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building construction i

(bld 60303)

EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION: REPORT


TENGKU SYAKIRA BINTI TENGKU ASMADI
PREMDYL SINGH SHADAN
MUHAMMAD SHEIK IRFAAN YADUN
MELANIE SOON YU XIN
CARLSON KO
BRANDON LIAW JUN QUAN
LEEMUL DEV NATHOO
MUHAMMAD NAZMI BIN KAMARULZAMAN

TUTOR: MOHAMED RIZAL MOHAMED

0323079
0321979
0319353
0322327
0319564
0323467
0326878
0322251

table of content

01

1 INTRODUCTION

02

2 SITE & SAFETY

04

3 PRELIMINARIES WORK

12

4 FOUNDATION

16

5 SUPERSTRUCTURE

20

6 DOORS & WINDOWS

31

7 ROOF

36

8 SUMMARY

44

1.0. Introduction to Project (TENGKU SYAKIRA BINTI TENGKU ASMADI)


1.1. Introduction to Site
2.1. Worker Safety (TENGKU SYAKIRA BINTI TENGKU ASMADI)
2.2. Site Safety
2.3. Plant and Machineries (PREMDYL SINGH SHADAN)
3.0. Preliminaries Work (MUHAMMAD SHEIK IRFAAN YADUN)
3.1. Setting Out and Earthwork
4.0. Foundation Introduction (MELANIE SOON YU XIN)
4.1. Shallow Foundation
4.2. Deep Foundation
5.1. Beams and Columns (BRANDON LIAW JUN QUAN)
5.2. Slab
5.3. Wall (CARLSON KO)
5.4. Stair
6.1. Doors (LEEMUL DEV NATHOO)
6.2. Windows
7.0. Roof Introduction (MUHAMMAD NAZMI BIN KAMARULZAMAN)
7.1. Roof Types and Construction Process
7.2. Other Roof Types and Materials
8.0. Summary (PREMDYL SINGH SHADAN)
8.1. Reference

3.
4.
5.
7.
8.

12.
13.
16.
17.
19.
20.
24.
26.
29.
31.
34.
36.
38.
43.
44.
45.

introduction

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1.0 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT

Building Construction is a core module in semester 2 of Bachelor in Architectural Science. The module focuses on the
development of the understanding of the principles and practices of construction technology. This is the first project for the
module Building Construction, we were divided into groups and were given the task of selecting an ongoing construction site.
We are to document through visualimages, annotated sketches, and drawings, the construction process, methods, materials
and site context.
Through analysis of the site we are to explain:
Specifications of materials used
Dimensions of components
Standards of descriptions
Procedures in constructing the components
Through the compilation of information we are able to study the relationship between site and construction method.

introduction

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1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SITE

BANDAR SUNWAY 3-STOREY SHOP LOTS


The development is located in Bandar
Sunway, Petaling Jaya. Intended to be a
series of shoplots, the development is
developed by Crossborder Team Sdn Bhd,
and designed by KPK Architects. The
property type is a 3-storey building ideal for
offices and commercial shops .

SITE LOCATION

Upon arrival to the site, it is already in its final


stages of construction so we had to refer to
previous records of progress by the developer.
Figure 1.1 The Shop lots that is nearly completed.

BUKIT INTAN 3-STOREY LINK HOUSE


This development of about a few
contemporary 3-storey link houses is located
at Bukit Intan, Sri Petaling. It is developed for
Padu Properties and is actually built on old
houses that has been demolished. This 3storey link houses will stand out from the
houses of its surrounding due to its more
modern design approach.

Figure 1.2 Pre-rendered image of the house.


Website: http://padu.com.my/gallery-category/01/

During our site visit, the site is still on


superstructure construction process as well as
door and windows installation process.

SITE LOCATION

site & safety

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2.1 WORKER SAFETY

Introduction Safety in a construction site is vital to ensure that every


construction worker remains uninjured while working on the site. There are
many scenarios while working on site that can be hazardous to the workers,
however safety isn't always a priority.

PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT


Helmet: Shields user from falling items that could potentially
cause head wounds.

Consistently, 1 in 10 construction workers were harmed while working on site.


Somewhere around 2002 and 2012, 19.5% of injuries came from workers from
construction site.

Safety glasses: Secures the users eyes as the eyes are an


important sensitive organ. It must be worn particularly when the
user is utilising hardware to cut or smoothen materials.

The first step of ensuring this number goes down is to force workers to take
their safety into consideration by wearing various kinds of construction gears.

Steel toed boots: Protects the users feet from piercing their foot
through sharp objects that are scattered on the ground.
Harness: Must be worn and used at whatever point the user is at
a high working level or stage. It needs to have a tie-off point to
save the client from falling incredible heights.
Gloves: Worn when taking care of apparatus and materials to
shield the hands from sharp or unpleasant edges.
Face shields: Shield the face from any sparkles when apparatus
is utilised to cut the materials.
Ear protection: Prevents additional hearing loss due to the noise
produced everyday in the construction site.
Dust mask: Reduces damaged to our respiratory system caused
by dusts on the construction site.

Figure 1.3 Common types of safety gears one should always have during
construction. Some are required only with specific jobs like face shields and
harness. (Image from reference)

site & safety

TENGKU SYAKIRA BINTI TENGKU ASMADI 0323079

2.1 WORKER SAFETY

PROBLEMS & IMPROVEMENTS (SITE VISIT)


Safety is the main key to create a workflow that is smooth and consistent. The safety rules applied in a construction site are there to
create an environment that isn't in potential danger. These rules
are not hard to follow. The workers decision to follow or to take
dangerous risks is needed to be thought of throughly before taking
action.
Firstly, the head of the site being safety supervisors need to
enforce regulations with the workers about safety. The rules
should apply as soon as they begin their job and step into the site.
60% of construction workplace injuries occur within the
employees first year of employment.
Besides that, new workers should be given a thorough safety orientation explaining the safety issue and hazards from beginning of
construction to the end. Excuses to not follow the safety rules as
they want to save time should lead to serious action such as suspension or expulsion. That should not be practiced as shortcuts
have a higher probability of causing injuries in the construction
site. Taking shortcuts or chances is not an option.
Safe handling of electricity on site should be handled only in the
electric room locked to only be entered by one to three relevant
person maximum. The electric room should be free from other
irrelevant materials which flammables, equipment and/or tools. All
cords should be grounded, panels should be covered, extension
cords need to be heavy duty and in good condition and wires
should not be stretched around corners, across roads, between
doorways or around wet areas.

Figure 1.4 This image from our site shows clearly that rules and regulation regarding
protection gears are not enforced and worker safety are not taken into utmost consideration.

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site & safety

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2.2 SITE SAFETY

FIRE PROTECTION

MEDICAL FIRST AID KIT

SIGN BOARD & HOARDING

In case of any fire incidents, the developer


would always wanted the fire to be extinguished as soon as possible as this allows
the structural work to remain strong so that
repairing work would be unessessary.

Injuries are always common at a


construction site. For a minor injury, first aid
kit is used. This mobile first aid kit should be
available on site. Moreover, this also allows
first hand treatment to be applied before
one goes to the hospital in terms of more
severe injuries.

Signage:

There are several types of common apparatus that can be placed on site and used in
small fire cases such as:

One of the requirements


of a construction site in
Malaysia is to have an
information boards on
who is involved in the
construction project.
The signage will lists the
municipal authority such
as MBPJ, name of
project, developers, architects, engineers, supplier,
contractors and finally the
referral number.

