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ISA 101 and HMI Workshop

ISA101andHMIWorkshop
BridgetA.Fitzpatrick
WoodGroupMustang

MESAKNOWS

SUSTAINABILITY&ECOEFFICIENCY LEAN METRICS&PERFORMANCEMANAGEMENT


INFORMATIONINTEGRATION SAFETY ASSETPERFORMANCEMANAGEMENT B2MML
QUALITY&COMPLIANCE PRODUCTLIFECYCLEMANAGEMENT AUTOMATION

Doyouknow MESA?

Topics

IndustryGuidelinesandStandards
y
ISA101Status,Purpose,Scope
ISA101Lifecycle
KeyHumanFactorsIssues
DisplayTypes
UserInteraction
Performance
T i i
Training
Questions
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Bridgetssbackground
Bridget
background
WoodGroupMustang,~9years
PracticeLeadforHMI,AbnormalConditionManagementandHuman
FactorsEngineering
ResponsibleforQualityonallHMI(515kdisplaysperyear)

CelaneseAG,
Celanese AG ~15
15years
years

OptimizationEngineer
EnergyTeamLead
Control Section Lead
ControlSectionLead
ControlEngineer
ProcessDesignEngineer

ISAVolunteer,>20years
ISA Volunteer, 0 years
ISA101VotingMember,ClauseLeader(2clauses)
ISA18VotingMember,WG6Cochair
ISA84and106,InformationMember
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Guidelines/Standards on HMI
Guidelines/StandardsonHMI

ISA101HumanMachineInterfacesforProcessAutomationSystems(draft)
API1165RecommendedPracticeforPipelineSCADADisplays
ASMConsortiumGuidelinesRev32008EffectiveOperatorDisplayDesign
ANSI/HFES1002007HumanFactorsEngineeringofComputerWorkstations
ANSI/HFES2002008HumanFactorsEngineeringofSoftwareUserInterfaces
ISO9241Ergonomicrequirementsforofficeworkwithvisualdisplayterminals
ISO11064Ergonomicdesignofcontrolcentres
EEMUA201Processplantcontroldesksutilisinghumancomputerinterfaces:a
guidetodesign,operationalandhumancomputerinterfaceissues
NUREG0700Rev.22002HumanSystemInterfaceDesignReviewGuidelines

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ISA 101 Standard Committee


ISA101StandardCommittee

ThecurrentcochairsofISA101HMICommitteeare:
Dr.MauriceWilkins
D M i Wilki (Yokagawa)
(Y k
) andGregLehmann
dG
L h
(URS)
Clause
0
1
2
3
4

Title
General
Scope
Normative References
Definition of Terms and Acronyms
HMI System Management

Leaders
Maurice Wilkins, Yokagawa
Maurice Wilkins, Yokagawa
Nick Sands, Dupont & Dale Reed, Rockwell
Nick Sands, Dupont & Dale Reed, Rockwell
Bridget Fitzpatrick
Fitzpatrick, Wood Group Mustang &
Ian Nimmo, UCDS, Inc.

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6

Human Factors/Ergonomics
Display Types

Beth Vail, URS & Traci Laabs, Pfizer


Dave Lee, UCDS, Inc. &
J h B
John
Benitz,
i Applied
A li d Control
C
l Engineering
E i
i

User Interaction

Bridget Fitzpatrick, Wood Group Mustang &


Alan Bryant, Oxy Inc.

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9

Performance
Documentation and Training

Mark Nixon, Emerson


Dawn Schweitzer, Eastman Kodak
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Status of ISA 101 Standard


StatusofISA101Standard
1.
EditorsreviewingandresolvingcommentsfromDraft3
g
g
CommitteeconsensusthatthiswillbeaStandard.
TechnicalReportsandRecommendedPracticeswillbe
developedaswarranted.

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Purpose of the Standard


PurposeoftheStandard
Addressthedesign,implementation,andmaintenanceof
g , p
,
humanmachineinterfaces(HMIs)forprocessautomation
systems.
Useofthisstandardshould:
U
f thi t d d h ld
Provideguidancetodesign,build,operate,andmaintaineffective
HMIswhichresultinsafer,moreeffective,andefficientcontrolofthe
process,inbothnormalandabnormalsituations.
Improvetheusersabilitiestodetect,diagnose,andproperlyrespond
toabnormalsituations.

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Scope of the Standard


ScopeoftheStandard

ThisstandardaddressesHMIsforequipmentandautomatedprocesses.
Ifthestandard,recommendedpractices,andmethodologyarefollowed,
theresultshouldenabletheuserstobemoreeffectiveinyielding:

improvedsafety,
quality,
productionand
reliability.
y

Thepracticesinthisstandardareapplicabletocontinuous,batch,discrete
processes,andanyprocessusinganHMIforinterfacingtoacontrolled
system.

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Intended Audience
IntendedAudience
Users
Responsibleforsafeandproductiveoperationofequipmentand
facility

Integrators,Designers,Engineers
Integrators Designers Engineers
DesignandbuildtheHMIapplications

Vendors
DevelopthesoftwaretoolsneededtobuildtheHMIapplication
Developtheinterfaces/driversneededforanHMItotransferdata
a d o at o to a d o
andinformationtoandfrommultiplesources
u t p e sou ces

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Benefits of Standards
BenefitsofStandards
Consistencyinexecution
y
Easiertoimplementnewapplications
Easiertohandofftothirdpartydevelopers

LLesstimetotrainusers
ti
t t i
Lessoperatorerrorasaresultofconsistenteffectivedesign
Easier to move between platforms or versions of an HMI
EasiertomovebetweenplatformsorversionsofanHMI
Savestimeandmoney!

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Why the Concern about HMIs?


WhytheConcernaboutHMIs?

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HMIintheNews
HMI
in the News2
BPTexasCity3/23/05
Thecontrolboarddisplay
h
lb dd l
didnotprovideadequate
informationonthe
imbalanceofflowsinand
outofthetowertoalert
f h
l
theoperatorstothe
dangerouslyhighlevel.

Texaco,
Texaco,MilfordHaven,UK
Milford Haven, UK
7/24/94
Controlpanelgraphicsdid
notprovidenecessary
process overviews
processoverviews.

BesttokeeptheHMIoutof
thenews!

