin 41


ASFIC, U404?

Check Spk. Flex


Connection

Press PTT
Q502-2 High?

NO

YES
YES

No
Check U351
LV ZIF

YES

NO

Audio at
Pin 2
U404?

YES
U409 EXTAL=
7.3728 MHz?

Check
Q502-2 voltage

Check ASFIC
U404

YES

LED should
light up

Radio could
not PTT
externally

LED
Q502,R501
OK?

U201 Pin 19
16.8 MHz

NO Check Setup

YES

NO

YES

EXT
PTT

Read Radio OK?

NO

Reprogram the
correct data.

See FGU
Troubleshooting

No
Replace Faulty
Component

J403
OPT_SEL_1 &
OPT_SEL_2
Pin 8 & 9
low?

YES

EXT
SPKR
J403 Pin 9 low?
Pin 8 high?

NO

NO

Check
Accessories

5V at U247?
3.3V at U248?

Check
Accessories

U409
YES
Pin 52, 6 low?

YES

NO

7.5V at
Pin 3/5 U247?
4/3.3V at Pin 1
U248

NO Check Q400

YES

YES
Check MCU

U409 Reset
Pin 94 High?

YES

NO

See FGU
Troubleshooting
chart

NO

Replace
U247/U248

Check any short to


SWB+,
Vdda or Vddd

YES

ASFIC U404 Pin 14


& 15 high?

NO

Check
U404

MCU is OK

YES
Check
U420 Audio PA

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Controller

3-28

Maintenance: 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

START

Bad SINAD
Bad 20dB Quieting
No Recovered Audio

Audio at
pin 27 of
U351?

Yes

Check Controller

No
Spray or inject 1st IF into XTAL
Filter
IF Freq: 109.65 MHz

Check Q350 bias circuitry for faults

Yes
Audio heard?

Rotate Freq. Knob


No
Check 2nd LO Control
Voltage at R365
No

Activity
on U351
pin 19?

Yes

VCO locked?
Check controller
Yes
No

No
Check FGU

16.8 MHz
check at pin
21 of U351?

Yes

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 1 of 2)

Before replacing U351, check


2nd VCO Q350. Check VCO O/P
level, C385, C387

Maintenance: 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

3-29

Inject RF into J101

Trace IF signal from


L353 to U352.
Check for bad XTAL
filter.

Yes

IF Signal at
L353?

Is the level of the


IF signal of the
output of U352 as
indicated?

No

No

Yes

RF Signal at
pin 8 of U301?

Yes

Before replacing
U351, check U351
voltages; trace IF
signal path.

No

1st LO O/P
OK?
Locked?

Check FGU

Check U301, R320,


R321, R322

Yes
No

Is the biasing of
U352 OK?

Yes
RF Signal at
C317?

Yes

Replace filter
FL301
No

No or
weak RF

Are the
AGC voltages
without RF as
indicated?

No
Check U302,
U350, and CR301

Yes

Is R5 present?

Yes
Check RF amp
(Q302) Stage.

RF Signal at
CR300?

No or
weak RF

Yes

Replace
U352.

No
Yes

RF Signal at
the input of
FL300?

Replace
FL300.

Check Q210, U201


(pin 48) voltages
and U247

No
Check harmonic filter L101 &
L102 CR101, CR102, and
CR300

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 2 of 2)

3-30

Maintenance: 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

START

Low Power

No Power

No Power out or Low


Power

No

No
Replace F501

Is the fuse
F501 OK?

Is overall radio
current between
0.8 and 1.3 A
when transmitting?

No
Check L101, L102, C101,
CR101 for open circuit

Yes

Is there a
short circuit
after C113?

Yes
Yes
Is the voltage
at pin 4 of
U102
between 2V
and 5.6V?

No

Yes

Replace
Q101

No

Is the voltage
at R105 and
C116 between
1.8V and
2.2V?

Yes

Is the voltage
at pin 32 of
U102 between
6V and 9V?

No

Yes
Replace
U101

No

Is the voltage
at pins 6, 5, 8, 9 of
U101 between 5.5V
and 7.5V?

Yes

Is the
voltage at pin 24
of U102 between
2V and 5V for High
Power, 0V for
Low Power?

Troubleshoot VCO

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Transmitter

Yes

No

Replace
U102

Find and remove


short circuit from
antenna switch or
harmonic filter

Maintenance: 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

3-31

3.3V at U201
pins 5, 20, 34
& 36

Start

Check D201, D202,


C244, C245, C246 &
C247.

YES

Visual
check of the
Board OK?