Figure 1.5 Fire extinguisher, fire hose reel & fire hydrant.

Fire extinguisher: In case of any fire


incidents, the fire extinguisher should be
present on site to prevent the fire from
spreading. One of the fire hazards is the
machinery and wood on site.
Fire hose Reel: Easy access to pipes that
connect to fire hydrants to allow water to
flow from hydrant to specific area on site.
Fire hydrant: Access to main point of water.
Used when to put out fires or in need of
water during construction stage.

Figure 1.6 A typical first aid kit. (Image from reference)

Figure 1.7 The signage from our


Bandar Sunway site.

This allows the public to


know what is being built
there.
Hoarding:
Hoardings are basically
metal safety barricade
that protects the construction site to the public. It
should be more than 1.8
meters and continuous. It
should also have an
entrance with security.

Figure 1.8 Blue colored hoardings


allows for visibility.

site & safety

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2.3 PLANT & MACHINERIES

CONSTRUCTION REGULATION FOR PLANT & MACHINERIES


- Implementation of construction regulations are the responsibility of the project supervisor.
- The project supervisor ensures that:
(a) safe and suitable access ways are provided for transport vehicles, earth-moving or
materials-handling machinery or locomotives and workers.
(b) Display of time schedule for all at site available for viewing.
(c) to ensure that traffic and pedestrian routes are organised and controlled.
(d) plant & machinery is maintained and certified.
(e) operators are trained.
- Control measures to ensure safety on site:
(a) Plan routes
(b) Limit number of vehicles allowed on site at a time
(c) Set appropriate speed limit
(d) Minimize moving on reverse
(e) Provide signage and instruction
(f) Provision and use of high visibility clothing
(g) Provision of appropriate lightning
(h) Use of appropriate Safe System of Work Plan
(i) Use of beacons/ convex mirrors/ reverse alarm and cameras
Figure 1.8 & Figure 1.9 Examples of machineries at
Bandar Sunway site

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2.3 PLANT & MACHINERIES

EARTH MOVING AND EXCAVATING


EQUIPMENT
- Also known as heavy equipment.
- Specially designed for executing
earthwork operations.
- Usually used and chosen through the
following factors that are held by the site:
(a) Quantities of material to be moved
(b) The available time to complete the task
(c) Job conditions.
(d) Soil types, the swell and compaction
factors that are present on site
- Planning for Earthwork Equipment :
1. Determines the suitable class of
equipment for earthwork.
2. Determines the number of equipment
needed for the project to carry out the
given quantity.

TYPES OF EARTH MOVING AND EXCAVATING EQUIPMENT


Excavators:

Back Hoe:

- Also known as diggers.

- A piece of excavating equipment (also known as shovel pull)


mainly used to dig holes in grounds, smoothen uneven
ground, make trenches or help uproot trees.

- Used on site mainly for the digging of trenches,


holes and foundation.
- Excavator consists of a boom, stick, bucket and
cab on a rotating platform known as the house.
- Licensed users sit in the house which sits atop an
undercarriage with tracks or wheels.
- Excavators can also be used for:
(a) Material Handling
(b) Brush cutting with hydraulic attachments
(c) Demolition
(d) General landscaping
(e) Heavy lift
(f) Mining (open-pit mining)
(g) River dredging
(h) Driving piles

- Capable of exerting high tooth pressure, when excavating


stiff material which normally cant be excavated by dragline.
- For example, when excavating trenches, it is used to
excavate below the natural surface on which it rests. Its
unique feature is the ability to control the depth of digging.
- The segment of the arm nearest to the vehicle is known as
the boom whereas the segment which conveys the basin is
known as the bucket.
- The boom is attached to the vehicle through a pivot, which
allows the arm to move left and right, generally of around 200
degrees.

3. Determines the number of associated


equipment required to support the main
equipment.

Figure 1.12 Backhoe-loader basic parts


Figure 1.10 Unmanned excavator.

Figure 1.11 Backhoe-loader.

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2.3 PLANT & MACHINERIES

TRANSPORTING VEHICLES - TRUCKS & HAULING EQUIPMENT

TYPE OF TRUCKS & HAULING EQUIPMENT

- Also known as haulers.

Dump Trucks:

- Can operate under most conditions that include roadways, railways or


no road conditions.

- Hauling equipment that are fitted with automatic unloading devices.

- Usually used for transportation of building materials from distributor to


site, carriage and disposal of excavated earth and the haulage of heavy
construction equipment.
- Haulage can be categorised into two types:
1. On Highway Vehicle- Used on public highways/ roads
2. Off Highway Vehicle- Designed to be used on construction sites

- Mainly used for earth moving with a maximum capacity around 53 tonnes.
- Normally loaded by manual labourers which include showering or loaders.
- Many types of dump trucks: rear (on site), side and bottom
- Rear dump trucks are used because:
(a) they have a strong built body which would not flip over while unloading
big loads
(b) suitable for hauling wet clay, sand, gravel, quarry rocks, etc.
(c) saves time, energy and efficiency while
dumping.

Figure 1.14 Dump truck.


Figure 1.13 Dump truck diagram showing the hydraulic powered unloading device.

site & safety

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2.3 PLANT & MACHINERIES

HOISTING EQUIPMENT

TYPE OF TYPES OF HOISTING EQUIPMENT

- Type of machine mainly used for lifting heavy things.

Mobile Cranes:

- Heavy things are transported to places through hoist, wire ropes or


chains.

- Specifically mounted on mobile units in either crawler type or wheel type.

- Uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage thus


can carry more weight than an average man could carry.
- Considered the most important equipment on site due to its capability of
carrying tonnes of weight at a time.

- Crane used on site is mounted on wheels therefore, truck cranes have


higher mobility.
- Mobile Cranes can only reach a limit of 107 metres therefore adequate
for some types of structures.
- The mobile crane can work in muddy terrain but requires good ground
conditions
- Mobile cranes have safety issues as they lack safety devices and/or
limited switches to prevent overloading.

Figure 1.16 A 25 ton mobile crane.

Figure 1.15 Basic parts of a 25 ton mobile crane.

site & safety

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2.3 PLANT & MACHINERIES

EARTH COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

CONCRETING EQUIPMENT

- Equipment used to compact material such as soil to increase its


density for the usage of construction on site.

- Mainly used for weighing and mixing large quantity of concrete constituents.

- Compactors can also be used in landfill tasks.

- Concrete is cement, aggregate (sand and gravel) and water mixed


together and then deposited and permitted to solidify.

TYPE OF TRUCKS & HAULING EQUIPMENT


Smooth-Wheel Rollers:

- Operation involved in concrete production batching, mixing, handling


and transportation, placing, finishing curing.

- Suitable for compacting gravel, sand, and other materials.

TYPE OF CONCRETING EQUIPMENT

- These rollers usually consists of one wheel at the front and two at the back.

Cement Mixer:

- The rear wheel are usually larger in diameter and the front one is usually
wider.

- Device that smoothly combines cement, aggregate, and water to form


concrete.
- Typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components.
- Portable concrete mixers are often used so that the concrete can be made at
the construction site, providing the workers ample time to use the concrete
before it hardens.

- Weight of a roller can roughly be from 5 to 15 tonnes (depending on the size


of rollers.)
- The weight of rollers can be altered or increased by filling water or sand in
the hollow cylinder itself.