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HMI Basic Definitions


HMIBasicDefinitions
Definitionsinclude:

Console,
Station,
Pointing Device
PointingDevice,
Keyboard,
Display,
Popup,
GraphicSymbols,
GraphicElements.
p

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Potential Compliance Requirements


PotentialComplianceRequirements
Documentsrequired
q

HMIPhilosophy
HMIStyleGuide
HMI Toolkit
HMIToolkit
HMIDesignDocumentation
HMITrainingMaterials

Workpracticesthatalignwiththelifecyclestagesdefinedin
thestandard
Testing,Commissioning,Training
Testing Commissioning Training
ManagementofChange

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ISA 101 Life Cycle for HMI


ISA101LifeCycleforHMI

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Life Cycle Concept Stages


LifeCycleConcept
SystemStandards
DocumentsthatsetthefoundationforallHMIdesigndecisions

Design
AllhardwareandsoftwareaspectsoftheHMI(review)
a d a e a d so t a e aspects o t e
(e e )

Implement
CreationoftheHMIinthetargetplatformandhardwarefrom
building through test, train, commission and qualify
buildingthroughtest,train,commissionandqualify

Operate
Includesthenormaloperationandmaintenance,aswellas
decommissioning

Continuous
Managementofchange,AuditandValidation
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Key Documents
Key
Documents inSystemStandards
in System Standards
HMIPhilosophy
HMI Philosophy
HMIStyleGuide
HMI Toolkit (Documentation)
HMIToolkit(Documentation)

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What is an HMI Philosophy?


WhatisanHMIPhilosophy?
TheHMIPhilosophyisastrategicdocumentaddressingthe
p y
g
g
guidingprinciplesthatgovernthedesignstructureoftheHMI.
Definesthealignmentwith:
humanfactors,
user,taskandfunctionalrequirementsforallmodesofoperationthat
requireHMIsupport,
designstandards,and
workpracticesforthedevelopmentandmanagementoftheHMI.

Provide
Provideafoundationofconceptssuchthatnewdevelopers
a foundation of concepts such that new developers
anduserscangrasptheunderlyingprinciplesandtechnical
rationales.
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WhyAllModes?
Why
All Modes?3
CATASTROPHIC LOSS
CATASTROPHICLOSS
ESDFails
UnitShutdown
EmergencyShutdownSystem(ESD)Acts

OPERATORINTERVENTIION

EmergencyOperations
Significantefficiencyandqualityissues
Significantequipmentdamage
Injuries,environmentaldamage
Significantlossofproduction
UpsetOperations
Largeefficiencyandqualityissues
L
ffi i
d
lit i
Minorequipmentdamage
NormalOperations
Someefficiencylossesinrawmaterialsandenergy
Someoffspecorlowerqualityproduct
OptimalOperations
Peakefficiencyandquality

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ConsiderWhattoShowCarefully
Consider
What to Show Carefully3
RealtimeOptimization
and Manufacturing Execution Systems
andManufacturingExecutionSystems
RTO/MES

OPERATORUPSETKNOW
WLEDGE

ExpertorOther
Advisory
Systems

Multivariable
Control(DMC)

Feedforward
Control
BasicLoop
Control

Field
Indication

KnowledgebasedControl

NeuralNetworks
orOthers
Models

Code
Control

MultivariableControl

Logic
Blocks

LoopTuning

EnhancedControl

ControlScheme
Monitoring

Field(Local)
Fi
ld ( L l)
Controllers

DCS
Indication

BasicControl

Fi ld C t l
FieldControl

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What is an HMI Style Guide?


WhatisanHMIStyleGuide?
AStyleGuidewillincludegeneraldesignprinciplesforthe
y
g
g p
p
displaysandimplementationstandards.
ShouldreinforcetheguidingprinciplesfromthePhilosophy,
i l di
includingsupportfor:
tf
humanfactors,
users,taskandfunctionalrequirements,and
designstandards.

Alsoincludes:
WorkpracticesrecommendedtomanagetheHMI,
W k
ti
d dt
th HMI
Guidanceondisplaytypesandtheirpreferreduse,
GuidanceonexpectedHMIperformancetargets.
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HMI Toolkit
HMIToolkit
Typicallyplatformdependent
Typically platform dependent
SomayhavemorethanoneToolkit

Maybevendorsupplied,customdeveloped,ora
y
pp ,
p ,
combinationofthetwo
p
p
y
Includestemplatesandexamplesofallnecessary
graphicsymbolsandelementstoimplementanHMI
applicationthatmeetstheStyleGuiderequirements

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System Standards Stage


SystemStandardsStage
Activity

HMI
Philosophy

HMI Style
S l
Guide

HMI Toolkit

Objectives

Inputs

Outputs

Provides guiding principles and


conceptual foundation for HMI
design. This includes details on how
th HMI is
the
i used
d and
d designed.
d i
d
(Independent of platform).

User Experience, Conceptual User


Functional Requirements, Best
Practices, Standards, Guidelines and
H
Human
F
Factors
t
Engineering
E i
i
Considerations.

HMI
Phil
Philosophy
h
Document

Turns the guiding principles and


concepts of the HMI Philosophy and
turns them into implementation
examples and guidance. (This does
HMI Philosophy,
not include all technical details,
Platform experience and expertise (to
though the style guide needs to be confirm feasibility; develop early proof of
feasible in all target platforms).
concept designs).
Generate all requirement graphical
symbols and other supporting
elements as required to implement
th St
the
Style
l G
Guide.
id

HMI Style
Guide
Document
HMI Toolkit

HMI Style Guide Document, Platform


experience and expertise, Conceptual
U
User,
T
Task,
k Functional
F
ti
l Requirements.
R
i
t

(Platformspecific).
ifi )

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Design Steps
DesignSteps
ConsoleDesign
Whathardwareandsoftwarewillbeinuse
(thisisiterativewithrequirements)

HMISystemDesign
User
Useraccounts,operatingsystems,toolkits,
accounts operating systems toolkits
network,etc.

User,Task,FunctionalRequirements
Once
Oncethebasicuserrolesand
the basic user roles and
requirementsaredefined,theactualtasks
tobeperformedbytheusersarecaptured,
reviewedandpotentiallyoptimized.

DisplayDesign
Display Design
Finally,theactualdisplays

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User, Task, Functional Requirements


User,Task,FunctionalRequirements
Avarietyofsimpleandmorecomplextechniquescanbe
used:
HierarchicalTaskAnalysis
Acomprehensivelistofthetasksthatmakeupajoborfunctionare
clustered/groupedtoshowtherelationshipsfordecisionmaking.
l t d/
d t h th
l ti hi f d i i
ki

TimelineAnalysis
Tasksarebrokendownintoeventsandshownonachartoverthetime
horizon.

