fluid mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

107 views

fluid mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

- WJ 40K Tube Cleaning Nozzles
- Chapter 3
- rr310302-hydraulic-machinery-and-systems
- Q KSB-P 13010148_Rev.5_UP - diesel transfer pump perf curve.pdf
- 3530 Pump Installation Manual
- Final Review
- HM Laboratory Manual
- Aeronautic Or
- TURBO 5
- Centrifugal Pumps vibrations limits.pdf
- Piping Pump Design
- AHLSTAR Pump
- Model Question Paper
- Hydraulics III Pumps Ppt
- ELECTRICAL ENGINEEING
- Irrigation Training Centrifugal and Submersible Pumps
- RCE Brochure 05_15
- CFD Analysis og multistage centrifugal pump
- Vector Adhesive Slot Applicator
- Pumps

You are on page 1of 52

MECH 3492: Fluid Mechanics and Applications

Joe Tang (7617993)

Prince Soriano (7645250)

Prepared For: Dr. BingChen Wang

Submission Date: April 6, 2015

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1

Project Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

Project Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Project Exclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Project Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Background

2.1

2.2

Marketing Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Design Alternatives

4 Theoretical Calculations

4.1

Vertical Thrust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2

4.3

10

5 Numerical Calculations

11

12

7 Final Design

14

7.1

Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

7.1.1

15

7.1.2

Control Arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

7.1.3

Torsion Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

7.2

18

7.3

Pump Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

7.3.1

Performance Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

7.3.2

Pump Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

7.4

Cost Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

7.5

Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

8 Conclusion

25

9 References

26

Page | ii

Appendices

28

28

28

30

36

38

40

List of Figures

1

11

13

14

15

16

16

17

10

18

11

18

12

19

13

20

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

36

37

37

38

38

39

39

Page | iii

List of Tables

I

II

12

III

CFD RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

IV

DIFFERENT JET ANGLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

21

VI

23

Page | iv

Abstract

This report presents a preliminary design of a hydraulic system on a water jetpack

design. The current market share of the water jetpack recreational sport industry, as

well as the feasibility of implementing this recreational sport in Manitoba was further

examined. Moreover, the nozzle dimensions for the hydraulic system were determined

through theoretical (hand calculation) and numerical calculations (using MATLAB).

Subsequently, the theoretical and numerical results were validated and compared to the

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results that were determined using SolidWorks

Flow Simulation. Furthermore, the size of the pump required for the designed water

jetpack system was specified and justified through calculations and pump curves. For

this water jetpack design, a horizontal split case single stage double suction pump

type 8AE17Q was selected, as it suffice the overall volumetric flow rate and efficiency

required for our water jetpack design. Lastly, a high level cost estimate for the water

jetpack design was performed and determined that the preliminary design will cost

approximately $25 000 (CAD).

Page | v

1.

Introduction

order to create thrust and lift. It was first investigated in 1949 by the U.S. army for the

purpose of having a device that can propel a single soldier up into the air [1]. One of the

major design concerns in designing a jetpack is how to generate enough thrust to overcome

gravity [2]. In the early jetpack designs, fuel tanks were not large enough to sustain the

weight in order to produce lift. Over the years, jetpack designs developed and now some

designs can be powered by liquid-fuel, hydrogen peroxide, water, and turbojets. For this

project, a water jetpack (also known as hydro jet packs) design was considered.

The main purpose of this design project is to create a preliminary design of a hydraulic system on a water jetpack using the knowledge learned in fluid dynamics. The project provides

an opportunity to apply the concepts of fluid motion, potential flow theory, and boundary

layer theory, learned in MECH 3492. It gives us a first-hand experience in designing water

sport equipment based on the theories learned in class. The project also presents us an

opportunity to study the feasibility of introducing the water jetpack recreational sport in

Manitoba, Canada.

1.1.

Project Objectives

To learn and apply the fluid mechanics principle to design the water jetpack. Concepts

of fluid motion, continuity equation, momentum, acceleration, thrust, drag will be used

in the design process.

To check the feasibility of operating a water jetpack industry in Manitoba.

To analyze the current market share of the water jetpack in the world of water sport

entertainment.

To learn to incorporate safety features in a design.

1.2.

Project Scope

In order to ensure the safety of the water jetpack preliminary design, the team performed

the necessary engineering analysis (e.g. determined sizes of pumps, nozzles, and jets that are

acceptably safe to operate) on the components associated with the chosen hydraulic system.

However, the engineering analysis performed in this report is limited to the students current

knowledge in fluid mechanics. Therefore, the final designs engineering analysis performed

in this report must be further analyzed by a Professional Engineer prior to purchasing any

components and implementing the system.

Furthermore, in order to fully understand what is needed for this project to be successful,

it is important to define the limitations of the project scope. Based on the availability of

resources and project schedule, this design project will cover the following work scope:

1. Produce a preliminary design of the hydraulic system for a water jetpack including

the determination of the size of the pump and the dimensions of key components

associated with the system.

2. Provide appropriate engineering rationale for all design decisions. Decisions must be

supported by detailed calculations, numerical approximations, and engineering experience.

Page | 1

system.

4. Provide a high level cost estimate of the chosen design.

5. Compare the theoretical (hand calculations), numerical, and CFD results that were

performed on some of the key components of the hydraulic system.

6. Investigate the feasibility of implementing the water jetpack system in Manitoba.

7. Investigate the current market and competitors prices of water jetpack systems.

1.3.

Project Exclusions

1. Not responsible for designing the water pump needed in the hydraulic system. Based

on analysis and calculations, the pump will be chosen directly from the manufacturers

catalogue or market availability.

2. Design of the backrest to be excluded from the design process.

3. Machine design specifics will not be included (e.g. bolt sizes and specifications, straps,

and seat belt types)

4. Installation and assembly procedures in implementing the chosen hydraulic system are

not included.

5. Not responsible for outlining the necessary maintenance procedures of the hydraulic

system.

6. Not responsible for the procurement of the required components.

7. Not responsible for manufacturing the designed components.

8. Not responsible for determining the processes used to manufacture the water jetpack

design.

9. Engineering analysis such as fracture mechanics and vibrational influences on functional components are excluded.

10. Profit calculation in implementing the designed water jetpack in Manitoba.

1.4.

Project Assumptions

For every analysis, several assumptions must be made for simplicity. Some assumptions are

made to make calculations possible and not exceed the students current knowledge in fluid

mechanics. For this projects analysis, the following assumptions were made:

The studied flow was fully developed.

The initial velocity of the water from the propulsion source on a separate unit tethered

behind the jetpack is horizontal. Thus, the water must be accelerated upward by the

upward-curving hose, which exerts an additional downward force on the jetpack.

For this project, a hovering jetpack was assumed.

Assume the total weight of the user and jetpack to be around 100 kg.

All metals used in the water jetpack design are of Aluminum with Teflon coating.

Page | 2

2.

Background

Within the 21st century, jetpack designs have evolved into utilizing water as a high-density

propulsion fluid to produce thrust and lift [3]. The need of having a high-density propulsion

fluid requires a massive amount of fluid, in which makes it infeasible to have a self-contained

jetpack. Current water jetpack designs involve having a separate watercraft (such as a Jet

Ski) to store the necessary components (e.g. pump, engine, fuel, and fluid) that enables the

propulsion of the jetpack. The jetpack is then attached to the watercraft by a long flexible

hose that feeds the water into the jet nozzle connected to the pilots body. The flow rate

in the hydraulic system can be adjusted through a Jet Ski or a remote actuator from the

pilot. As of now, the water jetpack technology has been commonly applied as a recreational

sport. The following sections will discuss the feasibility of implementing this technology in

Manitoba, as well as the current market prices of some water jetpack systems.

2.1.