Figure 1.17 A Smooth-wheel roller

- Capacity: 200 l/batch (small mixers)


200-750 l/batch (large mixers)

Figure 1.18 A Smooth-wheel roller side elevation.

Figure 1.19 Cement mixer

preliminaries

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3.0 PRELIMINARIES WORK

Preliminaries work are important to indentify what will be required to execute the
construction project as well as going into the specific that should be known.
It is also important as it allows contractors and planners to identify all the
important details which allows the construction project to run smoothly. It covers
numerous different aspect that requires careful attention.

SITE BOUNDARY

Usually, preliminaries work in construction covers establishment of site layout,


setting out and earthwork and excavation. It also covers what happen next in
regards to workers housing and site office as well as storage area.

Figure 3.1 A simplified site plan that shows the site boundary in red color.

Boundaries are the first thing to be identified in the preliminary stage of a


construction project. This allows the site to be clearly identified between
different lands. With such boundary marked clearly, hoarding and signage
are placed for safety and security purpose that seperate the site and the
public area (outside).

preliminaries

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3.1 SETTING OUT AND EARTHWORK

SITE PREPARATION & CLEARANCE

SETTING OUT

Site preparation is the beginning phase of construction-related activity on site.


It involves clearance and excavation of the site to make it more suitable and
easy to proceed with the construction work. This process of clearance involves
clearing the land away from plants such as trees, shrubs and rubbish and
removal of other obstructions which are not designated or permitted to remain.

A building is set out in order to clearly define the outline of the excavation
and the centre line of the walls, so that construction can be carried out
exactly according to the plan.

Figure 3.2 Excavator clearing and flattening the


ground.

Figure 3.3 An image of flat ground after site clearance


is done. (Image from reference)

The activities involved in the clearance of the site (earth work) do not considered
as the construction phase since no structural tasks has launched yet. When the
commencement of physical components are installed on site, this show the
terminate phase of the earth work activity.

After having cleared the site, then begin the commencement of the setting
out of the building. From now start the task of positioning the building in the
correct position shown on the plan. Great emphasis should be put on this
especially if the building has required planning permission, local authority
building inspector will certainly check this and if found to be in the wrong
position, this could have a big impact to the construction management
since they have the right to ask for demolition of the structure.
Tools Required:
- Long tape measure
- String Lines
- Timber profile
- Stakes
- Site square

Figure 3.4 Setting out.

EXCAVATIONS
During the site clearance process, excavation may also be required before the
setting out process. An example of excavation carried out during this period are
rock excavation and earth excavation when the soil condition is unsuitable for
construction. The excavation process is done to stabilize the ground to ensure
the construction run smoothly.

Figure 3.4 Site square mounted on tripod.

The first task is to set up a base line


from which the entire building can be
set out. After the base line has been
set out, the primary lines of the
building are set out and set apart with
a picket. The setting outlines go about
as a limit of which the building must
not surpass. Site square is utilized to
guarantee that all the right angle and
lengths is correct and has been set up.

preliminaries

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3.1 SETTING OUT AND EARTHWORK

EARTHWORK
EXCAVATION

FENCING

Excavation is one of the major preliminary


activities for a construction process. It is used in
construction to create building foundations and
other civil construction like roads. Some of the
different processes used in excavation include
trenching, digging and site development.

Fencing is done after the setting out process.


Temporary fencing is used around the site
boundary as a safety and security measure. The
fencing also include warnings and safety
signage to be attached to remind people around
the site to be more careful. Blue color metal
fencing is always used as it is highly visible and
strong yet flexible (does not break easily).

Each of these processes requires unique


techniques, tools and machinery to get the job
done right.

WASH-THROUGH

Figure 3.9 Wash-through trench. (Image from reference)

Figure 3.7 A 4 meter blue fencing around the


perimeter of the site.

Figure 3.5 & Figure 3.6


Excavator (top) & Backhoe (bottom) doing some
excavation process. Dump truck is usedto fill
unwanted earth materials.

Figure 3.8 An example of a warning message


to the public.

Wash-through is an area where provision are


made to wash the machineries which are leaving
the construction site, to get rid of the soil and
mud accumulated so that the public road wont
get contaminated and dirty.
Usually there will be a person holding a high
pressured water hose to clean up any
machineries that goes out. The trench allows for
the excess water to be collected and secured.
Moreover, the trench allows for tires to be
cleaned more effectively. Sometimes trench
might not be used and that a different system is
used.

preliminaries

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3.1 SETTING OUT AND EARTHWORK

OTHERS
SCAFFOLDING

STORAGE

UTILITIES

Scaffolding are temporary structures used to


support work crews and materials to aid in the
construction process. The basic components of
scaffolding are tubes, couplers and boards
which are then joined together to form a
formwork structure.

Storage area are used to keep safe various


building materials from unwanted damage such
as from water and weather effects or stolen.
Figure 3.12 Materials
are placed neatly
in an indoor
environment.

Construction project always required continuous


power and water supply for it to run smoothly.
The power and water supply are connected to
the respective city power and water supply or
bring a generator to site.
There are other example of utilities for example
the mobile toilets which are required for the
workers there.

Figure 3.10 Scaffolding on the Bandar Sunway


shop lots construction site.

Figure 3.11 Scaffolding used to construct


the brick wall on Bukit Intan site.

SITE OFFICE

WORKERS QUARTER

Site office Is a private room where the


responsible party of the construction project
such as architect, engineers, quantity surveyor
gathered for meetings and where important
documents such as construction details,
progress work and material records are kept.

Workers
Quarter
are
the
temporary
accommodation usually built for the foreign
worker. It is a common practice in Malaysia for a
temporary shelter to be built rather than having a
more proper mobile container shelter that is
used in developed countries.

However in our construction site, the site office


occupies the first floor of the building that is
being constructed upon.

The shelter are built using temporary material


like corrugated iron sheet, plywood.

foundation

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4.0 FOUNDATION INTRODUCTION

Having a strong and proper foundation is the most important part of a


superstructure, as it is the support and anchor that transmits the load safely
into the earth. A good foundation accomodates the structure and it varies from
earth elements. There are several types of foundation with its own advantages
and disadvantages along with its limitations. All foundations settle to some
extent as the earthmaterials beneath them adjust to loads of the building.

TYPES OF FOUNDATION

SETTLEMENT
Settlement usually refers to the distortion or distruption of the structure of the
buildings or some part of it due to several reasons:
- Unequal compression of its foundation
- Soil condition

TYPES OF SETTLEMENT

DEEP FOUNDATION
SHALLOW FOUNDATION (SITE)

Uniform settlement:
Where foundation settlement occurs at roughly the same rate throughout all
portions of a building.
Figure 4.1 A shallow spread footing
at site.

Differential settlement:
Settlement that occurs at differing rates between different portions of a
building.

SOIL INVESTIGATION

Figure 4.2 A diagram that shows how the forces act upon the
structure as a whole in which foundation requires to support
the overall loads.

A soil investigation has to be made


in order to obtain the information
on the physical properties of soil;
to confirm the suitability for the
foundation base as it influences
heavily the decision and types of
foundation to use.
Figure 4.2 An section of soil sample.

foundation

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4.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATION (FROM REFERENCE)

Shallow foundation is employed when on stable soil, which the superstructure is then directly built on top
the foundation. To distribute the strucutral loads over a wide horizontal area at a shallow depth below
ground level. The maximum depth of the shallow footing is 3 metres.

