article. published by the international journal of chemical reactor engineering, regarding a computational and experimental assesment of the heat transfer within a coiled flow inverter heat exchanger

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Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow Coiled Flow Inverter Focusing on Number of Transfer Units and Effectiveness

article. published by the international journal of chemical reactor engineering, regarding a computational and experimental assesment of the heat transfer within a coiled flow inverter heat exchanger

© All Rights Reserved

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2016; aop

of Single Phase Flow Coiled Flow Inverter

Focusing on Number of Transfer Units

and Effectiveness

1 Introduction

DOI 10.1515/ijcre-2015-0218

exchanger. This device uses the principle of flow inversion

to increase heat transfer and has potential for industrial

applications. A mathematical model based on experimental

and numerical data was developed for the case of single

phase flow with water as working fluids. This model

includes (-NTU) Effectiveness Number of Transfer Units

curves, Nusselt correlations, for this specific neither parallel

nor counter flow setup. A range of Reynolds numbers from

2,000 to 18,000 in the tube side, and 500 to 2,000 in the

shell side was considered. The coiled ow inverter is made

of coils and 90 bends, inserted in a closed shell. The shell

side is cylindrical. The average temperatures at input and

output of the heat exchanger were reported for different tube

and shell side ow rates. Overall heat-transfer coefficients

(Uf) were calculated as well as the Number of Transfer Units

(NTU) and Effectiveness () at various process conditions. A

Nusselt correlation was proposed for the shell side of this

configuration. The -NTU curves of the selected heat exchanger have a high resemblance to the parallel flow tube heat

exchanger, with a maximum of 2.1 % error. The coiled flow

inverter has increases of 200 %, 300 % and 500 %, respectively for effectiveness, number of transfer units and overall

heat transfer coefficient compared to a regular parallel flow

heat exchanger at the same conditions. Correlations for the

CFI in its shell were proposed. This heat exchanger provides

higher Uf, reduces cumbersomeness and length of piping.

Keywords: coiled ow inverter (CFI), coiled tube, bends,

heat exchanger, CFD, effectiveness, NTU

Monterrey, School of Engineering and Science, Monterrey, Mxico,

E-mail: A01293907@itesm.mx

Carlos I. Rivera-Solorio, Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of

Engineering and Science, Monterrey, Mxico,

E-mail: rivera.carlos@itesm.mx

industrial fields. A method to be able to control the temperature in a certain area or component is via the use of heat

exchangers. The consequences of improper heat-transfer

include non-reproducible processing conditions and lowered product quality (Kumar et al. 2007), resulting in the

need for more elaborate down- stream process system and

increased heat-transfer area. The miniaturization of heat

exchangers and increase in efficiency to reduce costs is of

upmost importance, which would become optimization of

energy resources. There are two main ways to increase heat

transfer, the first one being materials which can be the fluid,

for example nanofluids (Lomascolo et al. 2015), the walls

materials. The second one being the geometry, which

includes roughness, interferences in flow path to increase

turbulence or mixing of the fluid, for example, using rotors

(Lin et al. 2011). The coiled flow inverter is a patented heat

exchanger US 733835 B2, this one focuses on the use of

spirals which are considered to have higher heat transfer

per unit of surface area compared to straight heat exchangers (Kumar et al. 2006).

When a fluid flows through a curved pipe it is observed

that a secondary flow occurs in planes perpendicular to the

central axis of the pipe (Kumar and Nigam, 2005). The

secondary flow arises due to the centrifugally induced pressure gradient, which drives the faster-moving fluid from the

core outwards to the wall. Then, to satisfy the continuity,

the low momentum fluid subject to the no-slip condition at

the wall moves toward the inner wall of the curved tube

(Agrawal and Jayaraman, 1994; Eustice, 1911). In order to be

able to visualize the phenomenon, the secondary flow can

be seen as consisting of a pair of counter-rotating helical

vortices (called Dean Vortices) placed symmetrically with

respect to the plane of symmetry.