Nowadays, most of the water jetpack design technology requires a body of water (e.g. beaches

and lakes) in order for it to operate. To ensure that the project can be implemented in the

province, a brief feasibility study of the water resources available in Manitoba was conducted.

Manitoba, Canada has an abundant amount of fresh water resources as the province is

comprised of many rivers and lakes. Manitoba is often referred to as the land of 100 000

lakes [4]. The three largest lakes that can be found in Manitoba are Lake Winnipeg (third

largest lake in Canada), Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Manitoba [5]. Even though Manitoba

has one of the coldest winters and the lakes are frozen for long periods of time, there is

still significant tourism involved in these lakes. Numerous of Manitobans and tourists still

take advantage of the summer months and enjoy spending their leisure time outdoors. Some

of the common outdoor activities in Manitoba are camping, fishing, hiking, canoeing, and

often spending time relaxing at the beaches and lakes.

Manitoba has a significant amount of provincial parks and beaches, in which the water

jetpack recreational sports past time can possibly be implemented. Figure 1 depicts the

location of the provincial parks and beaches across Manitoba. Commercially, these parks

and beaches can be a potential location for a rental service of a water jet pack system

in Manitoba. Due to the abundance of fresh water resources and a significant amount of

potential location, it is therefore feasible to implement a water jet pack system in Manitoba.

Page | 3

2.2.

Marketing Analysis

As determined in the previous section, it is feasible to implement a water jet pack system

in Manitoba due to the abundance of water resources in the province. However, due to the

limited summer months in Manitoba, the profitability to implement a water jetpack system

business here in the province is still questionable. Although, it is out of the scope of this

project on how much profit our design will potentially make. It is still imperative to have

an understanding and knowledge on the marketability of the product, as well as the prices

of the competitors.

Currently, the market for water jetpacks is mostly popular in warm weather places such

as Florida and California. However, the demand for this recreational hobby is currently

increasing and there is a potential that this technology can be implemented in Manitoba

due to the provinces abundance of water resources (e.g. rivers and lakes).

Subsequently, water jetpack systems come in various prices and the cost of the product

really depends on the type of design and configuration of the jetpack. TABLE I tabulates

the prices of various types of water jetpack configurations that are available in the market

Page | 4

right now. Based on the selected final design configuration, the design team will aim to

design a water jetpack system that has a comparable (lower or similar) cost to the prices

outlined in TABLE I.

TABLE I: WATER JETPACK PRICES

Features/Configurations

Cost/Price

Need to be connected to a

X-Jetpack NX

jet ski and has a back strap $9495 (USD) [7]

design for the jet flow.

Need to be connected to a

jet ski and the jet flow is loZapata Flyboard

$6700 (USD) [8]

cated at the feet of the operator

Need to be added to a jet

Jetlev-Flyer (Jetpack only) ski. Has a back strap design $8900 (USD) [9]

for the jet flow.

Complete set with no jet ski

Jetlev-Flyer (JF-260)

required. Has a separate $111 000 (USD) [9]

boat for pumps.

Complete set with no jet ski

Jetlev-Flyer (SHARK)

required. Has a separate $30 000 (USD) [9]

boat for pumps.

Brand/Model Type

Page | 5

3.

Design Alternatives

Prior to obtaining the final design selection of the water jetpack, the team researched various

design alternatives that could possibly be used as a reference design for our design project.

Figure 2a to Figure 2c depict the different types of water jetpack configurations and styles

that are currently available in the market. Basically, there are two types of water jetpack

configurations; a jetpack that is attached to a watercraft (Figure 2a), and a jetpack that is

connected to a Jet Ski (Figure 2b). However, the jet that propels the jetpack can either be

attached to a backrest located at the back of the pilot (Figure 2a and Figure 2b) or at their

feet (flyboard, Figure 2c).

[9]

Page | 6

4.

Theoretical Calculations

This section will present the theoretical analysis that will be used to calculate the required

dimensions in designing the water jetpack hydraulic system.

4.1.

Vertical Thrust

The vertical thrust generated in the jet pack design is a result of momentum exchange. As

a fluid exits a control system, there will be a change in momentum for that system, which

propels it in the opposite direction from the resulting force. To control this force, the velocity

of the exiting fluid must be controlled. To determine and control this velocity, equation (1)

and (2) are required.

Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2

(1)

A2

V1 = V2

(2)

A1

The volumetric flow rate for an incompressible liquid is constant and given by equation (1).

For a given velocity in a cross-sectional area, the volumetric flow rate must be kept constant,

and as such, any change in the cross-sectional area will result in a change in fluid velocity.

This principle is used in designing an appropriate nozzle to control the output velocity of

the jetpack. Knowing the output velocity from equation (1) and (2), a momentum equation

can be used to evaluate the resulting acceleration. This momentum equation is shown in

equation (3) in vector format.

Z

Z

VVdA

(3)

Vd V +

F = FS + FB =

t CV

CS

Associated with equation (3) is a continuity equation, (4):

Z

Z

d V +

VdA = 0

(4)

t CV

CS

Because our system sources its water from the environment, the total mass of the system

should remain constant. For the specific case of vertical thrust, equation (3) can be reduced

to (5).

Z

Z

Z

vxyz d V +

vxyz VdA

(5)

t CV

CS

The body force, FBy consists only of gravity, while the acting forces consist of the acceleration due to momentum exchange, arf y , the drag forces experienced by the system, FD ,

and any tensile forces experienced from the hose. One of the important cases needed to

be explored is the steady state case of no net acceleration, or floating. To compute the

momentum exchange, the inlet velocity and exit velocities of the nozzle are required and

can be found from equation (2).

Z

M g + arf y M FT y FDy = Ve

Z

VdA + Vi

CS

VdA

(6)

CS

where Ve = Ve cos

Page | 7

M g + arf y M FT y FDy = Ve m

e + Vi m

e

(7)

Rearranging to isolate arf y , the total acceleration for any given inlet and exit velocity, drag,

and tension can be found in equation (8).

m

FD FT

arf y = (Vi Ve )

+g+

+

(8)

M

M

M

If we take the simplified case where drag and tension are ignored, the case of hovering is

defined at a zero acceleration state.

0

0

7 FT

7

0

m

FD

arf y = (Vi Ve )

+g+ +

M

M

M

m

0 = (Vi Ve )

+g

(9)

M

m

g = 9.81 m s2 = (Vi Ve )

(10)

M

Knowing that acceleration due to gravity is constant, we can determine the requisite inlet

and exit velocities to achieve an equivalent acceleration from the momentum exchange to

counteract this.

Vi = Ve

Ae

Ai

Further simplifying the case using equation (2), the exit velocity and the referenced nozzle

dimensions can be determined for a given mass flow rate and user mass, to achieve the

floating condition.

Ae m

2

(11)

g = 9.81 m s = Ve 1

Ai M

By adjusting the exit velocity and mass flow rate, thrust can be controlled and height

adjustments can be made by the user. This functionality would be performed with valves

that can adjust the mass flow rate achieved from the pump. The total mass of the system,

M, can be found from equation (12).

h

h

(12)

M = Mo + mj + mh + Ah = Mo + Mj + Mh + r2 h

L

L

The total mass to be accelerated is equal to the mass of the user, Mo , in addition to the

mass of the jetpack and the hose that is above water, assuming it is capable of floating for

the part that is not held in the air, and the mass of the water inside of the hose. Since the

height of the user can vary due to thrust, the total mass of the system will vary due to this

height, namely the amount of hose above water and its contents.

The gauge pressure at the entrance of the nozzle can be determined using equation (13), the

derivation of which can be found in the appendix sample calculations.