NO

Correct
Problem

Check U248
& L202

NO

YES
YES
5V
at pin 6 of
D201

NO

Is U201 Pin 47
AT = 13 VDC
NO

NO
YES

+5V at U201
Pins
13 & 30?

YES

Is 16.8MHz
Signal at
U201 Pin 19?

Is
16.8MHz
signal at
U201 pin
23?

NO

YES

Replace
U201

NO

YES

Check
L200
Check FL201, C235,
C237, C236, CR203
& R211.

Check 5V
Regulator
Are the
waveforms
at Pins 14
&15 of U201
rectangular?

NO
Are Waveforms
at Pins 14 & 15
triangular?

NO

YES
YES
NO

Is U201 Pin 28
at 4.6 VDC?

NO
Replace U201

NO

Is there a short
between Pin 47 and
Pins 14 & 15 of
U201?

Check programming
lines between U409
and U201 Pins 7,8 & 9

YES
YES

NO

Remove
Shorts
Check uP U409
Troubleshooting
Chart

Is RF level at
U201 Pin 32
as indicated?

NO

If L203, C227 & C228


are OK, then see VCO
troubleshooting chart

Do Pins
7,8 & 9 of U201
toggle when
channel is
changed?

YES

Is information
from P U409
correct?

YES

Replace U201

YES

Are C226, R209,


R210, L204, C231,
C220, C225, C218,
R216, and R217
OK?

NO

Replace or
resolder
defective
components

YES
Replace U201

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Synthesizer

3-32

Maintenance: 800 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

START

Yes

VCO is OK.

Yes

Is Tx signal
present at the PA
driver IC, U101?

Is LO signal
present at the
mixer IC U301?

No

Is resonator
IC U206 soldered OK?

No

Resolder or
replace U205.

No

No
Is resonator IC
U205 soldered
OK?

Resolder or
replace U206.

Yes

Is the 4.6V
VSF voltage
present at pins
3, 18, & 14 of
U250?

Yes

No

Check the 4.6V


biasing circuitry
and pin 28 of U201.

Troubleshoot the
Synthesizer.

Is the 4.6V
VSF voltage
present at pins
3, 18, & 14 of
U250?

No

Yes

Troubleshoot the
Synthesizer.

No

Yes
Is TRB pin 19
of U250 low?

No

No

Is TRB pin 19
of U250 high?
Is pin 2
(AUX3) of
U201 high?

Check the 4.6V


biasing circuitry
and pin 28 of U201.

Is pin 3
(AUX4) of
U250 low?

No

Yes
Yes
Yes
No

Yes

Replace U250.
Is the 1.9V
present at
R266 as indicated?

Check Q252 and


Q200.

No

Is the 1.9V
present at
R265 as indicated?

Check Q252 and


Q200.

Replace U250.
Replace U250.

Yes

No

Replace U250.

Yes
No

Is the PRESC
RF level at
C227 as indicated?

Yes

Is the steering
line voltage
VCTRL 0V or
13V?

Is the steering
line voltage
VCTRL 0V or
13V?

Yes

Is the PRESC
RF level at
C227 as indicated?

Yes

No

No

Yes

No
Replace U250.

Is the LO RF
level at C253
about 0dBm?
Is the Tx RF
level at C254
about 0dBm?

No
Replace U250.

Yes

Yes

Yes
Tx VCO OK.

Are the bias


voltages of
Q251 as indicated?

No

Check Q251 and its


bias circuitry.

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for VCO

Are the bias


voltages of
Q304 as indicated?

No
Check Q304 and its
bias circuitry.

Yes
Rx VCO OK.

Maintenance: PassPort Trunking Troubleshooting Chart

3-33

3.14 PassPort Trunking Troubleshooting Chart


Start

Check Radio Operation on a


Non PassPort Zone with a
Conventional Personality without
the Option Board Enabled

No

OK?
Yes

Check Radio PassPort


Programming using CPS

Check Switched Battery


and Vdd from Radio on PTCB

No

OK?

Yes
Check Radio PassPort
Programming using CPS
Yes
Rx
Demod on
J601-6

No

Yes
Install and Reprogram a
new PassPort Trunking
Controller Board

No

Tx Mod
on
J601-10?

Yes

Repair Radio

3-34

Maintenance: Keypad Troubleshooting Chart

3.15 Keypad Troubleshooting Chart

Disconnect and
reconnect 18-pin flex

OFF

ON
End

Display

IF STILL
OFF

START

Disconnect and
reconnect 40-pin flex

OFF

Keypad
LED

ON

Maintenance: 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

3-35

3.16 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts


PTT

Press PTT. Red


LED does not light
up.