It was observed that, as the Dean number is increased,

the centers of the two vortices move to the outer bend, and

there is a considerable reduction of the flow in the curved

pipe compared with a straight pipe. Similarly, for low values

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

while for higher values of curvature ratio it decreases

(Dean, 1927; Di Liberto et al. 2013). Further experiments

have also confirmed that the flow in curved pipes is

more stable than that in a straight tube, due to the secondary flow. This results in laminar flow at higher Reynolds

number, than the straight tubes (Hon, Humphrey, and

Champagne 1999; Taylor, 1929).

Studies have involved the coiled flow inverter, these

mainly conducted by Dr Nigam et al. Research performed

as a heat exchanger (Kumar et al. 2007), where the

experimental heat transfer characteristics and correlations of the coiled flow inverter (CFI) were defined. The

coiled flow inverter increases heat transfer of 25 % for

flows from 1,000 to 16,000 Reynolds compared to a

coiled tube. It is also noted that at high Reynolds the

heat transfer has less effects. Its pressure drop in single

and two phase flow were also investigated experimentally (Vashisth and Nigam, 2007). The coiled flow inverter

has an increase in pressure drop compared to straight

tubes and helix by a factor of 2.53. The numerical simulation of steady flow fields in coiled flow inverter (Kumar

and Nigam, 2005) showed an increase in heat transfer of

2030 % whereas the pressure drop only increased 56 %

compared to a helix. A numerical study regarding turbulent forced convection in the coiled flow inverter (Mridha

and Nigam, 2008), found that the heat transfer increases

of 3545 % and pressure drop of 2930 % compared to a

straight tube for the same flow configurations. Low

Reynolds numbers in the coiled flow inverter are also

investigated numerically with nanoparticles ranging

from 0.25 to 4 % volume fraction (Singh, Kockmann,

and Nigam 2014). The Nusselt number in the helical

coil augments 2.5 times compared to the straight tube,

and in the CFI increases of 2530 % compared to the

helical coil. Correlations were developed to predict the

friction factor and Nusselt number in the CFI. An experimental investigation comparing the CFI with, (PHE) plate

type heat exchanger and, (SHE) shell and tube heat

exchanger (Mandal, Kumar, and Nigam 2010), resulted

in the number of transfer units (NTU) increasing of

3.57.5, and 22.5 respectively compared to SHE and

PHE. Nusselt and pressure drop correlations of the coiled

flow inverter were developed. Research has also been

undertaken using the CFI as a plug flow reactor for continuous refolding process (Sharma et al. 2016). The setup

was 15 times more productive in terms of reactor specific

productivity compared to the batch process, due to elimination of stops, cleanups and fillings. The enhanced

mixing in CFI can handle higher protein concentrations

and deliver similar purities to the batch process. Liquid-

liquid extraction with microstructured CFI has been studied (Kurt et al. 2016), mass transfer is investigated by

generating slug ow pattern. The extraction is increased

by 20 % compared to the straight capillaries at constant

contact time. A pilot plant for effective heat transfer area

in CFI has been studied with different amount of banks

(Singh and Nigam, 2016). It is noted that with more banks

higher NTUs are reached, the overall heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the different models.

A milli-scale coiled flow inverter has been used in combination with phase separator for continuous flow liquidliquid extraction process (Vural Grsel et al., 2016). It is

noted that in that configuration the mass flow rate does

not have much effect on the slug size. The extraction

efficiency of the CFI is higher than the straight tube.

Several studies have involved the CFI, however few

have focused on characterizing its behavior as a heat

exchanger. Developing correlations in terms of these

parameters such as , NTU units and Nusselt number

may provide relevant information for the design and

implementation of this device in industrial applications.

The aim of the present work is to characterize the thermal

performance of a coiled ow inverter (CFI) as a heat

exchanger for a waterwater single phase ow system,

experimentally and numerically at laboratory scale, using

the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software

Fluent. The effect of the uid ow rate on the heat

transfer and the overall heat transfer coefficients were

studied in the tube, as well as in the shell side of the

heat exchanger. In the present work, bent coils were

considered as tube side, which is inserted into a cylindrical shell. From this, it was possible to determine the NTU curves for the given setup, and provide a study of

heat transfer for different relations of mass flow heat

capacities.

methodology

2.1 Experimental

The purpose of the experimental part of the study is to

determine the -NTU of a heat exchanger comprised of a

coiled flow inverter and cylindrical shell. The studied

heat exchanger is shown in Figure 1.