4

8Q2

Di

Pig = 2 4

1

(13)

Di

De

By evaluating these sets of equations, and factoring additionally drag and tension, the

specifications and requirements of the nozzles and pump should be determinable.

Page | 8

4.2.

Forward movement can either be controlled by separate jets in the horizontal direction,

or adjustment of the angle of the vertical jets with respect to the vertical direction. The

forward acceleration is derived from equation (3) and is similar to equation (5)

Z

Z

Z

vxyz d V +

vxyz VdA

(14)

t CV

CS

Using the same assumptions of steady state and negligible tension and drag, this can be

reduced to the following.

arf x M FT x FDx = Ve m

e + Vi m

e

(15)

where Ve = Ve sin

arf x M FT x FDx = (Ui Ue ) m

e

(16)

0

0

7 FDx

m

e FT x

(17)

arf x = (Ui Ue )

M

M

M

The acceleration in the forward direction can be similarly defined based on the inlet and

exit velocities in the horizontal plane. If two separate jets are used for forward propulsion,

angular movement should also be possible if only one of the two jets are active, or if one jet

is stronger than the other. For a single jet, depending on its radial distance from the center

of gravity, the torque, T, can be determined and the angular acceleration can be found in

equations (18) to (20).

m

e

T = (Ui Ue )

r

(18)

2

T = M

(19)

2M

(20)

=

(Ui Ue ) m

er

This angular acceleration and angular velocity should be considered for comfort as well as

ease of control. Other considerations in regards to rotation should be investigated for the

case of two vertical jets, where the user angles their center of mass to change propulsion.

Since it is ideal to work with fewer outlets due to complexity and losses, a design of two

nozzles used for both lift and propulsion is likely. In this case, the vertical and horizontal

components can be calculated using trigonometric identities from equations (6) and (15).

The vertical exit velocity required from equation (11) to achieve a floating state can then

be rearranged to account for an angled outlet stream.

v

u

g

M

u

2

(21)

Ve = t

Ae

A

e

cos 1 Ai )

By controlling the outlet angle, the user will require an increased exit velocity to maintain

altitude, since there is a lower vertical component in the momentum exchange to combat

gravitational acceleration. However, this contributes a horizontal acceleration that allows

the user to propel themselves forward.

Page | 9

4.3.

When considering the power required for sustaining the desired functionality of the water

jetpack, modified Bernoulli equation is necessary.

1

P + V 2 + gz + h = C

(22)

2

The system can be separated into three distinct phases. The first phase, [A] will be the

state of the water source. Here, there is no elevation or velocity, with atmospheric pressure.

The second phase [B] will involve a pump, to add head to this water to achieve a specified

total pressure. The final phase [C] is the exit conditions of the water from the nozzles. Here,

there is some exit velocity necessary to sustain certain thrusts, as specified in equations

(8) and (17). Between phase [B] and phase [C], there will be some amount of losses from

the hose and hydraulic system, which will be further investigated. To summarize their

effects though, equation (23) for major head loss, and equation (25) for minor head loss

are considered. These losses should be factored in to the total head required from the

pump output to maintain the functions desired; i.e. sustained floating, vertical thrusts, and

horizontal thrusts.

L V2

(23)

hl = K

D 2

1

e/D 2.51

= 2.0 log

+

(24)

3.7

Ref

f

Le V 2

hlm = f

(25)

D 2

The major head loss comes from the nozzles gradual contraction. Using Table 8.3 [12],

the optimal parameters for a nozzle can be chosen to produce the least losses. The friction

coefficient for the turbulent flow inside the hose can be found iteratively with the Colebrook

equation, (24), assuming a very low roughness ratio for a material that minimizes losses.

The power of the pump can then be determined from the following equation.

"

#

2

2

p

V

p

V

pump = m

W

+

+ gz + htotal

+

+ gz + htotal

(26)

2

f

i

Page | 10

5.

Numerical Calculations

The equations derived from the theoretical calculations were assessed and configured into

a MATLAB script, the results of which are shown in Appendix A. The script iteratively

calculates required inlet and exit velocities, mass flow rates, power, and losses when given

associated nozzle dimensions to achieve a state of constant hovering at a certain height. An

output sample is presented in Figure 3.

The analysis performed numerically through MATLAB provided an automated approach to

find required values with given input parameters. In the above sample, a given jet angle,

height, total mass, and inlet and outlet diameters were provided, and the following inlet and

outlet velocities, pressure, flow rate, head, etc. were obtained. This process was performed

for varying outlet diameters, ranging from 6 cm to 1 cm, at intervals of 1 CM, as well as

comparing jet angles of 0 , 30 , and 60 , to determine the required Power to achieve this

goal.

This output was verified using hand calculations to determine their accuracy with expected

results, which are included in the appendix. The design of the nozzles, and specifications

for the pump were based off these results.

Page | 11

6.

In order to verify the theoretical and numerical calculations for the nozzle design dimensions,

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using SolidWorks Flow Simulation feature. CFD analysis was conducted on three nozzle designs and compared it to the

analytical calculations. TABLE II tabulates the nozzle dimensions along with the working

parameters that were utilized to study the three nozzle designs.

TABLE II: CFD WORKING PARAMETERS AND VARIOUS NOZZLE DIMENSIONS

Parameters

User Mass :

100 kg (max)

Equipment Mass :

15 kg

Water Mass :

Total Mass

39.20 kg (max)

Environment Pressure :

101.325 kPa

Temperature :

293.2 K

: 154.2 kg (max)

Dimension Type

Nozzle 1

Nozzle 2

Nozzle 3

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

10

10

10

0.06

0.118

0.176

The velocity results from the CFD analysis of the three nozzle designs are summarized in

TABLE III. As indicated in TABLE III, the CFD results are within 1% to 4.18% compared

to the analytical calculations. It was observed in the results that the longer the nozzle length

the percentage difference between the analytical results and the CFD results decreases. This

is possibly because of the assumption of the flow being fully developed. The longer the nozzle

length the better the approximation it would be to be a fully developed flow.

TABLE III: CFD RESULTS

Nozzle Design

Parameters

Analytical Results

CFD Results

Percent Difference

Inlet Velocity

Outlet Velocity

22.28

30.94

22.28

32.26

N/A

4.18

Inlet Velocity

Outlet Velocity

13.89

27.78

13.89

28.43

N/A

2.31

Inlet Velocity

Outlet Velocity

9.53

29.78

9.53

29.48

N/A

1.01

Page | 12

Figure 4 displays the CFD flow simulation results of the selected nozzle design. As expected,

the velocity increases as the flow diverges into the nozzle outlet diameter, as shown in the

flow lines in Figure 4. Furthermore, the nozzle 1 design was chosen because this particular

design dimensions provides a low exit velocity with a reasonable pressure at the nozzle

entrance and acceptable flow rate. Appendix A.3 presents the flow simulation results of all

the three nozzle designs.

Page | 13

7.

Final Design

SCALE:1:16

SHEET 1 OF 2

A4

WEIGHT:

J.T.

APPV'D

1-APR-2015

TITLE:

1-APR-2015

G.B.

CHK'D

1-APR-2015

DATE

NAME

P.S.

DRAWN

MATERIAL:

PART NUMBER:

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

DWG NO.

ITEM NO.

PART NAME

REVISION

2

ISO 7380 - M5 x 16 --16N

2

Flow Control Handle

8

2

Grip

7

2

Handle pipe

6

2

Straight Pipe

5

1

Nylon torsion bar

4

Nozzle

3

Y Branch

2

QTY.

Shoulder

1

After the design teams careful deliberation of the design alternatives and calculations of

the necessary dimensions, the water jetpack design was finalized. Figure 5 displays a full

assembly engineering drawing (including the Bill of Materials) of the designed water jetpack

system. The detailed engineering drawings for certain components of the water jetpack design are presented in Appendix C.