TYPES OF SHALLOW FOUNDATION

Strong enough to
prevent loads
shearing through
the foundation.

Able to withstand
opposing forces
that acts upon the
foundation; weight
of building and
resistance of soil.

SPREAD FOOTING

Stability; ensure
the foundation
does not overturn.
Loads should be
placed centrically
on the foundation.

STRAP FOOTING

RAFT/MAT FOOTING

foundation

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4.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATION (FROM SITE)

SPREAD FOOTING
Individual or isolated shallow foundations that is used to support columns which
in turns support the whole structure.
It is generally a rectangular shape made of concrete, largerin lateral dimensions
than the column it supports as it is used to distribute the load of the column to the
footing.
Figure 4.3 Spread footing formworks with
rebars already installed.

SPREAD FOOTING CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

Site plan and perimetre


is pin point. 1 metre hole
in soil is dug to mark the
placement of foundation.

Aligned wooden planks form


square shaped base for foundation in the 1 metre hole,
and held together by wooden
sticks that penetrate into the
ground, for the formation of
concrete pads.

Reinforcement bars are


placed into the designated
formwork.
Stump
reinforcement is also
erected and this acts as a
structural support for the
columns.

Additional ties will be added


onto the formwork if needed
for support. Like the formwork, it is made of timber.

Figure 4.4 Spread footing with poured


concrete in curing process.

Concrete will undergoes


the curing process of 2
weeks after concrete is
poured. Then only can the
formwork be removed.

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4.2 DEEP FOUNDATION (FROM REFERENCE)

Deep foundation extend dwn through unstable soil towards the bedrock in which it will transfer the building loads to it well below the superstructure. It is much
deeper than shallow foundation and thus requires a different method as well as equipments to establish and construct.
Deep foundation is also suitable for taller building such as skyscrapers as it provides a better balance and support for high structures. Deep foundation is also
known as pile foundation.

PILE FOUNDATION
Pile foundation is a system comprises of
end-bearing or friction piles, tie beams and pile
caps. The piles are long structures resembling
columns that extend deep into the ground.
There are many types of piling which made of
different materials.
Figure 4.7 Pile driver installing the
piling underground. (Image from
reference)

Figure 4.5 Different types of pile foundation.

Figure 4.6 Different sets of pile caps.

Pile caps is a thick concrete structure that is used to support and stabilize the
pile foundations. One pile caps allows for a few pile to be fitted together. This
allows for the piling to support and distribute the load more evenly while at the
same time give stability to the piles.

Figure 4.8 Pile Assembly procedure. (Image from reference)

superstructure

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5.1 BEAMS AND COLUMNS (FROM REFERENCE)

BEAM
Beam is the horizontal member of a structure, carrying transverse loads. Beam is rectangular in cross-section and they also carry the floor slab or the roof slab
in terms of structure. Beams transfer all the loads including its self-weight to the columns or walls. Beams work by resisting against bending and thus have to be
very strong.

TYPES OF BEAM

FIXED BEAM

CANTILEVER BEAM

CONTINUOUS BEAM

OVERHANGING BEAM

SIMPLY-SUPPORTED
BEAM

Beams that is fixed in


both side. Could witstand
lots of loads and are very
rigid in terms of structure.
Fixed beam is considered
the main types of beam
used in construction.

Beams that is only


supported and fixed on
one end, leaving the other
side free. Often used to
provide shelter from rain.

Beams that is supported


continously by more than
two columns. It is used
when longer span of
beam is required. Often
seen in bridge construction.

The overhanging beam


extend beyond the wall
and column support. It is
similar to cantilever beam
but is not fixed on one
end rather supported by
columns.

Simplest type of beam


system. The beam simply
stand on top of the wall or
column.
It
is
very
economical but its not
suitable for high loads.

UNIVERSAL BEAM

HOLLOW STEEL BEAM

TYPES OF BEAM MATERIALS

TIMBER JOIST

TIMBER BOX BEAM

CASTELLATED BEAM

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5.1 BEAMS AND COLUMNS (FROM SITE)

BEAM
REINFORCED CONCRETE (RC) BEAM
Reinforced concrete beams are designed to act together with longitudinal and
web reinforcement in resisting applied forces. Cast-in place concrete beams are
almost always formed and placed along with the slab they support. Because a
portion of the slab acts as an integral part of the beam, the depth of the beam is
measured to the top of the slab.
Advantages of RC beam:
- High relative strength.
- High toleration of tensile strain.
- Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, moisture and similar factor.
- Thermal compatibility to resist changing temperature and expansion.
- Highly durable and can withstand corrosion and sustained stress.

Figure 5.1 Reinforced Concrete beam.

Figure 5.2 Beam formworks before concrete


is poured in-situ.

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF RC BEAM

Starter bars are placed


on to the column.
Usually, the columns
and the beam is constructed and cast-in
situ at the same time.

The reinforcement bar


is fixed onto the
concrete beam. This
will give the beam the
strength and durability
for support.

Formwork is fixed for the


concrete beam. Typical
beam formwork is used
made out of timber. These
are temporary structure
for concrete casting.

Concrete is poured and it


needed to stay for a while
to be cured and then the
formwork is removed. The
curing process ensure
durability and resistance
to weathering effect.

Figure 5.3 Beam to column Figure 5.4 Sectional details of


beam formwork.
connection in reinforced
concrete structure.

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5.1 BEAMS AND COLUMNS (FROM REFERENCE)

COLUMN
A column is a very important structural component of a building. It is basically a vertical structural member as compared to beam which are horizontal member.
Columns supports beams which in turns transmit the load from ceiling slab and supporting walls, including its self-weight all the way to the foundation.
Columns maybe subjected to a pure compressive load.

TYPES OF COLUMN

STEEL COLUMNS

RC COLUMNS

TIMBER COLUMNS

CLASSICAL COLUMNS

RC COLUMN STRUCTURAL FAILURE

Elastic Instability:

Compression:

Reinforced concrete column is a compression


member and transfers the loads from structure
to the ground through foundations. So in a
sense, the whole building stands on the
columns. Most of the building failure happens
from the columns failure. These happens mostly
due to poor practice and construction rather than
design. Two types of structural failure are due to
compression and elastic instability.

This occurs usually on long


and slender columns and
could be subjected to
buckling or crushing due to
the lateral loads of the
slender structural member.

When RC columns are


axially loaded, the reinforcement materials and
the concrete experience
stress. When the loads are
too high compared to the
cross-sectional area of the
column,
the
concrete
columns will be crushed
due to material failure.

Figure 5.3 A concrete column


experiencing buckling. (Image
not from site)

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5.1 BEAMS AND COLUMNS (FROM SITE)

COLUMN
REINFORCED CONCRETE (RC) COLUMN
Reinforced concrete columns are rigid, relatively slender structural members
designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the
members. The concrete column that is built in our site was built along with the
concrete beam and slab.
Advantages of RC column:
-High strength which allows to carry heavy loads.
-Adequate tensile strength.
-High durability against weathering effects and fire.
-Low maintenance cost.
-Less deflection.
-Economical as a construction material.

Figure 5.4 Columns formwork on Bukit Intan 3-storey link


house site.

Figure 5.5 RC column and beam


alongside brick walls.

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF RC COLUMN

Starter bars are added


on top of the column
stump, which rests
upon the foundation.
The placement of the
bars
will
be
set
accordingly
to
the
construction drawing.