The tube side is made of 4.3 m of 3/8 inch flexible

copper tube, which equals to 7.91 mm interior and

9.53 mm exterior diameter. The pitch of the coils is of

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

This bench uses two circuits, a hot fluid in the shell side and

a cold circuit in the tube side of the heat exchanger. The

temperature acquisition was done at the input and output of

the coiled flow inverter. The Table 1 shows the different

components used in the experimental part.

15 mm and the coil diameter is of 92.5 mm (these measures can be seen on Figure 2). This inserted in a 350 mm

diameter and 160 mm deep shell.

Component Description

Characteristics

Hot circuit

Heat

PM

T,T

F

, W, L tank

Up to lpm

Type K

lpm

Centrifugal pump

Temperature acquisition

Flow meter

HX

Coiled flow inverter

cold circuit

Cold circuit

HX

HX

exchanger

Spiral heat exchanger

Ch

Compression chiller

Ct

PM

P,P

T,T

Cold tank

Centrifugal pump

manometer

Temperature acquisition

Car radiator

Heat exchanger

between chiller and

cold circuit

Cooling capacity .

kW

L tank

Up to lpmpm

Type K

sufficient length to permit the hydrodynamic and thermal

profiles to develop.

The Figure 3 shows the experimental setup of the coiled flow

inverter in the test bench and its instrumentations points.

The operating conditions employed in the experiments

and simulations of the CFI are shown in Table 2. In the

first place both heat capacity flow ratio were fixed. The

ratio of these two was of 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25.

The flows were selected using the physical limitations

of the equipment. The maximum pumps flow being 7 lpm.

The heater capacity of 1.8 kW, the chillers capacity

and components.

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

Experimental

set

(S. S. G. 2010):

(lpm)

(lpm)

st set

nd set

rd set

th set

th set

th set

th set

Cmin/

Cmax

.

.

.

.

.

.

=

increase cooling capacity did not suffice to have stable

temperatures at maximum flows. Energy balance was

used as acceptance criterion for the experiments (Kumar

et al. 2007), this one must be inferior to 5 %. Having

unstable input and output would affect NTU and effectiveness uncertainties. Therefore only low flows were used.

The inlet CFI temperature is constant, at each experiment the temperature at the shells inlet is increased for a

certain flow heat capacity ratio.

Seen that are available the inlet, outlet temperatures

and the flow rates, it is possible to calculate the input

and output energies. The eqs (1) to (11) represent a

method used to calculate the effectiveness and NTU of

the heat exchanger.

_

_ h *Cp, h *Th, i Th, o

Qshell

= Q_ h = m

_ = Q_ c = m

_ c *Cp, c *Tc, o Tc, i

Qcfi

_

_

Qcfi

Qshell

=

_Q max Q_ max

(6)

(lmtd), it is possible to extract the global heat transfer

coefficient. Neither being in a configuration of counter

flow nor parallel flow, it was decided to use the counter

flow configuration for the logarithmic mean temperature

difference, as it was used by Kumar et al. (2007). This

equation is shown in eq. (7) to (9)

T1 = Th, i Tc, o

(7)

T2 = Th, o Tc, i

(8)

Tlmtd =

T1 T2

T1

Ln T2

(9)

Finally the overall heat transfer coefficient including correction factor can be determined as in eq. (10)

Uf =

_

Qcfi

Al *Tlmtd

(10)

transfer units.

(1)

NTU =

(2)

rate Cmin using:

_ h *Cp, h and Cc = m

_ c *Cp, c

Ch = m

(5)

Uf *Al

Cmin

(11)

effectiveness () of the CFI against its NTU, compare the

experimental case to literature and numerical results.

(3)

And therefore:

Cmin

Cc if Cc < Ch

Ch if Ch < Cc

(4)

Figure 4 shows the model developed for these simulations. This one represents the CAD model of the CFI in its

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

The flow was considered to be incompressible, steady,

and constant thermal properties were assumed. The

NavierStokes and energy governing equations for incompressible flow in a coiled and shell configuration (Saxena

and Nigam, 1984) are given below.