Page | 14

Figure 6 depicts a 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the designed water jetpack

system. The chosen water jetpack design has a similar configuration to Figure 2a, where

the jets nozzles are attached to the back rest and the jetpack is connected (through a

hose) to a watercraft. Several detailed components of the water jetpack system such as the

watercraft design, backrest, straps, seals, and bolts were not included in this design, as those

components were not part of the scope of this project.

7.1.

Design Features

The following sections discusses several design features such as grips, flow control handles,

valves, control arms, and torsion bar that were implemented in the designed water jetpack

system.

7.1.1.

The CAD model representation of the grip and the flow control handle for the water jetpack

design are displayed in Figure 7. The handle round grip is made out of a heavy duty vinyl

for water resistance and operator comfort. The round grip also provides a strong grasps

and control for the operator to hover and maneuver the jetpack system. Moreover, the

flow control handle mechanism controls how much flow will go through the nozzle. The

flow control handle mechanism has a similar concept design to a bicycle brake, where it is

attached to a cable and a valve that is similar to a butterfly valve. As soon as the handle

is pressed, the cable pulls the butterfly valve link and it opens the flow inside the water

jetpack design.

Page | 15

Figure 8 shows a butterfly valve that can possibly be implemented (or serves as baseline

design) as the valve that controls the flow of the water jetpack design. The round grip,

flow control handle (bicycle brakes), cables, and the butterfly valve can be purchased from

McMaster-Carr.

Figure 8: Butterfly valve that can control the flow of the nozzle

Page | 16

7.1.2.

Control Arms

Figure 9 depicts a CAD model representation of the control arms of the designed water

jetpack system. To attain a lightweight design of the system, the control arms are made out

of various sizes of schedule 40 Aluminum 6061 pipes (see Appendix C for the engineering

drawing and detailed dimensions). The holes in the pipes allow the operator to adjust the

control arms length for various operators. The holes will be connected by pins. Furthermore,

the control arm enables the operator to hold into the system, as well as control the forward

and backward motion of the water jetpack.

In order for the water jetpack to move forward and backward, the jetpack shoulder has two

double sealed dual ball bearings inside to enable rotation on the jet nozzles. Figure 10a

and Figure 10b shows the dual ball bearing and its relative location on the designed water

jetpack system.

Page | 17

7.1.3.

Torsion Bar

Figure 11 displays the CAD model representation of the torsion bar that is attached to the

water jetpack system. The torsion bar is made out of nylon for flexibility and it provides the

appropriate amount of torsional force to prevent uncontrolled swivel or rotational movement

on the nozzles.

7.2.

For the purpose of visualizing the water flow in the water jetpack design, CFD analysis was

performed in the hydraulic system assembly. Figure 12 presents the CFD flow results in

Page | 18

the hydraulic system assembly. For this analysis, the inlet (larger diameter) flow velocity of

22.28 m s1 and an outlet (nozzle) environmental pressure of 101.3 kPa parameters were used.

As shown in Figure 12, the water flow inside the jetpack pipe assembly is approximately

even throughout the two branches. This result indicates that there is an even distribution

of water flow in the designed Y-branch pipe. In addition, the CFD analysis determined

that the outlet velocity at the left nozzle is 25.68 m s1 , while the outlet velocity at the

right nozzle is 25.77 m s1 . Due to the minor losses in the hydraulic system assembly, the

values obtained from the hydraulic system analysis are lower than the outlet velocity results

32.26 m s1 from the nozzle CFD analysis mentioned in Section 6.0, TABLE III.

7.3.

Pump Selection

In order to provide the necessary propulsion to drive the water jetpack, a centrifugal water

pump must be selected. This section presents the methodology in selecting the pump for

the water jetpack design.

Pumps are mechanical devices that use suction or pressure to transports fluids from one

location to another [14]. Pumps can be found in water distribution and wastewater collection

system [15]. To ensure efficiency and cost effectiveness of a pump, pumps must be sized

correctly. An improperly sized pump can caused failures and undesirable expenses. For

a specific application, pump curves are utilized to specify the correct size of the pump.

Furthermore, centrifugal pumps are applied in turbo machineries to increase the pressure

and drive the flow in a controlled volume.

In selecting the pump for this project, three characteristic properties were considered. The

characteristics that were considered are the overall head (H) that need to be achieved by the

pump, capacity or volumetric flow rate (Q), and the efficiency of the pump (). Performance

curves provided by the manufacturers catalogue were used to select the pump. The chosen

pump was obtained from the Peerless Pump Catalogue.

Page | 19

7.3.1.

Performance Curves

Centrifugal pump performance curves show graphical representations of how a pump performs in relation to the required head and flow of a system [15]. For a particular pump,

the pump curves are generated by plotting the possible combinations of total pressure and

volume flow rate into one graphical representation. Additionally, pump curves provides the

efficiency of the pump. Each pump has different maximum efficiency point and the pumps

efficiency differs throughout a range of operating conditions. Typically, pump efficiency increases as the size of the impeller increases. On the other hand, pump efficiency decreases

when there is a reduction in the size of the impeller and rotational speed. Furthermore,

the generated curve indicates the ranges of operating conditions for the specific pump. In

a pump curve, the x axis (vertical) indicates the total head, while the y axis (horizontal)

indicates the flow capacity (in gpm). Figure 13 depicts an example of a performance curve.

Generally, pumps can produce a specific pressure (commonly converted from psi or bar into

feet or meters head) at a particular flow (commonly represented in gpm) [15]. Dependent

upon the impeller speed and diameter, pumps can transport any fluid into a given height or

head. In addition, the amount of pressure in the pump is dependent on the weight of the

fluid being transported.

Page | 20

7.3.2.

Pump Specification

To determine the horsepower needed for the water pump, the following calculation was made:

H Q

Php =

3960

Where:

H = Total head in feet = 227 ft

Q = Volumetric flow rate in gpm = 2774 gpm

Php = Water horsepower in hp

Water specific gravity 1000 kg m3

Hence, horsepower is

Php = 159.17 hp

From the sample calculation above, TABLE IV tabulates the measurements for the total

head and overall volumetric flow rate required in the water jetpack design.

TABLE IV: CALCULATED TOTAL HEAD AND VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE FOR

DIFFERENT JET ANGLES

Jet Angle (degrees) Total Head (feet) Volumetric Flow Rate (gpm)

0

227

2,774

30

260

2,980

60

433

3,921

From the calculated results, five pumps were considered from the manufacturers catalogue

and the pump curves for each these pumps are displayed in Appendix B. After analyzing

the design requirements, the peerless horizontal split case single stage double suction pump

(type 8AE20G) was selected, as it satisfies the requirements more efficiently than the other

available pumps. The specification for the 8AE20G model is represented in TABLE V and

Figure 14 shows the pumps performance curve.

TABLE V: 8AE20G SPECIFICATIONS [14]

Specifications

Capacities

Head

Pressure

Up to 675 ft (206 m)

Up to 510 psi (35 kg cm2 , 3514 kPa)

Horsepower

Temperature

Up to 250 F (121 C)

Drive Combinations

Liquids

Materials

Water and clear liquids.

Cast iron, bronze fitted as standard. Other materials available

Page | 21

As observed in the performance curve in Figure 14, as the total head increases, the efficiency

of the pump also increases. Subsequently, for jet angle at zero degrees the efficiency of the

pump is at 82%. As observed from the curve, the efficiency of the pump increases first, with

an increasing flow rate, then once it reaches the maximum, it then decreases to zero as soon

it reaches the maximum flow rate.

For this jetpack design, our team decided to use the horizontal split case single stage double

suction pump type 8AE17Q because it satisfies our requirements in terms of the overall

volumetric flow rate, and efficiency of the pump.