Fix the reinforcement


bar for the concrete
column. This will give
it the strength and
rigidity that is required
for a structural columns.

Concrete is poured
and then cured using
water with the duration of 7 days. This
will give it 50% more
strength than uncured
concrete. The formwork is removed once
the waiting time is
finished. The formwork is made out of
timber and is a
temporary structure.

Figure 5.6 Column formworks.

Figure 5.7 Finished RC columns.


Beams formwork can be seen.

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5.2 SLABS (FROM REFERENCE)

Slab is a horizontal plane in a building structure. It gives space as floor and cover as roof of a building or a structure. Slabs are plate structures that are
reinforceds to span either one or both direction of a structural bay. The material used for slabs are similar in that of beam and column. Nowadays, slabs are
more often made of concrete typically between 4 to 20 inches thick. Concrete slabs are highly durable and high tensile strength. Moisture is one of the
problem that could affect the properties of concrete slab and therefore, a damp proof membrane is neccessary and installed.

TYPES OF SLAB
- Simplest type of slab structure
- Even thickness throughout
- Reinforced in two or more direction
- Supported by columns alone without
any beams or girders
- Economical

SOLID FLAT PLATE

- Even thickness throughout


- Reinforced in one direction
- Supported by columns and
parallel supporting beams
- Stronger and able to withstand
higher load than solid flat plate
- Higher balance

BEAM AND SLAB

- Cast integrally with a series of


closely spaced joints
- Supported by parallel set of beams
- More suitable for heavy loads
- Allow for longer span compared to
the simpler slab system

JOIST/RIBBED SLAB

- Reinforced by ribs structure in two


direction
- Able to carry heavier loads
- Allow for longer span compared to
simpler slab system
- More expensive
- Aesthetic

WAFFLE FLAT SLAB

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5.2 SLABS (FROM SITE)

BEAM AND SLAB


- One-way slab
- Ratio of longer side to shorter side is
more than 2.
- Suitable and appropriate for moderate
load (not too heavy)
- Main tension reinforcement bars in
one single direction
- Load is carried perpendicular to the
direction of supporting beams if the slab
is placed on two parallel and opposite
beam.

Figure 5.8 A cast in-situ concrete slab for the ground floor.

Figure 5.9 Concrete slab diagram.

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF CONCRETE SLAB (GROUND FLOOR)

(image from reference)

(image from reference)

Reinforcement Bars:

Formwork:

Setting Phase:

Completion:

Steel reinforcement bars is placed


on ground (tied together with beam
if any). The rebar is usually welded
together to form a reinforcement
mesh. Service piping may also be
installed beforehand.

Formwork is fixed for the concrete slab.


The formwork is similar to the one used for
concrete column and beam in principle,
only that it is in larger scale. The formwork
is made of timber and is also a temporary
structure to shape the slab.

When concrete is poured into the


formwork, the surface need to be
even. This is checked by workers
who also levels any deficiency.

After the curing process is


completed which is about one to
two weeks, the formwork is
removed and the next step of
construction will proceed.

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5.3 WALLS (FROM REFERENCE)

Walls are a continuous vertical structure that encloses or divides an area of land.
They are a solid structure that support the superstructure of the buildings and
also separates spaces in the building. There are more than two type of walls
which are load bearing walls and also non-load bearing walls, but there are
listed to many kinds. In this project we are dealing with building walls and also
partition walls in the building.

FUNCTION OF WALL
Walls are the most important element of any building as they define the area,
enclose and seperate it from the exterior space. Moreover, they also
provide a lot of benefits and uses. Some of the function of walls include:
- Provide protection from harsh weather such as rain and cold temperature
- Provide insulation for the users in terms of sound and thermal
- Seperation of spaces
- Allows for privacy to be established
- Load-bearing purposes, support upper floors and roof.
- Aesthetics that improve building appearance

TYPES OF WALL
Some common types:

Figure 5.10 A masonry walls with piping on the


foreground at Bukit Intan 3-storey link house site.

Figure 5.11 Fully finished and painted walls


on the Bandar Sunway shop lots site.

As the exterior walls server as a protective layer


against the weather outside, their construction
should control the passage of heat, infiltration air,
moisture, water and sound. According to DK
Ching, the exterior skin that is applied to the wall
structure should also be resistant and durable to
weathering effects such as sun, wind and rain.
This exterior skin can refer to paints and
coatings.

- Concrete Walls
- Retaining Walls
- Masonry Walls
- Dry Walls
- Glass Walls
- Curtain Wall System

Figure 5.13 Curtain Wall System. (Image not from site)


Figure 5.12 Doors and windows must also be
considered and take notice when
constructing walls.

Figure 5.13 Precast Concrete Walls.


(Image not from site)

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5.3 WALLS (FROM SITE)

MASONRY WALL

CEMENT PLASTER

Masonry is the building of structures from individual units such as bricks laid
together and bounded together, usually from mortar. Masonry units may be
solid, hollow and comprise of many types of material such as bricks, stone,
marble, granites, concrete blocks, glass blocks etc... The durability and strength
of the masonry wall depends on the material used and the workmanship of the
workers.

Cement plaster is most suitable in brick


works. A mixture of suitable amount of
plaster, water, sand and also Portland
cement which need to be measured
accordingly to the amount will only
achieve a smooth and a perfect finish.
For the interior of the buildings, they will
add on an extra layer of gypsum plaster
shown on the Figure 5.16. Plaster also
will be able to use for internal detailing in
rooms.

Characteristic of masonry wall:


- Could be used as a load bearing, strong and durable
- Uses mortar to bound the individual units together
- Easy to construct and thus common method of making walls
- The materials such as bricks are very common
- Good sound, fire and thermal insulation, safety
- Aesthetics, highly flexible method in terms of application

TYPE OF MASONRY AT SITE

Figure 5.16 Example of cement plaster


layers on masonry unit. This method is
similarly applied at the site.

TYPE OF BONDING AT SITE

Bricks are used in this construction, it is a block or a single unit of a ceramic


material used in masonry construction. Apparently, bricks are laid or stack
together to form a brickwork using different kinds of mortar to hold the bricks
together and make a permanent structure.

Stretcher bond, or also known as


running bond, bond is one of the most
common, standard cavity walls.
Figure 5.14 A single masonry unit of
brick.

Figure 5.15 Mortar joint in between brick


layers.

Figure 5.17 Stretcher bond can be clearly seen.

5
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5.3 WALLS (CONSTRUCTION PROCESS FROM SITE)


Reference strings are placed to indicate
the first layer of brick wall construction.
This allows the placement of the bricks
to be in a straight line.

Bricks are placed accordingly following


the reference string. There should be
adequate spacing to account the mortar.
This spacing should be even distance
apart.

Figure 5.18 Typical spirit level which are easy to carry


and use. Also known as bubble level.

A parallel layer of bricks will then be placed in a


horizontal row in a uniform format including any
mortar that is laid with them. The Leaning soldier
course had been used for the brick walls to be
adjusted in times for the beam expansion. It also
allows for the placement of beams above.

6
Bricks are layered according to
the stretcher bond. Some bricks
need to be cut into queen-sized
bricks(half size) with chisel.
Mortar is applied in between the
bricks layer to bond them
together.

Spirit level is used so that everything is leveled and


straight. Straight wooden pegs are used to ensure
right angle of the wall corner. It is important that the
wall straightness is in high degree of accuracy and
workmanship.