Mass balance equation:

ui

=0

xi

(12)

uj

ui

p

ui

=

+

xi

xj xj

xj

(13)

Energy equation:

shell from Figure 1. The mesh is shown in Figure 5, this

one composed of tetrahedral elements. The heat exchanger mesh has more than 2.9 million numerical elements

that were divided in 3 meshed volumes: the fluid in shell,

the tube (CFI), and the fluid in the CFI. The support tube

was not meshed as a volume, just its outer surface used

as a wall.

Different mesh sizes were tested to find an optimum

between computational time and precision. These ones

contained 2.7, 2.9 and 3.2 million elements (Table 3), the

skewness were below 0.3 for both last meshes and above

for the 2.7 million element mesh. Meshes elaborated

under 2.7 million elements had elements overlap due to

the complex geometry, therefore the simulations could

not be run. Setting the three models at the same conditions of inlet velocity and input temperatures the following output temperatures were calculated (Table 3).

Table 3: Mesh selection.

Th,o

Tc,o

. million

. million

. million

.

.

.

.

.

.

Cp uj

T

T

=k

xj

xj xj

(14)

CFD program.

The boundary conditions were imposed at the walls of

the CFI and shell with a non slip condition, ui = 0.

At the inputs of the shell and tube temperature and

velocity boundary conditions were inserted.

At the outputs of the shell and tube a pressure outlet

boundary condition was inserted (0 Pascal).

A conjugate boundary condition was specified at the

wall of CFI, therefore, the heat transfer between the hot

and cold fluid was made possible.

A wall condition was inserted at the support part of

the body, therefore this one did not need to be meshed

and processing time was gained.

The different meshes had temperature outlet differences

inferior to 1.1 K. The energy residuals of all meshes were

close to 105, whereas the continuity residuals were lower

for the 2.9 and 3.2 million elements.

The mesh was proven acceptable thanks to its low

skewness (Sun, 2007) and acceptable change in output

temperature.

The compromise of precision and computational time

led to use the 2.9 million element mesh.

3.1.1 Model validation

The NTU effectiveness studies were carried out in the CFI

experimentally and numerically. In order to be able to

validate the numerical simulations, a few repetitive tests

were engaged, these ones are shown on Table 4.

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

Input values

T tube in

T shell out

T tube out

T shell out

T tube out

T shell out

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

and experimental output temperatures. Comparing them

the maximum temperature difference encountered is of

1.4 K on the third test for the shell. The tube side differences are lower, therefore were not explicitly shown.

Knowing that the K type thermostat has a precision of

0.5 degrees, the results of the simulation and experimental coincide with low temperature differences.

The effectiveness NTU (-NTU) results are shown on the

Figure 6. These ones recapitulate 18 numerical simulations

and 28 validated experiments. The filled and hollow symbols represent respectively experimental and numerical NTU points, for different values of mass flow heat capacity

ratios. The highest effectiveness () encountered was of

65 % at 1.2 NTU and 70 % at 1.7 NTU experimentally and

numerically respectively at c = 0.25, where c is the capacity

ratio of minimum and maximum heat capacity rate. The

working fluid being water, the physical limitations of this

one did not permit numerical models increasing above

100 C at atmospheric pressure. Doing this would result

in evaporation, and so be in 2 phase flows.

Effectiveness

80%

70%

c = 1 numerical

60%

c = 0.75 numercial

between 0.2 and 0.5 NTU, this due to the size of the heat

exchanger and the heating limitations of the experimental system, therefore it was necessary to add simulations

to confirm the experimental measures and increase the

range of the -NTU curves.

The extrapolation of the curves can be seen on the

Figure 7, the symbols filled with grey represent the combination of numerical and experimental data. The coiled

flow inverter seems to have similar -NTU curves in this

situation as the tube in tube parallel flow heat exchanger.