INT
AUDIO

NO

J403 Audio at
Pin 2 & Pin 3.

Audio at
Audio PA (U420)
input
(C447).

YES

YES

NO

PTT U409
Pin 53
low?

Check
Audio PA
(U420).

YES

NO

Check
PB504.

Audio from Pin 41


ASFIC, U404?

Check Spk. Flex


Connection.

Press PTT
Q502-2 High?

NO

YES

No
YES

Audio at
Pin 2
U404?

Check
Q502-2
voltage.

YES
YES
Audio from Pin F4,
HC, U851?

NO

Check ASFIC
U404.

EXT
PTT

YES

LED should
light up.

Radio could
not PTT
externally.

LED
Q502,R501
OK?

No
Replace Faulty
Component.

NO

Audio at
Pin E4
U851?

J403
OPT_SEL_1 &
OPT_SEL_2
Pin 8 & 9
low?

YES
Check HC
U851.

NO

YES

EXT
SPKR
J403 Pin 9 low?
Pin 8 high?

NO

Check U351
LV ZIF.

Check
Accessories

Check
Accessories.

U409
Pin 52, 6
low?

NO

YES

ASFIC U404 Pin


14 & 15 high?

NO

YES

Check MCU.

See FGU
Troubleshooting
chart.

Check
U404.

YES
Check
U420 Audio PA.

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Controller (Sheet 1 of 2)

3-36

Maintenance: 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

MCU Check.

Power Up
Alert Tone
OK?

Before replacing MCU,


check SPI clock, SPI
data, and RF IC
select.

Not able to program RF Board


ICs.

YES

NO

Speaker
OK?

NO Replace Speaker.

YES

YES
U409 EXTAL=
7.3728 MHz?

Read Radio OK?

YES

NO

U201 Pin 19
16.8 MHz.

NO

NO

Check
Setup.

Reprogram the
correct data.

See FGU
Troubleshooting.

YES

NO
5V at U202?
3.3V at U203?

7.5V at
Pin 3/5 U202?
4/3.3V at Pin 1
U203.

YES

YES

U409 Reset
Pin 94 High?

NO

NO Check Q400.

Replace
U202/U203.

Check any short to


SWB+,
Vdda or Vddd.

YES
MCU is OK.

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Controller (Sheet 2 of 2)

Maintenance: 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

3-37

START

Bad SINAD.
Bad 20dB Quieting.
No Recovered Audio

Audio at
pin 27 of
U351?

Yes

Check Controller.

No
Spray or inject 1st IF into XTAL
Filter.
IF Freq: 109.65 MHz

Check Q350 bias circuitry for faults

Yes
Audio heard?

Rotate Freq. Knob


No
Check 2nd LO Control
Voltage at R365
No

Activity
on U351
pin 19?

Yes

VCO locked?
Check controller
Yes
No

No
Check FGU

16.8 MHz
check at pin
21 of U351?

Yes

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 1 of 2)

Before replacing U351, check


2nd VCO Q350. Check VCO O/P
level, C385, C387

3-38

Maintenance: 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

Inject RF into J101

Trace IF signal from


L353 to U352.
Check for bad XTAL
filter

Yes

IF Signal at
L353?

Is the level of the


IF signal of the
output of U352 as
indicated?

No

No

Yes

Before replacing
U351, check U351
voltages; trace IF
signal path

No

1st LO O/P
OK?
Locked?

RF Signal at
pin 8 of U301?

Yes

Check FGU

Check U301, R320,


R321, R322.

Yes
No

Is the biasing of
U352 OK?

Yes
RF Signal at
C317?

Yes

Replace filter
FL301
No

No or
weak RF

Are the
AGC voltages
without RF as
indicated?

No
Check U302,
U350, and CR301

Yes

Is R5 present?

Yes
Check RF amp
(Q302) Stage.

RF Signal at
CR300?

No or
weak RF

Yes

Replace
U352

No
Yes

RF Signal at
the input of
FL300?

Replace
FL300

Check Q210, U201


(pin 48) voltages
and U247

No
Check harmonic filter L101 &
L102 CR101, CR102, and
CR300

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Receiver (Sheet 2 of 2)

Maintenance: 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts

3-39

START

Low Power

Check C163,
C127, and
C142 for open
circuit.

No

No Power

No Power out or Low


Power.

Yes
Replace
parts.

Replace
F501.

No

No

Is the fuse
F501 OK?

Is overall
radio current
between 0.8 and
1.3 A when
transmitting?

No
Check L104, L105, C120,
CR101 for open circuit.

Yes

Is there a
short circuit
after C113?