Figure 5.19 Final layer of


bricks are slanted.

Final application of cement plastering followed by


skim coating which allows for smoother surface. The
final layer would be painting with white color or a thin
layer of timber feature wall for aesthetic.

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5.4 STAIRS (FROM REFERENCE)

Stairs are structures that provide access and movement points between
different floor levels. It links the floors of multi-storey buildings circlation
together. There are different variety of stairs, with straight flights, U Shape
Stairs, Quarter Landing Stairs and etc...

TYPES OF STAIRS

Gallery Ballustrade
Flight Ballustrade

Wall Rail

Base Rail

Winders

Shoe Rail

STRAIGHT-RUN
STAIR

Newel Post Open Rise

CIRCULAR
STAIR

HALF LANDING STAIR

SPIRAL
STAIR

DOUBLE WINDER
STAIR

Handrail

Closed Stringer

Balusters
Landing

Risers
Tread
Cut Stringer

WINDER STAIR
D Tread

Figure 5.20 Stairs terminology. (Image from reference)

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5.4 STAIRS (FROM SITE)

Our site contains L-shaped windling concrete stairs in the construction.


Concrete staircase has a strong structural unit and also a strong bond in the
whole unit building is made with reinforcement columns, and bars that are
stretch to get a definite shape.
The reinforcement bars are then stacked to withstand the weight of the bottom
and top of the stairs that cause heavy weights. The reinforcements in the stairs
are place that every start at the base have half inch and the base bar is then
connected with the rises bars.
Characteristic of L-shaped concrete stairs:

Figure 5.21 L-Shaped concrete stairs on


Bukit Intan site.

- Modern aesthetic appeal


- Visual barrier between floors; sense of privacy
- More efficient uses of space; more compact design of stair
- More complex to built than straight-run stairs
- Requires some kinds of support structure

Figure 5.22 The winder (diagonal steps) can


be seen on the stair construction.

Nosing Bars
Steel Reinforcement
Mesh

Steel Dowels

Beams
Figure 5.23 Stair
formwork.

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF THE STAIRS

Unlike columns
and beams,
formwork is
added firsthand.
Wooden stakes
are added as
bracing at about
300mm.

Steel Reinforcement bars are


placed into the
designated
formwork.

Stringer and riser


board are placed
and nailed
together onto the
framework. This
allows for riser
and thread of the
stairs to be
formed.

Figure 5.24 Details of reinforced


concrete stair.

Concrete is
poured from the
topside and it
gradually flow
and spread
evenly. It will be
left for 3 to 4
weeks to be
cured.

doors & windows

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6.1 DOORS (FROM REFERENCE)

A hinged, sliding, or revolving barrier at the entrance to a building or inside the


building. The main function of doors in a building is to serve as a connecting
link between the various internal parts. Doors also gives a sense of security
and privacy in which one can lock the door thus creating a barrier between the
indoor and the public outdoor spaces.

Figure 6.1 Terminologies of a typical door.

Size:
In general, a door must have the proper dimensions so as to allow the
movement of the largest through the door. The minimum widths for interior
doors, external doors and doors in public buildings such as hospitals, library,
are 800 mm, 1000 mm and 1200 mm respectively. Bigger doors are better to
be used on public area as it allows for more circulation space.

DOOR FRAMES
A door frame is the lining surrounding the door. It holds the hinge and it can be
either made of metal or timber.
Timber Door Frame:
It is made from rectangular sections
of timber. It consists of a head, two
jambs and sill.

Aluminium Frame:
Aluminium frames are relatively
cheap, lightweight, and does not
corrode. However as they are not so
good insulators of heat, synthetic
rubber or plastic thermal break are
used to insulate the door.

Figure 6.2 Timber door frame. (Image from


reference)

Figure 6.3 Aluminium door frame.

LINTELS
A lintel is a horizontal structural
block that spans a door or window in
a wall. Lintel can be made from
pressed steel, angle iron, I-beams,
concrete, and stone.

doors & windows

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6.1 DOORS (REFERENCE & SITE)

TYPES OF DOORS
SWINGING DOOR (SITE)

SURFACE SLIDING DOOR

Door turns on a hinge when a force is applied.


The door requires space in front and behind so
as to turn properly. It is very convenient for
entry and passage. However, they are not so
good at insulation of heat and noise. There are
two types of swinging door, single and double.

A sliding glass door is a single unit consisting of


two panel sections, one being fixed and one a
being mobile to slide open. There is no operating
space required in front or behind. Sliding door is
often constructed see through using glass. It is
often used as garden door.

Figure 6.8 Glass double swinging


door with aluminium frame.

Figure 6.4 Surface Sliding Door.


The track of the door can be seen.

FOLDING DOORS
Folding door consist of several panels that folds
flat against each other. The door does not require
as much operating space as the swinging door,
but it still does require some operating space.
Figure 6.9 Door hinges are used for
swinging door.

POCKET SLIDING DOOR

Figure 6.5 Folding Doors. (Image


from reference)

Figure 6.11 Single & double


swinging doors

ROLLER SHUTTERS (SITE)


Roller shutters are designed, manufactured
and fixed to withstand the worst wind
conditions. Metal curtains made from
galvanised steel are assembled as interlocking
slats in a rolled form. This increases the
strength of the door, and in case of damage,
the metal curtain can easily be replaced.

Door slides through a track, into and out of a


recess within the width of a wall. Door has a
finished view when fully opened. This type of
door is usually use where a normal swinging
door cannot be placed due to lack of space.

Figure 6.6 Horizontal Section of


pocket sliding door. The door is
in between the walls (non-bearing).

Figure 6.10 A stack


of aluminium frames
ready to be installed.

Figure 6.7 Section, front view.

Figure 6.12 Roller shutters are


commonly seen for commercial
buildings such as at Bandar
Sunway site.

doors & windows

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6.1 DOORS (FROM SITE)

SWINGING DOOR
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE

Mark the place where the door is going to be


installed on the ground. This will ensure the length
is correct as per the door size used.

Lintel is constructed on top of the


installed door frames. The lintel is made
out of special lintel bricks which is filled
with reinforcement steel bars and then
poured with concrete. This gives the door
strength against the load of the wall.

Hinges will be installed on the side of the


aluminium door frame. The position of
the hinges will be measured first according to detail drawing and then nailed to
keep it in position.

Doors will be installed on the frame. The


door is made of glass at Bandar Sunway
shop lots site. Locksets may also be
installed onto the door to give it the function of security.

The pre-fabricated aluminium door frame will be


placed onto the markings according to the
construction drawing.

doors & windows

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6.2 WINDOWS (FROM REFERENCE)

A window is an opening that is used to allow light and air inside through the
wall. It consist of the head, jamb, sill, subsill and sash. Before setting the
window, a rough opening is setted up. A rough opening is the framed opening
of a window. Framed opening have a header across the top and a sill plate
across the bottom. There are vertical trimmers between the headers and sill on
each side.
JAMBS are either of the two side members of the frame.
SASH refers to a fixed or mobile framework of the window where the glass
pane are placed.
CASING TRIM refers to the finished trim work consisting of head, jamb casing
and window sill.

TYPES OF WINDOWS
Casement:
Casement windows have opening
sashes that are side-hinged. They
swings outward. When opened, the
sashes are able to direct ventilation.
Figure 6.14 Casement door.

Awning:
Awning windows have the hinge on
the top of the frames.
Figure 6.15 A row of Awning windows
at our site.