LinkAnalysis
Demonstratesthefrequencyoflinkagebetweentasks.Usefulfor
streamliningtasksandoptimizingdisplaycontent.

OthermoreadvancedtechniquessuchAbstractionHierarchical
Analysis,CognitiveWorkAnalysisandEcologicalAnalysisexistbut
may requireHumanFactorsEngineering(HFE)expertiseto
complete.
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Design Stage
DesignStage
Activity
User, Task and
Functional
Requirements

HMI System
Design

Console Design

Display Design

Objectives
Identify primary and secondary
requirements that must be supported
in the HMI.

Inputs
HMI Phil
Philosophy,
h HMI St
Style
l
Guide, Console Design, User,
Task and Functional
Requirements Analysis.
User,, Task,, Functional
Requirements. Control System
Design Standards, Network
Design Standards, Preliminary
Network Design.

Outputs

Requirements
document(s).

HMI system
design
documents.

.Identify design basis for the HMI


system.
T provide
To
id h
hardware
d
and
d software
ft
design for the Console. This includes
.User, Task, Functional
Requirements; Vendor
furniture and supporting systems
Specifications, Human Factors .Console design
(phone, radio, LAN PC, cameras,
etc.).
Engineering Design Standards.
documents.
Identifies conceptual design for
HMI Philosophy, HMI Style
displays and the navigation hierarchy.
(This may include some prototype
Guide, User, Task, Functional
displays on complex applications or
Requirements document(s),
Display design
processes).
User Input in Review(s).
document(s).
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Implement Steps
ImplementSteps
BuildDisplays
Yes,really,finally

BuildConsole
Thesystemtorunthemon
y

Test
Doesitwork?

Train
Makesureitreallyworks

Commission
Putittowork.
P t it t
k

Qualification
Extrapaperworkinsomeindustries.
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Implement Stage
ImplementStage
Activity

Objectives

Inputs

Outputs

Display design documents.

Displays.

Console

Train Users.

Console design documents.


User, Task, Functional
Requirements documents, Usability
and performance standards
standards.
Console and Displays.
HMI Philosophy, HMI Style Guide,
Display design documents.
Console and Displays.

Final testing of HMI in


Production Environment.

Console, Displays, User Manuals


and Online Help (as required).

Verify HMI Ready to Operate.

Qualification Plan, Commissioning


documents.
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Build Displays

Complete construction of
displays and supporting items.
Complete construction of
Build Console
console hardware and
software.

Test

Integrated Test of HMI and


Console.

Train

Commission

Qualification

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HMI Ready to
Commission Testing
Commission,
documents.
Training materials,
Training records,
Trained Users.
HMI Ready to Qualify
(as required),
Commissioning
documents.
Qualification
documents, HMI
Ready to Operate.

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Operate Steps
OperateSteps
InService
Finally!

Maintain
EErrorfixes,tweakingafterpatchesto
fi
t
ki
ft
t h t
maintainfunctionality

Decommission
Partialdecommissioningprobablythe
mostrisky
BUT,wegenerallyfind~30%abandoned
,
g
y
inplace0

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Operate Stage
OperateStage
Activity

Objectives

Inputs
Commissioning/Qualification
Approval,

Outputs

HMI In Service.

User Manuals and Online Help.

HMI in Service.

Ensure HMI is
V lid and
Valid
dR
Reflects
fl t
Current Process
Conditions.

Approved Change Management


t to
t fix
fi errors or to
t add
dd
requests
enhancements or updates to
reflect changes in the process.

Management of Change
L
Logs,
U
Updated
d t d HMI
HMI, U
User
Manuals, Training Materials
and Online Help.

Change Management Change


Requests.

HMI (or part of HMI)


removed from use, archived
for approved records period.

In Service

Maintain

HMI Removed from


Service
Decommission
(End of Life).

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Continuous Work Processes


ContinuousWorkProcesses
MOC
Managementofchange(mainlyoutsidethescope)

Audit
Nokidding,thisshouldhappen

Validation
Formalstepsrequiredinsomeindustries
Formal steps required in some industries

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Continuous Work Processes


ContinuousWorkProcesses
Activity

Objectives

Inputs

Outputs

Management of
Change (MOC)

Manage change,
ensuring
consideration of all
impacts.

Changes in
process or User,
Task and
Functional
Requirements

Change completed
following the approved
work practices

Audit

Verify
V
if th
thatt the
th HMI
is being managed
under the approved
work practices

HMI Philosophy,
HMI Style Guide,
Related Documents

Audit Records, Change


q
to Correct any
y
requests
Deviations, Updates (as
needed) to HMI
Philosophy, HMI Style
Guide HMI Toolkits and
Guide,
Related Documents

Validation

Verify HMI meets


User, Task and
Functional
Requirements

Validation Plan

Validation System,
Validation Records

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What else is in the Standard?


WhatelseisintheStandard?

HumanFactorsEngineering&Ergonomics,
g
g
g
,
DisplayTypes,
UserInteraction,
Performance,
Training.

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Human Factors Engineering


HumanFactorsEngineering

Generalprinciples
p
p
Operatorprocessinteractionmodel
Usersensorylimits
Usercognitivelimits

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Human Factors Engineering


HumanFactorsEngineering
HMIoperationshouldbeintuitivetotheuser.
Relationshipofeachdisplayanditsfunctionalityshouldbecleartothe
user.

The
TheHMIshouldsupporttasksrelatedtoallcommonly
HMI should support tasks related to all commonly
expectedmodesofoperation.
Nounnecessaryinformationorcontrols.
Useseparatedisplaysforinformationrequiredonlyintermittently
ForcomplextasksrequiringHMIinteraction,followthenormalwork
flowindisplayoperationasmuchasispossible.

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Human Factors Engineering


HumanFactorsEngineering
Presentinformationinformsorformatsthatareappropriate
totheusersgoals.
Controloptionsshouldincludethecommonlyexpectedrange
of user actions
ofuseractions.
Supportforallpotentialactionsshouldbeprovided,thoughnon
routineactionscanbesupportedonseparatedisplays.

Itemssupportingthemostfrequenttasksshouldbereadily
availabletotheuser.
Procedures andinstructionsusedtostartupapieceofequipment,or
p p
q p
,
startabatchprocess.