Yes
Yes
Is the
voltage at pin 4 of
U102 between 2V
and 5.6V?

No

Yes

Replace
Q101

No

Is the voltage
at R105 and
C116 between
1.8V and
2.2V?

Yes

Is the voltage
at pin 32 of
U102 between
6V and 9V?

No

Yes
Replace
U101.

No

Is the voltage at
pins 6, 5, 8, 9 of
U101 between
5.5V and 7.5V?

Yes

Is the
voltage at pin 24
of U102 between
2V and 5V for High
Power, 0V for
Low Power?

Troubleshoot VCO

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Transmitter

Yes

No

Replace
U102.

Find and remove


short circuit from
antenna switch or
harmonic filter.

3-40

Maintenance: 900 MHz Troubleshooting Charts


START

3.3V at U201
pins 5, 20, 34
& 36.

Start

Yes

VCO is OK.

Check D201, D202,


C244, C245, C246 &
C247.

Yes

Is Tx signal
present at the PA
driver IC, U101?

No

Resolder or
replace U205.

YES
NO

Is U201 Pin 47
AT = 13 VDC

No

Is resonator
FL202
soldered
OK?

Resolder or
replace U206.

NO

NO
YES

+5V at U201
Pins
13 & 30?

YES

Is resonator
FL201 soldered
OK?

No

Check the 4.6V


biasing circuitry
and pin 28 of U201.

Troubleshoot the
Synthesizer.

Check 5V
Regulator.

Is
the 4.6V VSF
voltage present
at pins 3, 18, &
14 of U250?

Are the
waveforms
at Pins 14
&15 of U201
rectangular?

NO

Yes

Yes

Is
16.8MHz
signal at
U201 pin
23?

YES

Replace
U201.

NO
No
Is the 4.6V
Check the 4.6V
VSF voltage
biasing circuitry
present at pins
and
pin 28 of U201.
3, 18, & 14 ofCheck Y201, C235,
U250? C237, C236, CR203
& R211.

Yes
Are Waveforms
at Pins 14 & 15
triangular?
YESIs TRB pin 19
of U250 low?
NO

Is TRB pin 19
of U250 high?

No

Is pin 2
(AUX3) of
U201 high?

Yes

Is U201 Pin 28
at 4.6 VDC?

NO

Yes
NO

Replace U201.
Is the 1.9V
present at
R266 as indicated?

Check Q252 and


Q200.
YES

No

Is there a short
between Pin 47 Replace
and
U250.
Pins 14 & 15 of
U201?

NO

Troubleshoot the
Synthesizer.

No

YES
Remove
Shorts.

Is RF level at
U201 Pin 32
Is the PRESC
as
indicated?
RF level at
C227 as indicated?

If L203, C227 & C228


NO
are OK, then see VCO
Yes Is the steering
troubleshooting chart.
line voltage
VCTRL 0V or
13V?

YES

Are
C226, R209,
R210, L204, C231,No
Replace U250.
C801, C802, C803,
C804, C805, C225,
C218, R216, and
R217 OK?

NO

Yes
Check uP U409
Troubleshooting
Is the steering
Chart.
line voltage
VCTRL 0V or
13V?

Yes
No

Is pin 3
NoDo
Pins 7,8 & 9(AUX4) of
U250 low?
of U201 toggle
when channel is
changed?

Yes

Check programming
lines between U409
and U201
Pins
7,8 & 9.
Is the
1.9V
No
present at
R265as indicated?

Replace U250.

Replace U250.

Yes

NO

YES

No

Yes

Is 16.8MHz
Signal at
U201 Pin 19?

YES

Yes

Check
L200.

Check U24
L202.

No

YES
5V
at pin 6 of
D201.

NO

YES

Visual
check of the
Board OK?

NO

Correct
Problem.

No

Is LO signal
present at the
mixer IC U301?

YES
Check Q252 and
Q200.

Is
Replace U250.
information
from P U409
correct? No

YES
Is the PRESC
RF level at
C227 as indiReplace U201 cated?

Yes

Yes

No

No

Is the Tx RF
NO
level at C254
about 0dBm?

Is the LO RF
level at C253
about 0dBm?

Replace or
resolder
defective
components.

No
Replace U250.

Yes

Yes
YES
Replace U201. Yes
Tx VCO OK.

Are the bias


voltages of
Q251 as indicated?

No

Check Q251 and its


bias circuitry.

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for VCO

Are the bias


voltages of
Q304 as indicated?

Yes
Rx VCO OK.

No
Check Q304 and its
bias circuitry.

Troubleshooting Flow Chart for Synthesizer