7.4.

Cost Summary

In order to compare the designed water jetpack relative to the current market prices, a high

level cost breakdown of the designed water jetpack was performed. TABLE VI summarizes

the high level cost estimate of the designed water jetpack. The costs are based on pricing

that were obtained from different suppliers. All the costs are an approximate and will have

20% variation. As shown in TABLE VI, the approximate total cost of the water jetpack

design is $25 158.00 CAD. The estimated cost does not include other component details

(such as watercraft, bolts, bearings, straps, backrests, and etc.) that were not part of the

water jetpack design.

Page | 22

TABLE VI: HIGH LEVEL COST SUMMARY OF THE WATER JETPACK DESIGN

Cost Type

Vendor

Product Description

Raw Material

Metal

Depots

0.1 in Aluminium

Sheet Grade T6061

Dixie

packing and

seal

4 cans

Peerless

Pumps

Horizontal

split

case single stage

double

suction

pump type 8AE17Q

Pump Unit

Quantity

2 (4 ft

4 ft)

Cost

$

$18,000.00

CAD

[14] (approx.)

$1500.00

Cs

Engineering

Manufacturing

works

pack including the

nozzle

2-Nozzles

1-Frame

(Y-Structure)

Cs

Engineering

works

Teflon coating of

the frame

Jetlev-Flyer

Hose made up of

tightly woven textile, rubber-coated

1 ( dia - 10 cm,

length

1000 cm)

Miscellaneous

7.5.

(includes

manufacturing,

labour and

shipping charges)

[17]

$50.00 (excluding

the cost the spray

can) [17]

$5,000.00

CAD

(approx.) [18]

$ 25,158.00 CAD

Safety Considerations

When implementing any engineering design, safety is a prime concern. The water jetpack

design allows a user to propel themselves through the air with the use of momentum exchange

principles from nozzles. Because of the moving nature of the equipment, its overall mass, and

recreational intent, safety plays an important role in the overall experience in using water

jetpacks. A user must be able to trust their safety is protected when attempting a novel

recreational sport, particularly if it is intended to be a business. Many safety factors, such

as the maximum height achievable by the system, weight of the user, and jet exit velocity

were considered, and an appropriate developmental concept was formulated as follows.

One point to consider is the maximum height at which the user is allowed to achieve. We

have opted for a conservative maximum height of 5 m, which will first be enforced by the

maximum length of hose available. From this height, considering no air resistance, a user

will enter the water from freefall at a velocity of 9.9 m s1 or 35.66 km h1 . As an example,

FINA restricts the competitive diving height to a maximum of 5 m for children below 11

years of age . This appears to be a safe maximum height to allow the user to achieve. Aside

from the hose itself restricting height, the minimum and maximum flow rate of the system

can be lowered for participants who have lower mass, such has younger adults or children.

In regards to the scenario of free fall, it should be considered one of the worst case scenarios,

where the pump loses power and cannot provide water to the jets anymore. Under normal

Page | 23

conditions, the jets should always be active, and when the user wants to descend, there

should still be some jet that slows their decent to a comfortable level. This can be set as a

minimum value that can be reached by both the operator of the jetpack and the supervisor

on the float craft nearby.

The calculations set in this report apply to a user weight of 100 kg. It is not expected to

encounter users over the mass of 140 kg at the greatest, and while more power would be

required, it can be expected that the pump output can compensate to achieve the required

head, or the user will simply have to perform at a height lower than the allotted maximum.

In either case, there is no expected significant safety issue in regards to safety with weight

capacity. As discussed, a lower weight user may be interested in using water jetpacks, and

the flow rate from the pump, natively or with the use of secondary valves, can be adjusted

so they do not experience too much thrust or height compared to a heavier user.

In designing the momentum exchange for the nozzle, it is feasible to have a varying number

of exit velocities so long as the momentum exchange fits the acceleration required to stay

afloat. As such, it would be beneficial to have a design which uses a lower outlet velocity

while still maintaining adequate acceleration. This would reduce the likelihood of injury as

a result of being struck by the exit jet, should it occur.

Not included in the design set in this report is the protective equipment worn by the user. As

designing the protective equipment itself was outside the scope of this analysis, the general

overview of what should be achieved will be described. As the hydraulic equipment itself

is expected to weigh in the range of 10 to 20 kg, it has considerable mass when involved in

an impact. The jetpack should have some sort of shoulder padding to prevent hard impacts

between the users shoulders and the support bar between the grips and the backpack.

The backpack itself should be strapped securely to the user in such a way that does not

restrict circulation, and distributes the load evenly over their body to improve comfort.

Inexperienced users are suggested to wear flotation devices in the event they enter the water

and are unable to swim or float without assistance. There will be a supervisor on hand for

aid at all times, but there should be an immediate sense of safety to prevent panic in such

a situation.

As a summary of the safety considerations, the design considers a maximum height of 5 m

with an expected performance weight of 100 kg (though it should be capable of supporting

more at lower performance). The thrust jets are designed for lower velocity outputs and

should have some minimum flow rate at all times to prevent free fall from occurring due to

lack of user input. They should also have some maximum flow rate, set by the supervisor to

account for the users experience and weight class to prevent excessive thrust. Additional

protective equipment such as padding and flotation devices are considered to maximize the

users comfort.

Page | 24

8.

Conclusion

In summary, water jetpacks are now trending in the recreational sports industry. Due to the

abundance of water resources in Manitoba, it was determined that it is feasible to implement

this technology in the province. The main purpose of this project is to provide a preliminary

design of the hydraulic system on a water jetpack design. The designed water jetpack system

can propel a 100 kg person at approximately 5 meters. Upon designing the water jetpack

system, the safety of the operator was carefully considered, as it is one of the reasons why the

5 meter hovering height was used in the design calculations. The nozzle dimensions for the

hydraulic system were determined using theoretical and numerical methods. Subsequently,

the theoretical and numerical results were validated through CFD analysis using SolidWorks

Flow Simulation. The percent difference for the theoretical, numerical, and CFD results are

less than 5% and has an approximately exit velocity of 30 m s1 . Furthermore, a horizontal

split case single stage double suction pump (type 8AE17Q) was chosen, as it satisfies the

required efficiency and overall volumetric flow rate of our water jetpack design. Lastly,

the designed water jetpack system was estimated to cost $25 000 (CAD), excluding the

watercraft and other several detailed components such as belts, backrest, bolts, and straps.

Page | 25

9.

References

[1]

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/jet-pack2.htm.

[Accessed 2 March 2015].

[2]

http://www.vincelewis.net/jetpack.html. [Accessed 2 March 2015].

[3]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_pack. [Accessed 4 March 2015].

[4]

http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/canada/facts/mb.html. [Accessed 28 February 2015].

[5]

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/manitoba/. [Accessed 28 February

2015].

[6]

Available:

http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/parks/pdf/beach_safety_provincial_map_2012.pdf

. [Accessed 1 March 2015].

[7]

Inc. , 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.x-jetpacks.com/. [Accessed 1 March 2015].

[8]

December 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.gizmag.com/zapata-flyboard-jet-packwatersport-boots/20772/. [Accessed 1 March 2015].

[9]

http://www.jetlev-flyer.com/products-pricing.html. [Accessed 1 March 2015].

[10] Flit Boating, "China hot selling flying water jetpack with jet ski," 1999-2014. [Online].

Available: http://jxflt.en.alibaba.com/product/60097358541218097754/China_hot_Selling_Flying_Water_Jetpack_with_Jet_Ski_high_quality_competit

ive_price.html. [Accessed 4 March 2015].

[11] Ocean Premium, "Toys for Superyachts," 2014. [Online]. Available:

http://www.oceanpremium.com/toys-sales/extreme. [Accessed 4 March 2015].