Fixed:
Fixed windows have stationary sash.
This means it cant be opened and
are purely for viewing. Therefore it
doesnt have ventilation.
Figure 6.16 Fixed windows can also
be seen.

Sliding:
A sliding windows have to sashes
where at least one window slides
along a horizontal track.

Figure 6.13 Terminologies of different window frames.

Figure 6.17 Sliding windows.

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35

6.2 WINDOWS (FROM SITE)

ALUMINIUM WINDOW FRAME

TYPES OF WINDOWS AT SITE

Like aluminum door frame, their window frame counterparts are also cheaper,
lightweight and are corrosion resistant. They do not require much
maintenance which is suitable for a commercial building.

Awning:
Awning windows are one of the most
common windows found at site. The
material used are aluminium and could
provide 100% natural ventilation when
needed.
Fixed:

Figure 6.18 A piece of


pre-fabricated aluminium frame

Figure 6.19 Aluminium window frames installed on


a larger aluminium frame (multiple fixed windows).

Figure 6.20 Awning windows.

Fixed windows are also used extensively


for the facade of the building. Although it
cannot provide natural ventilation, it is
chosen for the design as it allows
businesses to display their products and
services clearly to the public through this
large fixed windows.

WINDOW INSTALLATION PROCEDURE

Figure 6.21 Fixed windows.

1. clean and wet the wall surface around the opening.


2. check the dimensions and spacing of galvanized straps.
3. check dimension for ram setting.
4. use of V-shaped timber wedges for positioning of window frames.
5. check the plumb, levelness and alignment of frame

Figure 6.22 Galvanised strap hinges.

Figure 6.23 Windows havent been installed yet


on the Bukit Intan houses site.

roof

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7.0 ROOF INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of the roof is to function as a sheltering element for the
interior spaces. Having a good roof is essential for safety of the users. There are
various roofing design as well as roofing system thats available
with each having their own advantages and constraints.

FUNCTION OF ROOF
The primary purpose of roof is to protect people and their possession
mainly protecting them from climate such as rain and hot (or cold) weather.
This can be done through:
Insulation
- To allow the temperature in the interior
spaces at a comfortable level.
- Retaining heat in cold weather or cool
air in hot weather.
Drainage
- The roof prevents rain or snow from
entering the interior spaces.

However, all roof should have the appropriate strength and stability. Like floor
systems, a roof must be structured to carry its own weight as well as the weight
of any attached equipment as well as the accumulated rain. The roof should also
be able to resist external forces such as wind.

- Drainage system is necessary to direct


the flow of such water away from the roof.
- Prevent damage caused by water.
Fire-Resistance
- Prevent fire from spreading adjacent
structures.
- Ensure user safety and structural integrity.
(Does not collapse immediately)

roof

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7.0 ROOF INTRODUCTION

TYPES OF ROOF

GABLE ROOF

HIP ROOF

DORMER ROOF

Pros: Easily direct flow of water away.


Cheaper and easy to construct.

Pros: More stable than gable roof. Sturdy &


durable.

Cons: Problematic in the presence of strong


wind with potential to collapse.

Cons: More expensive to build. Water leaks


may form due to additional seams.

Pros: Allows for windows to be placed on the


roof which makes the attic more open. This
gives natural ventilation.
Cons: More expensive & complex.

GAMBREL ROOF

FLAT ROOF

MONO-PITCHED ROOF

Pros: Extra living space in the attic due to


bigger volume. Simple to frame out.

Pros: Extra living open-space in the rooftop.


Allows heating and cooling units to be placed
with it being out of sight.

Pros: Modern aesthetics. Simple to construct


which in terms lower the construction cost.

Cons: Not recommended in areas with heavy


wind as it has the potential to collapse.

Cons: More susceptible to water leakage due


to the lack of slope. Higher maintenance cost.

Cons: Similar problem with flat roof.

roof

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7.1 ROOF TYPE AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (FROM SITE)

FLAT ROOF
Our chosen site, Bandar Sunway shop lots developed for Crossborder
Team, contains a flat roof type for the 3-storey commercial buildings.
Flat roof usage is very common
for commercial building. This is
because it has more flexible
application. For example, placing
different kinds of equipment with
ease.
Figure 7.1 Flat roof as seen from the ground.

GABLE ROOF
Whereas our second site, a small development of 3-storey link houses in
Bukit Intan, Sri Petaling has a gable roof which is a typical pitched roof.
Gable roof is used as it is suitable
for a house in tropical climate
such as Malaysia. The pitched
roof allows for water from rain to
flow away from the house in an
effective manner.
Figure 7.2 Hints of Gable Roof at Bukit Intan
site. The roofs are yet to be built.

Figure 7.3 A rendered image of the completed


house shows the gable roof.

roof

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7.1 ROOF TYPE AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (FROM SITE)

FLAT ROOF

Roof framing:
Structural Steel Roof framing is used as the first step to construct the flat
roof. These construction process are similar to the way steel floors are
framed.

It uses structural steel girders and beams with structural columns to


support the skeleton frame. This method is relatively fast and precise and
suitable for flat roof.

Figure 7.4 Diagrammatic section of Structural


Beam and Girder. Splice plate is used to hold
them together.

Open-web Steel Joist:


Open-web steel joists are lightweight, shop-fabricated steel members with
a trussed web. It is installed on the structural steel roof framing as it
prevents lateral movement of joist chords, increasing structural integrity.
The joists are spaced evenly and should not exceed above 24 times the
joist depth.

Metal Decking:
A corrugated metal roof decking is placed and fastened on top of the steel
joists. The corrugation is there to increase its stiffness and the ability to
span across the open-web steel joist. The metal decking serves as a base
for the membrane roofing.
Figure 7.5 Metal Decking placed on top of
steel joists.

roof

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7.1 ROOF TYPE AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (FROM SITE)

FLAT ROOF

Reinforcement Bars:
Lightweight Reinforcement bars (Rebar) is placed on top of the metal
decking. This will allow concrete slab to be casted on the roof. Rebar act as
a support structure for the concrete which will prevents it from breaking.

Concrete Slab:

Figure 7.6 Reinforcement Bars in the form of


mesh used for concrete slab.

The concrete slab will be casted in-situ. The concrete gives the roof a
modern aesthetic while at the same time gives insulation properties. This
method is also a similar method for making concrete flooring.

Drainage, Roof Flashing & Equipments:

Figure 7.7 A diagram that shows the composition


layers of the flat roof.

The roof follows an internal drainage system in which the water will flow
towards a scupper which makes the water flow away from the building.
Roof flashing is installed between the roof and the parapet wall. This
prevents water leakage from the side. The roof flashing is made from
aluminium.
Moreover, equipment such as rooftop AC unit or the solar panels can be
installed after the roof has been finished.

Figure 7.8 A Rooftop AC Unit installed on the roof.


(Image from reference)

roof

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7.1 ROOF TYPE AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (FROM SITE)

GABLE ROOF

Support Braces:
A support braces is installed on the top plate of the wall bracing. This
braces forms the foundation of the roofing in which trusses will be installed
in between the two gable end.

Steel Trusses:

A truss is a structural frame that use geometric rigidity and strength of a


triangle. It is also composed of other linear elements that balance the
overall compression force of the roof. Hence, it is the structure support of
the overall roof.
Steel Trusses that are used are fabricated in factory and transported to site
although they are not yet installed. The linear members of the trusses are
supported by steel gusset plates at their connection. Lateral braces are
used to support it along with the other trusses.

