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Essay Questions


Essay Questions

The process of oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria. Electrons are moved
from FADH2 or NADH to O2 to form ATP. It involves proton-motive force generation during
electron transport. On the other hand, electron transport chain (ETC) is the series of organic
molecules and proteins in the inner mitochondria membrane. Electrons moves through the
members of the transport chain in a series of redox reactions (Murray, Rosenthal, and Pfaller,
2015). As a result, they release energy, which is captured as proton gradient to make ATP through
chemiosmosis process. The high energy levels of NADH electrons make it a good electrons
donor in a redox reaction. Therefore, it can directly transfer electrons to complex I. Contrary, the
low energy levels of FADH2 makes it a poor electron donor; hence, it cannot move them to
complex I.
Glycolysis is the first stages of bacterial respiration that happens in a clear cytoplasm portion
called cytosol. It involves splitting of glucose molecule into pyruvic acid, a two- 3carbon
molecule. Next is the Krebs cycle where the Acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) breaks down into
protons and carbon dioxide. It then releases energy in the form of electrons, which are used by
NAD+ to form NADH. The last stage happens in the interior membrane of mitochondria. It
involves the transfer of NADH from one protein to another.
Respiration does not require oxygen, it produces water molecules, glycolysis occurs in the
cytoplasm, and it has a net gain of 32 ATPs. Conversely, fermentation requires oxygen, it does
not produce water molecules, all reactions take place in the cytoplasm, and it has a net gain 2
Carbon- constituent of cellular material
Oxygen- constituent of cell water and material
Nitrogen- constituent of nucleic acids, amino acids, and coenzymes
Hydrogen- constituent of cell water and organic compound
Phosphorous constituent of phospholipids, nucleic acids nucleotides, and teichoic acids
Defined medium is a nutrient material with a known exact chemical composition while the
complex medium is a nutrient material with unknown exact chemical composition.
Functional media types are used in cell culture to facilitate microorganisms growth. They
include differential, selective, and enriched media.
Transport media is used prevent overgrowth of contaminated commensals and organisms.
Examples include alkaline peptone water and Cary-Blair medium.


Selective media is used to encourage and suppress the growth of desired microbes and unwanted
bacteria respectively. For example, brilliant green agar, campylobacter agar, and EMB agar.
Differential media is used to differentiate colonies of the desired organism. For example, blood
agar, CLED agar, XLD agar, and MacConkeys agar.
a. Obligate aerobes are bacteria that grow in sufficient oxygen. Examples include
mycobacterium tuberculosis and pseudomonas aeruginosa.
b. Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that that grow without oxygen. Examples include
Clostridium botulinum and Listeria.
c. Facultative aerobes are bacteria that grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen.
Examples include salmonella, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella.
d. Microaerophiles are bacteria that grow under increased carbon dioxide and reduced
oxygen. Examples include Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.

Cell walls- protect the cell and give it a shape.

Cell membrane- controls movement into and out of the cell.
Outer membrane- shield the cell wall from antibiotics.
Chromosome- carries genetic information.
Cytoplasm- contains organic compounds, ribosomes, and DNA that are vital in carrying
out a life process.
Plasmid- consist genes that are obtained through recombination of genetic.
Flagellum- moves the cell.
Pilus- assists the cell to attach itself to other surfaces.
Endospore- protects the cell from ruthless environmental conditions.

The three main steps of DNA replication are an initiation, elongation, and termination.



Murray, P. R., Rosenthal, K. S., & Pfaller, M. A. (2015). Medical microbiology. Elsevier
Health Sciences.