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Situation Awareness
SituationAwareness
Situationawarenessisdefinedas:
Therelationshipbetweentheoperator'sunderstandingoftheplant's
conditionanditsactualconditionatanygiventime.

There
Thereareanumberofcommonfactorsthatundermine
are a number of common factors that undermine
situationawareness,suchas:

Attentiontunneling.
Shorttermmemorytrap.
Workload,anxiety,fatigue,andotherstressors.
Dataoverload.OverwhelmingamountsofdatacanreduceSA.
g
Misplacedsalience.
Complexitycreep.

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Operator ProcessModel
Operator
Process Model4
Reference/
Objective

Disturbance/
Malfunction
OperatorSubSystem

Deviation

Detect

Respond

Diagnose

Action

Process/
P
/
System

Measurement

RememberthattheoperatorhastoDetect
p
Diagnose
g
Respond.
p
ThenAssessiftheactionhasaddressedtheissue!

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Performance Shaping Factors


PerformanceShapingFactors
Detect

Operatorsexperience
Trainingandexperience
Fatigue
Redundantcoding(e.g.color,shape&location)
Alarmeffectiveness
Detectionmechanisms
Displayeffectiveness(howwellinformationisbeingpresented)
Console,station,andscreenlayout
,
,
y
Environmentalfactors
Displaydensity

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Performance Shaping Factors


PerformanceShapingFactors
Diagnose
g

Console,station,andscreenlayout
Displayorganizationandnavigation
Display levels
Displaylevels
Trainingandexperience
Directionprocessistrending
Reliance on shortterm
Relianceonshort
termmemory
memory
Howwelltheoperatorsmentalmodelmapstotheprocess
Displaycalluptimes
Environmental factors
Environmentalfactors
Fatigue
Displaychangetime

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Performance Shaping Factors


PerformanceShapingFactors
Respond
p

OperatingProcedures
Training
Fatigue
Operatormessaging
HelpDisplay
Expertsystems
SystemResponsiveness
Crew
Environmentalfactors

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Performance Shaping Factors


PerformanceShapingFactors
Assess

Writetime
Writerefreshtime
Control Strategy
ControlStrategy
Operatorsmentalmodel
Processresponsetime

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User Sensory Limits


UserSensoryLimits
Visualconsiderations

Ambientlightingandscreenluminance
Color
Information density
Informationdensity
Visualdynamics(animation)

Auditoryconsiderations
Designbasics
Considerationofpartialhearingimpairmentandlocalconditions

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A Word on Color
AWordonColor

Thechosencolorsshouldbedistinguishablefromeachother,generally
involvingusabilitytesting.
Asageneralrule,colorshouldbeusedforemphasizingkeyinformation
suchasalarmsandabnormalconditions.
Colorsusedfordisplaydesignshouldbeconsistentwiththefacilitysalarm
philosophy.
Colorsusedforalarmpresentationshouldbereservedandnotusedforany
otherpurposeinordertostrengthentheircognitivemeaningandspeedup
operatorresponsetoalarms.

Thesalienceof colorsusedonadisplayshouldreflecttheimportanceof
the information being presented
theinformationbeingpresented.

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More Words on Color


MoreWordsonColor

Colorcanbeusedforemphasisandclarity;however,coloraloneshould
notbereliedupontoconveymeaning.
Colorgradientsshouldnotbeusedforstaticornondynamicelementsonthe
display,butmaybeusedtohighlightadynamicelement.

Colorshouldbeusedconservativelyandconsistently.
Colorperceptiondeficienciesandcolorcombinationsshouldbe
consideredduringdesign.
Colorand/orflashingofsymbolsshoulddirecttheoperatorsattentionto
newlydevelopingsituations.

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Colorblindness

SignificantIssue
Oneofthedriversforlesscolor
Other,ofcourse,isusingcolorsparingly
tomakeitactuallyMEANsomething
InNorthAmericanOperatorpopulation
canbeashighas30%

EasytoDesignAround
Needtoruntheanalyses
Canoptimizethebackgroundcolorto
getsomeoffset

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Common Color Examples


CommonColorExamples
Normal

Protanopia

Deuteranopia

Tritanopia

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Other Options for Valves


OtherOptionsforValves
White/Green

Hollow/Gray
Type

Color

T
Type

Brightness

C l
Color

B i ht
Brightness

Normal

450

135

Normal

637

180

Protanopia

401

134

Protanopia

520

149

Deuteranopia

403

135

Deuteranopia

531

161

Tritanopia

400

135

Tritanopia

458

157

Hollow/Green

Black/Green
Type

Color

Brightness

Type

Color

Brightness

Normal

592

165

Normal

128

75

Protanopia

474

134

Protanopia

244

105

Deuteranopia

486

146

Deuteranopia

233

93

Tritanopia

413

142

Tritanopia

306

97

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Practical Advice
PracticalAdvice
ThefancyLPthatoptimizesthecolorseparationand
y
p
p
optimizesthecolorshiftoffneutralforthebackgroundisall
wellandgood,but
Thevideocardandmonitorhaveahugeimpact.
The video card and monitor have a huge impact
Asdoestheambientlightinginthecontrolcenter.
Checkthetheoryinreality!

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An Embarrassing Story
AnEmbarrassingStory
Thereisnewresearchtosuggestthatthechromatic
gg
aberrationthatcomeswiththeagingoftheeye(lens
yellowing)happensearlier.
Weusedtothinkonlytheretiredoldgeezershadanissue.
We used to think only the retired old geezers had an issue

Iusedtothinkthattheolderoperatorswerewhiny,when
theysaidthatcouldnotreallyseesomeofthebluePVson
grayorthepurpleabnormalongray.
ButIamgettingolderandIcanseetheirpoint.
Don
Donttgetmestartedaboutmynewbifocalseither!
get me started about my new bifocals either!