Figure 7.9 Steel Trusses ready to be installed.


(Image from Reference)

Figure 7.10 Details of a typical steel truss.

Roof Sheathing:
APA-rated plywood is used as roof sheathing. The panels enhance the
stiffness of the truss framing and provide a solid base for the application of
underlayment and roof tiles.

Figure 7.11 APA-Rated Plywood is usually


used as roof sheathing. (Image from Reference)

roof

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42

7.1 ROOF TYPE AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (FROM SITE)

GABLE ROOF

Underlayment:
Bituminous roofing felt is used as a waterproofing system for the roof. The
roofing felt is similar to tar paper and are used as an extra protection for the
sheathing which in turns prevents water leakage.

Figure 7.12 Pantiles or S-shaped tiles


used for the roof. (Image not from site)

Roofing Tiles:
Concrete tiles are used as the roof covering. The tiles consist of multiple
S-shaped concrete units that overlap each other which in turns give it a
pattern. The roofing tiles are fire-resistant and durable which allows it to
withstand nature.
Figure 7.13 Details of Ridge tiles used
as flashing to prevent water leakage.

Metal Gutter & Ridge Flashing:


Ridge Flashing is made from a similar material from the roofing tiles. It is
used to cover up the gap between the two pitch on the roof to prevent water
leakage.
Metal gutter are also install on the end of the roof with a purpose to collect
rain water and flow it away from the house. The gutters are installed with
fasteners.

Figure 7.14 Details of Metal Gutter


installed on each pitched roof end.

roof

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7.2 OTHER ROOF TYPES AND MATERIALS (FROM REFERENCE)

OTHER ROOF SYSTEM

OTHER ROOFING MATERIALS

Rafter Framing:

Roofing Tiles:

Rafter framing is the simplest type of roof that


consists of rafters and joists. Rafter are similar as
compared to trusses system but instead of using
pre-manufactured truss the rafter is constructed
parts by parts. Typical rafter spacing is between
400mm and is usually made of wood.

There are two types of roofing tiles that are


commonly used:
- Concrete Tiles
- Clay Tiles

Figure 7.15 Isometric diagram of rafter


framing from wooden materials.

Space Framing:
A space frame uses the strength and stability of a
triangle in to create a large three-dimensional
structure that can be used to support a roof. The
advantages of roof framing are the flexibility to
create organic or complication form. The space
frames simplest unit is a tetrahedron (triangle
pyramid) and is connected to one another using
the pre-manufactured connections.

These tiles are premanufactured and transported


to site in batch. They require little maintenance
and thus are durable and resistant to weather
effect and fire. Moreover, these tiles are designed
so they interlocked each other strongly. There are
different types of tile shape such as the Spanish
tile and the pantiles. A flat interlocking tiles are
also available.
Roof Shingles:
Roof shingles are made of typically flat,
rectangular shapes which is laid in courses from
bottom of the roof to the top. They all create an
overlapping joint which prevents water leakage.

Figure 7.16 An example on how space


framing can be utilized on a large scale.
(Image from reference)

Shingles are made of wood or have compositional


base made of fiberglass or organic material. Slate
shingles are another type of shingles which are
extremely durable, fire-resistant and also low
long-term cost material.

summary
8.0 SUMMARY

In conclusion, we visited two sites, that exposed us into the building construction world. The first
site was an almost completed project of Bandar Sunway shop lots wheres the second site is a
much smaller site located at Bukit Intan, Sri Petaling which is about a few 3-storey link houses.
We semester two students have only been in studio, whereas with this experience we now know
theres more to the industry than just design. We learnt about many things such as the different
equipment used on site, knowledge on the method of how certain stages of foundation or superstructure are affected by the site itself and safety that is for the people by the people. Unlike
ordinary lectures, this project and the site visit actually help us to learn more effectively as it
encourage us to find the information ourself as well as analyze the construction process in brief
detail.
It has a been a very worthwhile experience on site for us. As mentioned before, there were so
many things we didn't come across before this project was assigned to us. We have faced many
obstacles and found ways to overcome it towards our completion of this report. Finally, this project
has broaden up the horizon and in-epth thinking when it comes to designing, as it is not about the
mindset of architecture style and aesthetic, but the structure of the buildings plays an important
role as well.
Problem faced:
- Limitation on site pictures regarding the specific topics of this report.
- Lack of guidance by the supervisor of the site.
- Areas with limited access that we werent allowed to go due to safety issue.
- Lack of two-way communication with the contractors which makes it difficult for us.

PREMDYL SINGH SHADAN 0321979


44

summary

45

8.1 REFERENCES

Ching, F. D. K., & Adams, C. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated. (Fourth Edition)
Canada: JohnWiley & Sons.Inc.
Chudley, R. & Greeno R. (2008) Building Construction Handbook. (7th ed) Burlington:
Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier.
Grey, A. (2011, July 8). Types of Roof Trusses. Retrieved October 12, 2016
Civil Engineering Home (n.d.) Retrieved 10 October 2016 from http://theconstructor.org/
Padu Properties Taman Bukit Intan (n.d) Retrieved 2 October 2016 from
http://padu.com.my/gallery-category/01/
Jones, K. (2016, June 8). 10 Construction Site Safety Tips. Retrieved 27 September 2016 from
http://www.constructconnect.com/blog/construction-safety/10-construction-site-safety-tips/
What are the different types of plant machinery? (2014, September 29). Retrieved 27 September
2016 from http://www.hst.uk.com/news/different-types-plant-machinery/
Biswas, L. (2013, May 22). 7 Preliminary Works to Do Before Starting Construction Project.
Retrieved 10 October 2016 from http://www.acivilengineer.com/2013/05/
preliminary-works-before-starting-construction.html
Biswas, L. (2013, July 27). Basic Construction Process of RCC Column. Retrieved 12 October 2016
from http://www.acivilengineer.com/2013/07/construction-process-of-rcc-column_27.html
Preliminaries and General Conditions (n.d) Retrieved 11 October 2016 from
https://www.thenbs.com/services/our-tools/preliminaries-and-general-conditions
Settlement of Foundation | Types of Settlement (2013, Septmenber 17). Retrieved 17 October 2016
from http://www.acivilengineer.com/2013/07/construction-process-of-rcc-column_27.html
Sneha, K. (2014, April 6). Presentation on Formwork Construction Technique [PowerPoint slides].
Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/snehagoudkaira/formwork-33181146.
Asrim. M. (2013, November 12). Superstructure Construction [PowerPoint slides].
Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/mohdasrimohdhasim/superstructure-construction.
Allow Proper Time to Water Cure (n.d.). Retrieved 16 October 2016 from
http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete/slabs/watercure.htm
How to Build a Brick Wall. (n.d). Retrieved 16 October 2016 from
http://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Brick-Wall
Installing door frames (n.d). Retrieved 8 October 2016 from https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/toolbox/
buildright/content/bcgbc4010a/13_cladding_systems/06_installing_door_frames/page_001.htm
Central Roofing Company (n.d). The Two Primary Purposes of Your Roof. Retrieved 8 October 2016
from http://www.centralroofing.com/two-primary-purposes-roof/
Al. B (2016, May 26). Top 15 Roof Types & Their Pros & Cons Read Before you Build! Retrieved 8
October 2016 from http://www.roofcalc.net/top-15-roof-types-and-their-pros-cons/

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