Page | 26

[12] P. J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

[13] Amazon Supply, "Dixon Ductile Iron Wafer Style Butterfly Valve," [Online]. Available:

http://www.amazonsupply.com/dixon-ductile-butterfly-valvestainless/dp/B00CSYELAG. [Accessed 1 April 2015].

[14] Wikipedia, "Pump," Wikipedia, [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pump.

[Accessed 3 April 2015].

[15] Z. Satterfield, "Reading Centrifugal Pump Curves," 2013. [Online]. Available:

http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/pdf/dw/publications/ontap/tech_brief/tb55_pumpcurves.p

df. [Accessed 22 March 2015].

[16] Peerless Pump Company, "Horizontal Split Case Pumps Single Stage Double Suction Type

AE," [Online]. Available: 2015. [Accessed 2 April 2015].

[17] Metals Depot, "Pipe," [Online]. Available:

http://www.metalsdepot.com/catalog_cart_view.php?msg. [Accessed 2 April 2015].

[18] Dixie Packing & Seal Company, "Tef Coat-Case of 12," [Online]. Available:

http://www.dixiepackingandseal.com/productdetails.aspx?id=262. [Accessed 2 April

2015].

[19] Cs Engineering Works, "Products and Services," [Online]. Available: http://www.cserefra.com/cs-engineering-works.pdf. [Accessed 2 April 2015].

[20] Jetlev-Flyer, "Stop Dreaming! Start Flying!," [Online]. Available: http://www.jetlevflyer.com/product. [Accessed 2 April 2015].

[21] D. Potente, "General Design Principles for an Automotive Muffler," 9 November 2005.

[Online]. Available: daydesign.com.au. [Accessed 29 November 2014].

Page | 27

APPENDIX A

A.1

Sample Calculations

Given two jets, the required acceleration of each is only half that of gravity. Since the inlet

velocity is a function of the outlet velocity, equation (2) can be substituted into equation

(10).

m

g = 9.81 m s2 = 2 (Vi Ve )

M

Ae m

= 2Ve 1

Ai M

Ae Ae

9.81

2

= Ve 1

2

Ai M

Assuming the hose has a diameter of 10cm, and splits into two equal sized sections, the hose

area can be found, and its half can be set to the inlet area for the sections leading up to the

nozzle entrance.

Do2 (0.10)2

Ao =

= 0.007 854 m2

4

4

Ao

= 0.003 927 m2

Ai =

2r

r

Ai

0.003927

=2

= 0.0707 m

Di = 2

An exit diameter can then be chosen. In this case, an exit diameter of 6 cm will be evaluated.

The total mass of the system is 154.2 kg, and the density of water is taken at 998 kg m3 .

The exit velocity can be found from equation (21).

De2

(0.06)2

=

4

4

2

= 0.002 827 m

s

v

u

g

M

u

2

=

Ve = t

Ae

A

1

e

cos 1 Ai )

Ae =

9.81

2

0.002827

)

0.003927

154.2

(998)(0.002827)

= 30.9362 m s1

Ae

Vi = Ve

Ai

= 22.2706 m s1

Having found the inlet and exit velocities, the total pressure changes between the inlet and

exit of the nozzle can and work required can be determined.

Pi 1 2

Pe 1 2

+ Vi + gzi =

+ Ve + gze

2

2

Ve

Vi2

Pi Pe =

2

2

Because the inlet and outlet of the nozzle are at the same height, there is no contribution

from gravity. Along with this, the exit enters the atmosphere, meaning its gauge pressure

Page | 28

Ve2 Vi2

Pig =

2

2

2

Ai

2

Ve Ve Ae

=

2

2

Ve2 1 AAei

=

2

!

2

2

Q

Ai

=

1

2A2i

Ae

Q2 Di4

= 2 4

1

Di De4

The overall gauge pressure for any nozzle system at constant height can be found from the

above equation derivation. Substituting known values, we can find the gauge pressure to be

When considering the addition of losses, the gauge pressure must be increased to overcome

these effects at the nozzle. A loss coefficient of K = 0.05 was chosen for a nozzle design that

has an included angle of 10 . The losses here amount to

30.93622

V2

= 23.9262

hlm = K e = 0.05

2

2

= 23.9262 998 = 23.878 kPa

The power required for the pump to achieve the requisite nozzle entry pressure can be found

from equation (26)

"

#

2

2

V

V

p

p

pump = m

+

+ gz + htotal

+

+ gz + htotal

W

2

f

i

2

229893 22.2706

+

+ 9.81 5

= 174.5637

998

2

= 96 240 W = 96.240 kW

= 129.058 hp

Without including the losses from the hose, the total power required for the pump is found.

Using a numerical approach through MATLAB, the loss from the hose using the Colebrook

equation can be determined.

Page | 29

A.2

MATLAB Results

Jet Angle

:

0.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.060000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.061212 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.002827 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

22.276223 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

30.939199 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

253.923934 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.087479

m^3/hr

:

314.922683

gpm

: 1386.534590

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

87.303566

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.174957

m^3/hr

:

629.845366

gpm

: 2773.069180

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

174.607132

Major Head Loss:

23.930850 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

127.187769 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

678.785623 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

69.193234 [m]

Work

:118520.810858 [W]

Work

:

158.936407 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 1

Jet Angle

:

30.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.060000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.061212 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.002827 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

23.937359 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

33.246332 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

293.206103 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.094002

m^3/hr

:

338.406446

gpm

: 1489.928380

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

93.813787

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.188004

m^3/hr

:

676.812892

gpm

: 2979.856760

kg/s

:

187.627574

Major Head Loss:

27.632966 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

145.207911 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

774.550188 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

78.955167 [m]

Work

:145326.972719 [W]

Work

:

194.883470 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 1

Jet Angle

:

60.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.060000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.061212 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.002827 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

31.503337 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

43.754634 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

507.847867 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.123713

m^3/hr

:

445.367929

gpm

: 1960.856022

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

123.465887

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.247427

m^3/hr

:

890.735859

gpm

: 3921.712044

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

246.931774

Major Head Loss:

47.861700 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

241.018581 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 1295.164289 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

132.024902 [m]

Work

:319817.215747 [W]

Work

:

428.874886 [HP]

-----------------------------______________________________

Output for sample 2

Jet Angle

:

0.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.050000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.118362 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.001963 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

13.891666 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

27.783331 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

308.147871 [kPa]

Page | 30

m^3/s

:

0.054552

m^3/hr

:

196.388797

gpm

:

864.656232

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

54.443339

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.109105

m^3/hr

:

392.777594

gpm

: 1729.312464

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

108.886678

Major Head Loss:

19.297838 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

53.385212 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

507.689801 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

51.752273 [m]

Work

: 55280.655670 [W]

Work

:

74.131359 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 2

Jet Angle

:

30.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.050000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.118362 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.001963 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

14.927566 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

29.855133 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

355.818512 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.058620

m^3/hr

:

211.033496

gpm

:

929.133588

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

58.503175

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.117241

m^3/hr

:

422.066993

gpm

: 1858.267176

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

117.006350

Major Head Loss:

22.283223 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

60.918653 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

577.916346 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

58.910942 [m]

Work

: 67619.882020 [W]

Work

:

90.678262 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 2

Jet Angle

:

60.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.050000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.118362 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.001963 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

19.645782 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

39.291564 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

616.295742 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.077149

m^3/hr

:

277.735700

gpm

: 1222.808570

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

76.994508

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.154298

m^3/hr

:

555.471401

gpm

: 2445.617140

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

153.989016

Major Head Loss:

38.595675 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

100.921508 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

960.480687 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

97.908327 [m]

Work

:147903.475944 [W]