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Alarm Colors on Gray


AlarmColorsonGray
Normal

Protanopia

Deuteranopia

Tritanopia

CRITICAL

CRITICAL

CRITICAL

CRITICAL

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING2

WARNING2

WARNING2

WARNING2

WARNING3

WARNING3

WARNING3

WARNING3

ADVISORY
SO

ADVISORY

ADVISORY

ADVISORY

ABNORMAL

ABNORMAL

ABNORMAL

ABNORMAL

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Alarm Colors on Tan


AlarmColorsonTan
Normal

Protanopia

Deuteranopia

Tritanopia

CRITICAL

CRITICAL

CRITICAL

CRITICAL

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING 1
WARNING1

WARNING2

WARNING2

WARNING2

WARNING2

WARNING3

WARNING3

WARNING3

WARNING3

ADVISORY

ADVISORY

ADVISORY

ADVISORY

ABNORMAL

ABNORMAL

ABNORMAL

ABNORMAL

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DoesnttHavetobeGray
Doesn
Have to be Gray

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53

User Cognitive Limits


UserCognitiveLimits
Ausersperformanceandtheunderlyingcognitiveprocesses
p
y g g
p
areaffectedbytheworkloadlevel,situationawareness,and
taskcompatibility.
Welikelyknowthis,butitisimportanttorememberthat
W lik l k
thi b t it i i
t tt
b th t
understress,cognitivelimitsareimpairedfromnormal.

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Cognitive Limit Considerations


CognitiveLimitConsiderations
Informationdisplayedindirectlyusableformat(nomath!).
p y
y
(
)
Shouldnotrelyonrecallmemoryforcodesorcomplex
commands.
Usethesimplestdesignthatconsistentwithfunctionaland
taskrequirements.
Foritemsneededonlyintermittently,provideeasyaccess,but
For items needed only intermittently provide easy access but
donotclutterthemaindisplay.
Useadesignthatfitstheusersmentalmodelofthesystem.

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Display Types & Styles


DisplayTypes&Styles
Displaytypesdefinehowinformationispresentedand
p y yp
p
organizedtoconveyinformationinaconsistentmanner.
Displaystylesrefertohowtheinformationonasingledisplay
i
ispresented.
t d

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Selection of Type of Display


SelectionofTypeofDisplay
Selectionmaybeimpactedbyfunctional,technologicaland
y
p
y
,
g
physicallimitationsoftheHMIused.
Forexample:
Positionofthedisplay,
Physicalsizeofthescreen,
Densityofinformationthatcanbehandledbytheuser.
Density of information that can be handled by the user

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Display Styles
DisplayStyles

ListStyles
y
ProcessStyles
OverviewStyles
TopologyStyles
GraphStyles
HierarchicalStyles
DashboardStyles

LocationStyles
y
GroupStyle
PointDetailDisplayStyle
LogicMonitorStyles
SequenceStyles
ProcedureStyles
Health/DiagnosticsStyles

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Plan View Example


PlanViewExample

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Plan View Drill Down


PlanViewDrillDown

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Fire & Gas Displays


Fire&GasDisplays
Clearvisualdistinctionofconfirmedeventversussensor
issue.
Broadoverviewalwayscleartoshowanyescalation.
Chattysensorsneedtobeclearlydepicted.
Dotheengineeringefforttomaketheseeffectivetoolsinreal
time.
time
Consideranoffshoreplatform,wherethereisalsoaneedto
understandthelevelsoftheplatform.

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Waste Water OperatorssFavorite


WasteWaterOperator
Favorite

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Plan View Massive Fail


PlanViewMassiveFail

Thingsthatmattered:
Outfallpermits,mixofinstantaneousanddailytotals
Disposalwellpermits
Disposalwellsteadinessofpressureandflow
Totalvolumeleftforwasteandrainwater,mixofvolumeandtimeatcurrent
rates
Bugsdyingornot,reactorsandtheoutfall

Eurekamomentofplanviewwithroadsandtanks
Fancyalarmgroupingsandeasydrilldownnavigation

Failedbecausethatwasnothowtheoperatorsenvisionedtheplant
p
p
Movedtofunctionalgroupingoverview

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ExampleFunctionalGrouping
Example
Functional Grouping5
Boxesforareas
Keycontrolsandindication
Bestsymbols

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A Word on Display Hierarchy


AWordonDisplayHierarchy

Commonlyafourleveldisplayhierarchyisrecommendedtonotdiminish
theoperatorsperformanceonmanagementactivities.
Eachlevelisdefinedaccordingtothetypeandlocationofdisplayalong
withtheinformationcontentofthedisplay.
Informationcontentwillconveyincreasinglevelsofdetailandfocus,with
Level1havingthebroadestscopeandLevel4havingthemostfocused
scope.
Althoughhierarchicalinnature,displaylevelsarenotnecessarilyaligned
withanavigationhierarchywhichmayhavefewerormorelevels.

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A Few Thoughts on Navigation


AFewThoughtsonNavigation
Thebestnavigationdependsonthenatureoftheprocess
g
p
p
andthelevelofinstrumentation.
Oldersystemmaynothaveenoughinstrumentationto
supportmultiplelevelsofdrilldown.
t
lti l l l f d ill d
Particularlyiftheshutdownsystemisrelaybasedandverylimited
troubleshootingbroughtintothesystem.

Level14isnottheonlyandmaynotbethebestconceptfor
yourprocess

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NavigationNetworkDesigns
g
g
Hierarchical Thisisthemostcommonlyusedstructure.
y
Inahierarchicalstructure,informationisorganizedlikeaninvertedtreein
whichthelowerbranchesprovideincreasinglyspecificinformationrelatedto
theupperbranchesandbackbone.
Thereisextensiveresearchinhierarchicalstructuresandthedepthand
breadthrecommended.

Relational Relationaldisplaynetworkstructureshave
multiplelinksbetweennodes,whicharebasedonavarietyof
relationships.
Sequential
Sequential Asequentialdisplaynetworkorganizesdisplay
A sequential display network organizes display
pagesinaseries.Thiscanbeeffectiveinbatchenvironments
wheretheprocessflowssequentialthroughalogical
structure.
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User Interaction
UserInteraction
SoftwareMethods
Software Methods

Dataentrymethods,
Navigationmethods,
Erroravoidancemethods,
Useraccesssecurity,
Offsystemmessaging.

HardwareInterfaces
HMIDevices,
Monitorsand
UserInputDevices.
User Input Devices
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User Interaction Design


UserInteractionDesign
Keydesignprinciplestoconsiderinclude:
Key design principles to consider include:
consistencyinexecutionacrossallmodesofinteraction,
timelyfeedbackfordataentryandcontrolactions,
streamlineduserinteraction(minimizednumberof
selectionsoramountoftyping),
useofappropriatesalienceforerrormessagesandlimited
f
i
li
f
d li i d
useofcomplexmodalmethods.

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Data Entry Methods


DataEntryMethods
Consistentpresentationofdataentry.
p
y
Commonconventionsinclude:insetentryfields,clearindicationofcurrent
selection,grayeditemsthatarenotavailableforentry,andhandcursor
presentation.
Itisalsoeffectivetogivetheoperatorvisualcluesastotheformatofthe
entryifthisisnotknown.

