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CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW

Tensile tests are conducted to obtained the force needed to break a plastic sample and
the maximum elongation before the breaking point. A stress-strain graph is obtained that will
be used to determine the tensile modulus. By having the results of the testing, it provides
more information on the specification of the material, designing products to have certain
application to endure forces. Universal Testing Machines (UTM) is the most common
machine that is used for tensile test. It comes with wider verities for various materials and has
various capacity of load ranging from, 5 kN, 50 kN to 600 kN.

Load Cell
Cross
Head
Output
Device

Load
Frame

Test
Fixtures

Figure 1 Universal Testing Machine Components


Parts
Load Cell
Cross Head
Test Fixtures
Output Device
Load Frame

Functions
It is a force transducer that measures the load towards the sample. It
requires scheduled calibration.
The movable part of the machine that can be controlled to be moved up
or down.
Used for the clamping the samples for testing.
Provides the results for the test which is the stress-strain curve of the
material.
Located on two sides, to support the machine

The outcome of tensile is the stress-strain curve. The data presented is the
measurement of the resistance of the material from a static to slowly applied force (Kazuli,
2003).

Figure 2 Typical stress-strain curve of polymer

Yield point is the point where the specimen yield for the first time (Davis, 2004). The
specimen cross sectional area will start to decrease which is referred as necking. The strain at
the yield point is referred as the yield elongation. Followed by elastic region which is the
curve part before yield point. In contrast, plastic region is the portion of the curve after the
yield point. The maximum strength that the material can withstand before is snapped is
identified as ultimate strength. Finally, the ultimate elongation is the total length of
elongation before it fractured.

Figure 3 Stress-strain curve for amorphous plastic

Based on Figure 3, before the polymer reaches the yield point the polymer chain still
exist as amorphous state that has many free spaces. After necking starts the amorphous
polymer chain becomes straight as force is applied the free space between the polymer chain
decreases. Just before the polymer fracture almost all the polymer chains are straightened.
When more force is applied, there are no more free space hence the polymer will fracture.

Kazuli, (2003), Polymer Additives and Mechanical Properties. Retrieved November 19, 2016
from http://www.kazuli.com/UW/4A/ME534/lexan2.htm
Davis, J. R. (2004). Tensile Testing, 2nd Edition: ASM International.