Work

:

198.338561 [HP]

-----------------------------______________________________

Output for sample 3

Jet Angle

:

0.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.040000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.175512 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.001257 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

9.529604 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

29.780013 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

419.348751 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.037423

m^3/hr

:

134.721603

gpm

:

593.149282

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

37.347822

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.074845

m^3/hr

:

269.443207

gpm

: 1186.298563

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

74.695645

Major Head Loss:

22.171229 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

26.763118 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

541.408924 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

55.189493 [m]

Page | 31

Work

: 40440.888543 [W]

Work

:

54.231232 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 3

Jet Angle

:

30.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.040000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.175512 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.001257 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

10.240226 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

32.000706 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

484.222229 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.040213

m^3/hr

:

144.767784

gpm

:

637.380383

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

40.132847

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.080427

m^3/hr

:

289.535568

gpm

: 1274.760766

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

80.265694

Major Head Loss:

25.601130 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

30.527614 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

617.201342 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

62.915529 [m]

Work

: 49540.093806 [W]

Work

:

66.433266 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 3

Jet Angle

:

60.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.040000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.175512 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.001257 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

13.476895 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

42.115298 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

838.697502 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.052924

m^3/hr

:

190.525119

gpm

:

838.839758

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

52.817797

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.105847

m^3/hr

:

381.050237

gpm

: 1677.679517

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

105.635594

Major Head Loss:

44.342458 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

50.497310 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 1030.738922 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

105.070227 [m]

Work

:108882.717854 [W]

Work

:

146.011725 [HP]

-----------------------------______________________________

Output for sample 4

Jet Angle

:

0.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.030000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.232663 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000707 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

6.508541 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

36.158562 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

663.895819 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.025559

m^3/hr

:

92.012332

gpm

:

405.109849

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

25.507863

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.051118

m^3/hr

:

184.024663

gpm

:

810.219699

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

51.015726

Major Head Loss:

32.686039 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

13.337810 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

748.794635 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

76.329728 [m]

Work

: 38200.302032 [W]

Work

:

51.226605 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 4

Jet Angle

:

30.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.030000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.232663 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000707 [m^2]

Page | 32

Inlet Velocity :

6.993883 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

38.854903 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure:

766.600860 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.027465

m^3/hr

:

98.873685

gpm

:

435.318863

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

27.409983

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.054930

m^3/hr

:

197.747370

gpm

:

870.637726

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

54.819965

Major Head Loss:

37.742587 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

15.207631 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

856.851962 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

87.344746 [m]

Work

: 46972.594880 [W]

Work

:

62.990250 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 4

Jet Angle

:

60.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.030000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.232663 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000707 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

9.204467 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

51.135928 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 1327.791638 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.036146

m^3/hr

:

130.125087

gpm

:

572.911843

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

36.073566

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.072292

m^3/hr

:

260.250175

gpm

: 1145.823686

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

72.147132

Major Head Loss:

65.372079 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

25.116597 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 1446.980247 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

147.500535 [m]

Work

:104395.474626 [W]

Work

:

139.994331 [HP]

-----------------------------______________________________

Output for sample 5

Jet Angle

:

0.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.020000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.289813 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000314 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

4.096429 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

51.205359 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 1365.417451 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.016087

m^3/hr

:

57.911897

gpm

:

254.973212

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

16.054465

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.032173

m^3/hr

:

115.823794

gpm

:

509.946425

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

32.108929

Major Head Loss:

65.549720 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

5.742752 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 1431.336874 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

145.905900 [m]

Work

: 45958.694737 [W]

Work

:

61.630610 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 5

Jet Angle

:

30.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.020000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.289813 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000314 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

4.401899 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

55.023739 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 1576.648265 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.017286

m^3/hr

:

62.230383

gpm

:

273.986548

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

17.251645

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.034572

m^3/hr

:

124.460766

gpm

:

547.973095

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

34.503290

Major Head Loss:

75.690297 [N.m/kg]

Page | 33

6.544421 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 1645.090660 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

167.695276 [m]

Work

: 56761.040354 [W]

Work

:

76.116555 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 5

Jet Angle

:

60.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.020000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.289813 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000314 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

5.793225 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

72.415313 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 2730.834901 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.022750

m^3/hr

:

81.899790

gpm

:

360.586575

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

22.704442

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.045500

m^3/hr

:

163.799580

gpm

:

721.173150

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

45.408884

Major Head Loss:

131.099440 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

10.787532 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 2812.925776 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

286.740650 [m]

Work

:127731.818938 [W]

Work

:

171.288369 [HP]

-----------------------------______________________________

Output for sample 6

Jet Angle

:

0.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.010000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.346963 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000079 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

1.984524 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

99.226184 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 5156.760287 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.007793

m^3/hr

:

28.055542

gpm

:

123.522319

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

7.777620

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.015586

m^3/hr

:

56.111085

gpm

:

247.044638

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

15.555240

Major Head Loss:

246.145888 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

1.546384 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 5219.660026 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

532.075436 [m]

Work

: 81193.062577 [W]

Work

:

108.879897 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 6

Jet Angle

:

30.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.010000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Nozzle Length :

0.346963 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000079 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

2.132509 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

106.625473 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 5954.513879 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.008374

m^3/hr

:

30.147642

gpm

:

132.733370

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

8.357596

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.016749

m^3/hr

:

60.295285

gpm

:

265.466739

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

16.715193

Major Head Loss:

284.224789 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

1.760713 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 6019.531284 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

:

613.611752 [m]

Work

:100617.626008 [W]

Work

:

134.928236 [HP]

-----------------------------Output for sample 6

Jet Angle

:

60.0

[deg]

Height

:

5.0

[m]

User Mass

:

100.0

[kg] (Maximum)

Equipment Mass :

15.0

[kg]

Water Mass

:

39.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Total Mass

:

154.2

[kg] (Maximum)

Inlet Diameter :

0.070711 [m]

Oulet Diameter :

0.010000 [m]

Nozzle Angle

:

10.0

[deg] (Total)

Page | 34

Nozzle Length :

0.346963 [m]

Inlet Area

:

0.003927 [m^2]

Oulet Area

:

0.000079 [m^2]

Inlet Velocity :

2.806540 [m/s]

Oulet Velocity :

140.327015 [m/s]

Nozzle Pressure: 10313.520573 [kPa]

Nozzle Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.011021

m^3/hr

:

39.676529

gpm

:

174.686939

Nozzle Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

10.999215

Overall Volumetric Flow Rate

m^3/s

:

0.022043

m^3/hr

:

79.353057

gpm

:

349.373877

Overall Mass Flow Rate

kg/s

:

21.998431

Major Head Loss:

492.291775 [N.m/kg]

Minor Head Loss:

2.892815 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 10390.070100 [N.m/kg]

Total Head

: 1059.130489 [m]

Work

:228565.238855 [W]

Work

:

306.505985 [HP]

-----------------------------______________________________

Page | 35

A.3

Page | 36

Page | 37

APPENDIX B

Page | 38

Page | 39

APPENDIX C

Engineering Drawings

Page | 40

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

P.S.

NAME

CHK'D

DRAWN

DATE

Handle pipe

Grip

Flow Control Handle

ISO 7380 - M5 x 16 --16N

6

7

8

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

REVISION

Straight Pipe

SCALE:1:16

DWG NO.

TITLE:

SHEET 1 OF 2

A4

PART NUMBER:

Nozzle

Y Branch

QTY.

PART NAME

Shoulder

ITEM NO.

1-APR-2015

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

10

SECTION A-A

10

59.59

60

70

90

85.40

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

P.S.

NAME

CHK'D

DRAWN

DATE

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

1-APR-205

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

SCALE:1:2

DWG NO.