Informationispresentedinaconsistentmannerforalltypes
ofinteractions.
Commonoperatorinteractionneedsshouldbecontainedonthedisplayorin
apopuporfaceplatestyledisplaythatonlychangesaportionofthescreen.
Theoperatorshouldonlyberequiredtochangescreensornavigatedeeper
intotheHMIstructurefornonroutineandnoncriticalinteractions.

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Number Presentation and Entry


NumberPresentationandEntry
Thefontselectedshouldbediscernablefromthenormal
operatorposition.
Numberswithdecimalformattingshouldbejustifiedwith
respecttothedecimalpoint.Presentationshouldfollowthe
t t th d i l i t P
t ti
h ld f ll th
appropriatedecimalformatresolutionrequiredbyusers.
Range
g
100 - 9999.9
10 - 99.99
1 - 9.999
0 - 0.9999

Display
p y Format
XXXX
XX.X
X.XX
X.XXX

Ifautomaticrescalingofthedecimalformatisused,care
shouldbetakentosuppressrapidchangesindecimal
formatting to avoid repetitive shifting of the decimal point
formattingtoavoidrepetitiveshiftingofthedecimalpoint.
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Critical Operating Ranges


CriticalOperatingRanges
Whereappropriate,numbersshouldbereferencedtonormal
pp p
,
andcriticaloperatingranges.
Thereferencetonormalandcriticalcanbeaccomplishedina
varietyofmanners,includingtheuseofanabnormalcoloror
i t f
i l di th
f
b
l l
referencecurvesandlines.
Criticalvaluescanbereferencedinasimilarmanner,with
,
clearindicationofimpendingoractualcriticalrange
violations.

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Text Presentation and Entry


TextPresentationandEntry

Text should be leftjustified


Textshouldbeleft
justifiedwitharaggedrighthand
with a ragged right hand
edge.

MIXEDCASELETTERINGHASBEENSHOWNTOBEEASIERTOREADTHAN
UPPERCASE AND SHOULD BE GENERALLY USED
UPPERCASEANDSHOULDBEGENERALLYUSED.

Ifaparagraphis
required,the
textwidth
shouldbeat
least 50
least50
characterswide
forrapid
scanning
scanning.

Avoid
hyphen
ationif
poss
ible.

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Text Presentation and Entry


TextPresentationandEntry
Abbreviationsandacronymsshouldbeavoidedunlesstheyarepart
ofthenormaloperatorlanguage.
f th
l
t l
Underliningforemphasisshouldnotbeused.Itisrecommended
thatunderlinedtextbereservedforhyperlinks.
Displayoftextshouldbeorientedhorizontallyunlessunavoidable
Display of text should be oriented horizontally unless unavoidable
orforclarity.
Thefontselectedshouldhaveclearcharactersdefinition(themost
common issue related to the presentation of 1, I and L).
commonissuerelatedtothepresentationof1,IandL).
Affirmativestatementsratherthannegativestatementsshouldbe
used.
Activevoiceshouldbeemployed.
p y
Instructionsthatmustbeexecutedinordershouldbepresentedin
order.

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Command Entry
CommandEntry
Forsimplecommands,anyformatsupportedbythelanguage
p
, y
pp
y
g g
andtrainingoftheuserislikelytobeappropriate.
Allinputstoandeffectsofagivencommandshouldbevisible
t th
totheuserwherepossible.
h
ibl
Usersshouldbeincommandoftheentryprocessatalltimes,
withaclearmeansforcancellingtheoperationorrecovering
g
p
g
quicklytopriorconfiguration.

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Complex Commands
ComplexCommands
TheHMIshouldsupportmultipleselectionsbytheuser,followedby
aconfirmationoftheintendedcompositeaction.
fi
ti
f th i t d d
it
ti
Ifselectionlistsarelong,artificialgroupingsshouldbeconstructed
toallowforeasiernavigation,scanningandidentificationofdesired
selection.
selection
Commanddialogsshouldbedesignedtosupporttheexpected
workprocessoftheuser.
Feedbackandhelpshouldbeprovidedforallcomplexsteps.
Feedback and help should be provided for all complex steps.
Feedbackshouldbeprovidedforallentriesthatareoutsideofan
expectedrange.
Ifaninputiscritical,acceptablelimitsonentryshouldbeenforced.

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Buttons
Buttonsshouldbeusedonlywhensuitableforthetask.
Labelsshouldbecleartotheusers.
Buttonsshouldbesizedlargeenoughtoallowuserstoselect
them rapidly and accurately with the pointing device in use on
themrapidlyandaccuratelywiththepointingdeviceinuseon
theconsole.
Buttonsthatinteractdirectlywiththeprocessshouldbe
distinctfrombuttonsthatprovidenavigationlinkagesor
launchapplications.
Anybuttonsthatareunavailableshouldindicatetheir
Any buttons that are unavailable should indicate their
temporaryunavailabilitywithconsistentvisualcoding.

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NavigationMethods
g
Thenavigationdesignisoneofthemostimportantpartsof
g
g
p
p
theoverallHMIdesign,sinceitdirectlyimpactsthespeed and
accuracy withwhichtheoperatorcaninterveneandrespond
to process needs
toprocessneeds.
Multiplenavigationmethodsshouldbeprovidedfor
robustnessandtofacilitateaccesstodisplaysthatis:
quick,
logical,
direct,and
consistent.
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NavigationMethodExamples
g
p
Navigationmethodstoconsiderinclude:
EmbeddedHyperlinksandDisplaySymbolswithHyperlinks,
MenusandToolBars/Ribbons,
Dashboard/Taskpanel,
Dashboard/Task panel
Buttonsonthedisplays,
Customkeyboardbuttons(functionandothercustombuttons),
ContextMenu(e.g.,mousebuttonrightclicksforadropdownmenu),
C
(
b
i h li k f
d
d
)
Show/hidemechanismsfordetailedinformation,
LinkstoDirectoriesofDisplays,FilesorTrends,
DisplayTransferButtons,
Voicecommands,
Yoking.
Yoking
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79

NavigationGuidingPrinciples
g
g
p
Displayaccessshouldbedesignedtominimizetheoperator
keystrokeequivalentactions.
12keystrokesshouldbethemaximumrequiredtoviewanycriticalorhighpriority
alarmincontextwiththeassociatedprocess.
23keystrokesareacceptableforallotherinformation.