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Regarding the tendencies a correlation has been proposed for the -NTU curves (15), the chosen correlation

is of a parallel flow heat exchanger, which fitted the

results with a maximum error of 2.1 %. This one being:

=

c = 1 experimental

30%

c = 0.75 experimental

20%

c = 0.5 experimental

10%

c = 0.25 experimental

0.5

1.5

NTU

c = 0.25 numerical

40%

c=1

c = 0.75

c = 0.5

c = 0.25

c = 1 tendency

c = 0.75 tendency

c = 0.5 tendency

c = 0.25 tendency

5

NTU

c = 0.5 numerical

50%

Difference (k)

T shell in

.

.

.

.

.

0%

Numerical

v tube m/s

Effectiveness

v shell m/s

Experimental

1 e NTU*1 + c

1+c

(15)

seen to lay below 80 % for a capacity ratio of 0.25.

Additionally, previous studies (Kumar et al. 2007), report

a high inner convection coefficient, suggesting that the

best way to increase effectiveness () is by improving the

outer convective term(ho).

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

developed by Dr. Nigam (Mandal, Kumar, and Nigam 2010)

for the tube side of the heat exchanger.

(16)

The eq. (16) is valid for Re < 10,000 and for the tube side

Re is defined as (17):

*v*d

Re =

70%

60%

Effectiveness

50%

40%

straight pipe

parallel flow

30%

CFI

20%

10%

(17)

0%

shell side configuration at low Reynolds numbers

(Re<2000), in this neither concurrent nor counter flow

setup.

Nu = 100*Re0.103 *Pr 0.66

0.8

of the coil as the characteristic length.

The velocity was calculated as:

0.7

(19)

(20)

The eqs (1520) provide a model for the CFI in its shell.

This model can be used to predict heat transfer within the

coiled flow inverter in this specific configuration.

exchanger

The Figures 810 present NTU, effectiveness () and overall

heat transfer coefficient (Uf) respectively. Results are

1.4

1.2

NTU

1.0

straight pipe

parallel flow

0.8

CFI

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

20

30

40

0.5

0.4

parallel flow

0.3

cfi

0.1

*v*D

Re =

20

T shell (K)

0.2

0.0

10

0.6

Uf (kW/m2.k)

_

m

*D*Lcoil

(18)

v=

30

40

T shell (K)

Figure 8: NTU against temperature difference in shell.

10

20

30

40

T shell (K)

Figure 10: Overall heat transfer coeffcient temperature

difference in shell.

for the CFI (hyphen) and a regular straight pipe parallel

flow configuration (diamond). Both cases are evaluated

under the same conditions considering same materials, a

heat exchange area of 0.107 m2, flows of 4 and 1 l/min

for shell and tubes respectively, and a heat capacity ratio of

0.25. The Figure 8 includes the uncertainties (Pritchard, 2011)

encountered in the NTU, these ones ranging from 0.8

to 3.8 % of maximum experimental encountered NTU.

For the same flows, area, temperatures, the CFIs

NTU increases up to 300 % compared to the parallel

flow heat exchanger.

Figure 9 shows at the same conditions the increase in

effectiveness compared to the straight parallel flow heat

exchanger. The figure also contains the uncertainties

encountered in effectiveness, these ones ranging

from 0.9 to 2.8 % of maximum experimental calculated

effectiveness.

Effectiveness on the other hand increases by up to

200 % when compared to the parallel flow heat exchanger

for certain shell temperature differences. Figure 8 shows

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

differences in the shell. A similar behavior is observed for

the effectiveness in Figure 9. The NTU is function of the

overall heat transfer coefficient, and the effectiveness

depends on the NTU value. Therefore an increase in the

Uf of the CFI, results in an increment in the NTU and

effectiveness.

Figures 8 and 9 show an increase in -NTU compared

to the other heat exchanger, but have the same -NTU

curves. This meaning that at the same process conditions,

the CFI will have a higher NTU and higher effectiveness,

which on Figure 7 translates in being further advanced on

the same c curve.

The Figure 10 shows the increase in Uf compared to the

temperature difference of the shell side and at the same

conditions as the previous figures.

In this case Uf increases by 500 % when comparing

the CFI against the parallel flow configuration.

Comparing this to the previous studies (Kumar et al.

2007; Mandal, Kumar, and Nigam 2010; Singh and

Nigam, 2016), Uf is in good agreement, this one varying

between 500 and 800 W/m2.k. The main limitation of

Uf is from outer convective term. Research has shown

that this one varies from 500 to 800 W/m2.k whereas the

CFIs inner convective term is much higher (Kumar et al.