TITLE:

PART NUMBER:

REVISION

SHEET 1 OF 1

Nozzle

A4

156.94

93.44

144.24

147.41

R6.35

19.05

R11.68

80

16.51

2X

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

P.S.

NAME

CHK'D

DRAWN

DATE

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

SCALE:1:4

DWG NO.

TITLE:

SECTION A-A

SCALE 1 : 3

REVISION

SHEET 1 OF 1

Shoulder

R50.80

PART NUMBER:

70

80

90.80

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

230.78

273.38

3.18

4

6

A4

74.72

64.50

SECTION A-A

304.80

102.79

304.80

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

P.S.

NAME

CHK'D

DRAWN

DATE

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

SCALE:1:4

DWG NO.

TITLE:

PART NUMBER:

REVISION

SHEET 1 OF 1

Y BRANCH-7

A4

50.80

101.60

203.20

279.40

R76.20

SECTION A-A

SCALE 1 : 3

23.11

19.05

44.45

152.40

69.85

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

CHK'D

P.S.

NAME

DATE

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

33.40

6.35

26.64

3X

DRAWN

SCALE:1:4

DWG NO.

TITLE:

PART NUMBER:

REVISION

SHEET 1 OF 1

Handle pipe

A4

609.60

7X

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

CHK'D

P.S.

NAME

DATE

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

SCALE:1:8

DWG NO.

TITLE:

PART NUMBER:

6.35

1-APR-2015

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

DRAWN

19.05

40.89

48.26

REVISION

SHEET 1 OF 1

Straight Pipe

A4

366.14

J.T.

APPV'D

WEIGHT:

MATERIAL:

G.B.

P.S.

NAME

CHK'D

DRAWN

DATE

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

1-APR-2015

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

TOLERANCES:

SCALE:1:4

DWG NO.

TITLE:

PART NUMBER:

REVISION

19.05

SHEET 1 OF 1

A4

- WJ 40K Tube Cleaning NozzlesUploaded byjromero_rpg
- Chapter 3Uploaded byYasmin Trindade
- rr310302-hydraulic-machinery-and-systemsUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Q KSB-P 13010148_Rev.5_UP - diesel transfer pump perf curve.pdfUploaded bybhen08
- 3530 Pump Installation ManualUploaded byAnonymous 7xHNgoKE6e
- Final ReviewUploaded bySagar Puvvula
- HM Laboratory ManualUploaded bySreesh P Somarajan
- Aeronautic OrUploaded byMaharba Bedloe
- TURBO 5Uploaded byAnkurTripathi
- Centrifugal Pumps vibrations limits.pdfUploaded byAliMalik
- Piping Pump DesignUploaded byTON
- AHLSTAR PumpUploaded byJustin Terrell
- Model Question PaperUploaded bySrividhya Sri
- Hydraulics III Pumps PptUploaded bybub1ll4
- ELECTRICAL ENGINEEINGUploaded byAjendra Singh
- Irrigation Training Centrifugal and Submersible PumpsUploaded byRajeuv Govindan
- RCE Brochure 05_15Uploaded byzeolium
- CFD Analysis og multistage centrifugal pumpUploaded bySouganth Manjhiparambil
- Vector Adhesive Slot ApplicatorUploaded byITWDynatec
- PumpsUploaded byamk3745
- App Chap 11.docUploaded bymbhadel
- Centrifugal PumpUploaded byMayuresh More
- 3982a0c6-863c-47ec-8a97-9363e02cbbc9-150809081011-lva1-app6892Uploaded byAriff
- Tubacero Catalogo GeneralUploaded byhelen diaz
- Specification of Refinery of Capacity 10 Tpd for Raw to Refined SugarUploaded byYadav Shweta
- Definition of Terms AUploaded byJerick Hernandez
- PeripheralUploaded byjantskie
- exp 8.docxUploaded byMahmoudSehweil
- Hydraulic Technology - ScienceDirectUploaded byRaja Pathamuthu.G
- pump_selection.pdfUploaded byhairie azam Razak

- Heat Treatment SteelUploaded byTushar Srivastava
- DddUploaded byservet
- EE22Uploaded byservet
- Unit 1 Staticforceanalysis 131127012056 Phpapp02Uploaded byservet
- Leibniz Rule Constant CaseUploaded byJavier Toledo
- Linear InterpolationUploaded byJerry Yang
- chp10.pdfUploaded byservet
- Mech302hw2sUploaded byservet
- Routh ArrayUploaded bysolomonlazio
- 3 HardeningUploaded byyuvarajchi
- DownloadUploaded byservet
- cheUploaded byvuvanhung
- Equações diferenciaisUploaded byJbs Passos
- ch1Uploaded byEski Anarcy
- Tutorial 2 AnswerUploaded byservet
- fluid-pwr.pdfUploaded byvrgohil
- Libro Astrom-Ch4 Control SystemsUploaded byjuliolaurens
- Laplace TableUploaded byhyd arnes
- Binder 12Uploaded byservet
- 9 Engineering AlloysUploaded bydavidtomy
- Test3 Sample Solution NewUploaded byservet
- Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) Diagrams.pdfUploaded bySerkan Apay
- Exercicios.SchackelfordUploaded byservet
- hw2solnUploaded byservet
- Aaaaaaaaaa b Bbbbbb BbbbbbUploaded byservet
- Linear Interpolation in TablesUploaded byrrj44
- 11Bsn2_2.pdfUploaded byservet
- Summary 1Uploaded byguisgs
- RangeUploaded byservet

- Dekati BRO ProductLine2012Uploaded byGezgin Biri
- CH10 AnswersUploaded bywallace120
- Water Acid Acetic HexanonaUploaded byHoward Palomino Ahumada
- Brochure-KemGuard 269 and 2700 Scale Control-OGUploaded bydimasfebrianto
- Technical PaperUploaded bySaa Dya
- T1pg56-61 HIGH SPEED JOURNAL AND THRUST BEARING DESIGN.pdfUploaded byGustavo Cuatzo
- b Tech All Even 1718Uploaded byAkash Tripathi
- STUDIES ON PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR POWERED VAPOUR ABSORPTION REFRIGERATIONUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Mri SyllabusUploaded bybrian2000
- Biogas Quality Upgrade by Simultaneous Removal of CO2 and H2S in a Packed Column ReactorUploaded bySam Magomnang
- Leucana DetailUploaded byvignesh
- Filler Metals for Repair, Hardfacing and Cladding ApplicationsUploaded byVijo Jose
- Adsortion RefrigerationUploaded byJonás Dallador
- Life without the double helixUploaded byCarolina Lategui
- Th4 Word EnglishUploaded byLuis Cuzco
- Quest Electrostatics 1 KeyUploaded byAnonymous i4CIG14g
- Abutment Design Example to BD 30Uploaded byHermann Pankow
- E3-2-5-solutions.pdfUploaded byferi
- Pipe Wrap InsulationUploaded byAtIf MehMood
- hmt_lab_manual.docUploaded byr_arumugam
- Coal AnalysisUploaded bySatish Reddy
- PhD_Thesis_Simone_Arena_2.pdfUploaded bydjem
- A05070106.pdfUploaded byinventionjournals
- Total Length Calcs for Pipes Valves and FittingsUploaded byImtinan Mohsin
- BlockingUploaded byMalf Vard
- MethodologyUploaded bydgdhan5339
- 9700_s07_ms_2Uploaded byNaeemMalik
- New Schottky-gate Bipolar Mode Field Effect Transistor (SBMFET): Design and Analysis using Two-dimensional SimulationUploaded byMamidala Jagadesh Kumar
- Mud Logging ServicesUploaded byDavidandy
- Cape Chemistry Unit 1 Paper 2 - May 2011Uploaded byasjawolverine