Itshouldnotbenecessaryforanoperatortotypeinthe
displaynameorpointidentification,thoughsupportforthat
interactionshouldbeprovided.

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80

NavigationGuidingPrinciples
g
g
p
TheHMImustsupportworkflowfornormalandabnormal
conditions.
Displaysymbolsthatarenavigationtargetshaveconsistent
and distinct visual coding
anddistinctvisualcoding.
Displaysymbolsthatareselectablehaveconsistentand
distinctvisualcoding.

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81

NavigationGuidingPrinciples
g
g
p
Displaysshouldbeimplementedinastandardizedcontent
p y
p
structurethatsupportsprogressiveexposureofdetailed
information.
Whereusefulandappropriate,advancedHMItechniquescan
Wh
f l d
i t d
d HMI t h i
beemployedtoautomaticallydisplayrelevantinformation.
Thisautomaticdisplayiscommonlycalled"yoking"andcan
p y
y
y
g
includesuchitemsas:

otherdisplaysinamultiwindowHMI,
faceplate,
p
,
trending,and
relateddetaileddisplays.

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82

Example Display Hierarchy


ExampleDisplayHierarchy
Level1
Overviewofoperatorsentirespanofresponsibility

Level2
Typicallytheoperatorsmaincontrolinterface
Visibilityofrelevantalarms;esp.highpriority
bl
f l
l
h h

Level3
Detaileddisplays,usedfornonroutineoperations
Maybemoretaskbasedforlinechanges,startup,etc.
M b
t k b d f li
h
t t
t
Visibilityofallalarms

Level4
Rarelyusedfordiagnosticandtroubleshootingpurposes
Rarely used for diagnostic and troubleshooting purposes
Interlockandpermissiveinformation(couldbeLevel3)
Procedureandhelpdisplays(couldbeLevel3)

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Batch Navigation Example


BatchNavigationExample
Plant
Overview

Area
Overview

Reactor1
Display

Reactor2
Display

Reactor1
Trend

Reactor2
Trend

Reactor2
Alarms

Reactor1
Alarms

Reactor3
Display

Reactor3
Trend

Reactor3
Alarms

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More Complex Navigation Example


MoreComplexNavigationExample
Navigatehorizontallyandvertically.
g
y
y

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Error Avoidance Methods


ErrorAvoidanceMethods
Considerationshouldbegiventoerroravoidancetechniques
g
q
andconfirmationstepsforimportantitems.
Theitemsshouldbelimitedtoavoiddilutingtheimportance
ofthemethod.
f th
th d
Forsafetycriticalitems,theerroravoidanceshouldbe
executedinthecontrolsystemapplicationitself,ratherthan
y
pp
,
theHMI.
TheStyleGuideshouldclearlydefineerroravoidanceandtheuseof
custom scripting in the HMI
customscriptingintheHMI.

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Error Avoidance Methods


ErrorAvoidanceMethods
Theerroravoidancemethodsshouldnotexcessively
hampertheoperatorsabilitytomakechangesrapidly,
whereappropriate.
Toavoidlossofeffectiveness,thesemethodsshouldbe
usedsparinglyandbecarefullydesigned.
Simpleconfirmationstepswithayestoconfirmhave
beenshowntobesomewhatineffectiveatimproving
accuracy.
Yes,yes,yes,yes.oops!

Itisalsoimportanttoensurethattheconfirmation
p
employedisconsistentinlanguageandensurethatthe
reasonfortheconfirmation,particularlywhenconfirming
entriesoutsideofanexpectedrange.
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Off System Messaging


OffSystemMessaging
Offsystemmessagingmethodsareusedtohelptheoperating
y
g g
p
p
g
teammanagetheprocess.
Theseoffsystemmessagingmethodsinclude:

Autodialervoicemessages,
Remotealarms,
Pagers,
Digitalmessagepagers,
Textmessages,
Emails.
Emails

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Off System Messaging


OffSystemMessaging
Careshouldbetakeninthedesignofthesesystemstoensure
g
y
thatadequaterobustnessispresenttosupportthefunctional
requirements.
Ataminimum,thesystemsshouldbeautomatically
At
i i
th
t
h ld b
t
ti ll
monitoredforavailability.
Inmorecriticalsystems,abackupsystemshouldbeinplaceto
y
,
p y
p
providetherequiredfunctionalityintheeventofanoutage.

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User Access Security


UserAccessSecurity
TheHMIsystemgenerallyhassomelevelofHMIapplication
y
g
y
pp
specificsecurity.
Theoperatorenvironmentisdesignedtoberesistanttousers
d
damagingtheprogramsordatapresentonthatworkstation,
i th
d t
t
th t
k t ti
orgainingaccesstounintendedapplications.
Thedegreeofrestrictionisoftenuserconfigurable,sothat
g
g
,
theHMIisalsosuitableforusebytrustedandhigherskilllevel
users.
Thisscopedoesnotincludetheoveralluseraccount
Thi
d
i l d h
ll
management,whichiscoveredbyANSI/ISA99.

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User Access Security


UserAccessSecurity
HMIspecificconsiderationsinclude:
p
TemporaryLogOver(abilitytoincreaseuserrightswithoutloggingoff
completely)forspecifictasks,
Conceptofmultiplerolesandprivilegeswithinanapplication(role
Concept of multiple roles and privileges within an application (role
basedrestriction),
Locationbasedcontentrestriction,
Useofelectronicsignatures,
Use of electronic signatures
Authenticationnotes(requirementofausertoaddareasonfora
controlaction),
Useofotherbiometrics.
U
f h bi
i

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Hardware: HMI Devices


Hardware:HMIDevices
Monitorscanvaryfromhandhelddevicestoindoorand
y
outdoormonitorsofvaryingsizestolargerpostorwall
mountedmonitors.
Selectionshouldincludeconsiderationofviewinganglesand
S l ti
h ld i l d
id ti
f i i
l
d
resolutionforcolorperceptionandreadability,physicalreach
forinputdevices,andrelatedenvironmentalfactors.
Whenafixedworkstationisdesired,someconsiderationof
sittingandstandingoptionsshouldbemade.
Withportabledevices,thebatterylifeandruggednessare
Wi h
bl d i
h b
lif
d
d
likelytobekeyconsiderations.
Wirelessdeviceshavespecialsecurityandreliabilityconsiderationsthatare
outsidethescopeofthisstandard(seeISA100).
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Design Not By Furniture Sales Rep


DesignNotByFurnitureSalesRep
Keypoint,decidewhatyou
need,thenpickthefurniture!