2007). For a given heat transfer necessity, the coiled flow

inverter could be an interesting solution. Being compact, this one can reduce the length of the heat exchanger and its cumbersomeness. Inputs and outputs being

close together would reduce the piping needs.

4 Conclusion

above 3.8 % of maximum experimental measures.

Having the same -NTU tendencies, under same conditions, the CFI result in higher NTU, and Uf compared

to the parallel flow heat exchanger. The overall heat

transfer coefficient is in agreement with the previous

studies. The increases noted are of 200 %, 300 % and

500 %, respectively for effectiveness, number of transfer

units and overall heat transfer coefficient compared to a

regular parallel flow heat exchanger at the same conditions. It is noted that the limiting factor for higher Uf lies

in shell side convective term (ho). For a given heat transfer process necessity, the CFI could be a good solution,

this one being compact, having higher Uf and its inputs

and outputs closer together. This one presents interesting

qualities in terms of, volumetric length of the heat

exchanger, reducing piping necessities.

This study provides the equations and -NTU curves

to dimension numerically a CFI heat exchanger in its

shell for a given process condition.

Further studies could determine the NTU effectiveness curves of a CFI in a perfect counter flow situation

at different cs.

Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge the support from the Tecnolgico de Monterrey through the

Focus Group of Energy and Climate Change.

Funding: This work was funded by the Tecnologico de

Monterrey and by the CONACYT governmental entity

(National Council of Science and Technology).

Nomenclature

simulations was performed for a coiled flow in a neither

counter nor parallel flow configuration. The tests were

performed under 18,000 Re for the tube side and 2,000

Re for the shell side. Model validation consisted in comparing a few numerical and experimental results at same

process conditions. This showed conformity for the

output flow temperatures, with the highest deviation of

1.4 K. From this study the following conclusion can be

drawn:

The CFI has similar -NTU curves to the parallel flow

heat exchanger with maximum deviation of 2.1 %.

Effectivenesss of 80 % at NTU values of 4 for c = 0.25.

A correlation is proposed for the shell side Nusselt

number.

Roman

Re

De

Pr

d

D

A

L

T

Cp

Q_

_

m

Cc orCh

Cmin

c

NTU

Lcoil

Number of Reynolds

Number of Dean

Prandtl Number

Interior tube diameter

Coil diameter

Area

Length of tube

Temperature

Specific heat

Heat transfer rate

Mass flow rate

Heat capacity rate of cold or hot fluid

Minimum heat capacity rate

Capacity ratio of minimum and maximum capacity rates

Number of Transfer Units

Projected length of coil

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T. Barthram and C. I. Rivera-Solorio: Experimental and Computational Analysis of Single Phase Flow

Tlmtd

Uf

V

P

k

hi

ho

Overall heat transfer coefficient times correction factor

Velocity

Pressure

Conductivity

Inner convective heat transfer coefficient

Outer convective heat transfer coefficient

Greek letters

Effectiveness

Coefficient of viscosity

Density

Curvature ratio

10.

11.

12.

13.

Subscripts

h

Hot

c

Cold

i

In

o

Out

l

Longitudinal

14.

15.

16.

References

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Applied Mathematical Modelling 18, 504512.

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Philosophical Magazine Series 7, 4, 208223, 1927/07/01 1927.

3. Di Liberto, M., Di Piazza, I., Ciofalo, M. 2013. Turbulence

structure and budgets in curved pipes. Computers and Fluids

88, 452472.

4. Eustice, J. 1911. Experiments on stream-line motion in curved

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5. Hon, R., Humphrey, J.A.C., Champagne, F. 1999. Transition to

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helical coil. Physics of Fluids 11, 29933002.

6. Kumar, V., Nigam, K.D.P. 11// 2005. Numerical simulation of

steady flow fields in coiled flow inverter. International Journal

of Heat and Mass Transfer 48, 48114828.

7. Kumar, V., Mridha, M., Gupta, A.K., Nigam, K.D.P. 2007.

Coiled flow inverter as a heat exchanger. Chemical Engineering

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