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Subject to

x1 + 3x2

+ x4 4

2x1 + x2

3

x2 + 4x3 + x4 3

x1, x2, x3, x4 0

Maximize Z* = 2x1 + 4x2 + x3 + x4 + 0x5 + 0x6 + 0x7

Subject to

Z* - 2x1 - 4x2 - x3 - x4 - 0x5 - 0x6 - 0x7 = 0

x1 + 3x2

+ x4 + x5

=4

2x1 + x2

+ x6

=3

x2 + 4x3 + x4

+ x7 = 3

x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7 0

Basic

Variables

Z*

x5

x6

x7

Coefficients of

x3

x4

-1

-1

0

1

0

0

4

1

x5

0

1

0

0

x6

0

0

1

0

x7

0

0

0

1

Right

Side

0

4

3

3

Z*

1

0

0

0

x1

-2

1

2

0

x2

-4

3

1

1

Z*

x2

x6

x7

1

0

0

0

-2/3

1/3

5/3

-1/3

0

1

0

0

-1

0

0

4

1/3

1/3

-1/3

2/3

4/3

1/3

-1/3

-1/3

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

16/3

4/3

5/3

5/3

Z*

x2

x6

x3

1

0

0

0

-3/4

1/3

5/3

-1/12

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1/2

1/3

-1/3

1/6

5/4

1/3

-1/3

-1/12

0

0

1

0

1/4

0

0

1/4

23/4

4/3

5/3

5/12

Z*

x2

x1

x3

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

11/60

11/10

2/5

-1/5

-1/10

9.20

1/5

3/5

1/20

1/4

0

0

1/4

13/2

1

1

1/2

4/15

-1/5

3/20

Ratio

4/3

3/1

3/1

5/12

4

1

Subject to

x1 + x2 8

x1 + 2x2 = 5

2x1 + x2 8

x1, x2 0

Standard Form:

Maximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2 + 0x3 - Mx4 + 0x5

Subject to

Z - 2x1 - 3x2 - 0x3 + Mx4 - 0x5 = 0

x1 + x2 + x3 + 0x4 + 0x5 = 8

x1 + 2x2

+ x4

=5

2x1 + x2

+ x5 = 8

x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 0, x4 is an artificial variable

...(1)

...(2)

...... (3)

...(4)

Z (2+M)x1 (3+2M)x2 + 0x3 + 0x4 + 0x5 = -5M

Basic

Variables

Z

x3

x4

x5

Z

1

0

0

0

x1

-(2+M)

1

1

2

Coefficients of

x2

x3

-(3+2M)

0

1

1

2

0

1

0

Z

x3

x2

x5

1

0

0

0

-1/2

1/2

1/2

3/2

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

Z

x3

x2

x1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

x4

0

0

1

0

Right Side

Ratio

x5

0

0

0

1

-5M

8

5

8

8/1

5/2

8/1

0

0

0

1

15/2

11/2

5/2

11/2

11

5

11/3

1/3

-1/3

-1/3

2/3

28/3

11/3

2/3

11/3

*Once an artificial variable leaves, it is not required to perform the calculations

corresponding to that variable.

Subject to

x1 - 2x2 + 3x3 = 2

3x1 + 2x2 + 4x3 = 1

x1, x2, x3 0

Standard Form:

Maximize Z = -2x1 + x2 + 3x3 - Mx4 - Mx5

Subject to

Z + 2x1 - x2 - 3x3 + Mx4 + Mx5 = 0

x1 - 2x2 + 3x3 + x4

=2

3x1 + 2x2 + 4x3 + x5 = 1

x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 0

(1)

(2)

(3)

(By the operation, (1) - M(2)) - M(3))

Basic

Variables

Z

x4

x5

Z

1

0

0

x1

2- 4M

1

3

x4

x3

0

0

5M/4 +

17/4

-5/4

3/4

Coefficients of

x2

x3

-1

-3 7M

-2

3

2

4

7M/2

+1/2

-7/2

1/2

x4

0

1

0

x5

0

0

1

Right Side

Ratio

-3M

2

1

2/3

1/4

4M+3

0

1

1

0

5/4

1/4

Optimality has been reached. However, one of the artificial variables, i.e., x4 appears as a basic

variable in the final table with a positive value equal to 5/4.

This implies that there does not exist any feasible solution to the given LPP.

Subject to

-3x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 8

-3x1 + 4x2 + 2x3 = 7

x1, x2, x3 0

Standard Form:

Maximize Z = 2x1 + 3x2 + x3 - Mx4 - Mx5

Subject to

Z - 2x1 - 3x2 - x3 + Mx4 + Mx5 = 0

-3x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + x4

=8

-3x1 + 4x2 + 2x3

+ x5 = 7

x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 0

Z + (6M 2)x1 (3 + 6M)x2 (1 + 5M)x3 + 0x4 + 0x5 = -15M

Basic

Variables

Z

x4

x5

Coefficients of

x2

x3

-3-6M -5M - 1

2

3

4

2

Z

1

0

0

x1

-2+6M

-3

-3

x4

x2

0

0

-17/4 +

3M/2

-3/2

-3/4

0

1

-2M +

1/2

2

1/2

Z

x3

x2

1

0

0

-31/8

-3/4

-3/8

0

0

1

0

1

0

x4

0

1

0

0

1

0

x5

0

0

1

Right Side

Ratio

-15M

8

7

4

7/4

-9M/2 +

21/4

92

7/4

9/4

7/2

33/8

9/4

5/8

In the last table, x1 is the entering variable as the corresponding element in the first row is

negative. But all the elements in the pivot column are negative, indicating that the

problem has an unbounded solution.

Subject to

2x1 + 3x2 6

x1 - x2 1

x1, x2 0

Standard Form:

Maximize Z = 4x1 + 6x2 + 0x3 + 0x4

Subject to

Z - 4x1 - 6x2 - 0x3 - 0x4 = 0

2x1 + 3x2 + x3

=6

x1 - x2

+ x4 = 1

x1, x2, x3, x4 0

Basic

Variables

Coefficients of

Right

Side

Z

x3

x4

Z

1

0

0

x1

-4

2

1

x2

-6

3

-1

x3

0

1

0

x4

0

0

1

0

6

1

Z

x2

x4

1

0

0

0

2/3

5/3

0

1

0

2

1/3

1/3

0

0

1

12

2

3

Ratio

6/3

3

9/5

As all the elements in the first row of the final table are 0, optimality has been reached.

x1 = 0 and x2 = 2 is an optimal solution and the maximum value of Z is 12.

For one of the non-basic variables, i.e., x1, the corresponding element in the first row is

zero. This indicates that there exists an alternate optimal solution. We can find the

alternate optimal solution by considering x1 as an entering variable.

Z

x2

x1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

2

1/5

1/5

0

-2/5

3/5

12

4/5

9/5

An alternate optimal solution is x1 = 9/5 and x2 = 4/5. Also any convex combination of

the above two optimal solutions will also be an optimal solution.

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