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User Input Devices


UserInputDevices
Considersounddesignforuseandselectionof:

Keyboards(QWERTYorotherindustrialtype),
Keyboardswithprogrammablekeys,
PointingDevices(mouse,trackball,etc.),
Oth
Othercustomkeyboards,
t
k b d
Touchscreens,
Videowallcontrols,
Handwriting input devices
Handwritinginputdevices,
Voiceinput,
Barcodescanners,
RFIDs,
Cameras,
Pushbuttons/toggleswitches
Others(biometricreadersforsecurity,etc.).
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Performance
PerformancebyHMICategories
Performance by HMI Categories
HMIDutyFactors
HMI Performance Shaping Factors
HMIPerformanceShapingFactors

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HMI Categories
HMICategories
Considerationinthestandardfor:
Consideration in the standard for:

HighSpeedMachineControl
SmallSystems
ProcessSystems
SCADA
GeographicallyWidespreadRTUsystems

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HMI Duty Factors


HMIDutyFactors
Maximum Times (all units in seconds unless otherwise stated)

Metric
Call-up Time
(Note 1)

Display
Refresh Rate
(Note 2)

Write Time

Display
yp
Type
Level 1, 4
Level 2, 3
Faceplate
Yoke
Trend
History
Level 1, 4
Level 2, 3
Faceplate
Yoke
Trend
History

Machine
Control
2
1
1
6
5
5-15
1
1
1
1
1
5-15

Small
System
y
10
5
3
6
5
5-15
2
3
3
2
1
5-15

Applies to
all display
types

HMI Category
Process
System
y
10
5
3
6
5
5-15
5
5
3
5
1
5-15

SCADA
System
y
10
5
3
6
5
5-15
5
5
3
5
1
5-15

Applies to
all display
types

RTU
System
y
10
5
3
6
5
5-15
5
5
3
5
1
5-15
Based on
dial up
schedule
and
bandwidth
Based on
network
topology
(i.e.
(i
e may
have to
dial a
modem)

Write Refresh
Time

Recommendedmaxtimesfor:
CallupTime,
DisplayRefreshRate,
WriteTime,,
WriteRefreshTime,
Access toAlarms.
Also considers:
considers:
Navigation,
Switchingusers,
Changing language.

(Note 3)

Access to
alarm
l
displays

Navigation
(Note 4)

System state
changes
(Note 5)

Alarm
summary
Alarm lists
such as
suppressed
alarms
Critical
displays
Non-critical
displays
Alarm
summary
System
diagnostics
Switching
operators
Language
change

<5
minutes
for very
large
systems

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

3 clicks

3 clicks

3 clicks

3 clicks

3 clicks

1 click

1 clicks

1 clicks

1 click

1 clicks

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

1-2 clicks

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Performance Shaping Factors


PerformanceShapingFactors
TheprinciplesbehindPerformanceShapingFactorsare:
controlsystemoperatordisplaysshouldbeaneffectivetoolforthe
safeandefficientcontroloftheprocess,inbothnormalandabnormal
situations,
theHMIshouldassistintheearlydetection,diagnosis,andproper
the HMI should assist in the early detection, diagnosis, and proper
responsetoabnormalsituations,
theHMIshouldbestructuredtoaidoperatortoprioritizeresponseto
majorormultiplesimultaneoussystemupsets,
theHMIisdesignedfortheuseoftheoperatorinrunningtheprocess.
th HMI i d i d f th
f th
t i
i th
ProperHMIdesignisthereforenotcompromisedforanyspecialuse
purposesofmaintenance,engineering,staff,ortraining,
failureofadisplayoritemsonthedisplayshouldbeimmediately
apparenttotheoperator,
aclear,butnotoverwhelming,indicationthatthegraphicisnot
connectedtoorcommunicatingwiththesystemitislinkedto.

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Training
UserTraining
User Training

Operations,
Maintenance,
Engineering,
Administrators,
Management.

Documentation

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HMI Training
HMITraining
Adequate
Adequatetrainingisabsolutelyessentialtosafeand
training is absolutely essential to safe and
effectiveoperationoftheHMI
Materialsfortrainingshouldbegeneratedatthe
g
g
DesignandImplementationStages
g
g
Trainingmaterialsshouldbeverifiedduringthe
TestingandCommissioningsteps
Materialsshouldbeinaformatthatisconsistent
withexistingproceduresandiseffectiveforthe
audience
Paper,onlinehelptools,fullsimulation&testing
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Documentation
Application
ApplicationspecificdetailsofHMIimplementation,
specific details of HMI implementation,
generatedduringDesignStage:
Displayindexes,
Displayfunctionaldescriptions,
Navigationdiagrams,etc.

TheinformationneededtoreconstructtheHMI
applicationifnecessary.

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Concluding Thoughts
ConcludingThoughts
Theresimplyisnosilverbullet.
There simply is no silver bullet.
Askhardquestionstoanyonethatsuggeststhatthereis

Wellconsideredandwellexecuted,theHMImaybethe
h d
hardestengineeringthatyoueverdo.
i
i
h
d

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References
1.

ISAS101Draft:ISA,May2012.

2.

USChemicalSafetyandHazardIdentificationBoard,InvestigationReportBP
TexasCity,TXRefineryExplosionandFire,Report200504ITX,March2007.

3.

Fitzpatrick,B.A.(2005).Section4.11:Managementofabnormalconditions.InB.
Fitzpatrick,
B. A. (2005). Section 4.11: Management of abnormal conditions. In B.
Liptak(Ed.),InstrumentEngineers'Handbook:ProcessControl (pp.706718).
Stamford,CT:CRCPress.
Swain,A.andGuttman,H.,HandbookofHumanReliabilityAnalysiswith
E h i
EmphasisonNuclearPowerPlantApplications(FinalReport),Washington,DC:
N l
P
Pl
A li i
(Fi l R
) W hi
DC
UnitedStatesNuclearRegulatoryCommission,1983.
Tharanathan,A.,Bullemur,P.,Laberge,J.,Reising,D.,Mclain,R.,Functional
VersusSchematicOverviewDisplays:ImpactonOperatorSituationAwarenessin
p y
p
p
ProcessMonitoring,presentedat54thAnnualHFESMeeting,September2010.

4.

5.

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